CURS PRACTIC DE LIMBA ENGLEZA - VERBUL

Asist uni. Georgeta Obilisteanu Lect.univ. Marioara Patesan 1. CUVÂNT INAINTE 2. LECTIA I - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECTIA II - CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR 4. LECTIA III - MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE 5. LECTIA IV - VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA 6. LECTIA V - DIATEZA PASIVA 7. LECTIA VI - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECTIA VII - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECTIA VIII - MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE 10. LECTIA IX - CHEIA EXERCITIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 10.3. Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 10.4. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta 10.5. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 10.6. Exercitii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exercitii cu constructii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE

CUVÂNT INAINTE Verbul constituie coloana vertebrala a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleza – verbul" (cu exercitii si cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretica – prezentarea clara si sistematica a modurilor, timpurilor, concordantei timpurilor, verbelor modale si a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple si traducere), precum si o parte practica cu exercitii la fiecare capitol si la sfârsitul cartii au fost incluse cheia exercitiilor si lista verbelor neregulate intâlnite in cadrul exemplelor si exercitiilor. Prezentarea teoretica a problemelor este facuta in limba româna. Cursul se adreseaza studentilor incepatori si intermediari din anii I si II de studiu, precum si cursantilor adulti, cu conditia ca acestia sa aiba cunostinte anterioare, chiar sumare, de limba engleza.

LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu. In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.

to have a shower. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have". He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Ex. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always. They are not (aren’t) working. Ex. atunci când nu inseamna „a avea. In acest caz. Where are you going? I am going to school. You are not (aren’t) working. formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do".: I go to school by bus this week. We are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working.Afirmativ I am working We are working. pentru a arata o actiune repetata. . De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. to have a party). exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast. My father is taking me in his car. You are always losing your things. a poseda". Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous 1. You are not (aren’t) working.

9. He is telling the truth. 4. 2. It is raining. You (dream) at night? Yes. I am having a walk. They are swimming in the river. You play the piano very well. My mother is resting. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. I trust my friend. 7. She talks too much. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 2. 9. 6.1. 8. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 6. He remembers my phone number. 6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. In England it often (rain). 2. 7. My friend is wearing a new dress. The child is learning to play the piano. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. I understand you. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. I have lunch at one o’clock. 5. 10. 4. They live in Bucharest. Ann is knitting. 5. We are studying English. How you usually (get) to work? . 9. 5. 10. He has a hot bath every day. I (not like) that boy. You are typing a letter. 7. 3. 10. I always believe you. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). 8. 3. You (like) this book? 8. I (dream) every night. I love my brother.

Why you (smoke) so much? Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. You (know) what time is it? 4. but he is late. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. Eu nu studiez seara. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 20. 7. I (be). You (write) to John now? Yes. 17. You (go) to work every day? Yes. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. 11. 4. as I (not want) to miss the first act. 13. 16. 3. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. 2. 6. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. as usual. .I usually (go) by bus. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. except Saturdays and Sundays. I always (have) a rest after lunch. I always (write) to him on his birthday. 19. 5. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. of course. 14. 12. Iarna ninge. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 18. 15.

terminata. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. . Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate.Paste Tense. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. Ex. 9. Ce carte citesti? 10. 14. 19.8. 17. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat. Nu-mi place cafeaua. terminata. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. forma III – participiul trecut. cu perfectul compus. Se traduce. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. de obicei. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Ea isi face bagajul. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Ex. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. forma II. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Adesea citesc carti englezesti. B. Este timpul de naratiune. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. merge pe jos. 16.

) Last year I travelled to England. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. This time yesterday. In acest caz. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. . While I was crossing the street. Se traduce. Yesterday I went for a walk. de obicei. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. in aceeasi fraza. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. Ex.Ex. de asemenea. In aceasta situatie.) Adesea. Este. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. Ex. I was watching TV.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). in plina desfasurare. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. intr-un moment trecut. cu imperfectul. ele aratând actiuni paralele. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). I met John. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.

10. 5. 4. He meets John on Sundays. 2. sora lui privea la televizor. 8. 7.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous 1. While John was reading. I hated him. You speak English well.Ex. 1. 5. I (watch) a film on TV. When I first (meet) him. someone (ring up). You drink too much. When you (come in). 8. 6. When I (arrive). He came home late. He translated the text. 9. This time last Sunday. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. As I (write). 8. 5. I sold my car. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. (In timp ce John citea. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 7. he (have) an accident. she (have) dinner. We worked very hard. 10. I play football. He changed his library book every day. You ask too many questions. 1. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. 3. his sister was watching TV. I talk on the phone. 3. he (work) in a bank. 2. They drank all the wine. He thought about you. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. 3. He forbade her to do this. 4. I always make cakes on Sundays. 4. I like to have a coffee in the morning. That sounds interesting. 9. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. 6. When I (enter) the classroom. While he (learn) to drive. I enjoyed travelling. 9. I own two umbrellas. . 2.

10. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. 12. 4. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. 19. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. 21. 20. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? 22. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. 10. In timp ce ploua. 7. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. 1. C. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. 6. 5. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. 9. 2. 11. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. 18. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. 15. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. 16. . Ieri pe vremea asta ploua.

) arata o actiune trecuta. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. ora 2 p. this year. this month. • Ex. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. (Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. arata o actiune trecuta. ora 10 a. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. terminata. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. In acest caz. dintr-un motiv sau altul. incepând din) si for (de.m. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani.) I have known John since 1990. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning".) I haven’t seen John since September. • . I didn’t get up early this morning. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie.) I have known John for two years. intereseaza in prezent. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. I haven’t seen John for two months. • Ex. I have seen two films this week. I haven’t got up early this morning. Ex. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. timp de). Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din.Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. this week.m. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. care are rezultate in prezent sau care.

Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. yet (in propozitii negative). daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". I must buy a new one. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ . Yes. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) No. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. always. I have often been to England.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. De asemenea. He hasn’t returned home yet. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect.) I haven’t seen him lately. ever.) Dupa cum se poate observa. just. in functie de context. I have never been to England. never. I lost my umbrella yesterday. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". Ex. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . I must buy a new one. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. Ex. already. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ex. seldom. In acest caz. Ex.Ex. se foloseste Past Simple. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. fie cu perfectul compus. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela.

You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. 9. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. 10. Would you like a cake? 7.) De asemene. thank you. He (not go) to bed yet. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. I already (see) this film. No. 15. I (not be) to the seaside this year. cu accent pe durata. 4. I am tired because I have been working all day. If it doesn’t stop soon. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. (Ploua de trei ore. 8. He always (rely on) his friend. 12. You must come and see it. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. He just (leave) home. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. 11. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. He (not come) home yet. care continua in prezent.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. 16. intre un moment trecut si prezent. . sa continue si in viitor. It has been raining for three hours. 6. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous 1. 5.I have not (haven’t) been working. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 2. Daca nu se opreste in curând. You ever (drive) a car? 17. Ex. we shall have floods. You (water) the flowers? 3. vom avea inundatii. 18. He has not (hasn’t) been working. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. I (buy) a new house. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. Ex. Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. It (not rain) since December. I just (have) one. I (lend) him some money today. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut.

5. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. How long you (live) here? I (live) here for one year. 3. It’s time we woke him up. You (be) out of work long? 5. The radio (play) since 7 a. 4. 7.21.m. Ever since that woman came to work here. I (water) the flowers. 1. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 4. I am not out of work now. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. You (see) your mother this week? No. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 1. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. I (lose) my pen. she (try) to make trouble. 2. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 10. 10. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. 22. 6. I’m tired of it. When are you going to do it? 12. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). How many dishes you (cook)? 8. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. 1. When you (use) it last? 2. 9. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. You (not see) it anywhere? No. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. I haven’t. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. 3. 2. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. De cât timp inveti engleza? . We (know) each other for several years. 11. 3. 11. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). I (get) a job last month. 7. I (cook) all the morning. 4. 8.

. un verb de relatie. ca si Present Perfect. 7. a plecat acum o ora. 13. Da. 23. 10. Da. am petrecut o luna aici. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. 25. Este. 6. Un copil a spart geamul. Afirmativ I had worked. 18. El este ministru de doi ani. 12. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. 21. Nu am mers la vot. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminat-o inca. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. De când mi-am cumparat masina. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. 14. 16. dar. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. 9.5. in acest caz. 8. D. A plecat John? 20. acum doi ani. Da. Ninge de doua ore. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. l-am luat la ora 8. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 19. A fost un accident. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. 11. La ce te-ai uitat? 15.

Ex. terminasem de scris temele. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. . Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus.) When you rang me up. I had finished writing my homework. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul.) Ca sens.

(Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. Ex. s-a plictisit. At 3 o’clock on Friday. 5. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. De asemenea.) He said it had been raining for three days. When he entered the room. 3. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. 8.) Dupa cum se observa.Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". I (return) from school. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. She said she already (be) to England. she had been typing for one hour. . Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. ea batea la masina de o ora. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. 7. they drank some coffee. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. Afirmativ I had been working. After they (finish) dinner. 4. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous 1. (Când el a intrat in camera. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. he got bored. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. 2. 6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna.

1. When we met them. it (rain) for one hour. 8. 4. When we arrived at Sinaia. 10. When I arrived home. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. After we (walked) for an hour. 5. 5. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years.9. she (write) letters for one hour. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. When we reached the top. she felt chilly. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 2. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. 2. 10. 7. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. she (study) the subject for a week. 1. 3. When she sat for the exam. 9. we (climb) for 7 hours. 10. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. we (realize) we (lose) our way. 6. When I rang her up. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. After John (leave). somebody told us it (rain) for hours. When I (find out) he (get married). . 8. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. 3. 4. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. 9. When she decided to have a rest. When I left home. 1. mother (cook) for two hours. I realized she (have) a party. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. When I called on her unexpectedly. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 7. 6.

6. 7. 3. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. 8. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. am mers la culcare.) . De indata ce au plecat musafirii. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. 9. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. 10. 4. I (shall) will meet him next week. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. E. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. a inmânat-o profesorului. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t.2. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. will la persoana II si III. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. se foloseste numai „shall". Ex. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. 5.

He/she/it will have gone. You will be going. You will have gone. They will be going. I will be travelling to England.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. We (shall) will be going. They will not be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. We (shall) will have gone. Ex. You will not be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. He/she/it will be going. . la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. You will not be going. You will be going.Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. (have + forma III). He/she/it will not be going. Negativ I (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will not be going. At three o’clock.

You will not have gone. They will not have gone.You will have gone. They will have gone. He/she/it will not have gone. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. We (shall) will not have gone. . You will not have gone.

Ex. When you come home. I will have been studying for three hours.Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. By three o’clock tomorrow. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. I will have reached Predeal. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. Ex. Când vei veni tu acasa. Este un timp rar folosit. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. . iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. I (shall) will have been going.

Intr-un astfel de context. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. bine stabilit. Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. the next day. (El a spus ca va intârzia. I leave for (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. I should (would) be going. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive.) . Ex. He said that at 3 o’clock. 1. • Ex. va calatori spre Anglia. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. la ora 3. I am meeting John this (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. I am going (Voi citi/am de gând It is going to rain. Arata o intentie. He said he would be late.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" 1.) • London tomorrow. arata un program precis. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. Ex.) • morning. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: I (know) the results in three days’ time. carte. Ex.Ex. he would be travelling to England. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". (El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. to sa read citesc this aceasta book.

8. 8. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. He (be) pleased if you invite him. we (take) our exam. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. 8. 4. You (be) in London tomorrow. This time next month. 3. By 5 o’clock. 4. By the beginning of next week. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. 7. 6. I (swim) in the sea. 5.2. In a week’s time. 10. 2. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. Next year. 6. I (pay off) all my debts. By the end of the month. 4. You (remember) to post my letter? I hope I (pass) the exam. 3. 9. 10. I (work) on this paper for a month. This time next day. 3. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. You (recognize) him when you see him? I (remember) this day all my life. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. I am sure when I arrive home. 9. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: .m. When I take the exam. 7. 5. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. If we don’t hurry. 10. He (study) all day tomorrow. By the time you come home. 7. She (watch) TV. Don’t expect me home for dinner. I (have) breakfast. the baby (cry). I am sure you (like) this book. I (cook) for two hours. 2. we (climb) the mountain. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. By the end of the season. verbele din paranteze la timpul Future 1. it probably (rain). Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. I am sure I (succeed). When you reach Sinaia. I (work) at the office till late at night. 4. they (be married) for 25 years. Let’s hurry to the beach. Puneti Continuous: 1. 6. 9. 3.

Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. 5. 9. 8. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. 7. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. Voi vizita târgul international. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. 11. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa.1. 2. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. mâine. E un obiect frumos. 6. Pâna la ora 1. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. 10. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. Unde il vei pune? . Vineri. 4. intre orele 12 si 1.

(El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. (El a spus ca este bolnav. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. . se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. Past Perfect Simple. desigur. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. Propozitia principala 1.) He said he was going to school. ci in fraze. (El a spus ca merge la scola.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare.LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. Present Tense Continuous. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. Present Perfect Simple. nu in propozitii. Past Tense Continuous.

(El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. Ex. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) b.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work.Ex. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: a. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) 1. He said he would come to see me when he had time.) I will have finished studying when you come home.) . (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul.) She promised her mother she would help her.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa.

He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. 7. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. sa ajunga regula. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: . de exemplu. Se poate intâlni. I believed you (be) at the seaside. Ex. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. 9. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 5. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. 8. 6. 1. 4. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. cu timpul. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1.Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor 1. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. I was not sure if you (speak) English. 10. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. 3. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. 2. Looking out of the window. 2. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 1. Ex. It was clear they (talk) business again. Pentru moment insa. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. 3. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. They didn’t know that I (play) football. Ex. I understood you (be) a painter. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous).

we supposed prices (go up). 10. 7. . 7. 1. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 2. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 3. 9. 5. 4. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 2. 10. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. When it started to rain. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 4. 9. 3. 8. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 8. When I arrived. 5. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. By the time you (finish) translating the text. I shall have typed all the letters. As wages had gone up. 4. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. He promised he (drive) me home. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). 6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 6. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). the concert already (begin). 9. 7. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 5. he will drive to Sinaia. After he (repair) the car. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. 8. She told me his name after he (leave). we (dig) in the garden for an hour. this beach will become very crowded. 2. As soon as the holidays (begin).1. I congratulated him. When he finally reached London. 3. When I heard the main actor was ill. After I (hear) the news. 6. too. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. We all believed he (win) the competition. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 1.

8. 6. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. 18. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. I will lend it to you. 5. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 19. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). they will have been married for five years. 5. 6. After she (learn) to type. John. 15. 7. 5. 14. He told me he never (see) the sea. When we (go) to see them last night. When their first baby (be born). .10. she will take a job as a secretary. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 2. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 4. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. 20. 17. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. now. After you (drink) a coffee. me. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). years. 9. In 1998. 12. 16. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. 3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 11. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. When I (finish) the book. they were listening to music. year. you will feel better. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. 10. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 3. 6. precum si exceptiile: 1. 2. 4. 13.

I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 2. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. I (not decide) yet. I will do it when I (want) to. we (drink) coffee and brandy. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 6. 11. not before. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. A week ago. . I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 19. After we have finished dinner. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 10. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. 8.7. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 17. 9. You will never know how much I (suffer). I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. 3. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. After having visited Italy. 12. 7. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 18. 15. 16. When I finally arrived home. 10. 13. 5. 14. 20. 12. 7. He was very upset because I (be) late. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 11. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. 4. 9. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. he decided he (change) his job. 8.

ar merge etc.). Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. wouldn’t. ai merge. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone . la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t.LECTIA III MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III.

) I would stay at home if it rained. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua.). ai fi mers. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara .) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. unde se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. ar fi mers etc.) I will stay at home if it rains. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine.Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. cu exceptia verbului „to be".

. If the police should find out the truth. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. What shall we do. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. were. De asemenea. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. you (be) late. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 1. we would be fined. Ex. providing. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. I (greet) him. dar improbabila. 2. should). noi am fi amendati. If she should ring up. este posibila omiterea lui if. If I see him.Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. In acest caz. Ex. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. in case. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. If you don’t hurry. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. suppose. had. Ex. in loc de Present Simple. supposing. daca sar intâmpla ca.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. tell her I am out. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. In caz ca telefoneaza.

It (be) better if you had waited. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 3. would you visit me? You (buy) this house if you had money? If he were more careful. you (not get) into trouble. If I (work) harder. 1. If I won the lottery. 2. 10. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? If I (give up) smoking. I would ring him up. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 5. 5. you (not pass) the exam. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 10. you (promise) to keep it a secret? Unless you study more. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 1. 9. 8. 9. I would have succeeded. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. I (buy) a car. 6. you (not find) me at home. If it (go on) raining. If I tell you something. he would have gone home. Were I in your place. If you had taken my advice. 8. If I (know) his phone-number. If you had known English. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. I (buy) it. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. 2.3. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. . Had I learned English grammar. If he (realize) it was so late. 4. he (not make) so many mistakes. If I (move) to the country-side. Unless you come at 6. If I (be) you. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 4. 10. 6. he would never have known. Should he have a headache. we shall have floods. I (answer) the phone. If she finds out what has happened. 4. 7. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Had I been at home. If I (not tell) him. I would go home immediately. If you (take) a dog. 6. If I like the dress. I (not do) this. 3. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. 9. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. she (be) very angry. 7. 8. 1. 7. I would be nervous. 2. you will have to look after it. he (take) a pill. 5.

strazile vor fi ude. 6. I (answer) it. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 9. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. 8. 3. If I (see) him. 6. 7. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. 9. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. 1. mi-ar fi fost frig. 11. I (answer) your question if I can. . Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 7. If the child is good. 10. 1. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. you wouldn’t have an accident. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. 4. 5. 6. 2. 1. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. I-ai da? 3. 5. 8. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. 5. voi mânca la un restaurant. 9. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. You (be) sick if you eat so much.3. Dacaar fi plouat. 4. Daca ar ploua. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. I would speak to him. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. If you (drive) more carefully. strazile ar fi ude. If he had written a letter to me. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 8. 10. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. he (get) a bar of chocolate. 7. 2. 10. strazile ar fi fost ude. 12.

Se schimba pronumele. o He said „I will do the exercise". 2. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. He said „I have been working hard. He said he had been ill. He said he was ill.LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. Ex. in functie de sens. He said she had given him a book. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. o He said „I was ill". He said: „She gave me a book". He said he had been working hard. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Ex. 1. He said he would do the exercise. o 1. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. – He said „I am ill". today that day . Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens.

I will stay at home.yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day. He said: „I’ll be at home today"." He said if it rained he would stay at home. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow".  He said he would be at home on that day. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: . 3. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains.

Ex. 3. could. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. „I a might be late" secundare propozitiilor Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. Where have you been? I’ve been away. He said: He said he might be late. on holiday. Ex. I would stay at home.  He told me He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Ex. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) to go out.  He said (that) he was ill. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. Ex. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. He asked me where I had been. Verbele modale would. Ex. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. 2. should. ceea ce este o greseala."If it rained. I would have stayed at home. ought to. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. 1. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Modalitati de introducere in vorbirea indirecta 1. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. Ex. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. He said: „I am ill". "If it had rained." He said if itrained he would stay at home. He asked me if I liked music. He said „Go out". .

6. 11. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. I will go shopping right now. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. I saw this film a week ago. I went to England two years ago. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 6. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 2. 2. 10. 1. 2. 4. 3. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. The weather was fine yesterday. 9.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. I would have answered the phone. 7. If I have enough money. If I had been at home. 5. I am very busy today. 3. 1. I will buy a car next year. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 5. 8. 7. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 10. please! Read the text. 8. 4. ordered) me to come in. 9. 12. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: . Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3.

How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? . 8. 10. 10. 7. please? 4. 3. 8. 12. 6. 5. 1. 9. 5. 9. 4. 2. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. Will you help me. 3. 6. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. 1. 4. 11. 2. 7.„Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day.

trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. my flat is being painted. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). . I had been asked. Ex. Activ: She looked after the child. I will be asked. complementul prepozitional. In this office punctuality is insisted on. In aceste situatii. While I am in hospital. Unde complementul direct este a book. my flat was being painted. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. In limba româna. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. in unele cazuri. In multe cazuri. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. complementul indirect si. Ex. While I was in hospital. I am asked. se omite formularea by. I was asked.LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. In limba engleza. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. iar complementul indirect este him. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. care. de asemenea. Ex. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). punctuality este un complement prepozitional. I have been asked. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. Ex. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. Ex. Desigur. Activ: I gave him a book.

3. We called for the doctor. 6. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great The guide showed the museum to the tourists.Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. 7. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 2. 10. They have given me a nice present. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. 3. Prize. 4. They set fire to the shed. 2. They will give me a reward. Someone has found the missing child. 3. They will finish the work today. 8. . 2. 10. We laughed at John. 8. 4. 8. 6. The noise frightened me. 7. 7. 5. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 9. 2. Burglars broke into the house. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 6. The policeman will show us the way. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. I teach them English. We objected to his proposal. I will invite my friend to a party. 5. I have lent John two of my books. People play football all over the world. A specialist will repair my TV set. 9. 9. when I passed by. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. The teacher asked me a difficult question. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. 4. 3. They didn’t look after the children properly. His coworkers must do something for him. 5. He has found your bag. They are building a new house round the corner.

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10. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 9. 8. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. 3. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XV-lea. 5. . Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. 10. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. Will someone tell him the details? 6. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. These books mustn’t be taken away. 4. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. 2. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. He hates being made fun of. 6. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. 9. 14. This house has been built out of stone and cement. 6. 2. 6. 15. 4. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. 5. 8. 7. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. 11. This book will soon be forgotten. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. Have you fed the dog? 7. A reception was held in his honour. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. I was recommended a very good doctor. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. 13. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. The pupils will be told where to sit. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 3. English is spoken all over the world. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. 7.4. 12.

He can speak English.LECTIA VI VERBELE MODALE Can.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. Se folosesc inlocuitori. • Nu au toate timpurile. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. I can make this traslation. I can do this. Can 1. Can is a model verb. ought to. a fi in stare Ex. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. should. Can = infinitiv. could. would. can’t Ex. need. shall. may. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? . Ex. will. Ex. (Pot sa fac aceasta. prezent. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. must. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. might. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. prezent Negativ: cannot. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. He cannot (can’t) speak English. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. Ex.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". Ex. are sensul de a putea.

2. dar se . Ex. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. can I take your car? Tata. Ex. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. (Da. He could have been here in time. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. He is abroad. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Father. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. nu e posibil sa. Se traduce cu a sti sa.) Negativ: may not. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. a avea permisiunea Ex. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. In vorbirea familiara. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. you may. Ex. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". May 1. are sensul de a putea. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. 3. El e in strainatate. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens.) Cu acest sens. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala.Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut Ex. Ex. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. The sun hasn’t set yet. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. I can swim. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. Ex. poti.). You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp.) I can speak English. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. (Stiu sa inot. Soarele nu a apus inca. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. Ex.

A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. 3. . Telefoneaza-I lui John. Ex. s-ar putea sa ploua. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). You might have written me a letter when you were in England. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. Ex. I must go home. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Ex. 2. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must. Negativ: must not. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. May/might pot exprima un repros. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. to be permitted to. Ex. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. Ex. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. Must 1. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. Take your umbrella. Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Ia-ti umbrela. He may/might be at home now. Ex. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. A trebui Ex. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. Ring up John. It may/might rain. Ex. It’s got late. He said I might smoke in that room. Cu acest sens. S-a facut târziu. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. Trebuie sa plec acasa. You may/might help me when I am in need. se adauga infinitivul trecut.

Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta. se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul • . Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus. He doesn’t need this book. dar a fost facuta. se foloseste verbul must. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte. Ex. nu e nevoie. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. Ex. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. Probabil ca era târziu. exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara. se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut. you must! (Da. Let’s go home.2. It must be late. Hai sa mergem acasa. Nu. John must be at home now. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No. Need Exista doua verbe: • To need: verb obisnuit. It must have been late. poate avea sensul probabil ca: Ex. need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Probabil ca e târziu. Let’s call on him. Cu acest sens. ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. notional. You needn’t have watered the flowers. cu sensul de a avea nevoie Ex. cu sensul de a fi nevoie Ca verb modal. • Need: verb modal. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. you needn’t. Ex. De asemenea. Hai sa-l vizitam. • Ex. Probabil ca John e acasa acum.

You mustn’t drive so fast. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. de asemenea. solicitarea unui sfat. o obligatie morala. we have enough time. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. shall poate arata o promisiune. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. poate indica. Shall Folosit cu persoana I. avem destul timp. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Folosit cu persoana I. Ex. Should. You needn’t drive so fast. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. We didn’t need to do this exercise. ar fi bine sa. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Ex. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul.Ex. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. ar fi cazul sa. o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. . Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede. Ex. interogativ. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta. aici e limita de viteza. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. o recomandare. o oferta sau o sugestie. there is a speed limit here. Ex. se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. shall indica viitorul. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you? Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not.

care are numai forma de trecut. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". Ex. This girl looks very much like Jane. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. Would • Formula de politete. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. Când eram copil. my mother would read me fairy tales. • Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum.in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. o in trecut When I was a child. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. When I was a child. This radio won’t work. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor. please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. . • Actiune repetata: .Will. my mother used to read me fairy tales. mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti. Nota: In afara de „would". Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. cerere politicoasa: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. She will be her sister. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. O fi sora ei.

3. 2. Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 13. 6. You may leave earlier. 10. I must look up the words in the dictionary. 5. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country.Exercitii cu verbe modale 1. 19. 7. You may not smoke in this room. 12. It can’t be too late. 9. 17. 20. He ought to tell me the truth. He may be at home. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. acolo unde este necesar: 1. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. I must go soon. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. You needn’t do this. This child may have another cake. 7. 12. 3. 11. 14. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 10. He should go to school everyday. 13. You might write to me more often. He can swim very well. 9. 4. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. It might rain. John must be ill. 11. She can play the piano very well. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 18. 8. She can lend you that book. You might change your mind about that. You might pay more attention to your work. . You may not speak to your mother like that. He must be delayed at the office. 2. 1. I cannot translate ten pages a day. 8. I must learn English. 5. 16. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . 6. 14. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. 15. 15. 4.

It must be difficult to climb this mountain. 2. He …reach the Moon and walk there. You must have forgotten to lock the door. . Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. He probably thinks I am wrong. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. He needn’t buy milk. 4. 18. there is plenty in the fridge. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 1. 5.16. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. 17. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. 4. John could be a winner. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 7. 6. holidays will be very different. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 3. 10. 9. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 5. Don’t wait. 20. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. 19. He must speak English well. 1. It may/might snow in the mountains. 5. 1. Man …travel through space now. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. You have probably forgotten his address. He …even drive on its surface. 8. He probably came home very early. He was probably late. He is probably older than he looks. You probably forgot to lock the door. It is possible for her to be very late. 3. 1. 2. She is probably a very good doctor.

3. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. You … take sleeping pills too often. 6. 7. The sky is clear. 5. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. it will soon start raining. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 6. 9. 8. I don’t think the weather will change. 3. 9. I don’t believe it is his fault. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 1. 1. 3. I don’t think this is a true story. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 7. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam.2. 10. 2. 2. It is possible that I come home early. 4. 8. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. Take your umbrella. 6. You…water the flowers. 9. perhaps it will rain. 10. 8. 10. You can’t be right. perhaps it is a good one. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. 7. I don’t believe she has got so fat. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. You … worry about money. they are addictive. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : You … take an umbrella. want. I … return the books before the 1st of September. 6. 5. 1. I’ll give you as much as you . I have bought his latest book. 4. I think she was angry with you. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. 4. People … speak during the concert. I don’t believe it was his fault. You can’t have been right. but I doubt it. I don’t believe you were right. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. 5.

he will never read them all. you…get a nice present. I …(answer) the questions. This door … not unlock.1. 2. I promise you not …be disturbed. 8. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: . which was very convenient. You …(lend) him so many books. 4. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. …you tell me the truth. 6. 5. … you correct my exercise. you …re-type it. I …read one book a day. 4. 5. 4. Completati spatiile goale cu must. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. 6. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 5. 9. he was back soon. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 11. 9. You …not go to bed so late at night. 10. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 10. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 10. please? This letter is full of mistakes. 3. We …(wait) too long. 9. When I was a teenager. You …do this whether you like it or not. I …wear my hair long. 8. You …(buy) so much bread. I …(see) him for that. I …(get up) so early today. I wrote him a letter. Go to sleep. which would have saved me a lot of work. When I was young. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 10. The student …(write) such a long composition. 7. She …write an article for this magazine every week. 2. It’ll get stale.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. He …read for hours on end. 8. 9. 3. but I forgot it was Sunday. I …(answer) the questions. I am sorry you wasted your time. You …(wait) for me. please? 7. 7. 2. 6. … you help me solve this problem? 3. for once? This …be John’s house. If you win the contest.

8. The light was on in his room. 2. He …(swim) across the Danube. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. Va trebui sa plec curând. 6. 4. 4. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. but he himself believes he needn’t. am baut deja doua astazi. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. It …(rain) here. 13. I …(leave) it on the bus. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. 10. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. 8. 5. 5. 14. You …(see) Anna yesterday. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. I …(be) in the garden. 10. Traduceti in limba engleza. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi.1. 17. 11. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. Nu stiu sa crosetez. I locked the door and took the key with me. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. . The child … (leave) home. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might." "His family consider he should. the road is dry. 18. Nu. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. 9. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. he is a very poor swimmer. he is a nice boy. She is away. He has one of his own. 2. 3. 12. 9. You…(lend) him your text – book. 6. I haven’t got my bag with me. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. 7. 16. 12. 7. He …(be) at home. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. John …(do) such a thing." "Yes. 3. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15." 1. I didn’t hear the phone. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1.

. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. 20.19. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. Vreti. 22. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. 24. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. 29. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. Unde mergem acum? 28. 23. 26. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. 21. 27. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. va rog. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. o incuiasem chiar eu. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine.

Ex. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. in engleza contemporana. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. Ex. De asemenea. might. Everybody leave the hall. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. d. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. would + infinitiv. it is desirable that. o urare. 1. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. it is necessary that. it is likely that. Ex. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. exprimând o lozinca. It is necessary that you be present. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. Fie ce-o fi. o dorinta sau un blestem. in situatii in care. . Apare in propozitii exclamative. Somebody bring me a glass of water. may. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. Ex. Come what may. It is impossible that he do this.LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana.

Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. 1. • Ex. • I wish (mi-as dori. to insist. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. . Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. to recommend. You speak English as if you had lived in England.e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. to order Ex. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. I wish I had been born in England. I wish it would stop raining. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. to demand. I wish I were Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. • Ex. apare ca were la toate persoanele. se foloseste would. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. in England now. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. Ex. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. to suggest. to urge. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a.

I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. to suggest. It is high time you began to study seriously. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala.) Ex. It is impossible that he should have done this. Ex. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. Dupa cum se observa. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. It is impossible that he should do this. to insist. In exemplul de mai sus. It is necessary that you should be present. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. it is necessary that. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. De asemenea.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. a. It is time the child went to bed. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. • Ex. Ex. (E timpul. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. I would sooner stay at home tonight. Ex. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. to demand. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. to urge. . (Era de mult timpul. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea.) It is high time. to recommend.d)It is time. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. 1. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose.

in order that Ex.• Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. in secundara se foloseste might. fie in vorbirea direca. Hurry up lest you miss the train. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. may. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. where. to be afraid Ex. Intrebari introduse prin how. • Ex. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam.when. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. I hope that he may pass the exam. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. . Ex. why. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. in secundara se foloseste may. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. • Dupa so that. a. • Dupa to hope. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul.

whichever. Oricine ai fi. I wish I might borrow your car. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. It was possible that he might be here in time. iti voi telefona. • Ex. It is possible that he may be here in time. Whoever you may/might be. Ex. 3. Oriunde as fi. I will ring you up. whenever. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 1. I am sorry my friend is ill. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. etc. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I wish I could speak English. I regret I can’t go to the concert. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. you have no right to do this. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. I wish the weather were fine. 2. Wherever I may/might be. you have no right to do this. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. I regret I am not a student.I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. 5. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. 4. no matter when. Dupa whoever. . however. • Dupa it is possible. No matter who you may/might be. it was possible Ex. wherever. iar in aceste cazuri.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I am sorry you live so far away. I regret I have only one child. I regret I have no children. I am sorry books are so expensive. I am sorry it rains so often.

1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii, astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I am sorry you had an accident. I was sorry you were out when I called. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I am sorry I was late for the party. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I was sorry you had got a fine. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize.

1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii, astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I wish he would take my advice. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat.

1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv:

1. You behave as if you (own) the place. 2. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 3. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. I am cold, I would rather you (close) that window. 5. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 6. It’s time we (go) home. 7. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 8. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 10. If only my telephone (work)! 11. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 12. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 13. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. 14. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. 15. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 16. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 17. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. If only I (become) a millionaire. 20. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 2. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. 3. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 4. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua, am putea merge la plaja! 6. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. 9. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. 10. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 11. As prefera sa merg la teatru. 12. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 13. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 14. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin.

16. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 17. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 18. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 19. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 20. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara, dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul, la tara. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 2. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. 3. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 4. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 5. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 6. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 7. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. 8. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 9. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte.

8. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot, astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). Orice mi-ai spune, nu te pot crede. Oricât te-ai stradui, nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. Oricând te vei intoarce, eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta.

I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 11. I have such a boring job. Oricare ar fi motivul. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 17. 9. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 13. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. I wish I (find) another. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). The road is wet. 8. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. 9. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. 3. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. 4. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 1. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. All success (attend) you! 18. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. 15. 8. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! . The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. 7. 16. 19. you should remember your own phone number. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 5. 12. 14. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. 2. 6. nu ar trebui sa ma minti.7. I wish I (be) there when it happened. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 10. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. 10.

. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. diateza si timpuri. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1.LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. in cazul verbelor neregulate. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.

Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to admit.) 1. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. to order. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. to know. verbe exprimând un ordin.) They declared him to be the man of the year. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). . (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. Ex. to cause. Ex. to wish.) I expected him to come in time. to count upon/on . Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want.) e.) c.) I let him go out and play. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. to understand. I’d like him to come with me. verbe declarative: to state. I want you to go now. to watch. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. (Consider ca el este un bun student. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. to dislike. to like. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think.) b. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. Ex.) I want John to do this. I rely on (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to consider. to feel. He admitted the news to be false.) He ordered the door to be locked. to hear. to declare. to allow. I made him study English.) f. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. Ex.Ex. I saw him leave the room.) d. to expect. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. Ex. Nominativ cu infinitiv you to do this.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. I consider him to be a good student. Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. Ex. to believe. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. to hate. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. to suppose.

I will tell him where you are. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. to seem. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. I consider him to be a good student. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. He was made to study English. 1. For – phrase . Ex. She is sure (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. He is said to be a good writer.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. I made him study English. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. to consider.) If I happen to meet him. Ex. to make. to know. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. They declared him to be the man of the year. to turn out.a. He considered the news to be false.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. to expect. to believe. b. a. cu verbele: to happen. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain to come in time. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". to suppose. ii voi spune unde esti. He proved to be a good journalist. de obicei. to prove. to hear.) I happened to meet him in the street. to say. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. He was declared to be the man of the year. He is considered to be a good student. The news was considered to be false.

Ex.) I left / found her crying.) This remains for him to decide.) I heard her singing. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1.) was heard singing. to smell. to watch. precum si cu verbele to find. Nominativ cu Participiu pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: He was seen leaving. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. It is impossible that It is necessary that I (should) go there. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. Ex.) Nominativul absolut I (should) come. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. (Am auzit-o cântând. to hear. (E usor sa fac asta. to leave. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. Este Ex: (El She (Ea 3. 2. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. a fost auzita cântând.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. .Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. It is easy for me to do this.) It is impossible for him to come.) It is necessary for me to go there. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. a fost vazut plecând. Ex. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare.

2. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. 5.) I will have my hair done. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. am mers acasa. 9. 4. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. 8. 6. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. (Orele fiind terminate. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired.) Weather permitting. 12. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. 10. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. 7. 14. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Ex: The classes being over. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. I had my bedroom window broken. we shall go to the beach. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. (Daca vremea va permite.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. vom merge la plaja.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 15. She had two sons killed in the war. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. . Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. 11. Ex. 13. 3. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. I-am privit jucând fotbal. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. we went home.

1. This is a valuable piece of advice. 1. I cam make it. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. know the truth. It is impossible that he should have said that. 4. 10. You should take it. This translation is easy for me to make. 9. The time has come. You should bear it in mind. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. 3. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was She was thought to be a gifted child. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. 7.2. 9. 5. 6. 8. It is necessary that he be present. 10. It is advisable that you should resign. 5. It is important that you should come to the office. You should read it. 7. They heard him repeat it several times. This is a good book. This fact is important. 4. I don’t want you to catch a cold. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. This problem is too difficult. The people were impatient. 2. We should have a heart to heart talk. I have closed the window. 8. 3. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 1. at once. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: This translation is easy. 4. 2. I can’t solve it. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 6. 3. I ordered a taxi. This is the main thing. 2. The match was about to begin. It’s time we met again. We should do it now. I can’t believe she said that. It is recommendable that you should read this book. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should It is important to know the truth. This is a strange thing. . It is possible that I might buy a car. a gifted child.

I saw the peasants working in the field. we were seared about having floods. Expected that he would resign. 4. Everybody. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. 2. 9. we sat down to dinner. 3. I saw her fainting. I had to change them. Weather permitting. The mud having ruined my shoes. It was proved that she was a liar. The decision being taken in my favour. Everybody being at home. 9. 6. 7. 5. we hurried to the beach. 4. 9. 10. I stopped smoking. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. I went shopping. She heard the hunters shooting. 6. . They said she was ill. 7. 5. I heard the child breaking the vase. 3. 10. 8. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. I saw the plane landing. letter. The concert being over. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her 5. It is sure they have had an argument. The rain having stopped. I found her digging in the garden. 6. The dog was heard barking. I saw her lying on the beach. I went home relaxed. I went to post it. l. 6. 10. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. I thought she was unable to win the contest. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. The letter being written. She heard the baby crying. 2. 4. I could hear her typing. The sun having risen. 7. 8. The plane having taken off. I found the boy breaking the window. the audience left the hali. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. The river having risen in the night.3. 5. 8.

Does he remember? 7. 1 don’t like. 13. Is Ann knitting? 10. What book are you reading? 10. it is raining. It snows in winter. Do they live? 8. My mother isn’t resting. It isn’t raining. are you thinking? I am thinking. 8. I don’t always believe. do you do? 3. Do I understand? 4. speaks. He doesn’t go to school by underground. Is he telling? 4. . I don’t trust. 18. Are they swimming? 6. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 14. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. it often rains. I don’t understand. 9. 6. Do you usually get. We aren’t studying. My friend isn’t wearing. 7. Do I always believe? 6. I do not study in the evening. Am I having? 3. 14. Do you dream? I dream 9. he is having. write. 2. Do you play? 5. drinks. They don’t live. he doesn’t get up early. he walks. I always have. Is my mother resting? 8. I am not going. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. Do you like? 8. Are we studying? 9. 4. Whom are you ringing up? 13. Are you writing. You don’t play. He doesn’t remember. 12. always borrow/is always borrowing. Ann isn’t knitting. 15. 19. The secretary is just typing a report. are you waiting? I am waiting. am taking. Is it raining? 2. Does he have? 9. am. They aren’t swimming. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. You aren’t typing. are you hurrying? I don’t want. Do you smoke? 17. 11. She doesn’t talk. I don’t love. Do I trust? 10. 3. 2. I don’t like coffee. 7. She goes shopping on Saturdays. is drinking. What do you do on your free days? 12. Now I am doing my homework in English. I am not having. 20. Does she talk? 3. 4. go. don’t understand. 6. On Sundays. 5. He isn’t telling. 10. Are you typing? 5. Is my friend wearing? 7. Do I love? 2. 1 am cooking. Do you go? 16. The child isn’t learning.CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. I don’t have. remembers. He doesn’t have.

He met. 1 liked. What were you doing last Tuesday. 20. I always made. You drank. 3. 6. They didn’t drink. I didn’t sell. he waslearning. I was watching. I slept. 4. 14. she was having. I didn’t enjoy. the teacher was writing. Did you sleep well last night? 3. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. he wasn’t wearing. When did you return from the mountains? 11. I like to swim a lot. 10. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. While I was looking for my passport. 17. Last Sunday. 9. I met. I played. 4. I entered. 19. 13. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous . I was writing. When did you buy this TV set? 12. 6. This time yesterday it was raining. Did I sell? 6. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. 5. 19. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. he was working. I found this old photo. She is packing her luggage. he realized. Last night. I got up late yesterday morning. Did he come? 8. 7. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 2. Yesterday. 6. He didn’t change. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. How often do you write to your parents? 18. Did I hate? 4. He didn’t think. When I go to the seaside. 9. While it was raining. 3.Why are you opening the window? I5. 8. I didn’t hate. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 10. 18. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. I had breakfast and then I left for school. He sat for his first exam last week. I was talking. were you doing? 7. Did he think? 2. I often read English books. were you going. someone rang up. I owned. Yesterday I got up early. 7. We didn’t work. 2. 16. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. Did he change? 5. Yesterday I lost my gloves. Did he translate? 10. 9. 4. I arrived. he had. I was driving to Sinaia. You asked. my friends played chess. He didn’t forbid. You spoke. 8. Did I enjoy? 9. Did they drink? 3. 1 first met. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. 8. 5. 16. you came in. He didn’t translate. Exercitiul 4: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. 17. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. Did we work? 7. 10. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. That sounded. He didn’t come. 2. 5.

we left. 8. I haven’t written. began. Exercitiul 2: l. I returned. 20. Since I bought a car. He has been sleeping. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. he left an hour ago. I got up. He has just left. I have been asking. Has John left? Yes. 10. 10. 13. 4. he has caught. She has changed. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 3. 5. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 7. 8. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous . I saw. It has been raining. I have been doing. the engine – drivers have gone. 2. I have been watering. I had it at 8 o’clock. 8. 6. 11. Have you paid? 19. I have already seen. 4. I have lost. He has always relied. 5. I have bought. 4. We have walked 10 km so far. We have known. I have’ been shopping. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. 4. I have been cooking. have you cooked? 7. Exercitiul 4: 1. Exercitiul 3: I. 1t hasn’t rained. I5. The radio has been playing. two years ago. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. The child has been playing. It has been snowing for two hours. He has been fishing. 9. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. 11 . He has been. 9. 19. 8. 6. 7. 3. she has been trying.Exercitiul 1: l. 10. Have you ever driven? 16. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. He has been a Minister for two years. I have just had. Have you ever eaten? 13. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. have you been. 17. Have you visited? 12. He hasn’t gone. 18. Have you ever tried? I tried. Have you read? 18. I have been wearing. Have you been. 14. Have you been? I have been. 2. We must replace it. I have seldom walked to my office. 10. I have lent. What did you look at? It was an accident. How long have you been learning English? 5. 20. 7. Have you watered? 3. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. I spent a month here. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. Have you lived? I have lived. have you been wearing? 6. 5. He hasn’t come. 9. I didn’t succeed. I was. A child has broken the window. Have you been to this town before? Yes. I got. Have you seen? she left. 15. 9. 6. I haven’t been. 12. 14. The weather has got warmer lately.

2. had been swimming. he told. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 8. I shall/will succeed. it had been raining. had spread. she had been studying. 10. I rang him up. 6. 2. had not told. 9. she had not passed. 8. 8. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. I had returned. Exercitiul 4: 1. had left. he had been. 8. I went to bed. 6. 4. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. 3. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. had been having. 6. 5. 10. 4. I realized I had left my bag at home. we had lost. I had met. 7. 3. I shall/will be swimming. As soon as the guests had left. 10. You will be. it had been raining. 2. Will you be needing? 5. 9. 5. 7. 9. I shall/will pass. had been climbing. had eaten. 7. 3. he went. 4. She will be watching. Exercitiut 2: 1. we asked. 6. Wil1 you remember? 9. When I arrived at the bus stop. 7. He will be. 5. had listened. he had visited. I shall/will remember. he had learned/he had been learning. congratulated. we had been walking. he had got married. it had been raining. 2. I shall/will know. it will probably be raining. 9. had been cooking. She had just gone out. she had been writing. 2. she had been cleaning and dusting. had been speaking. we realized. Exercitiul 3: 1. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. 6. 5. will be crying. they had finished. 10. 7. 4. 8. 6. He . He thanked me for what I had done for him. wilt be rising. they had been waiting. Will you recognize? 4. she told. 5. 2. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. You will not/won’t find. he had thought. I called. she had already been. I was sorry I had hurt him. he went. 4. 3. 3. 3. 7. You will like. he had caught.Exercitiul 1: 1. I entered. I found out. 10. he handed it to the teacher. they had been. Exercitiul 2: 1.

you would soon have. I shall/will have finished. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 7. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. Exercitiul 2: 1. he had stolen. 8. 9. you were. would be cancelled. 9. you were. 10. 5. I shall/will have paid off.will be studying. On Friday. We shall/will have taken. they were talking. did not remember. I would remain. I had done. 10. he wanted. 3. 6. you spoke. 3. 8. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 4. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. they will have been married. I had read. 3. I shall/will have read 8. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. had already begun. he would win. 7. 9. 2. I shall/will be working. he had been travelling. he would finish. I shall/will have been working. 4. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. I played/I was playing. 8. . Exercitiul 3: 1. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. he would drive. 5. they would remain. 7. he had just left. Exercitiul 4: 1. will have risen. 10. I had lost. 5. 2. 2. we had been digging. 6. 5. I had not enjoyed. I usually read. he had left. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 7. 3. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. You had to type. 10. 2. 4. 7. Exercitiul 3: 1. 10. 2. I shall/will have saved five million lei. was shining. 8. 9. I shall/will have been cooking. he would pass. will/shall will be climbing. between twelve and one o’clock. 9. 10. 4. would end. 4. 6. he would give. 5. I had heard. I shall/will be having. 6. 3. 9. 8. prices would go up. will have spent. they will be having their last English class. By this time next year. You will have seen. 6.

would not go. 6. 9. you see. 2. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. 15. 3. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: . arrive. he would have. I want. she notices you have broken. 7. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. they have done. 6. he trusted. we will drink. you finish. 5. 2. 9. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. 12. 7. 3. 11. 11. 5. is. 4. you see. 17. I was. 8. 5. 6. 4. he hoped. 5. do not eat. 9. 7. they had known. I will earn/will be earning. 8. 8. he had eaten. he has arrived. he would not remember. will soon move. is born. I knew you were in Bucharest. 3. 7. 14. he had not expected. 2. 12. you see. Exercitiul 7: l. Exercitiul 6: 1. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. I was. 6. 10. 13. I finish. they had been listening. she has changed. 10. 14. I have received. 13. 20. you have just told. you have drunk. had failed. is. is. 19. 8. 12. 18. 16. we went. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 3. 16. I work/I worked. I finish. you are reading. 11. she looks. you had been wearing. we reach. there are. I would spend. 9. I read. I had not decided. they have been. 15.Exercitiul 4: 1. melts. I had not eaten. you have read. 17. I have been reading. he had to write. it would not be raining when I arrived. I have suffered. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. I have. he would change. 2. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. he had never seen. 10. 4. he tells. 18. begin. Exercitiul 5: 1. 20. 10. 4. she has learnt. you do. 19. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. he has repaired.

LECTIA IV . 3. I had worked. I moved. 10. the streets would have been wet. 8. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 9. I would not have made. you will be. 3. 2. 9. 5. If it rains. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. I had not told. 8. 6. I would have answered. 2. he leaves. you will be. 9. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. you would have read. If dinner is not ready in time. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 10. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 9. 2. he would take. the streets would be wet. 4. he had tried. I saw. I would buy. I will greet 2. Exercitiul 5: 1. you had driven. 8. I would have answered. 7. Would you buy? 4. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 7. 3. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. 2. he will get. 5. 10. Exercitiul 4: l. You will see him if you wait. you take. 7. It would have been. he would have told. would you give him some? 3. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. If it had rained. I will answer. you will not pass. 7. will you promise? 6. 9. he would not make. If a beggar asked you for money. I wouldn’t do. 4. 2. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. it goes on. 4. 5. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. he had realized. 10. you will not find. 6. I will eat at a restaurant. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. If it rained. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. I gave up. 3. I knew. 8. 6. the streets will be wet. I will lend. 8. I will buy. What would you do if you meet John? 12. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. I had known. you wouldn’t have got. you were. 6. I were. 7. 7. 3. What will you do if you meet John? 11.l. 5. 4. 6. 10. you had invited. 5. she will be.

He asked me where I would spend my weekend. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 8. 8. 4. 9. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. 9. He told me to be careful with his books. He said he had gone to England two years before. 10. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. He said he had seen that film a week before. Exercitiul 2: 1. 3. He asked me if I would like a cake. 2. 10. He asked me if I would help him. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 2. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He told me to open the door. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He asked me how I had travelled. 3. 9. 8.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. 9. 6. He said she would go shopping right then. 7. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. He said he was very busy on that day. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. He asked me how long I had been learning . . He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He asked me when I would be back. 4. He asked me if my mother had been at home. He told me not to smoke so much. 5. He asked me who that man was. 7. 6.English. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 7. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. 6. 4. Exercitiul 4: 1. 12. 5. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 6. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He told me to take that pill. 3. 8. 11. He told me to read that text. 2. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 5. 5. 11. 7. 3. 12. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 2. He asked me if the train had left. 10. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day.

The truth is not always told to me by my friend. The doctor was called for (by us). The missing child has been found (by someone). I was frightened by the noise. 4. The house was broken into (by burglars). Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? . Has the dog been fed? 7. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. Your bag has been found (by him). John was laughed at (by us). Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). 7. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. A nice present has been given to me (by them). 4. 9. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. 6. Football is played all over the world. A reward will be given to me (by them). The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 5. 2. when I passed by. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me).: 3. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). We will be shown the way by the policeman. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 2. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. 5. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 10. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). I will be given a reward (by them). Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 2.LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. The work will be finished today (by them). The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 3. 3. 9. His proposal was objected to (by us). I have been given a nice present (by them). They are taught English (by me). English is taught to them (by me). A new house is being built round the corner (by them). I’m not always told the truth by my friend. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). 10. 9. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). 6. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). 8. John has been lent two of my books (by me). 7. 8. Fire was set to the shed (by them). I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 7. Exercitiul 3: 1. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 8. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. 4.

10. 8. 9. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 6. 14. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. I couldn’t translate. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. 7. 4. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. Were you told about the meeting? 9. 8. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. 8. 10. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. 15. 9. She could lend. 2. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. He will be able to swim. People speak English all over the world. 7. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. I had to go. 6. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 4. 6. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. He was not . When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. The child was allowed/permitted to have. 7. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 5. People will soon forget this book. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. 2. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. She will be able to lend. 4. 5. You won’t have to do. 3. 5. I will have to go. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. We were told very interesting things at the conference. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. Exercitiul 6: l. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. People mustn’t take away these books. They have built this house out of stone and cement. We were asked to show our passports. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 12.8. Many new blocks are being built in our district. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. 2. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 3. He could swim. 10. You didn’t have to do. 13. The museum was closed for repairs. 11. 3. I won t be able to translate. They held a reception in his honour. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. He hates people making fun of him.

allowed/permitted to come. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. You can’t have been. 6. It must have been. This must be the best. 7. She will be able to play. You must have forgotten. He must be older. She may/might have been out. 4: She must be a very good doctor. It can’t have been his fault. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. Exercitiul 6: 1. He may/might have been right. 4. He may have been. 19. Exercitiul 5: 1. He must have been late. 8. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. It must have taken a long time. It can’t have been. 6. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 9. can. 20. 5. John must have been. 8. 19. It can t have been. 6. You must have left your umbrella. She will be able to read and write. 2. 2. She could play. 6. It may/might be a good one. You can’t have seen. He should have gone. You shouldn’t have gone. He ought to have told. I will have to learn. Exercitiul 3: 1. can. 16. 10. 7. 7. 9. He may/might have done. 9. 16. He must think. It can’t be his fault. I had to learn. 15. 5. She may/might have been angry. John could have been. 18. You might have changed. Exercitiul 2: 1. 12. It may/might rain. She may/might be very late. 13. He can’t have passed. He must have come home. 3. He must have been delayed. 12. She may/might have returned. 4. 14. 6. You might have paid. 2. 3. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 17. 8. He needn’t have bought. She can’t have got. The weather can’t change. 3. 11. I will have to look up. I may/might come home. can. 5. 5. He must have been. 15. He could read and write. can. 13. 4. You must have known the lesson. 2. You might have written. Exercitiul 4: l. can’t. I had to look up. 5. 2. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. 10. 14. You should have visited. 3 It might have rained. can’t. 3. You needn’t have done. 10. He can’t be . 4.

8. 6. 7. 5. 9. would. Exercitiul 10: 1. can’t have swum. 9. Exercitiul 13: 1. 10. needn’t. 10. Exercitiul 7: 1. needn’t have lent. 7. will. mustn’t. I can’t knit. should. mustn’t. 9. needn’t. 3. This can’t be a true story. didn’t need to wait. can’t have rained. 2. would. mustn’t. 6. S. 11. 3. 8. All the children ought to/should do some housework. mustn’t. 9. I could play the piano when I was a child. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". 8. 5. should. All the students can and must write this paper. 4. 10. can’t have seen. 2. can’t have left. will. 2. Exercitiul 12: 1. would. 8. 7. needn’t. 2. 7. You can’t miss the train. She can’t have learned English. mustn’t. 2. 5. 8. should. 9. will. must have been. needn’t have got up. I will have to leave soon. 10. 7. shall. will. would. 5. needn’t. 10. Everybody shall be present at the meeting.at the office. didn’t need to buy. shall. She can’t have married. needn’t have bought. 4. will. 7. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. needn’t have lent. 3. You will have to help me more today. 4. must have left. didn’t need to see. 9. should. 6. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. shall. 4. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 5. would. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. needn’t have written. Exercitiul 11: 1. didn’t need to answer. Exercitiul 8: l. needn’t have answered. a . will. 2. 12. 3. 4. must have been. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 6. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. 9. 10. 10. can’t have done. needn’t. 6. 3. would. 6. must have taken. needn’t have waited. 7. 3. 5. 4. 8. shall. Exercitiul 9: 1.

porter could help you. 13. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 14. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. No, we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 16. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her, because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 17. You needn’t have made coffee for me. I have already drunk two, today. 18. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958, as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 19. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 20. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night, I rang you up and nobody answered. 21. I must have been still at the faculty. 22. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 23. You ought to/should have insisted. 24. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 25. I promise you, you shall have the book tomorrow. 26. You can’t have found the door open. I had locked it myself 27. Where shall we go now? 28. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 29. Will you, please, wait for a few minutes? 30. You may not speak during the exam. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 2. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 3. I wish I were a student. 4. I wish I could go to the concert. 5. I wish I could pay the piano. 6. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 7. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 8. 1 wish I had children. 9. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 10. I wish it didn’t rain so often. Exercitiul 2: l. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. 2. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 3. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 4. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. 5. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 6. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 7. I wish you had won the competition. 8. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 9. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 10. I wish I had won the Great Prize. Exercitiul 3: 1. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 2. I wish he would accept my proposal. 3. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 4. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. S. I wish they would sign the contract. 6. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. 7. I wish you

would take a driving licence. 8. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 9. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 10. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. Exercitiul 4: 1. you owned. 2. I were. 3. you didn’t waste. 4. you closed. S. you started. 6. we went. 7. I stayed, watched. 8. I were. 9. I had entered. 10. my telephone worked. 11. hadn’t caught a cold. 12. he would have. 13. you were. 14. he told. 15. his daughter didn’t get married. 16. he took, stopped. 17. I hadn’t forgotten. 18. his book would become. 19. I would become. 20. I got. Exercitiul 5: l. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles, too. 4. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain, we could go to the beach. 6. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. I would rather you got up earlier. 9. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 10. I would rather you went to the theatre. 11. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 12. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 13. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 14. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. She looks as if she were a model. 16. You speak as if you were angry with me. 17. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 18. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 19. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 20. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp, but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. Exercitiul 6: 1. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 2. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 3. It is important that you (should) know English well. 4. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 5. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 6. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 7. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 8. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 9. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7:

1. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 2. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 3. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 4. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 5. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 6. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 7. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 8. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. Exercitiul 8: 1. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 2. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. 3. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 4. Whatever you may/might tell me, I can’t believe you. 5. No matter how hard you may/might try, you can’t win such a competition. 6. Whenever you may/might return, I will be at home waiting for you. 7. Whoever may/might have told you this about me, you shouldn’t have believed it. 8. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 9. It is possible that she might be away. 10. Whatever the reason may/might be, you shouldn’t lie to me. Exercitiul 9: 1. it might not get. 2. it should get. 3. they (should) divorce. 4. should have told. 5. you may/might be. 6. we (should) leave. 7. hadn’t broken down. 8. he were. 9. he were. 10. you retired. 11. she should have left. 12. might prosper. 13. you should have. 14. you may/might understand. 15. we should take. 16. (should) have. 17. may attend. 18. I had been. 19. I would find. 20. I had. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. I expected you to come earlier. 2. He wanted me to help him. 3. She made me understand what had happened. 4. I think him to be a good husband. 5. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 6. John admitted the fault to be his. 7. I rely on you to lend me some money. 8. I watched them playing football. 9. I saw him speaking to his friend. 10. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 11. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 12. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 13. I saw some children playing in the park. 14. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 15. He made me miss the train. Exercitiul 2:

Intrucât ploaia incetase. 7. She could be heard typing. 9. 7. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. They are sure to have had an argument. am plecat la cumparaturi. She was seen fainting. The peasants were seen working in the field. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. The plane was seen landing. She was found digging in the garden. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 5. 6. The child was heard breaking the vase. ne-am asezat la cina. 6. 3. Exercitiul 5: 1. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 10. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 2. Exercitiul 6: 1. The hunters were heard shooting. He was heard to repeat it several times. 9. This is the main thing for us to do. am plecat acasa linistit. 4. 2. 6. 3. The boy was found breaking the window. 5. 4. The people were impatient for the match to begin. She seemed to be satisfied with me. She was seen lying on the beach. She (was) proved to be a liar. It is important for you to come to the office at once. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 5. 9. This is a good book for you to read. 8. Intrucât soarele rasarise. 6. Concertul fiind terminat. 3. He was expected to resign. 7.1. It is necessary for him to be present. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. 4. publicul a parasit sala. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 7. 10. 6. 3. 2. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. 4. Daca vremea va permite. 9. . Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. 8. 8. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. 3. 7. 2. 10. 5. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. It is impossible for him to have said that. This is a strange thing for her to have said. am mers sa o pun la posta. Exercitiul 4: 1. It is possible for me to buy a car. Toata lumea fiind acasa. It is recommendable for you to read this book. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 10. The baby was heard crying. 4. It is advisable for you to resign. 10. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. Exercitiul 3: 1. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. It’s time for us to meet again. She was said to be ill. a trebuit sa-i schimb. 9. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 8. 5. 2. 8.

born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug .LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig was. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug been borne.

to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden .

to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt. learned left lent let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt. learned left lent let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden .

to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt .

to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood .

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