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Asist uni. Georgeta Obilisteanu Lect.univ. Marioara Patesan 1. CUVÂNT INAINTE 2. LECTIA I - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECTIA II - CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR 4. LECTIA III - MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE 5. LECTIA IV - VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA 6. LECTIA V - DIATEZA PASIVA 7. LECTIA VI - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECTIA VII - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECTIA VIII - MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE 10. LECTIA IX - CHEIA EXERCITIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 10.3. Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 10.4. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta 10.5. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 10.6. Exercitii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exercitii cu constructii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE
CUVÂNT INAINTE Verbul constituie coloana vertebrala a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleza – verbul" (cu exercitii si cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretica – prezentarea clara si sistematica a modurilor, timpurilor, concordantei timpurilor, verbelor modale si a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple si traducere), precum si o parte practica cu exercitii la fiecare capitol si la sfârsitul cartii au fost incluse cheia exercitiilor si lista verbelor neregulate intâlnite in cadrul exemplelor si exercitiilor. Prezentarea teoretica a problemelor este facuta in limba româna. Cursul se adreseaza studentilor incepatori si intermediari din anii I si II de studiu, precum si cursantilor adulti, cu conditia ca acestia sa aiba cunostinte anterioare, chiar sumare, de limba engleza.
LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu. In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.
Ex. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". You are not (aren’t) working. ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast. to have a shower. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always. atunci când nu inseamna „a avea. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous 1. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have". .Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. You are always losing your things. to have a party). Where are you going? I am going to school. pentru a arata o actiune repetata. We are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. a poseda". My father is taking me in his car. Ex. They are not (aren’t) working. In acest caz.: I go to school by bus this week.
7. 3. She talks too much. 7. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 5. 7. He has a hot bath every day. My friend is wearing a new dress. 4. I (not like) that boy. My mother is resting. 5. We are studying English. 8. He is telling the truth. 8. 2. 9. Ann is knitting. You (dream) at night? Yes. You play the piano very well. 6. 2. 9. How you usually (get) to work? . He remembers my phone number. 2. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. They are swimming in the river. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 4. 6. I have lunch at one o’clock. The child is learning to play the piano. They live in Bucharest. 2. 3. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 6. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. 10. I (dream) every night. It is raining. I always believe you. I trust my friend. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). 3. In England it often (rain). I understand you. 5. I am having a walk. I love my brother. 4. You (like) this book? 8. You are typing a letter. 10. 9. 10.1.
of course. 19. but he is late. 20. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. Eu nu studiez seara. 14. You (know) what time is it? 4. 15. 5.I usually (go) by bus. 13. I (be). Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. 6. 11. Why you (smoke) so much? Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. as usual. 4. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. You (write) to John now? Yes. 16. . Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 2. Iarna ninge. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 17. 3. 18. 7. I always (have) a rest after lunch. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. as I (not want) to miss the first act. I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (go) to work every day? Yes. except Saturdays and Sundays. 12.
De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. forma II. 19. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat. Se traduce. de obicei. 14. Ex. 17. 16. terminata. forma III – participiul trecut.Paste Tense.8. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. Ce carte citesti? 10. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. cu perfectul compus. Este timpul de naratiune. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. Adesea citesc carti englezesti. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). B. Nu-mi place cafeaua. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta. 9. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. . Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Ex. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. merge pe jos. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. Ea isi face bagajul. terminata. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult.
I was watching TV. In aceasta situatie. . (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. de asemenea. intr-un moment trecut. Ex. in plina desfasurare. ele aratând actiuni paralele. In acest caz. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. de obicei. Yesterday I went for a walk. Este. I met John. Ex. This time yesterday. cu imperfectul. in aceeasi fraza. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut.) Adesea. Se traduce. (Ieri am mers al plimbare.) Last year I travelled to England. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. While I was crossing the street.Ex.
10. That sounds interesting. 9. he (work) in a bank. I play football. I (watch) a film on TV. 3. I talk on the phone. 1. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. I sold my car. While he (learn) to drive. 8. We worked very hard. I own two umbrellas. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. 8. 4. 2. 4. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. I like to have a coffee in the morning. (In timp ce John citea. 10. 2. 1. she (have) dinner. 5. 4. He translated the text. When I (arrive). Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. He came home late. When I (enter) the classroom. 3. 6. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. 8. I hated him. 5. When you (come in). 6. He changed his library book every day. 2. 7. someone (ring up). They drank all the wine. You ask too many questions. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. He forbade her to do this. he (have) an accident. his sister was watching TV. While John was reading. 5. You speak English well. 9.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous 1.Ex. When I first (meet) him. sora lui privea la televizor. You drink too much. He meets John on Sundays. 9. 3. He thought about you. This time last Sunday. I enjoyed travelling. . I always make cakes on Sundays. 7. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. As I (write).
Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. 20. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. 16. 2. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. 5. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. In timp ce ploua. 4. C. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa.10. 6. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. 12. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. . 11. 19. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. 1. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? 22. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. 9. 10. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. 15. 21. 7. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. 18. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked.
(Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today.) I have known John since 1990. I haven’t seen John for two months. incepând din) si for (de. ora 2 p.m. intereseaza in prezent. In acest caz.m. • . folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. this week. this month. • Ex.) I haven’t seen John since September. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica.) I have known John for two years. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. dintr-un motiv sau altul. ora 10 a. Ex. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. timp de).) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". arata o actiune trecuta. care are rezultate in prezent sau care. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din. (Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. I didn’t get up early this morning. I haven’t got up early this morning. this year. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. • Ex. I have seen two films this week. terminata. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni.) arata o actiune trecuta.Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie.
(Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. always. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. Ex. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . I must buy a new one. He hasn’t returned home yet. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". never. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. yet (in propozitii negative). I have never been to England. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) No. ever. se foloseste Past Simple.Ex. Yes. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. just. fie cu perfectul compus. Ex. I must buy a new one. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. I lost my umbrella yesterday. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect.) I haven’t seen him lately. De asemenea. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. seldom. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua.) Dupa cum se poate observa. Ex. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ . Ex. already. In acest caz. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. I have often been to England. in functie de context. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.
Ex. Daca nu se opreste in curând. 15. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. 16. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13.) De asemene. He has not (hasn’t) been working. You must come and see it. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous 1. 4. (Ploua de trei ore. I (buy) a new house. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. 2. I (lend) him some money today. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. He (not go) to bed yet. 8. He always (rely on) his friend. I (not write) to my friend for three months. thank you. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. He just (leave) home. I (not be) to the seaside this year. 5. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. Ex. You (water) the flowers? 3. sa continue si in viitor. I just (have) one. we shall have floods. . Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. It has been raining for three hours. 12. No. Would you like a cake? 7. intre un moment trecut si prezent. 18. 10. You ever (drive) a car? 17. vom avea inundatii. 9.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. I am tired because I have been working all day.I have not (haven’t) been working. If it doesn’t stop soon. It (not rain) since December. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. cu accent pe durata. I already (see) this film. Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 6. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. 11. He (not come) home yet. care continua in prezent.
I (water) the flowers. 3. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. 11. 4. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. 10. When you (use) it last? 2. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). 3. 2. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. I (get) a job last month. 1. The radio (play) since 7 a. Ever since that woman came to work here. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. You (see) your mother this week? No. When are you going to do it? 12. I am not out of work now. 2. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. You (not see) it anywhere? No. We (know) each other for several years. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 7. It’s time we woke him up. 10. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. 5. 22. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. 1. How long you (live) here? I (live) here for one year.m. 1. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. she (try) to make trouble. I’m tired of it. You (be) out of work long? 5. 9. 11. 3. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. 8. De cât timp inveti engleza? . Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 4. I (cook) all the morning. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). 7. I (lose) my pen. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 4. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. 6. I haven’t.21.
Nu am mers la vot. in acest caz. 13. 16. . 8. dar. 10. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. 11. 12. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. De când mi-am cumparat masina. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. ca si Present Perfect. 25. A fost un accident. D. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminat-o inca. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. 23. El este ministru de doi ani. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. A plecat John? 20. 9. 6. Un copil a spart geamul. Da. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. Afirmativ I had worked. un verb de relatie. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. acum doi ani. am petrecut o luna aici. Da. 21. l-am luat la ora 8. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Da. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. Ninge de doua ore.5. 18. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 19. 14. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Este. a plecat acum o ora. 7. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat.
Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus.) Ca sens. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun.Ex. . (Când mi-ai telefonat. terminasem de scris temele. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. I had finished writing my homework.) When you rang me up.
Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. 7. . they drank some coffee.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. he got bored. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous 1. De asemenea. Afirmativ I had been working. ea batea la masina de o ora. 2. 4. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. Ex. When he entered the room.Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". She said she already (be) to England. 8. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1.) Dupa cum se observa. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. s-a plictisit.) He said it had been raining for three days. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. After they (finish) dinner. (Când el a intrat in camera. 5. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. At 3 o’clock on Friday. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. I (return) from school. 3. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. she had been typing for one hour. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. 6. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day.
2. When we reached the top. she (study) the subject for a week. 8. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 3. we (climb) for 7 hours. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 8. 4. it (rain) for one hour. she felt chilly. After we (walked) for an hour. . 9. 1. When I rang her up. When she decided to have a rest.9. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. 1. 7. I realized she (have) a party. we (realize) we (lose) our way. mother (cook) for two hours. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. 3. 10. 9. 6. When she sat for the exam. 10. When I arrived home. 6. When I called on her unexpectedly. she (write) letters for one hour. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. When we met them. 5. 2. 5. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. After John (leave). When we arrived at Sinaia. When I left home. When I (find out) he (get married). He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. 4. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 10. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 7. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. 1. We (ask) him what countries he (visit).
2. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. E. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. will la persoana II si III. 10. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. 6. a inmânat-o profesorului. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. 4. 9. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. I (shall) will meet him next week. Ex. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. se foloseste numai „shall". am mers la culcare. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. 7. 5.) . 3. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 8.
Negativ I (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will not be going. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. You will not be going. I will be travelling to England. You will be going. Ex. He/she/it will have gone. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. They will be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. . (have + forma III).Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". They will not be going. You will be going. He/she/it will not be going. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. At three o’clock. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. You will not be going. We (shall) will be going. You will have gone. We (shall) will have gone. He/she/it will be going. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna.
Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. We (shall) will not have gone. They will have gone. He/she/it will not have gone. They will not have gone. You will not have gone. You will not have gone.You will have gone. .
Este un timp rar folosit. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. When you come home. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. Când vei veni tu acasa. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. I will have reached Predeal. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. .Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. I will have been studying for three hours. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I (shall) will have been going. Ex. By three o’clock tomorrow. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. Ex.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele).
Ex. arata un program precis. to sa read citesc this aceasta book. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. he would be travelling to England. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Intr-un astfel de context. He said that at 3 o’clock. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit.) • morning. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" 1.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive.Ex. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: I (know) the results in three days’ time. Ex. He said he would be late. (El a spus ca va intârzia. • Ex. la ora 3. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. I leave for (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". I am going (Voi citi/am de gând It is going to rain.) • London tomorrow. Arata o intentie.) . (El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. Ex. 1. Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. the next day. I am meeting John this (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. carte. Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. va calatori spre Anglia. bine stabilit. I should (would) be going.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor.
2. 3. You (be) in London tomorrow. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. they (be married) for 25 years. I (cook) for two hours. You (recognize) him when you see him? I (remember) this day all my life. 9. we (take) our exam. 6. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. 9. When you reach Sinaia. we (climb) the mountain. the baby (cry). 3. 7. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. 5. 2. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. Puneti Continuous: 1. 7. You (remember) to post my letter? I hope I (pass) the exam. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: . In a week’s time. 9. 8. 4. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. 8.m. If we don’t hurry. verbele din paranteze la timpul Future 1. I am sure I (succeed). 4. By the end of the season. He (study) all day tomorrow. By 5 o’clock. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. 10. 6. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. 3. By the time you come home. By the beginning of next week. I (work) on this paper for a month. 5. I (pay off) all my debts. I am sure when I arrive home. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. This time next month. 6. By the end of the month. Let’s hurry to the beach. Don’t expect me home for dinner. 8. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. 4. I (swim) in the sea. I am sure you (like) this book. She (watch) TV. 4. When I take the exam. 7. Next year. it probably (rain). 10. He (be) pleased if you invite him. 3. I (have) breakfast. 2. This time next day. I (work) at the office till late at night. 10.
Voi vizita târgul international. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. mâine. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. 7. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. 11. 5. E un obiect frumos. 8. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. 9. 10. intre orele 12 si 1. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. Unde il vei pune? . 2.1. Vineri. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. Pâna la ora 1. 4. 6. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii.
Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara.) He said he was going to school. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Present Tense Continuous.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. .) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. (El a spus ca merge la scola. Propozitia principala 1. Past Perfect Simple. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte.LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. nu in propozitii. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. Present Perfect Simple. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. desigur. ci in fraze. Past Tense Continuous. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat.
(Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: a.Ex.) 1. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. He said he would come to see me when he had time.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. Ex.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work.) . dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) She promised her mother she would help her. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa.) He said he would buy a car if he had money.) b. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) I will have finished studying when you come home. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani.
de exemplu. 7.Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor 1. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: . când propozitia secundara este atributiva. 5. 9. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. They didn’t know that I (play) football. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. 4. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. Ex. 1. 3. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 10. I believed you (be) at the seaside. sa ajunga regula. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 3. 2. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. It was clear they (talk) business again. Se poate intâlni. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. cu timpul. I understood you (be) a painter. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. 8. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 1. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. Looking out of the window. Ex. 6. Pentru moment insa. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. 2. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. I was not sure if you (speak) English. Ex.
He promised he (drive) me home.1. We all believed he (win) the competition. 8. 3. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. 4. 3. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. 6. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. 6. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 9. He just (leave) home when he came across John. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. 7. 4. 6. 9. 1. I shall have typed all the letters. the concert already (begin). 5. 1. As soon as the holidays (begin). 10. When he finally reached London. 5. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). . we supposed prices (go up). When it started to rain. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 4. 8. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. When I arrived. 3. After I (hear) the news. this beach will become very crowded. 8. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 2. By the time you (finish) translating the text. he will drive to Sinaia. 2. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 5. 9. 7. I congratulated him. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. She told me his name after he (leave). He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. As wages had gone up. 10. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 7. 2. When I heard the main actor was ill. After he (repair) the car. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. too. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it.
When I (finish) the book. year. 15. now. 3. 16. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. 14. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. you will feel better. they were listening to music. 5. When we (go) to see them last night. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 8. years. precum si exceptiile: 1. He told me he never (see) the sea. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. 19. After you (drink) a coffee. . When their first baby (be born). I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. 10. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. 5. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 11. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 5. John. they will have been married for five years. 18. 9. 17. 6. 12. 4. 2. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. 13. she will take a job as a secretary. 3.10. After she (learn) to type. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. 6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 7. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. I will lend it to you. 20. 6. me. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. In 1998. 2. 4.
M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund.7. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 8. 10. not before. 9. 18. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. 12. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 2. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. we (drink) coffee and brandy. 20. 13. 4. 15. He was very upset because I (be) late. After having visited Italy. 9. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. he decided he (change) his job. 7. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. 6. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 17. 14. 8. 12. I (not decide) yet. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. After we have finished dinner. A week ago. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. You will never know how much I (suffer). . He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. When I finally arrived home. 11. 11. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 10. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. 16. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 3. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 19. I will do it when I (want) to. 5. 7. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1.
LECTIA III MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. ar merge etc. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone .). Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. ai merge. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. wouldn’t.
) I will stay at home if it rains. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. unde se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua.).) I would stay at home if it rained. ai fi mers. cu exceptia verbului „to be".) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. ar fi mers etc. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara .Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine.
este posibila omiterea lui if. De asemenea. were. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. tell her I am out. dar improbabila. we would be fined. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. providing. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. in case. If she should ring up. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. If you don’t hurry. you (be) late.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. In acest caz. had. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. I (greet) him.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. should). daca sar intâmpla ca. supposing.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). in loc de Present Simple. Ex. What shall we do. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. suppose. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. If the police should find out the truth. .Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. 2. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 1. Ex. In caz ca telefoneaza. If I see him. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. Ex. noi am fi amendati. should se traduce cu: in caz ca.
It (be) better if you had waited. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 1. 9. I would go home immediately. Should he have a headache. I would ring him up. Were I in your place. I (not do) this. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. If it (go on) raining. 1. If you had taken my advice. 5. Unless you come at 6. 6. 4. If I (move) to the country-side. 6. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. you (not pass) the exam.3. 2. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. we shall have floods. 10. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. he (take) a pill. If you (take) a dog. 3. If I like the dress. 10. If I won the lottery. If I (know) his phone-number. 4. I (buy) a car. I would have succeeded. 8. 6. you (promise) to keep it a secret? Unless you study more. If I (work) harder. If I tell you something. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 7. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 2. If I (know) you had no driving licence. would you visit me? You (buy) this house if you had money? If he were more careful. Had I been at home. you (not find) me at home. 7. If I (be) you. 8. 1. If she finds out what has happened. she (be) very angry. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? If I (give up) smoking. 5. you will have to look after it. . I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. 7. 3. 5. 9. 10. he would have gone home. I would be nervous. Had I learned English grammar. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. If you had known English. you (not get) into trouble. 8. he would never have known. I (answer) the phone. If he (realize) it was so late. If I (not tell) him. 4. 2. 9. he (not make) so many mistakes. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. I (buy) it.
You (be) sick if you eat so much. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 6. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. If he had written a letter to me. 8. 7. 10. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. I (answer) it. 4. I (answer) your question if I can. . 4. he (get) a bar of chocolate. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4.3. mi-ar fi fost frig. 6. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. 10. 9. If you (drive) more carefully. 5. 7. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. 6. strazile vor fi ude. 1. strazile ar fi fost ude. If I (see) him. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. 7. 10. 12. I would speak to him. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. voi mânca la un restaurant. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. Daca ar ploua. 2. you wouldn’t have an accident. 5. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. 9. 8. 5. 8. Dacaar fi plouat. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. 1. 11. If the child is good. 2. 1. He (tell) you if you had asked him. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 9. I-ai da? 3. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 3. strazile ar fi ude.
He said he had been working hard. in functie de sens. today that day .LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. o He said „I will do the exercise". Ex. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. 1. Se schimba pronumele. He said „I have been working hard. Ex. o He said „I was ill". He said he was ill. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. o 1. 2. He said she had given him a book. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. He said he had been ill. – He said „I am ill". Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. He said: „She gave me a book". He said he would do the exercise.
I will stay at home.yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: . 3. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow". He said: „I’ll be at home today". He said he was going to do that translation the next day. He said he would be at home on that day." He said if it rained he would stay at home. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains.
1. Verbele modale would. Ex. Ex. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. 2. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta." He said if itrained he would stay at home. He said: He said he might be late. should. on holiday. 3. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. „I a might be late" secundare propozitiilor Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. . Modalitati de introducere in vorbirea indirecta 1. ought to. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) to go out. Ex. He told me He said „Don’t go out" He told me not to go out. Ex. I would have stayed at home. He said: „I am ill". exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. He said (that) he was ill. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. Ex. Ex. could. ceea ce este o greseala. He asked me where I had been."If it rained. I would stay at home." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Where have you been? I’ve been away. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. He asked me if I liked music. "If it had rained. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. He said „Go out".
9. 7. I will buy a car next year. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. 8. The weather was fine yesterday. 4. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. 4. 8. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". If I have enough money. I am very busy today. 3. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: . 9. If I had been at home. 3. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. 10. 1. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 2. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 5. 11. I will go shopping right now. 1. I would have answered the phone. please! Read the text. 2. 5. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 2. I saw this film a week ago. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 6.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. 7. I went to England two years ago. 12. 6. 10. ordered) me to come in.
3. 6. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. 7. 2. 9. 7. 4. 10. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? . 4. 11. 9. 3. Will you help me. 12. 8. 5. 1. 6. 5. please? 4. 8.„Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 2. 1. 10.
iar complementul indirect este him. my flat is being painted. Activ: I gave him a book. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. I am asked. care. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. se omite formularea by.LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. I was asked. complementul indirect si. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Unde complementul direct este a book. While I was in hospital. . Ex. In limba engleza. I have been asked. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Complement direct Subiect A book was given to him. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. Activ: She looked after the child. (by me) Complement indirect Subiect He was given a book. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. I had been asked. In aceste situatii. Ex. in unele cazuri. complementul prepozitional. my flat was being painted. punctuality este un complement prepozitional. Ex. de asemenea. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). In multe cazuri. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. In limba româna. While I am in hospital. Ex. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). Ex. I will be asked. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. Desigur. In this office punctuality is insisted on.
6. They didn’t look after the children properly. 10. 8. 8. 3. 7. 5. People play football all over the world. The teacher asked me a difficult question. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 8. 7. A specialist will repair my TV set. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 3. I have lent John two of my books. 6. 5. 4. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. 9. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. 10. His coworkers must do something for him. 3. Someone has found the missing child. when I passed by. 7. I teach them English. 3. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. We called for the doctor. He has found your bag. They will finish the work today. 5. I will invite my friend to a party. They set fire to the shed. . They are building a new house round the corner. 2. 9. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. He hasn’t slept in his bed. The noise frightened me. 2. They have given me a nice present. 6. We objected to his proposal. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1.Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. Prize. 2. 4. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. We laughed at John. Burglars broke into the house. 9. They will give me a reward. The policeman will show us the way. 4. 2.
Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. This book will soon be forgotten. Have you fed the dog? 7. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. The pupils will be told where to sit. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 8. These books mustn’t be taken away. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. English is spoken all over the world. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XV-lea. This house has been built out of stone and cement. 5. 6. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. . In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. 6. 10. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1.4. 2. 3. 3. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Will someone tell him the details? 6. 4. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 11. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. 9. 13. I was recommended a very good doctor. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. 2. A reception was held in his honour. 7. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. 4. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. 14. 5. 15. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. 7. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. 12. 9. He hates being made fun of. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. 6. 10. 8. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii.
N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. I can make this traslation. would. may. Ex. Can 1. Ex. a fi in stare Ex. He can speak English. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. ought to. • Nu au toate timpurile. (Pot sa fac aceasta. might. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. prezent. could. shall. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? . Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. must. Se folosesc inlocuitori. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do".) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. are sensul de a putea.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. prezent Negativ: cannot. Ex. will.LECTIA VI VERBELE MODALE Can. He cannot (can’t) speak English. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. Can is a model verb. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. Ex. can’t Ex. Can = infinitiv. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. should. need. I can do this.
3. are sensul de a putea. (Da. a avea permisiunea Ex. Se traduce cu a sti sa. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala.). Ex. Ex. nu e posibil sa. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. dar se .Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut Ex. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. Ex. He is abroad. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. (Stiu sa inot. Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. can I take your car? Tata. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens.) Negativ: may not. Soarele nu a apus inca. El e in strainatate.) I can speak English. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. I can swim. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. 2. Ex. you may.) Cu acest sens. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. Father. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. He could have been here in time. poti. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. Ex. The sun hasn’t set yet. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. In vorbirea familiara. May 1. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. Voi putea veni la tine mâine.
se adauga infinitivul trecut. S-a facut târziu. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. Ex.foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. to be permitted to. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. Ex. to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Must 1. Ex. Ex. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. Cu acest sens. Ex. A trebui Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. I must go home. Take your umbrella. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. He may/might be at home now. Negativ: must not. Ex. Trebuie sa plec acasa. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must. 2. Ex. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. You may/might help me when I am in need. s-ar putea sa ploua. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. . Telefoneaza-I lui John. It’s got late. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. He said I might smoke in that room. It may/might rain. 3. Ia-ti umbrela. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Ring up John. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. May/might pot exprima un repros.
dar a fost facuta. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Ex. Cu acest sens. He doesn’t need this book. you must! (Da. • Need: verb modal. It must be late. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. John must be at home now. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Nu. cu sensul de a avea nevoie Ex. Ex. exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara. you needn’t. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta. It must have been late. se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut. poate avea sensul probabil ca: Ex. cu sensul de a fi nevoie Ca verb modal. Probabil ca era târziu. Let’s call on him. se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul • . Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No. need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte. Probabil ca e târziu. • Ex. notional. ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Hai sa-l vizitam. De asemenea. Let’s go home. Hai sa mergem acasa. nu e nevoie. se foloseste verbul must. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Need Exista doua verbe: • To need: verb obisnuit. Ex. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need.2.
avem destul timp. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Should. ar fi cazul sa. interogativ. shall poate arata o promisiune. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. ar fi bine sa. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ex. poate indica. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. shall indica viitorul. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Folosit cu persoana I. aici e limita de viteza. de asemenea. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. we have enough time. o oferta sau o sugestie. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta. o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede. o recomandare. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". . Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. You mustn’t drive so fast. Ex. solicitarea unui sfat. there is a speed limit here.Ex. o obligatie morala. Shall Folosit cu persoana I. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you? Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. You needn’t drive so fast. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam.
Nota: In afara de „would". please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. This girl looks very much like Jane. • Actiune repetata: . . mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti. cerere politicoasa: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. O fi sora ei. my mother would read me fairy tales. When I was a child. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". Used to eate un verb semi-modal. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. Când eram copil. my mother used to read me fairy tales. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun.Will. Would • Formula de politete. This radio won’t work. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane.in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. Ex. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. care are numai forma de trecut. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor. • Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi. She will be her sister. o in trecut When I was a child.
16. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 13. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. He should go to school everyday. John must be ill. I must learn English. You might pay more attention to your work. 4. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. You needn’t do this. 18. 6. 4. He may be at home. 13. 14. 6. You might change your mind about that. 7. It might rain. 5. 8. This child may have another cake. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. 17. 8. 10. 12. You might write to me more often. acolo unde este necesar: 1. 11. He ought to tell me the truth. 2. I must look up the words in the dictionary. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 9. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 11. You may not smoke in this room. Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. I cannot translate ten pages a day. 2. 1. You may leave earlier. He must be delayed at the office. 10. 9. It can’t be too late. 3. 3.Exercitii cu verbe modale 1. You may not speak to your mother like that. He can swim very well. 15. She can play the piano very well. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 7. 14. 12. 15. She can lend you that book. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . I must go soon. 5. 19. . 20.
2. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. holidays will be very different. It is possible for her to be very late. He must speak English well. 6. 10. He is probably older than he looks. there is plenty in the fridge. 4. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 20. You must have forgotten to lock the door. He …even drive on its surface.16. 5. 3. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. John could be a winner. He was probably late. 9. You have probably forgotten his address. He needn’t buy milk. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. 8. 1. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. She is probably a very good doctor. 2. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. Don’t wait. . 18. 19. It may/might snow in the mountains. 1. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. He …reach the Moon and walk there. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 1. You probably forgot to lock the door. 7. 5. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. He probably came home very early. 3. Man …travel through space now. 4. 5. 1. 17. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. He probably thinks I am wrong.
I don’t believe it was his fault.2. 7. perhaps it will rain. The sky is clear. People … speak during the concert. 5. 6. 3. 3. 5. Take your umbrella. perhaps it is a good one. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. 1. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 4. It is possible that I come home early. 5. You…water the flowers. 7. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 8. 2. I don’t think the weather will change. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. 4. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. I have bought his latest book. I don’t believe you were right. 4. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. 6. 9. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 6. it will soon start raining. 9. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : You … take an umbrella. want. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 1. 9. 2. You … take sleeping pills too often. 8. 10. 3. I don’t think this is a true story. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. I think she was angry with you. I don’t believe she has got so fat. I’ll give you as much as you . 10. they are addictive. You can’t be right. 8. but I doubt it. I don’t believe it is his fault. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. I … return the books before the 1st of September. 1. You can’t have been right. 6. You … worry about money. 10. 7.
The student …(write) such a long composition. We …(wait) too long. but I forgot it was Sunday. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. …you tell me the truth. I …(get up) so early today. Go to sleep. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. he will never read them all. He …read for hours on end. 6. Completati spatiile goale cu must. You …(buy) so much bread. I …read one book a day. 4. You …(lend) him so many books. 9. … you correct my exercise. 8. 7. 10. I wrote him a letter. When I was a teenager. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: . 2. 10. You …(wait) for me. 8. I am sorry you wasted your time. 4. 5. This door … not unlock. … you help me solve this problem? 3. 3. 2. 7. 5. for once? This …be John’s house. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 6. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. you …re-type it. You …do this whether you like it or not. She …write an article for this magazine every week. You …not go to bed so late at night. I …wear my hair long. please? 7. please? This letter is full of mistakes. When I was young. which would have saved me a lot of work. 10. you…get a nice present.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 10. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. 2. I …(answer) the questions. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. You …not expect everybody to obey you. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. I …(see) him for that. I …(answer) the questions. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 6.1. 8. 9. which was very convenient. It’ll get stale. 5. 4. 9. 3. he was back soon. 9. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 11. If you win the contest. I promise you not …be disturbed.
Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. 10. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. You…(lend) him your text – book. 9. I …(leave) it on the bus. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. 7. he is a nice boy. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. It …(rain) here." "His family consider he should. 6. 11. 12. am baut deja doua astazi. You …(see) Anna yesterday." 1. 9. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. 12. He …(be) at home. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. I didn’t hear the phone. 18. 14." "Yes. 13. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa.1. He has one of his own. . the road is dry. Nu. The child … (leave) home. I haven’t got my bag with me. 4. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. 8. 17. 2. he is a very poor swimmer. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. 16. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. 5. but he himself believes he needn’t. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. 10. Va trebui sa plec curând. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 4. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. I locked the door and took the key with me. I …(be) in the garden. 6. He …(swim) across the Danube. 3. The light was on in his room. 8. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. 7. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. 2. Nu stiu sa crosetez. Traduceti in limba engleza. 5. She is away. 3. John …(do) such a thing.
19. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. 22. 27. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. 29. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. 21. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. Unde mergem acum? 28. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. 20. Vreti. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. 24. . dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. 26. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. va rog. 23. o incuiasem chiar eu.
It is desirable that we finish the translation first. It is necessary that you be present. Everybody leave the hall. o urare. it is necessary that. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. in engleza contemporana. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. in situatii in care. exprimând o lozinca. De asemenea. Ex. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. d. It is impossible that he do this. . 1. Ex. might. may. Apare in propozitii exclamative. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. Fie ce-o fi. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. it is desirable that. o dorinta sau un blestem. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. Ex. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. Come what may. Ex. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. it is likely that. would + infinitiv. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that.LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana.
Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. to order Ex. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. Ex. 1. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. You speak English as if you had lived in England. to suggest. to insist. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. . • Ex. I wish it would stop raining. • Ex. to urge. apare ca were la toate persoanele. to recommend. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. to demand. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. in England now. se foloseste would. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. I wish I were Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. I wish I had been born in England.e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. • I wish (mi-as dori. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect.
to suggest.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. It is necessary that you should be present. It is impossible that he should do this. 1. Ex. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. It is impossible that he should have done this. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. In exemplul de mai sus. I would sooner stay at home tonight.d)It is time. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. Ex. It is high time you began to study seriously. Ex. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea.) Ex. to urge. It is time the child went to bed. De asemenea.) It is high time. Dupa cum se observa. a. to insist. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. (E timpul. to recommend. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. to demand. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). (Era de mult timpul. • Ex. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. . persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. it is necessary that.
I hope that he may pass the exam. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. may. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. • Dupa so that. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. Ex. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. why. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen.when. Intrebari introduse prin how. in secundara se foloseste may. in order that Ex. a. to be afraid Ex. • Ex. Hurry up lest you miss the train. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. where. fie in vorbirea direca. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. . may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus.• Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. • Dupa to hope. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. in secundara se foloseste might. I was afraid that he might fail the exam.
I will ring you up. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. It was possible that he might be here in time. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. 3. I regret I can’t go to the concert. I wish I might borrow your car. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. It is possible that he may be here in time. wherever. Whoever you may/might be. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. I wish the weather were fine. I am sorry my friend is ill. I wish I could speak English. . Oricine ai fi. you have no right to do this. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. 1. Oriunde as fi. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. No matter who you may/might be. • Dupa it is possible. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. whichever. however. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. it was possible Ex. 2. etc. iar in aceste cazuri.I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. Ex. whenever. 4. I regret I am not a student. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. you have no right to do this. Dupa whoever. Wherever I may/might be. • Ex. iti voi telefona. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. 5. no matter when.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I am sorry you live so far away. I regret I have only one child. I regret I have no children. I am sorry books are so expensive. I am sorry it rains so often.
1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii, astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I am sorry you had an accident. I was sorry you were out when I called. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I am sorry I was late for the party. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I was sorry you had got a fine. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize.
1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii, astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I wish he would take my advice. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat.
1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv:
1. You behave as if you (own) the place. 2. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 3. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. I am cold, I would rather you (close) that window. 5. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 6. It’s time we (go) home. 7. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 8. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 10. If only my telephone (work)! 11. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 12. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 13. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. 14. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. 15. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 16. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 17. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. If only I (become) a millionaire. 20. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 2. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. 3. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 4. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua, am putea merge la plaja! 6. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. 9. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. 10. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 11. As prefera sa merg la teatru. 12. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 13. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 14. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin.
16. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 17. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 18. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 19. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 20. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara, dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul, la tara. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 2. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. 3. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 4. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 5. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 6. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 7. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. 8. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 9. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte.
8. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot, astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). Orice mi-ai spune, nu te pot crede. Oricât te-ai stradui, nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. Oricând te vei intoarce, eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta.
6. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 3. I wish I (find) another. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. I wish my car (not break down) last week. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! . He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 10. Oricare ar fi motivul. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 14. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. 9. 7. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 16. I wish I (be) there when it happened. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 2. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. 10. 8. 9. 13. I have such a boring job. 4. 12. 15. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. 1. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). The road is wet. 19. 17. 11. you should remember your own phone number. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). All success (attend) you! 18. 8. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 5.7.
diateza si timpuri. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul.LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. in cazul verbelor neregulate. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). . Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate.
) c. Ex. I want you to go now. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv.) d.) He ordered the door to be locked. I saw him leave the room. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. I consider him to be a good student. Ex. He admitted the news to be false. to feel. to wish. to dislike. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. to cause. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp.) They declared him to be the man of the year. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. to like. to watch. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. .) 1. verbe declarative: to state. to count upon/on . to hate.) I let him go out and play. to believe. to admit. to hear. Ex. to suppose.) I expected him to come in time. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).) f. Ex. to allow. I made him study English. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. to declare. I’d like him to come with me.) I want John to do this. to know. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on.) e. to consider. (Consider ca el este un bun student. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. to order.Ex. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.) b. verbe exprimând un ordin. Nominativ cu infinitiv you to do this. to expect. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. Ex. Ex.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). I rely on (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to understand.
) I happened to meet him in the street. to suppose. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. I made him study English. to seem.) If I happen to meet him. For – phrase . to say. to prove. She is sure (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. to turn out. He proved to be a good journalist. The news was considered to be false. Ex. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. to hear. Ex. He is said to be a good writer. He is considered to be a good student. cu verbele: to happen. He considered the news to be false. to expect. 1. a. de obicei. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain to come in time. to consider. to make.a. to believe. They declared him to be the man of the year. b. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. He was made to study English. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. I will tell him where you are. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. I consider him to be a good student. He was declared to be the man of the year. to know. ii voi spune unde esti. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time".) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala.
I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. to smell. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. to leave. . a fost vazut plecând. 2.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. to watch. (E usor sa fac asta.) This remains for him to decide. a fost auzita cântând. Nominativ cu Participiu pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: He was seen leaving. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. to hear. It is easy for me to do this. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Ex. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1. precum si cu verbele to find. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv.) Nominativul absolut I (should) come. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.) was heard singing. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. Ex. It is impossible that It is necessary that I (should) go there.) It is necessary for me to go there.) It is impossible for him to come.) I heard her singing. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. Este Ex: (El She (Ea 3. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie.) I left / found her crying. Ex. (Am auzit-o cântând. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând.
L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. 11. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 9. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired.) I will have my hair done. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. we went home. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. 2. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 10. 13. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. 14. I-am privit jucând fotbal. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 8. . I had my bedroom window broken. (Daca vremea va permite. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. 6. 5. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. vom merge la plaja. am mers acasa. (Orele fiind terminate.) Weather permitting. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. 15. She had two sons killed in the war. 3. 7.Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. Ex. 12. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. Ex: The classes being over. we shall go to the beach. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc.
2. 4. 5. This fact is important. This is the main thing. We should do it now. 1. You should bear it in mind. We should have a heart to heart talk. 2. You should take it. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 9. 8. The time has come. 4. This translation is easy for me to make. . It is recommendable that you should read this book. They heard him repeat it several times. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was She was thought to be a gifted child. I can’t solve it. 8. I don’t want you to catch a cold. It is necessary that he be present. The match was about to begin. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should It is important to know the truth. 1. 9. I ordered a taxi. It is impossible that he should have said that. 7. a gifted child. The people were impatient. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 3. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. It’s time we met again. 10. It is possible that I might buy a car. 2. at once. 5. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 3. You should read it. I can’t believe she said that.2. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. I cam make it. I have closed the window. 6. 4. know the truth. This is a strange thing. It is advisable that you should resign. It is important that you should come to the office. 3. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: This translation is easy. 6. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. 7. This problem is too difficult. 1. 10. This is a good book. This is a valuable piece of advice.
It seemed that she was satisfied with me. The mud having ruined my shoes. 10. The sun having risen. The plane having taken off. I stopped smoking. the audience left the hali. 6. I could hear her typing. 6. 6. The dog was heard barking. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. I went home relaxed.3. I saw the plane landing. 4. I had to change them. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her 5. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. 7. 10. I saw her lying on the beach. 9. I found her digging in the garden. letter. She heard the hunters shooting. The river having risen in the night. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. we sat down to dinner. 10. 9. 5. The rain having stopped. The concert being over. 8. The decision being taken in my favour. l. It is sure they have had an argument. Expected that he would resign. 6. 7. I found the boy breaking the window. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. She heard the baby crying. 4. 3. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. 5. Weather permitting. 8. 9. I heard the child breaking the vase. 8. I saw the peasants working in the field. 5. It was proved that she was a liar. we hurried to the beach. 2. I went shopping. They said she was ill. 3. Everybody being at home. I saw her fainting. 7. The letter being written. . I went to post it. 2. we were seared about having floods. Everybody. 4. I thought she was unable to win the contest.
The child isn’t learning. 6. Am I having? 3. Do I understand? 4. I do not study in the evening. 1 am cooking. 19. Do you like? 8. 15. 1 don’t like. They aren’t swimming. 4. Does he remember? 7. I always have. Are you writing. What do you do on your free days? 12. go. it often rains. 2. Ann isn’t knitting. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. write. 6. They don’t live. remembers. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. You aren’t typing. am. Are we studying? 9. 10. The secretary is just typing a report. 18. Is my friend wearing? 7. He doesn’t have. 12. You don’t play. My friend isn’t wearing. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. he is having. I am not going. Is Ann knitting? 10. I don’t have. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. 7. We aren’t studying. It isn’t raining. Do I love? 2. He doesn’t remember. Do you go? 16. Do they live? 8. . don’t understand. Are you typing? 5. I don’t love. 20. it is raining. I don’t trust. Whom are you ringing up? 13. do you do? 3. is drinking. 2. always borrow/is always borrowing. I don’t always believe. What book are you reading? 10. am taking. speaks. She doesn’t talk. he walks. He doesn’t go to school by underground. Do you dream? I dream 9. 5. 7. Do you usually get. Is he telling? 4. Does she talk? 3. are you hurrying? I don’t want. I don’t understand. Is my mother resting? 8. are you waiting? I am waiting. 14. I don’t like coffee. He isn’t telling.CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. 11. Is it raining? 2. On Sundays. Do I trust? 10. he doesn’t get up early. It snows in winter. She goes shopping on Saturdays. are you thinking? I am thinking. drinks. 3. Are they swimming? 6. Does he have? 9. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. I am not having. Do you play? 5. 4. 14. 9. 13. Do you smoke? 17. Do I always believe? 6. Now I am doing my homework in English. My mother isn’t resting. 8.
8. 4. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous . 18. were you going. Did he come? 8. I met. Did I enjoy? 9. were you doing? 7. I was watching. Did he translate? 10. 9. Did they drink? 3. While I was looking for my passport. I got up late yesterday morning. You spoke. Did he think? 2. Did I sell? 6. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. I played. I was talking. Yesterday I got up early. We didn’t work. He didn’t think. Exercitiul 4: 1. He didn’t come. 4. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 13. I was writing. When did you buy this TV set? 12. 5. I entered. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. He met. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. 7. 4. 17. Yesterday. 2. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 8. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. my friends played chess. I like to swim a lot. Last night. I didn’t hate. He sat for his first exam last week. 2. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 16. he waslearning. I was driving to Sinaia. 19. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 17. he wasn’t wearing. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 3. She is packing her luggage. he realized. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. 8. Last Sunday. someone rang up. he had. I didn’t sell. 10. 5. 1 liked. 5. 19. Did we work? 7. 3. 9. 14. When I go to the seaside. I owned. 10. I often read English books. 20. 2. This time yesterday it was raining. I always made. What were you doing last Tuesday. He didn’t translate. You asked. You drank. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. He didn’t change. I arrived. 1 first met. she was having.Why are you opening the window? I5. I found this old photo. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. 9. 6. you came in. 16. Exercitiul 2: 1. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. That sounded. He didn’t forbid. he was working. Did he change? 5. the teacher was writing. While it was raining. 10. Yesterday I lost my gloves. I had breakfast and then I left for school. Did you sleep well last night? 3. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. I didn’t enjoy. They didn’t drink. 6. 6. Did I hate? 4. I slept. When did you return from the mountains? 11.
It has been snowing for two hours. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. 14. 1t hasn’t rained. 5. 15. 4. He has just left. 11 . I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. We must replace it. we left. she has been trying. have you been wearing? 6. I have lent. 7. I have already seen. He has always relied. began. I have bought. 10. Have you been? I have been. 3. 8. Have you ever eaten? 13. the engine – drivers have gone. 4. Have you ever tried? I tried. 20. It has been raining. 11. have you cooked? 7. Exercitiul 3: I. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 4. She has changed. 14. 2. What did you look at? It was an accident. I have been wearing. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. 9. he left an hour ago. 18. 5. Have you been to this town before? Yes. We have known. 10. 19. 4. The weather has got warmer lately. 9. I was. The radio has been playing. he has caught. 9. How long have you been learning English? 5. I got up.Exercitiul 1: l. We have walked 10 km so far. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous . 6. Have you been. 8. I have seldom walked to my office. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. Have you watered? 3. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. I saw. I5. 3. I have been watering. I have just had. I spent a month here. He hasn’t come. I have lost. 7. have you been. I have been doing. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. Has John left? Yes. 10. 5. I have been asking. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. I got. Have you lived? I have lived. Have you ever driven? 16. 7. 2. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. 6. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 8. He has been a Minister for two years. I had it at 8 o’clock. 10. 8. I have been cooking. A child has broken the window. Have you paid? 19. 12. Since I bought a car. He has been. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. 17. The child has been playing. He hasn’t gone. I haven’t been. 13. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. Exercitiul 2: l. He has been sleeping. I returned. Have you visited? 12. two years ago. 20. I haven’t written. Have you seen? she left. 9. Have you read? 18. I have’ been shopping. He has been fishing. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. I didn’t succeed.
5. he went. I was sorry I had hurt him. Exercitiul 2: 1. 8. wilt be rising. we realized. I entered. 9. 8. 8. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. she had already been. 7. I shall/will know. had spread. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 4. I found out. he had got married. she had been writing.Exercitiul 1: 1. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. Wil1 you remember? 9. 6. You will not/won’t find. 5. 7. 10. had been having. 4. we had been walking. 7. she had been cleaning and dusting. 3. 10. He will be. I rang him up. 6. Exercitiul 3: 1. had eaten. I realized I had left my bag at home. Exercitiul 4: 1. they had finished. it had been raining. 5. 9. I shall/will pass. 5. 5. I had returned. 4. 2. had been speaking. had left. 8. will be crying. She will be watching. he had thought. 3. 2. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 3. had listened. she had been studying. we asked. he went. they had been. we had lost. He thanked me for what I had done for him. I called. congratulated. 3. 9. 7. 8. it will probably be raining. 4. 3. He . The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. You will be. 2. he told. Will you recognize? 4. 7. 6. 4. 10. had been swimming. She had just gone out. he had caught. he handed it to the teacher. I shall/will be swimming. 2. 6. 9. Exercitiut 2: 1. I went to bed. it had been raining. 3. When I arrived at the bus stop. 10. As soon as the guests had left. 10. he had learned/he had been learning. 6. they had been waiting. I shall/will remember. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. 2. Will you be needing? 5. had been climbing. 7. it had been raining. I shall/will succeed. she had not passed. he had visited. had not told. he had been. 6. 2. I had met. You will like. had been cooking. she told.
6.will be studying. he would finish. I had heard. 2. he would give. By this time next year. 10. he would win. you were. I shall/will have been cooking. 7. 9. 3. 8. he would drive. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 7. 6. 10. 9. I had read. they were talking. will have spent. did not remember. we had been digging. 6. he would pass. they would remain. I usually read. 3. 10. . Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. 2. 2. will/shall will be climbing. 8. I shall/will be having. 3. On Friday. 7. he had stolen. 8. 7. they will have been married. 8. 4. I shall/will have read 8. between twelve and one o’clock. I played/I was playing. You will have seen. 5. 8. he wanted. 4. We shall/will have taken. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 9. 2. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 9. 4. you would soon have. I had done. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. he had been travelling. Exercitiul 4: 1. would end. I shall/will be working. 5. 10. would be cancelled. 2. you were. I shall/will have saved five million lei. I would remain. 10. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. 4. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. 9. Exercitiul 2: 1. 3. 7. was shining. they will be having their last English class. I shall/will have finished. I had lost. 3. You had to type. 5. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. 5. you spoke. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. I had not enjoyed. 10. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. prices would go up. 5. had already begun. will have risen. I shall/will have been working. he had left. 6. 6. he had just left. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. I shall/will have paid off.
10. 8. I had not eaten. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. you have drunk. 18. 12. 9. you finish. 12. 20. 2. 7. 11. he had eaten. he tells. they had been listening. 5. 3. I have been reading. 8. 11. he would change. 15. 12. you have read. 2. they have done. I read. 7. 10. I want. 3. he would not remember. we reach. 14. Exercitiul 7: l. 3. they had known. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. I had not decided. 16. it would not be raining when I arrived. he has arrived. he would have. is. is. 5. 6. do not eat. 6. 20. I was. 9. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. I work/I worked. I would spend. arrive. 13. you see. will soon move. 5. I have received. you are reading. he has repaired. I will earn/will be earning. she looks. he had not expected. you see. 4. would not go. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. 7. 17. we will drink. 4. he had never seen. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. had failed. there are. 11. I was. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. 9. 8. 8. is. 3. 19. she has changed. The secretary told me the manager was busy. you have just told. 4. 10. you see. melts. 16. 2. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. he hoped. 6. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. you do. he trusted. 9. 5. 17. she notices you have broken. Exercitiul 5: 1. I have.Exercitiul 4: 1. 14. I finish. 6. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. he had to write. begin. I finish. Exercitiul 6: 1. I knew you were in Bucharest. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. I have suffered. 19. 13. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: . we went. 7. she has learnt. 10. 4. is born. 15. 18. 2. you had been wearing. they have been.
10. If it rains. 4. 7. I would like the play more if it were shorter. If a beggar asked you for money. I saw. I will lend. 7. 5. I wouldn’t do. 5. he would not make. you will not find. I would have answered. I would buy. will you promise? 6. he will get. you had driven. If it had rained. If dinner is not ready in time. 7. you wouldn’t have got. it goes on. I would not have made. 7. 9. 3. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. Exercitiul 2: 1. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 10. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. 5. 8. he had tried. you were. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. 9. 3. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. I had known. 6. 8. you would have read. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. he leaves. 7. 6. 9. 6. 7. I will buy. 3. she will be. you had invited. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 8. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. the streets will be wet. 3. LECTIA IV . 4. 6. Would you buy? 4. I moved. he would have told. 2. 2. 2. you take. 9. I will eat at a restaurant. you will be. 6. If it rained. the streets would have been wet. It would have been. would you give him some? 3. 10. I knew. I were. 10. I had worked. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. he had realized. 8. I had not told. 10. 8. 3. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. You will see him if you wait. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. Exercitiul 4: l. 2. 5. 5. 4. 2. I will greet 2. he would take.l. 5. 9. What would you do if you meet John? 12. I will answer. you will not pass. I would have answered. you will be. the streets would be wet. I gave up. 4. Exercitiul 5: 1. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold.
10 He asked me if I could speak English. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 9. 3. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. 10. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 7. 12. 8. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 2. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He told me to read that text. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 3. 5. He said she would go shopping right then. He asked me if I would help him. 7.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 10. He said he had gone to England two years before. Exercitiul 4: 1. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. He told me to open the door. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. 3. 6. He said he was very busy on that day. He asked me if I would like a cake. Exercitiul 2: 1. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 2. 6. 11. 5. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He asked me how I had travelled. . 6. He asked me how long I had been learning . He asked me who that man was. Exercitiul 3: 1. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 2. 5. 4. 7. He told me not to smoke so much. He told me to take that pill. 8. 8. 7. 4. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 4. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. He told me to be careful with his books.English. 10. 9. 4. 2. He asked me if the train had left. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 11. 6. 9. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 9. 12. He said he had seen that film a week before. He asked me when I would be back. He said the weather had been fine the day before. 5. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 3. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 8.
The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). My friend will be invited to a party (by me).: 3. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. We will be shown the way by the policeman. I will be given a reward (by them). 9. 6. 8. John has been lent two of my books (by me). Exercitiul 3: 1. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. The house was broken into (by burglars). The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 7. 6. 3. 3. Has the dog been fed? 7. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). 4. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 4. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 4. Fire was set to the shed (by them). 7. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. Your bag has been found (by him). 5. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. Exercitiul 4: 1. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. 2. The doctor was called for (by us). The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 2. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month.LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). They are taught English (by me). John was laughed at (by us). 7. I have been given a nice present (by them). The missing child has been found (by someone). 10. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. when I passed by. 5. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). I was frightened by the noise. A nice present has been given to me (by them). 6. His proposal was objected to (by us). Football is played all over the world. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). English is taught to them (by me). Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). 9. 9. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). The way will be shown to us by the policeman. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? . 10. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 8. 5. 8. 2. A reward will be given to me (by them). The work will be finished today (by them).
The child will be allowed/permitted to have. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. Many new blocks are being built in our district. You didn’t have to do. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 3. 11. Exercitiul 6: l. He hates people making fun of him. 2. 5. 2. 7. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 3. We were told very interesting things at the conference. 8. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. We were asked to show our passports. She will be able to lend. 6.8. 4. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. They have built this house out of stone and cement. 12. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. 9. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 6. 15. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 13. I won t be able to translate. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. People mustn’t take away these books. 8. He will be able to swim. 5. They held a reception in his honour. I couldn’t translate. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. He was not . 3. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. People will soon forget this book. 14. I will have to go. 4. 5. People speak English all over the world. 6. 9. She could lend. 7. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. 2. You were allowed/permitted to leave. You won’t have to do. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. 10. He could swim. 7. 8. 4. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. I had to go. 10. 10. Were you told about the meeting? 9. The child was allowed/permitted to have. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. The museum was closed for repairs.
can. Exercitiul 6: 1. She may/might have been angry. 3. Exercitiul 4: l. 7. 5. You might have paid. can. The weather can’t change. 16. He must have come home. She may/might be very late. 12. He ought to have told. Exercitiul 5: 1. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. You can’t have been. 10. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. He can’t be . 3. 16. She will be able to read and write. 8. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. You should have visited. He could read and write. 7. You shouldn’t have gone. It may/might be a good one. 8. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. He may/might have been right. It can’t have been his fault. 12. 11. She will be able to play. He may have been. 13. 4. 17. You must have known the lesson. 3. It can’t be his fault. 14. 2. 5. He must have been delayed. 19. He must be older. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. 6. 15. She may/might have been out. 4. 13. You might have changed. It must have taken a long time. It must have been. He must have been late. You can’t have seen. He may/might have done. Exercitiul 3: 1. 19. I will have to learn. I will have to look up. 10. He can’t have passed. He must have been. 3. 9. Exercitiul 2: 1. You might have written. 5. 6. I had to learn. He must think. It can t have been. 7. 14. She may/might have returned. can’t. 8. It can’t have been. She can’t have got. 4. This must be the best. 2. 4. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. can’t. 2. 6. can. He should have gone. I had to look up. She could play. 10. He needn’t have bought. 2. John could have been. It may/might rain. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 6. You needn’t have done. I may/might come home. can. 9. You must have left your umbrella. 18. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 6. 15.allowed/permitted to come. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. 2. 5. You must have forgotten. 20. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 9. 5. John must have been. 3 It might have rained.
needn’t have lent. 10. 7. All the students can and must write this paper. 6. didn’t need to wait. 4. must have been. 8. can’t have swum. 8. didn’t need to buy. can’t have done. Exercitiul 13: 1. mustn’t. will. shall. will. would. 10. 2. 3. All the children ought to/should do some housework. would. 3. Exercitiul 10: 1. 6. She can’t have learned English. needn’t have answered. 7. should. 5. 8. 9. 6. mustn’t. 5. 6. must have left. 3. 7. mustn’t. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 2. 6. 2. Exercitiul 8: l. 10. 9. 2. needn’t have bought. This can’t be a true story. 2. 9. You can’t miss the train. needn’t have lent. would. 9. 3. mustn’t. 6. 9. 9. 11. 10. 10. 5. You will have to help me more today. 5. needn’t have got up. needn’t. would. needn’t have waited. a . Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". I can’t knit. needn’t. 4. Exercitiul 9: 1. S. 7. 12. 7. 4. shall. didn’t need to answer. 4. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. needn’t. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. needn’t. will. She can’t have married. would. I could play the piano when I was a child. 4. 3. 5. will. didn’t need to see. 8. 5. will. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 9. mustn’t. shall. 8. 7. 8. 3. can’t have left. should. I will have to leave soon. should. would. 10. must have taken. Exercitiul 11: 1. can’t have rained. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. shall. must have been. needn’t have written. needn’t. can’t have seen. 10. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. Exercitiul 12: 1. 4. 7.at the office. will. 2. should. Exercitiul 7: 1.
porter could help you. 13. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 14. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. No, we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 16. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her, because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 17. You needn’t have made coffee for me. I have already drunk two, today. 18. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958, as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 19. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 20. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night, I rang you up and nobody answered. 21. I must have been still at the faculty. 22. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 23. You ought to/should have insisted. 24. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 25. I promise you, you shall have the book tomorrow. 26. You can’t have found the door open. I had locked it myself 27. Where shall we go now? 28. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 29. Will you, please, wait for a few minutes? 30. You may not speak during the exam. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 2. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 3. I wish I were a student. 4. I wish I could go to the concert. 5. I wish I could pay the piano. 6. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 7. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 8. 1 wish I had children. 9. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 10. I wish it didn’t rain so often. Exercitiul 2: l. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. 2. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 3. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 4. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. 5. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 6. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 7. I wish you had won the competition. 8. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 9. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 10. I wish I had won the Great Prize. Exercitiul 3: 1. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 2. I wish he would accept my proposal. 3. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 4. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. S. I wish they would sign the contract. 6. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. 7. I wish you
would take a driving licence. 8. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 9. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 10. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. Exercitiul 4: 1. you owned. 2. I were. 3. you didn’t waste. 4. you closed. S. you started. 6. we went. 7. I stayed, watched. 8. I were. 9. I had entered. 10. my telephone worked. 11. hadn’t caught a cold. 12. he would have. 13. you were. 14. he told. 15. his daughter didn’t get married. 16. he took, stopped. 17. I hadn’t forgotten. 18. his book would become. 19. I would become. 20. I got. Exercitiul 5: l. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles, too. 4. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain, we could go to the beach. 6. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. I would rather you got up earlier. 9. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 10. I would rather you went to the theatre. 11. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 12. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 13. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 14. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. She looks as if she were a model. 16. You speak as if you were angry with me. 17. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 18. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 19. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 20. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp, but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. Exercitiul 6: 1. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 2. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 3. It is important that you (should) know English well. 4. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 5. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 6. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 7. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 8. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 9. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7:
1. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 2. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 3. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 4. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 5. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 6. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 7. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 8. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. Exercitiul 8: 1. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 2. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. 3. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 4. Whatever you may/might tell me, I can’t believe you. 5. No matter how hard you may/might try, you can’t win such a competition. 6. Whenever you may/might return, I will be at home waiting for you. 7. Whoever may/might have told you this about me, you shouldn’t have believed it. 8. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 9. It is possible that she might be away. 10. Whatever the reason may/might be, you shouldn’t lie to me. Exercitiul 9: 1. it might not get. 2. it should get. 3. they (should) divorce. 4. should have told. 5. you may/might be. 6. we (should) leave. 7. hadn’t broken down. 8. he were. 9. he were. 10. you retired. 11. she should have left. 12. might prosper. 13. you should have. 14. you may/might understand. 15. we should take. 16. (should) have. 17. may attend. 18. I had been. 19. I would find. 20. I had. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. I expected you to come earlier. 2. He wanted me to help him. 3. She made me understand what had happened. 4. I think him to be a good husband. 5. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 6. John admitted the fault to be his. 7. I rely on you to lend me some money. 8. I watched them playing football. 9. I saw him speaking to his friend. 10. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 11. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 12. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 13. I saw some children playing in the park. 14. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 15. He made me miss the train. Exercitiul 2:
10. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. 9. 5. Exercitiul 6: 1. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. 2. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. It is advisable for you to resign. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. 10. 5. They are sure to have had an argument. 10. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 2. 2. It is important for you to come to the office at once. She was said to be ill. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 7. It’s time for us to meet again. Intrucât soarele rasarise. He was heard to repeat it several times. 4. 4. 2. Intrucât ploaia incetase. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 9. She was found digging in the garden. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 3. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. It is recommendable for you to read this book. The plane was seen landing. He was expected to resign. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 8. 8. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 8. 6. 9. The peasants were seen working in the field. 7. 8. This is a strange thing for her to have said. It is possible for me to buy a car. She (was) proved to be a liar. publicul a parasit sala.1. Exercitiul 4: 1. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. am mers sa o pun la posta. am plecat acasa linistit. The hunters were heard shooting. ne-am grabit spre plaja. She was seen fainting. 6. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. Daca vremea va permite. . am plecat la cumparaturi. 5. This is the main thing for us to do. ne-am asezat la cina. The people were impatient for the match to begin. 3. 3. 9. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. 4. 7. 3. 10. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. a trebuit sa-i schimb. It is necessary for him to be present. This is a good book for you to read. She could be heard typing. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. 6. 9. 7. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. The child was heard breaking the vase. 5. The boy was found breaking the window. 2. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. 7. The baby was heard crying. Concertul fiind terminat. She was seen lying on the beach. Exercitiul 5: 1. 8. 4. 6. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 10. 4. 6. She seemed to be satisfied with me. It is impossible for him to have said that. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. 5.
LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig was. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug been borne. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug .
to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden .
learned left lent let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden . learned left lent let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt.to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt.
to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt .
to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood .