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Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet

Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science


Lab report
On
Experiment name: Study the distribution of Benzoic Acid between Benzene and
Water at room temperature and hence show that Benzoic acid dime rises in
Benzene
Course Code: CEP-352
Submitted To:
Md Zakir Hossain
Associate Professor
Dept. of CEP, SUST
Submitted By:
Lab group-01
Registration Number
2016332002 Taslima Islam Nadi
2016332004 Salma Fariha Khan
2016332010 Mahazabin Mim
2016332014 Kashfia Nehrin
2016332023 Shreya Roy
2016332034 Al Mahmud
2016332039 Arjan Saha

Date of Submission:04-03-2019
Table of Contents
Theory: .......................................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 5
Objective ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
Result and calculation: .................................................................................................................................. 6
Discussion: .................................................................................................................................................... 8
Remarks and Comments: .............................................................................................................................. 8
Theory:
When a solute is shaken with two solvents which are immiscible with each other but in both of
which the soluble, then the solute is found to distributed itself between the two solvent in such a
way that the ratio of the concentration of the solute in the solvent is constant at a constant
temperature.
If C1 and C2 are the concentration of the solute in solvent 1 and 2 respectively, then according to
the Nernst distillation law:
C1/C2 = KD
The constant KD is called the distribution coefficient or distribution ratio.
The distribution law is valid when the molecular species of the solute in the two solvents remain
the same, i.e., there is no association or dissociation of the solute in any of the solvents. If the
solute undergoes association in one of the solvents but remains unchanged in the other solvent as
shown in the figure, the law can not be applicable as such since the molecular species have under
zone a change. Using the law of mass action can do modification for this. Considering the
equilibrium between the different molecular species A undergoing association in the solvents. The
following reaction can easily obtain:
nA  (A)n
C3 C2
C2/(C3)n = Kꞌ [mass law constant]
(n√C2)/C3 = constant……………….(1)
Again, C1/C2 = constant…………………(2)
Dividing equation (2) by (1) we get,
(C1/C3)/(n√C2√C3) = constant
 C1/(n√C2) = constant…………….(3)
Benzoic acid exit dimmer in benzene solution. Thus, distribution low can be used for ascertaining
molecular association.
From equation (3) we get,
C1/(n√C2) = K constant
logC1 = (1/n) logC2 + log K
nA - (A)n
C3 solvent 2 C2
Solvent 1

C1
No change

Figure: Molecular association in one solvent.


If we plot a graph of log C1 versus log C2, we get a straight line passing through Y-axis from the
slop of the curve we can calculate the value of n and from the intercept the value of K. The
dissociation of benzoic acid in the aqueous phase being small, so neglected.

Log C1
Slope = 1/n

Log K

Log C2

Equipment and chemicals required:


Four glass stopper bottles, a large beaker, pipettes (5ml & 10ml), benzoic acid, benzene, NaOH of
0.1 & 0.01 M, phenolphthalein, burette, shaking machine.
Introduction:

When a solute is shaken with two immiscible solvents, it gets distributed between the solvents.
This distribution of solute in two solvents depends upon the solubility of the solute in two solvents.
At the distribution equilibrium, the ratio of concentration of the solute in the two solvents is
constant at a given temperature. The constant is called the partition co efficient (K) or the
distribution coefficient of the solute between two solvents.1

In the physical sciences, a partition coefficient or distribution coefficient is the ratio of


concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium. This ratio is
therefore a measure of the difference in solubility of the compound in these two phases. The
partition coefficient generally refers to the concentration ratio of un-ionized species of compound,
whereas the distribution coefficient refers to the concentration ratio of all species of the compound
(ionized plus un-ionized).

In the chemical and pharmaceutical sciences, both phases usually are solvents. Most commonly,
one of the solvents is water, while the second is hydrophobic, Hence the partition coefficient
measures how hydrophilic ("water-loving") or hydrophobic ("water-fearing") a chemical
substance is.2

Earlier The partition coefficient was known as distribution ratio.The first study of partition
coefficient was performed by Berthelotand Jungfleisch and came to result that the ratio of
concentration of solute is constant and doesnot depend on solvent volume.But Nernst have proved
that partition coefficient remains constant if single type of solute is used.It is the activity of solute
to enter in organic phase or aqueous phase which is explained by Partition Law by taking benzoic
acid in benzene and water,which explained that benzoic acid exist in dimeric form.3
Partition coefficients can be measured experimentally in various ways (by shake-flask, HPLC,
etc.) or estimated by calculation based on a variety of methods (fragment-based, atom-based, etc.).

Objective:
To determine the distribution coefficient of benzoic acid between benzene and water.

1
https://labmonk.com/partition-co-efficient-of-benzoic-acid-in-benzene-and-water
2
https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=distribution+coefficient+of+benzoic+zcid
3
https://www.ripublication.com/ijcher16/ijcherv8n1_04.pdf?fbclid=IwAR0vaPIRWLUfWoJwBhPASP7DN89Lr2d-
sPHL92rnH6Gsv_h4chNF6S3T6Xw
Result and calculation:
 Analysis of benzene layer:
Bottle no Volume of Average Conc. Of
Benzene Volume of 0.1M NaOH volume Benzene
layer, ml 1 2 3 layer, Cor
01 5 8.5 8.7 8.9 8.7 0.087
02 5 17.1 16.5 16 16.53 0.165
03 5 15.5 16.5 14.4 15.4 0.154
04 5 26.7 25.6 27 26.43 0.2643

 Analysis of Aqueous layer:


Bottle No Volume of Average Conc. Of
Aqueous Volume of 0.1M NaOH volume, aqueous
layer, ml 1 2 3 ml layer, Caq
01 10 10.4 10.7 11 10.7 .00535
02 10 20.5 19.5 20 20 .01
03 10 15.4 17.5 15 15.97 .00798
04 10 24.5 25 24.7 24.73 .01236

 Evaluation of Cor/Caq :
Bottle no. Conc. Of Log Cor Conc. Of Log Caq Cor/Caq
Organic aqueous
layer Cor layer Caq
01 0.087 -1.06048 .00535 -2.27165 16.26168
02 0.165 -0.78252 .01 -2 16.5
03 0.154 -0.81248 .00798 -2.098 19.29825
04 0.2643 -0.5779 .01236 -1.90798 21.3835
A plot of log Caq against log Cor is given below:

0
-1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

-0.5

y = 0.7677x - 1.4488 -1
Log Caq

-1.5

-2

-2.5
Log Cor

From the graph, the equation is:


y= 0.7677x – 1.4488
Comparing this equation with Log Caq = 1/n Log Cor + Log k
The slope:
1/n = 0.7677
→ n = 1.30
And the intercept:
Log k = -1.4488
→ K = 2.34 × 10-2

Result:
1. The distribution coefficient of Benzoic Acid between two solvents Benzene and Water is:
K =2.34 × 10-2
2. So, it can be said that the benzoic acid is diereses in Benzene.
Discussion:
The experiment was carried out to study the distribution of benzoic acid between benzene and
water. The value of constant K and n was determined by the experiment. Four samples of benzoic
acid; 1,2,3 and 4gm were taken in 4 individual bottles. Each of which was carried under the
experiment to obtain concentrations of benzoic acid in water (Caq) and pure benzene (Corg). the
ratios of (Corg/Caq ) for 4 samples of 1,2,3, and 4 gm benzoic acid, evaluated were 16.26168, 16.5,
19.29825 and 21.3835 respectively. A plot was established by placing log (Caq ) against log(Corg )
using the tabulated values. From the figure, it can be seen that the resultant curve is a straight line.
The slope of which is 1/n and Y-intercept is log(K). The value of n evaluated was 1.30 and that of
distribution coefficient K between benzene and water was 2.34 × 10 -2. This value actually shows
that benzoic acid undergone association in benzene solvent, consequently forming dimmer of
benzoic acid. The experiment was carried under the control of some significant conditions
(Constant temperature, Non-miscibility of solvents, same molecular state)

Remarks and Comments:


Some deviated (in small extent) value can be seen in the obtained plot for 4 samples. Constant
temperature maintaining was one of the most significant pre-condition for this. Along this
condition some other criterion also could not match perfectly due to absence of proper and a
developed laboratory. But still, result that is obtained was nearly approximate close to real value
which was satisfactory.