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Smart Material Lifting System:-

Abstract: -
In this time material lifting to a height place is one of the top task and lots of labor required for
this and much physical work also required. Suppose any lifting system is there, operator must be
present on the top of the lifting system. So there is problem to work in that environment. To
avoid this problem we design a smart material lifting system in this project. In this project we not
only lift the material but also we rotate material to 360 degree in a top height level. And operator
can operate sitting any place through his/her mobile Bluetooth. Entire System works through
Bluetooth. For this we use 10 rpm 12V DC motor to lifting a material to top level and another
same motor we use rotating the lifting material to 360 degree. We use a mechanical pulley for
lifting the material and fit this pulley to DC motor shaft. And use mechanical wheel for rotating
360 degree and again fit this mechanical wheel to DC motor shaft. Both the pulley and rotating
wheel is controlled by mobile Bluetooth.

Block Diagram: -
Component Required: -

1. DC Motor 12V 10 rpm- 2pc

2. 12V Power supply unit

3. Mechanical rotating wheel

4. Mechanical lifting pulley

5. 8051 microcontroller

6. Bluetooth Module

7. Container

8. Base structure

Component Description: -

POWER SUPPLY UNIT

In most of our electronic products or projects we need a power supply for converting mains AC
voltage to a regulated DC voltage. For making a power supply designing of each and every
component is essential. Here I’m going to discuss the designing of regulated 5V Power Supply.

Let’s start with very basic things the choosing of components

Component List :

1. Step down transformer

2. Voltage regulator

3. Capacitors

4. Diodes

Voltage regulator :

As we require a 5V we need LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC.


7805 IC Rating :

 Input voltage range 7V- 35V

 Current rating Ic = 1A

 Output voltage range VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

LM7805 – Pin Diagram

Operation of Regulated Power Supply

Step Down Transformer


A step down transformer will step down the voltage from the ac mains to the required voltage
level. The turn’s ratio of the transformer is so adjusted such as to obtain the required voltage
value. The output of the transformer is given as an input to the rectifier circuit.

Rectification
Rectifier is an electronic circuit consisting of diodes which carries out the rectification process.
Rectification is the process of converting an alternating voltage or current into corresponding
direct (dc) quantity. The input to a rectifier is ac whereas its output is unidirectional pulsating dc.
Usually a full wave rectifier or a bridge rectifier is used to rectify both the half cycles of the ac
supply (full wave rectification). Figure below shows a full wave bridge rectifier.
A bridge rectifier consists of four p-n junction diodes connected in the above shown
manner. In the positive half cycle of the supply the voltage induced across the secondary of the
electrical transformer i.e. VMN is positive. Therefore point E is positive with respect to F.
Hence, diodes D3 and D2 are reversed biased and diodes D1 and D4 are forward biased. The diode
D3 and D2 will act as open switches (practically there is some voltage drop) and diodes D1 andD4
will act as closed switches and will start conducting. Hence a rectified waveform appears at the
output of the rectifier as shown in the first figure. When voltage induced in secondary i.e. VMN
is negative than D3 and D2 are forward biased with the other two reversed biased and a positive
voltage appears at the input of the filter.

DC Filteration
The rectified voltage from the rectifier is a pulsating dc voltage having very high ripple content.
But this is not we want, we want a pure ripple free dc waveform. Hence a filter is used. Different
types of filters are used such as capacitor filter, LC filter, Choke input filter, π type filter. Figure
below shows a capacitor filter connected along the output of the rectifier and the resultant output
waveform.
As the
instantaneous voltage starts increasing the capacitor charges, it charges till the waveform reaches
its peak value. When the instantaneous value starts reducing the capacitor starts discharging
exponentially and slowly through the load (input of the regulator in this case). Hence, an almost
constant dc value having very less ripple content is obtained.

Regulation
This is the last block in a regulated DC power supply. The output voltage or current will
change or fluctuate when there is change in the input from ac mains or due to change in load
current at the output of the regulated power supply or due to other factors like temperature
changes. This problem can be eliminated by using a regulator. A regulator will maintain the
output constant even when changes at the input or any other changes occur.

Transistor series regulator, Fixed and variable IC regulators or a zener diode operated in
the zener region can be used depending on their applications. IC’s like 78XX and 79XX are used
to obtained fixed values of voltages at the output. With IC’s like LM 317 and 723 etc we can
adjust the output voltage to a required constant value. Figure below shows the LM317 voltage
regulator.

The output voltage can be adjusted with adjusting the values of resistances R1 and R2.
Usually coupling capacitors of values about 0.01µF to 10µF needs to be connected at the output
and input to address input noise and output transients. Ideally the output voltage is given by

Figure below shows the complete circuit of a regulated +5V DC power supply using
transformer, bridge rectifier, filter (smoothing) and a fixed +5 V voltage regulator. Here we can
use IC 7803(for 3V),7809(for 9 V),7812(for 12V) etc.
Application of Regulated Power Supply

Regulated power supply is the main component of electrical,electronics and as well as


automation equipment. Mobile phone charger, oscilator, amplifier are needed the regulated
power supply

Understanding 7805 IC Voltage Regulator

A regulated power supply is very much essential for several electronic devices due to the
semiconductor material employed in them have a fixed rate of current as well as voltage. The
device may get damaged if there is any deviation from the fixed rate. The AC power supply gets
converted into constant DC by this circuit. By the help of a voltage regulator DC, unregulated
output will be fixed to a constant voltage.

The circuit is made up of linear voltage regulator 7805 along with capacitors and resistors
with bridge rectifier made up from diodes. From giving an unchanging voltage supply to
building confident that output reaches uninterrupted to the appliance, the diodes along with
capacitors handle elevated efficient signal conveyal.
As we have previously talked about that regulated power supply is a device that
mechanized on DC voltages and also it can uphold its output accurately at a fixed voltage all the
time although if there is a significant alteration in the DC input voltage. ICs regulator is mainly
used in the circuit to maintain the exact voltage which is followed by the power supply.

A regulator is mainly employed with the capacitor connected in parallel to the input
terminal and the output terminal of the IC regulator. For the checking of gigantic alterations in
the input as well as in the output filter, capacitors are used. While the bypass capacitors are used
to check the small period spikes on the input and output level. Bypass capacitors are mainly of
small values that are used to bypass the small period pulses straightly into the Earth. A circuit
diagram having regulator IC and all the above discussed components arrangement revealed in the
figure below.

As we have made the whole circuit till now to be operated on the 5V DC supply, so we
have to use an IC regulator for 5V DC. And the most generally used IC regulators get into the
market for 5V DC regulation use is 7805. So we are connecting the similar IC in the circuit as
U1. IC 7805 is a DC regulated IC of 5V. This IC is very flexible and is widely employed in all
types of circuit like a voltage regulator. It is a three terminal device and mainly called input ,
output and ground. Pin diagram of the IC 7805 is shown in the diagram below.
The output generated from the unregulated DC output is susceptible to the fluctuations of
the input signal. IC voltage regulator is connected with bridge rectifier in series in these project
so to steady the DC output against the variations in the input DC voltage.

To obtain a stable output of 5V, IC 7805 is attached with 6-0-6V along with 500mA step
down transformer as well as with rectifier. To suppress the oscillation which might generate in
the regulator IC, C2 capacitor of 0.1 uF value is used. When the power supply filter is far away
from the regulated IC capacitor C2 is used. Ripple rejection in the regulator is been improved by
C4 capacitor(35uf) by avoiding the ripple voltage to be amplified at the regulator output.

The output voltage is strengthen and deduction of the output voltage is done capacitor
C3(0.1uF). To avoid the chance of the input get shorted D5 diode is used to save the regulator. If
D5 is not presented in the circuit, the output capacitor can leave its charge immediately during
low impedance course inside the regulators.

DC Motor:-

A DC motor in simple words is a device that converts direct current(electrical energy) into
mechanical energy. It’s of vital importance for the industry today, and is equally important for
engineers to look into the working principle of DC motor in details that has been discussed in
this article. In order to understand the operating principle of dc motor we need to first look into
its constructional feature.

The very basic construction of a dc motor contains aelectric current carrying armature which is
connected to the supply end through commutator segments and brushes and placed within the
north south poles of a permanent or an electro-magnet as shown in the diagram below.

Now to go into the details of the operating principle of DC motorits important that we have a
clear understanding of Fleming’s left hand rule to determine the direction of force acting on the
armature conductors of dc motor.

Fleming’s left hand rule says that if we extend the index finger, middle finger and thumb of our
left hand in such a way that the electric current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field
(represented by the index finger) is perpendicular to the direction of electric current (represented
by the middle finger), then the conductor experiences a force in the direction (represented by the
thumb) mutually perpendicular to both the direction of field and the electric current in the
conductor.

For clear understanding the principle of DC motor we have to determine the magnitude of the
force, by considering the diagram below.
We know that when an infinitely small charge dq is made to flow at a velocity ‘v’ under the
influence of an electric field E, and a magnetic field B, then the Lorentz Force dF experienced by
the charge is given by:-

For the operation of dc motor, considering E = 0

i.e. it’s the cross product of dq v and magnetic field B.

Where dL is the length of the conductor carrying charge q.

From the 1st diagram we can see that the construction of a DC motor is such that the direction of
electric current through the armature conductor at all instance is perpendicular to the field. Hence
the force acts on the armature conductor in the direction perpendicular to the both uniform field
and electric current is constant.

So if we take the electric current in the left hand side of the armature conductor to be I, and
electric current at right hand side of the armature conductor to be − I, because they are flowing in
the opposite direction with respect to each other.

Then the force on the left hand side armature conductor,

Similarly force on the right hand side conductor

∴we can see that at that position the force on either side is equal in magnitude but opposite in
direction. And since the two conductors are separated by some distance w = width of the
armature turn, the two opposite forces produces a rotational force or a torque that results in the
rotation of the armature conductor.

Now let's examine the expression of torque when the armature turn crate an angle of α with its
initial position.

The torque produced is given by,

Where α is the angle between the plane of the armature turn and the plane of reference or the
initial position of the armature which is here along the direction of magnetic field.

The presence of the term cosα in the torque equation very well signifies that unlike force the
torque at all position is not the same. It in fact varies with the variation of the angle α. To explain
the variation of torque and the principle behind rotation of the motor let us do a step wise
analysis.
Step 1:
Initially considering the armature is in its starting point or reference position where the angle α =
0.

Since α = 0, the term cos α = 1, or the maximum value, hence torque at this position is maximum
given by τ = BILw. This high starting torque helps in overcoming the initial inertia of rest of the
armature and sets it into rotation.

Step 2:
Once the armature is set in motion, the angle α between the actual position of the armature and
its reference initial position goes on increasing in the path of its rotation until it becomes 90°
from its initial position. Consequently the term cosα decreases and also the value of torque.

The torque in this case is given by τ = BILwcosα which is less than BIL w when α is greater than
0°.

Step 3:
In the path of the rotation of the armature a point is reached where the actual position of the rotor
is exactly perpendicular to its initial position, i.e. α = 90°, and as a result the term cosα = 0.

The torque acting on the conductor at this position is given by,


i.e. virtually no rotating torque acts on the armature at this instance. But still the armature does
not come to a standstill, this is because of the fact that the operation of dc motor has been
engineered in such a way that the inertia of motion at this point is just enough to overcome this
point of null torque. Once the rotor crosses over this position the angle between the actual
position of the armature and the initial plane again decreases and torque starts acting on it again.

DC MOTOR

DC Motor has two leads. It has bidirectional motion

 If we apply +ve to one lead and ground to another motor will rotate in one direction, if
we reverse the connection the motor will rotate in opposite direction.

 If we keep both leads open or both leads ground it will not rotate (but some inertia will be
there).

 If we apply +ve voltage to both leads then braking will occurs.


H-BRIDGE

This circuit is known as H-Bridge because it looks like ” H” Working principle of H-Bridge.

 If switch (A1 and A2 )are on and switch (B1 and B2) are off then motor
rotates in clockwise direction
 If switch (B1 and B2 )are on and switch (A1 and A2) are off then motor
rotates in Anti clockwise direction
 we can use Transistor, mosfets as a switch ( Study the transistor as a a switch)

H-Bridge I.C (L293D)


L293D is a H-Bridge I.C. Its contain two H-Bridge pair.

Truth Table

Input 1 Input 2 Result

0 0 No rotation

0 1 Clockwise rotation

1 0 Anti clockwise rotation

1 1 break

Note:-

 Connect motors pins on output 1 and output 2 and control signal at input 1 and input 2
will control the motion
 Connect another motor pins on output 3 and output 4 and control signal at input3and
input 4
 Truth table for i/p 3 and i/p 4 is same as above shown
 0 means 0 V or Low
 1 means High or +5V
 In Enable 1 and Enable 2 if you give high then you observe hard stop in condition 0 0 and
11. Unless slow stop of motor on low signal
 Required Motor voltage has given on pin 8 (Vs) i.e 12V DC – 24V DC
Mechanical Lifting Pulley: -

To calculate the effort required to lift the load we divide the load by the number of ropes (do not
count the rope that goes to the effort). The image on the right shows a four pulley system. The
person lifting the 200kg load experiences a pull equal to only 50kg (200kg/4).

Using the four pulley system on the right, the person certainly experiences an advantage. We call
this advantage the mechanical advantage and is calculated by dividing the load by the effort
(load/effort). The pulley system offers a mechanical advantage of 4.

A pulley, also called a sheave or a drum, is a mechanism composed of a wheel on an axle or


shaft that may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference.[1] A rope, cable, belt,
or chain usually runs over the wheel and inside the groove, if present. Pulleys are used to change
the direction of an applied force, transmit rotational motion, or realize a mechanical advantage in
either a linear or rotational system of motion. It is one of the six simple machines. Two or more
pulleys together are called a block and tackle.
Contents

 1 Belt and pulley systems

 2 Rope and pulley


systems

o 2.1 Types of
systems

o 2.2 How it works

 3 See also

 4 References

Belt and pulley systems

A belt and pulley system is characterized by two or more pulleys in common to a belt. This
allows for mechanical power, torque, and speed to be transmitted across axles. If the pulleys are
of differing diameters, a mechanical advantage is realized.

A belt drive is analogous to that of a chain drive, however a belt sheave may be smooth (devoid
of discrete interlocking members as would be found on a chain sprocket, spur gear, or timing
belt) so that the mechanical advantage is approximately given by the ratio of the pitch diameter
of the sheaves only, not fixed exactly by the ratio of teeth as with gears and sprockets.

In the case of a drum-style pulley, without a groove or flanges, the pulley often is slightly convex
to keep the flat belt centered. It is sometimes referred to as a crowned pulley. Though once
widely used in factory line shafts, this type of pulley is still found driving the rotating brush in
upright vacuum cleaners.

Rope and pulley systems

Also called block and tackles, rope and pulley systems (the rope may be a light line or a strong
cable) are characterized by the use of one rope transmitting a linear motive force (in tension) to a
load through one or more pulleys for the purpose of pulling the load (often against gravity.) They
are often included in lists of simple machines.

In a system of a single rope and pulleys, when friction is neglected, the mechanical advantage
gained can be calculated by counting the number of rope lengths exerting force on the load.
Since the tension in each rope length is equal to the force exerted on the free end of the rope, the
mechanical advantage is simply equal to the number of ropes pulling on the load. For example,
in Diagram 3 below, there is one rope attached to the load, and 2 rope lengths extending from the
pulley attached to the load, for a total of 3 ropes supporting it. If the force applied to the free end
of the rope is 10 lb, each of these rope lengths will exert a force of 10 lb. on the load, for a total
of 30 lb. So the mechanical advantage is 3.

The force on the load is increased by the mechanical advantage; however the distance the load
moves, compared to the length the free end of the rope moves, is decreased in the same
proportion. Since a slender cable is more easily managed than a fat one (albeit shorter and
stronger), pulley systems are often the preferred method of applying mechanical advantage to the
pulling force of a winch (as can be found in a lift crane).

Pulley systems are the only simple machines in which the possible values of mechanical
advantage are limited to whole numbers.

In practice, the more pulleys there are, the less efficient a system is. This is due to sliding friction
in the system where cable meets pulley and in the rotational mechanism of each pulley.

It is not recorded when or by whom the pulley was first developed. It is believed however that
Archimedes developed the first documented block and tackle pulley system, as recorded by
Plutarch. Plutarch reported that Archimedes moved an entire warship, laden with men, using
compound pulleys and his own strength.

Types of systems

Fixed pulley

Movable pulley
These are different types of pulley systems:

 Fixed A fixed or class 1 pulley has a fixed axle. That is, the axle is "fixed" or anchored in
place. A fixed pulley is used to change the direction of the force on a rope (called a belt). A
fixed pulley has a mechanical advantage of 1. A mechanical advantage of one means that the
force is equal on both sides of the pulley and there is no multiplication of force.

 Movable A movable or class 2 pulley has a free axle. That is, the axle is "free" to move in
space. A movable pulley is used to multiply forces. A movable pulley has a mechanical
advantage of 2. That is, if one end of the rope is anchored, pulling on the other end of the
rope will apply a doubled force to the object attached to the pulley.

 Compound A compound pulley is a combination of a fixed and a movable pulley system.

o Block and tackle - A block and tackle is a type of compound pulley where
several pulleys are mounted on each axle, further increasing the mechanical advantage.
Block and tackles usually lift objects with a mechanical advantage greater than 2.

How it works

Diagram 1: A basic equation for a pulley. In equilibrium, the force F on the pulley axle is
equal and opposite to the sum of the tensions in each line leaving the pulley, and these
tensions are equal.

Diagram 2: A simple pulley system—a single movable pulley lifting weight W. The tension
in each line is W/2, yielding an advantage of 2.

Diagram 2a: Another simple pulley system similar to diagram 2, but in which the lifting
force is redirected downward

A practical compound pulley corresponding to diagram 2a

The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys and lines are
weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also assumed that the lines do not
stretch.

A Demag hoist using the compound pulley system yielding an advantage of 4. The single fixed
pulley is installed on the hoist (device). The two movable pulleys (joined together) are attached
to the hook. One end of the rope is attached to the crane frame, another to the winch.
In equilibrium, the total force on the pulley must be zero. This means that the force on the axle of
the pulley is shared equally by the two lines looping through the pulley. The situation is
schematically illustrated in diagram 1. For the case where the lines are not parallel, the tensions
in each line are still equal, but now the vector sum of all forces is zero.

A second basic equation for the pulley follows from the conservation of energy: The product of
the weight lifted times the distance it is moved is equal to the product of the lifting force (the
tension in the lifting line) times the distance the lifting line is moved. The weight lifted divided
by the lifting force is defined as the advantage of the pulley system.

It is important to notice that a system of pulleys does not change the amount of work done. The
work is given by the force times the distance moved. The pulley simply allows trading force for
distance: you pull with less force, but over a longer distance.

In diagram 2, a single movable pulley allows weight W to be lifted with only half the force
needed to lift the weight without assistance. The total force needed is divided between the lifting
force (red arrow) and the "ceiling" which is some immovable object (such as the earth). In this
simple system, the lifting force is directed in the same direction as the movement of the weight.
The advantage of this system is 2. Although the force needed to lift the weight is only W/2, we
will need to draw a length of rope that is twice the distance that the weight is lifted, so that the
total amount of work done (Force x distance) remains the same.

A second pulley may be added as in diagram 2a, which simply serves to redirect the lifting force
downward; it does not change the advantage of the system.

Diagram 3: A simple compound pulley system—a movable pulley and a fixed pulley lifting
weight W. The tension in each line is W/3, yielding an advantage of 3.

Diagram 3a: A simple compound pulley system—a movable pulley and a fixed pulley lifting
weight W, with an additional pulley redirecting the lifting force downward. The tension in
each line is W/3, yielding an advantage of 3.

Diagram 4a: A more complicated compound pulley system. The tension in each line is W/4,
yielding an advantage of 4. An additional pulley redirecting the lifting force has been added.

Figure 4b: A practical block and tackle pulley system corresponding to diagram 4a. Note that
the axles of the fixed and movable pulleys have been combined.

The addition of a fixed pulley to the single pulley system can yield an increase of advantage. In
diagram 3, the addition of a fixed pulley yields a lifting advantage of 3. The tension in each line
is W/3, and the force on the axles of each pulley is 2W/3. As in the case of diagram 2a, another
pulley may be added to reverse the direction of the lifting force, but with no increase in
advantage. This situation is shown in diagram 3a.

This process can be continued indefinitely for ideal pulleys with each additional pulley yielding a
unit increase in advantage. For real pulleys friction among rope and pulleys will increase as more
pulleys are added to the point that no advantage is possible. It puts a limit for the number of
pulleys usable in practice. The above pulley systems are known collectively as block and tackle
pulley systems. In diagram 4a, a block and tackle system with advantage 4 is shown. A practical
implementation in which the connection to the ceiling is combined and the fixed and movable
pulleys are encased in single housings is shown in figure 4b.

Other pulley systems are possible, and some can deliver an increased advantage with fewer
pulleys than the block and tackle system. The advantage of the block and tackle system is that
each pulley and line is subjected to equal tensions and forces. Efficient design dictates that each
line and pulley be capable of handling its load, and no more. Other pulley designs will require
different strengths of line and pulleys depending on their position in the system, but a block and
tackle system can use the same line size throughout, and can mount the fixed and movable
pulleys on a common axle.
Step 5: UPDATE: Wiring Diagram

MICROCONTROLLER AT89S52
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K
bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s
high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard
80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non volatile memory programmer. By combining
a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective
solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard
features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers,
three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port,
on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for
operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The
Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt
system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the
oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

Features:
• Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
– Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
• Watchdog Timer
• Dual Data Pointer
• Power-off Flag
• Fast Programming Time
• Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
• Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option

Pin Configurations of AT89S52

FIG 4.5(b): PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89S52


Pin Description:
VCC:
Supply voltage.
GND:
Ground
Port 0:
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink
eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance
inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during
accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also
receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program
verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
Port 1:
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the
`internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1
can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter
2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX).
Port 2:
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled
low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address
byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory
that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-
ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX
@ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.
Port 3:
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled
low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.
RST:
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running
resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The
DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state
of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.
ALE/PROG:
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address
during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during
Flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and
may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is
skipped during each access to external data memory.

PSEN:
Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each
machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data
memory.
EA/VPP:
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to
fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note,
however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be
strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt
programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.
XTAL1:
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
XTAL2:
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier
Oscillator Characteristics:
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier
which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz
crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source,
XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 6.2. There are no
requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal
clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high
and low time specifications must be observed.

FIG 4.5(c): Oscillator Connections

FIG 4.5(d): External Clock Drive Configuration

Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. The
mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions
registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled
interrupt or by a hardware reset.
Power down Mode
In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes power
down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain
their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only exit from power down is a
hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip RAM. The reset should
not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active
long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize.
used. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device
normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the
internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this
event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected
write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes
Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.

BLUETOOTH MODULE HC-05/HC-06

Frequency:2.4GHz ISM band

Modulation: GFSK(Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying)

Emission power: ≤4dBm, Class 2


Sensitivity: ≤-84dBm at 0.1% BER

Speed: Asynchronous: 2.1Mbps(Max) / 160 kbps, Synchronous: 1Mbps/1Mbps

Security: Authentication and encryption

Profiles: Bluetooth serial port

Power supply: +3.3VDC 50mA

Working temperature: -20 ~ +75 Centigrade

Dimensions: 15.2x35.7x5.6mm

Conclusion:-

Finally we design the entire project and tested in accepts its work properly and fulfill my aim of
the project.