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UNIT 4

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION:

Theoretical statement is one step and its practical implementation is another step. We are
implementing the power grid synchronization failure with GSM modem and load protection with
economical, accurate and reliable design. In the quest of a new design which comparatively
ensures more safety than conventional methods we planned to design a new model which
executes a drastic change in safe maintenance of power grid. If the design is implemented in a
perfect way obviously it might be a new era in power grid synchronization failure to ensure more
safety to the linemen while fixing problem. In this design we are going to sense the frequency and
voltage beyond acceptable range and protect the load by using micro-controller, motors and
sensors

In our hardware design the main components used are:

• Power supply unit

• Arduino Uno Microcontroller

• LCD

• Crystal Resistors

• Capacitors

• Diodes

• Transformer

• Potentiometer

• Relay

• Rectifier

• GSM Module and GPS system

• Current Sensor
• Lamp load

4.1.1 Power Supply Unit:

Supply of 230V, 50Hz ac signal from main supply board is given to a step down transformer. The
transformer is selected such that its output ranges from 10V to12V, which is supplied to the
power supply block for making the output compatible with the TTL logic supply. This TTL logic
supply acts as the power supply for the microcontroller. Thus the main function of the power
supply is to give the voltage supply required for the logic families, which is an output of +5V.

Similarly, 12v and 5v regulated supply can also be produced by suitable selection of the individual
elements. Each of the blocks is described in detail below and the power supplies made from these
blocks are described below with a circuit diagram.

Fig 4.1: Power Supply Unit

4.1.2 Arduino Uno Microcontroller:

Any microcontroller based board which follows the standard Arduino schematic and is flashed
with the Arduino boot loader can be called an Arduino board. The Arduino is referred to as open
source hardware, since the standard schematic is open to everyone and anybody can make their
own version of Arduino board following the standard schematic.

Arduino is a single board microcontroller, intended to make the application of interactive objects
or environments more accessible. The hardware consists of an open source hardware board
designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, or a 32-bit Atmel ARM. Pre-programmed
into the onboard microcontroller chip is a boot-loader that allows uploading programs into the
microcontroller memory without needing a chip /device programmer.

4.1.2.1 Hardware:

An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-bit microcontroller with complementary


components to facilitate programming and incorporation into other circuits. Official Arduino have
used the mega AVR series of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328[6],
ATmega1280, and ATmega2560. Most boards include a 5volt linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal
oscillator or ceramic resonator in some variants.
An Arduino microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies
uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically
need an external programmer. This allows an Arduino to be used by novices and experts alike
without having to go through the difficulties first faced by many when using electronics by
allowing the use of an ordinary computer as the programmer[9].

Fig 4.2: Arduino Board

4.1.2.2 Atmega 328P Parameters:

Table 4.1: Key Parameters of ATMEGA 328P Microcontroller


PARAMETERS VALUE

Flash 32 Kbytes

RAM 2 Kbytes

Pin Count 28

Max. Operating Frequency 20 MHz

CPU 8-bit AVR

# of Touch Channels 16

Hardware Q Touch Acquisition No

Max I/O Pins 26


Ext Interrupts 24

4.1.3 Relay:

A relay is an electrical switch that uses an electromagnet to move the switch from the off
to on position instead of a person moving the switch. It takes a relatively small amount of power
to turn on a relay but the relay can control something that draws much more power. This is the
schematic representation of a relay. This is standardized nomenclature, but it can be quite
confusing and awkward to use.

Fig.4.3: Relay Module

4.1.3.1 Operation:

An NPN transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter. The arrow in the
NPN transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current
flow when the device is in forward active mode. Whenever base is high, then current starts
flowing through base and emitter and after that only current will pass from collector to emitter.

Fig 4.4: Internal Circuitry of a Relay.

4.1.3.2 Applications:
1. Relays are used to realize logic functions. They play a very important role in providing
safety critical logic.

2. Relays are used to provide time delay functions. They are used to time the delay open and
delay close of contacts.

3. Relays are used to control high voltage circuits with the help of low voltage signals.
Similarly they are used to control high current circuits with the help of low current signals.

4. Relays are also used as protective relays. By this function all the faults during transmission
and reception can be detected and isolated.

4.1.4 GSM & GPS:

Fig 4.5: GSM and GPS Module.

A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over
a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator
perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.

When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the computer to use the GSM
modem to communicate over the mobile network. While these GSM modems are most
frequently used to provide mobile internet connectivity, many of them can also be used for
sending and receiving SMS and MMS messages.

A GSM modem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetooth connection, or it
can be a mobile phone that provides GSM modem capabilities.

The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a "constellation" of approximately 30 well-spaced satellites


that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their
geographic location. The location accuracy is anywhere from 100 to 10 meters for most
equipment. Accuracy can be pinpointed to within one meter with special military-approved
equipment. GPS equipment is widely used in science and has now become sufficiently low-cost so
that almost anyone can own a GPS receiver.
4.2.5 TRANSFORMER:

A transformer steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. Here we are using a
transformer whose output will be sinusoidal with 12 volts peak to peak value.

Fig 4.6: Step Down Transformer

The low voltage AC output is suitable for lamps, heaters and special AC motors. It is not suitable
for electronic circuits unless they include a rectifier and a smoothing capacitor. The transformer
output is given to the rectifier circuit

4.2.6 RECTIFIERS:

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses
direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one direction, a process known as
rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as
detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes,
mercury arc valves, and other components. The output from the transformer is fed to the
rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C.

Fig 4.7: Input and out put waveforms of Bridge Rectifier.

The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used
because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. In positive half cycle only two
diodes( 1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct, in negative half cycle remaining two diodes will
conduct and they will conduct only in forward bias only.

4.2.7 FILTERS:

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and
smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is
maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point
changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.

Fig 4.8: Output Waveforms of Capacitive Filter.

4.2.8 POTENTIOMETER:

The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divide rused for
measuring electric potential. It is informally a pot, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or
rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end
and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. Potentiometers operated by a
mechanism can be used as position transducers.
Fig .4.9: Potentiometer

Theory of Operation of pot:

The potentiometer can be used as a voltage divider to obtain a manually adjustable output
voltage at the slider (wiper) from a fixed input voltage applied across the two ends of the
potentiometer.
This is their most common use.

The voltage across RL can be calculated by:

If RL is large compared to the other resistances (like the input to an operational amplifier), the
output voltage can be approximated by the simpler equation:

(dividing throughout by RL and cancelling terms with RL as denominator)

Since the load resistance is large compared to the other resistances, the output voltage VL will be

approximately:

Applications of Pot:

1. A low Pot is used as a volume control in Audio control amplifier.

2. Potentiometers are also used in television adjust "vertical hold", which affected the
synchronization between the receiver's internal sweep circuit

4.2.9 LCD DISPLAY:

The LCD display is used for displaying the supply frequency, voltages of different sources and
load variation. It is interfaced with microcontroller and powered up with 5V dc.
Fig 4.10 LCD Display

4.2.10 CAPACITORS:

A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors


separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists between the conductors, an
electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force
between the plates. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated
conductors.

The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency and quality factor
of a resonant circuit, power dissipation and operating frequency in a digital logic circuit, energy
capacity in a high-power system, and many other important aspects.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing
alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power

Fig 4.11: Capacitors

supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other
purposes.

The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor,
hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates", referring to an early means of construction.
In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also
has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and
leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.

4.2.11 CURRENT SENSOR:

A current sensor is a device that detects electric current (AC or DC) in a wire, and generates a
signal proportional to it. The generated signal could be analog voltage or current or even digital
output. It can be then utilized to display the measured current in an ammeter or can be stored for
further analysis in a data acquisition system or can be utilized for control purpose.

The sensed current and the output signal can be:


• Alternating current input,

• analog output, which duplicates the wave shape of the sensed current.

• bipolar output, which duplicates the wave shape of the sensed current.

• unipolar output, which is proportional to the average or RMS value of the sensed
current.

• Direct current input,

• unipolar, with a unipolar output, which duplicates the wave shape of the sensed
current

• digital output, which switches when the sensed current exceeds a certain
threshold

Fig 4.12: Current Sensor

HARDWARE REPRESENTATION:

Figure shows the Detection of power grid synchronization failure on sensing frequency
and voltage beyond acceptable range and automatic load protection by tripping. In this 230v
power supply is given to the step down transformer. Rating of the transformer is 12v. It can be
given to bride rectifier which consists of rectifier, filter and a voltage regulator. Rectifier converts
the ac into dc and filter gives the pure dc signal by blocking ripples. Microcontroller receives this
DC power from rectifiers. The output of the microcontroller is connected to16×2 LCD Display. In
case one for proper synchronization load testing is done by connecting Heavy load lamp of 20W
and for light load LED are connected. For voltage detection by using GSM and GPS interface
technology a GSM module is connected to microcontroller. A Pot is connected at the input of the
microcontroller. By varying pot the voltage changes after reaching the acceptable voltage the LCD
displays trip voltage. The relay circuit will be opened and the lamp will be protected The
frequency variation is shown before tripping. The light will flicker before it turned OFF.
Fig 4.13 Hardware Implementation