This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Asist uni. Georgeta Obilisteanu Lect.univ. Marioara Patesan 1. CUVÂNT INAINTE 2. LECTIA I - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECTIA II - CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR 4. LECTIA III - MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE 5. LECTIA IV - VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA 6. LECTIA V - DIATEZA PASIVA 7. LECTIA VI - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECTIA VII - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECTIA VIII - MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE 10. LECTIA IX - CHEIA EXERCITIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 10.3. Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 10.4. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta 10.5. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 10.6. Exercitii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exercitii cu constructii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE
CUVÂNT INAINTE Verbul constituie coloana vertebrala a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleza – verbul" (cu exercitii si cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretica – prezentarea clara si sistematica a modurilor, timpurilor, concordantei timpurilor, verbelor modale si a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple si traducere), precum si o parte practica cu exercitii la fiecare capitol si la sfârsitul cartii au fost incluse cheia exercitiilor si lista verbelor neregulate intâlnite in cadrul exemplelor si exercitiilor. Prezentarea teoretica a problemelor este facuta in limba româna. Cursul se adreseaza studentilor incepatori si intermediari din anii I si II de studiu, precum si cursantilor adulti, cu conditia ca acestia sa aiba cunostinte anterioare, chiar sumare, de limba engleza.
LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu. In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.
a poseda". formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". You are always losing your things. Where are you going? I am going to school. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. to have a shower. atunci când nu inseamna „a avea. Ex. You are not (aren’t) working. My father is taking me in his car. Ex. We are not (aren’t) working.: I go to school by bus this week. ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast. pentru a arata o actiune repetata. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. . Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have". He/she/it is not (isn’t) working.Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. They are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous 1. to have a party). exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. In acest caz.
I love my brother. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 2. You (dream) at night? Yes. 2. 10. You (like) this book? 8. 9. 8. I am having a walk. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. 5. 9. 6. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). You are typing a letter. The child is learning to play the piano. I trust my friend. Ann is knitting. 5. I understand you. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 7. It is raining. I have lunch at one o’clock. 4. 6. My friend is wearing a new dress. She talks too much. 10. In England it often (rain). He remembers my phone number. 10. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. I always believe you. I (dream) every night. You play the piano very well. 3. 9. 2. How you usually (get) to work? . They are swimming in the river. 4. 7. 8. 6. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. He is telling the truth. He has a hot bath every day. 5. 2. They live in Bucharest. 3. 3. 7.1. I (not like) that boy. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. 4. We are studying English. My mother is resting.
20. You (know) what time is it? 4. 2. 11. except Saturdays and Sundays. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. of course. I always (write) to him on his birthday. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. 5. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. You (go) to work every day? Yes. You (write) to John now? Yes. 15. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 4. I always (have) a rest after lunch. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. as usual. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 14. 6. Eu nu studiez seara. 13. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. as I (not want) to miss the first act. Why you (smoke) so much? Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John.I usually (go) by bus. 17. 18. I (be). 12. 3. but he is late. Iarna ninge. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 19. 7. . Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. 16.
Adesea citesc carti englezesti. 16. forma III – participiul trecut. B. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta.8. 14. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. forma II. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. Ce carte citesti? 10. Ea isi face bagajul. de obicei. terminata. merge pe jos. Se traduce.Paste Tense. 19. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. cu perfectul compus. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta. Este timpul de naratiune. Nu-mi place cafeaua. 9. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Ex. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. terminata. 17. Ex. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat. .
ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. de asemenea. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). ele aratând actiuni paralele. Este. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). In acest caz. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. I was watching TV. This time yesterday. While I was crossing the street. intr-un moment trecut. de obicei. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. in plina desfasurare. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. .) Adesea. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. in aceeasi fraza.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ex. (Ieri am mers al plimbare.Ex. Se traduce.) Last year I travelled to England. Yesterday I went for a walk. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. I met John. cu imperfectul. In aceasta situatie. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Ex.
6. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. 8. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day.Ex. 5. He forbade her to do this. We worked very hard. 6. sora lui privea la televizor. 1. 8. I talk on the phone. 10. 2.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous 1. He translated the text. 9. I like to have a coffee in the morning. 5. 3. he (work) in a bank. When I (enter) the classroom. she (have) dinner. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. 9. 9. 4. I always make cakes on Sundays. When I first (meet) him. 7. 10. I own two umbrellas. He meets John on Sundays. He changed his library book every day. When I (arrive). I sold my car. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. I play football. You ask too many questions. You drink too much. This time last Sunday. . 5. 2. 8. He came home late. You speak English well. While John was reading. 7. (In timp ce John citea. As I (write). 3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. They drank all the wine. 2. I hated him. 4. That sounds interesting. he (have) an accident. He thought about you. 1. 3. I (watch) a film on TV. his sister was watching TV. I enjoyed travelling. 4. When you (come in). someone (ring up). the teacher (write) on the blackboard. While he (learn) to drive.
12. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. 5. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. 19. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. In timp ce ploua. . Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. 10. 16. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. 18. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. 1. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 2. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. 11. 9. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. 15. C. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. 21. 7. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. 4. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara.10. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? 22. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. 6. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 20. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala.
Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent.Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie.) arata o actiune trecuta. I have seen two films this week. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. • Ex. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza.) I have known John since 1990. this month. incepând din) si for (de.) I haven’t seen John since September. Ex. care are rezultate in prezent sau care. timp de). dintr-un motiv sau altul. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. • . Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. this year. I didn’t get up early this morning. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. (Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. I haven’t got up early this morning. In acest caz. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. I haven’t seen John for two months. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today.) I have known John for two years. ora 2 p.m.m. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. intereseaza in prezent.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". ora 10 a. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. • Ex. arata o actiune trecuta. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. terminata. this week. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din.
nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. se foloseste Past Simple. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) No. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ . daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. I have never been to England. Ex. always. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be".) I haven’t seen him lately.Ex. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. Yes. just. Ex. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . in functie de context. yet (in propozitii negative). Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. I must buy a new one. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. ever. In acest caz. Ex. I must buy a new one. seldom. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. I have often been to England. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. never. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week.) Dupa cum se poate observa. already. De asemenea. fie cu perfectul compus. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. I lost my umbrella yesterday. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. He hasn’t returned home yet. Ex. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca.
He just (leave) home. vom avea inundatii. 9.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. 5. I (lend) him some money today. 15. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. No. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. cu accent pe durata. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 4. 18. It has been raining for three hours. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. 6. 2. You must come and see it. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. You ever (drive) a car? 17. sa continue si in viitor.) De asemene. I already (see) this film. care continua in prezent. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. Would you like a cake? 7. He (not come) home yet. Ex. He has not (hasn’t) been working. Daca nu se opreste in curând.I have not (haven’t) been working. 16. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. intre un moment trecut si prezent. . Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous 1. If it doesn’t stop soon. I just (have) one. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. 10. 11. I am tired because I have been working all day. He (not go) to bed yet. It (not rain) since December. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. He always (rely on) his friend. You (water) the flowers? 3. 8. I (buy) a new house. 12. we shall have floods. Ex. I (not be) to the seaside this year. (Ploua de trei ore. thank you. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut.
2. De cât timp inveti engleza? . I am not out of work now. It’s time we woke him up. I (lose) my pen. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. You (see) your mother this week? No. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1.m. 10. I (get) a job last month. 4. I (water) the flowers. 11. she (try) to make trouble. 22. How long you (live) here? I (live) here for one year. 4.21. 9. I’m tired of it. When you (use) it last? 2. The radio (play) since 7 a. When are you going to do it? 12. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. 7. I (cook) all the morning. 6. 3. 7. 3. 11. 8. 4. 5. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. I haven’t. You (be) out of work long? 5. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. 1. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. 1. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 10. We (know) each other for several years. 1. 3. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). 2. Ever since that woman came to work here. You (not see) it anywhere? No.
5. Da. 16. 23. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminat-o inca. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. am petrecut o luna aici. 21. 8. in acest caz. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 19. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Nu am mers la vot. Afirmativ I had worked. 18. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. ca si Present Perfect. Este. Ninge de doua ore. 25. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. un verb de relatie. A plecat John? 20. D. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. 6. 11. . Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. acum doi ani. Un copil a spart geamul. 12. a plecat acum o ora. Da. A fost un accident. 13. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. De când mi-am cumparat masina. Da. dar. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. El este ministru de doi ani. 10. 7. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. 14. 9. l-am luat la ora 8.
Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. (Când mi-ai telefonat. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. .) When you rang me up. I had finished writing my homework.Ex. terminasem de scris temele. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul.) Ca sens.
Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. 6. Ex. they drank some coffee. 7. I (return) from school. s-a plictisit. When he entered the room. At 3 o’clock on Friday. 2. Afirmativ I had been working.Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. 3. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous 1.) Dupa cum se observa. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working.) He said it had been raining for three days. . 5. (Când el a intrat in camera. He asked me whether I (meet) John before.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. De asemenea. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. she had been typing for one hour. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. After they (finish) dinner. 8. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. he got bored. She said she already (be) to England. ea batea la masina de o ora. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. 4.
6. 9. When we reached the top. When I rang her up. After John (leave). 3. . 1. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. 1. 3. When we arrived at Sinaia. When I (find out) he (get married). it (rain) for one hour. we (realize) we (lose) our way. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. 4. 7. we (climb) for 7 hours. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. 8. After we (walked) for an hour. she (study) the subject for a week. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 6. 10. 8. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. 5. When I called on her unexpectedly. 1. When she decided to have a rest. 2. she felt chilly. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 5. I realized she (have) a party. When she sat for the exam. 4. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 9. she (write) letters for one hour. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. 7. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. When I arrived home. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 10. 10. mother (cook) for two hours. 2.9. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. When I left home. When we met them. somebody told us it (rain) for hours.
Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. am mers la culcare. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. 10. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 3. 9. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. 7. I (shall) will meet him next week. 4. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. Ex. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. 5. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. 6. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. se foloseste numai „shall". a inmânat-o profesorului.) . E. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. 8.2. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. will la persoana II si III. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I.
Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. They will not be going. (have + forma III). You will be going. You will be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. .Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. He/she/it will not be going. At three o’clock. We (shall) will not be going. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. I will be travelling to England. You will have gone. They will be going. Ex. Negativ I (shall) will not be going. He/she/it will have gone. He/she/it will be going. We (shall) will be going. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. You will not be going. We (shall) will have gone. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. You will not be going.
Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. We (shall) will not have gone. They will not have gone. You will not have gone.You will have gone. They will have gone. You will not have gone. He/she/it will not have gone. .
Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna.Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. Ex. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. When you come home. By three o’clock tomorrow.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. I will have reached Predeal. I (shall) will have been going. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). Ex. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I will have been studying for three hours. . Este un timp rar folosit. Când vei veni tu acasa. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut.
(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. • Ex. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: I (know) the results in three days’ time. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. la ora 3. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. Intr-un astfel de context. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. He said he would be late.) • London tomorrow. (El a spus ca va intârzia. the next day. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. 1. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" 1. va calatori spre Anglia. I am going (Voi citi/am de gând It is going to rain. arata un program precis.) • morning. carte. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate.) . I am meeting John this (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. to sa read citesc this aceasta book. I leave for (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. bine stabilit. Arata o intentie. Ex. he would be travelling to England. Ex. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive. I should (would) be going. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". He said that at 3 o’clock.Ex. Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). Ex. Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor.
2. She (watch) TV. Puneti Continuous: 1. By 5 o’clock. Let’s hurry to the beach. 5. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. When I take the exam. 8. it probably (rain). He (study) all day tomorrow. Next year. verbele din paranteze la timpul Future 1. 10. This time next month. 9. 8. I (pay off) all my debts. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. the baby (cry). Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 10. 3. 7. 10. 4.2. we (take) our exam. He (be) pleased if you invite him. 7. 4. 4. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. I am sure when I arrive home. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. By the end of the month. In a week’s time. I (have) breakfast.m. I (work) on this paper for a month. By the end of the season. 6. 6. 6. By the time you come home. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. By the beginning of next week. 3. 3. 9. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: . we (climb) the mountain. 3. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. This time next day. Don’t expect me home for dinner. 5. I (work) at the office till late at night. You (recognize) him when you see him? I (remember) this day all my life. I (cook) for two hours. I am sure you (like) this book. 9. You (be) in London tomorrow. 2. 8. 7. I am sure I (succeed). one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. I (swim) in the sea. You (remember) to post my letter? I hope I (pass) the exam. If we don’t hurry. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. When you reach Sinaia. they (be married) for 25 years.
9. Pâna la ora 1. 2. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. Unde il vei pune? . 7. mâine. Voi vizita târgul international. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. 4. Vineri. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. E un obiect frumos. intre orele 12 si 1. 6. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat.1. 10. 8. 11. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. 5. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12.
) He said he was going to school. desigur.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. Present Perfect Simple. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. nu in propozitii. (El a spus ca merge la scola. (El a spus ca este bolnav. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. Present Tense Continuous. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. Past Tense Continuous. . un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. Past Perfect Simple. Propozitia principala 1. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. ci in fraze.LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica.
Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) 1.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) She promised her mother she would help her. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. Ex. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data.) He said he would buy a car if he had money.Ex.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: a. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). care nu pot include un verb la viitor. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala.) b.) I will have finished studying when you come home.) . He said he would come to see me when he had time.
9. 7. 8. They didn’t know that I (play) football. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. I was not sure if you (speak) English. It was clear they (talk) business again. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. sa ajunga regula. I believed you (be) at the seaside. Ex. 4. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. I understood you (be) a painter. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 1. 6. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. Pentru moment insa. Looking out of the window. 3. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. 2. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: . cu timpul. 10. 2.Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. Se poate intâlni. Ex. Ex. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. 5. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. de exemplu. 3. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 1. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus.
we (dig) in the garden for an hour. She told me his name after he (leave). 10. . 6. the concert already (begin). He promised he (drive) me home. As soon as the holidays (begin). 7. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 10. 5. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 9. 2. 4. 3. we supposed prices (go up). After I (hear) the news. 3. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 9. this beach will become very crowded. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 3. When I arrived. 8. 2. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 1. 5. By the time you (finish) translating the text. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. 8. We all believed he (win) the competition. 7. When it started to rain. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. he will drive to Sinaia. As wages had gone up. 4. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 6. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive).1. too. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. When he finally reached London. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. 5. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 2. When I heard the main actor was ill. I congratulated him. 6. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. 1. 7. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. After he (repair) the car. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 9. 4. 8. I shall have typed all the letters. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change).
Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 6. 6. 9. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. 6. she will take a job as a secretary. 16. 17. 11. they will have been married for five years. 5. 5. precum si exceptiile: 1. 3. When their first baby (be born). the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. When I (finish) the book. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 5. 4. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 2. 14. 13. After she (learn) to type. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. 15. 4. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. . 10. 12. John. years. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. In 1998. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 19. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). me. you will feel better. I will lend it to you.10. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. 20. now. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 18. 8. After you (drink) a coffee. they were listening to music. 2. When we (go) to see them last night. year. 7. He told me he never (see) the sea. 3.
we (drink) coffee and brandy. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. 19. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. I (not decide) yet. After having visited Italy. 12. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 8. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. 11. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. . After we have finished dinner. 7. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. 9. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. 11. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. 15. When I finally arrived home. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. You will never know how much I (suffer). I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. 7. I will do it when I (want) to. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 2. He was very upset because I (be) late. 13. 6. 14. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. A week ago. 8. 9. 3. 17. 4. 10. 10. 18. he decided he (change) his job. 16. 12. 5. not before. 20.7. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon.
Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone . wouldn’t. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. ai merge.). Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). ar merge etc.LECTIA III MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t.
ar fi mers etc.Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua.) I would stay at home if it rained.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara .). unde se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. ai fi mers.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. cu exceptia verbului „to be".) I will stay at home if it rains. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua.
spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. De asemenea.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. suppose. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. were. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). What shall we do. If I see him. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 1. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. had. In acest caz. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. in loc de Present Simple. providing. tell her I am out. If the police should find out the truth. dar improbabila. Ex. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. .) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1.Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. I (greet) him. supposing. noi am fi amendati. este posibila omiterea lui if. In caz ca telefoneaza. Ex. daca sar intâmpla ca. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. 2. should). (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. Ex. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. in case. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. we would be fined. If you don’t hurry. If she should ring up. you (be) late.
8. 7. Were I in your place. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. 9. you (not find) me at home. 1. If I like the dress. you (not pass) the exam. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. If I won the lottery. Had I been at home. we shall have floods. 3. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? If I (give up) smoking. 4. If I (not tell) him. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. Had I learned English grammar. . Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 5. you will have to look after it. 8. I (answer) the phone. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. you (promise) to keep it a secret? Unless you study more. 7. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. If you had taken my advice. 5. It (be) better if you had waited. 6. 6. 10. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 7. he (take) a pill. 2. 1. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 1. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. If I (work) harder. 8. 9. 6. If I (know) his phone-number. she (be) very angry. 10. If I (move) to the country-side. I (buy) a car. If he (realize) it was so late. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. If I (be) you. 4. If she finds out what has happened. 2. would you visit me? You (buy) this house if you had money? If he were more careful. I would ring him up. 9. If you had known English. I (buy) it. If I tell you something. I would be nervous. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. 5. he would never have known. I would go home immediately. If I (know) you had no driving licence. Should he have a headache. 3. I would have succeeded. 10. Unless you come at 6. If it (go on) raining. he (not make) so many mistakes. If you (take) a dog. 4. you (not get) into trouble. 2.3. he would have gone home. I (not do) this.
10. mi-ar fi fost frig. 4. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 9. 2. 11. 6. I (answer) your question if I can. 9. you wouldn’t have an accident. 6. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. You (be) sick if you eat so much. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. 5. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. 6. I-ai da? 3. If the child is good. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. 7. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. 10. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. Daca ar ploua. 5. he (get) a bar of chocolate. 3. 1. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 8. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Dacaar fi plouat. 9. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 1. 12. 8. 1. strazile ar fi fost ude. If he had written a letter to me.3. 7. 5. strazile vor fi ude. 7. voi mânca la un restaurant. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. I would speak to him. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. strazile ar fi ude. 2. If I (see) him. If you (drive) more carefully. I (answer) it. 8. . 10.
in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. Se schimba pronumele. – He said „I am ill". Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. He said he was ill. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. Ex. 1. o He said „I will do the exercise". Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. He said she had given him a book. o 1. in functie de sens. 2. Ex. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. today that day . He said he would do the exercise. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta.LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. He said: „She gave me a book". o He said „I was ill". He said he had been working hard. He said he had been ill. He said „I have been working hard.
yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex." He said if it rained he would stay at home. 3. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. He said he would be at home on that day. He said: „I’ll be at home today". I will stay at home. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: . He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow".
Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. 1. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. should. He asked me if I liked music. He said: He said he might be late." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. could. Ex. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. Ex. . ought to. 2." He said if itrained he would stay at home. He asked me where I had been. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. He told me He said „Don’t go out" He told me not to go out. „I a might be late" secundare propozitiilor Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex."If it rained. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) to go out. Ex. I would have stayed at home. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. Ex. He said: „I am ill". He said (that) he was ill. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. "If it had rained. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. I would stay at home. 3. Ex. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. on holiday. Verbele modale would. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Ex. Modalitati de introducere in vorbirea indirecta 1. Where have you been? I’ve been away. ceea ce este o greseala. He said „Go out". Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb.
If I had been at home. 12. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 10. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. I went to England two years ago. 2. ordered) me to come in. If I have enough money. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. I saw this film a week ago. 1. 4. 11. 1. 3.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 7. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. 6. 2. I will buy a car next year. I am very busy today. 10. The weather was fine yesterday. please! Read the text. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: . 3. 8. 4. I would have answered the phone. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 5. 6. 9. 2. 8. 9. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 7. I will go shopping right now. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". 5.
4. 6. 6. 11. 1. 8. 1. 3.„Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 10. 9. please? 4. Will you help me. 5. 2. 3. 9. 10. 8. 4. 7. 5. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? . Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. 2. 7. 12. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book.
de asemenea. in unele cazuri. In limba engleza. complementul prepozitional. my flat was being painted. care. I had been asked. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). iar complementul indirect este him. punctuality este un complement prepozitional. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. I have been asked. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. Activ: I gave him a book. Desigur. my flat is being painted. Ex. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. Ex. se omite formularea by. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. In limba româna. Complement direct Subiect A book was given to him. In this office punctuality is insisted on. I will be asked. While I was in hospital. I was asked. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Ex. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. . I am asked. Unde complementul direct este a book. (by me) Complement indirect Subiect He was given a book. Activ: She looked after the child. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). While I am in hospital. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. Ex. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. In aceste situatii.LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. In multe cazuri. Ex. complementul indirect si.
Burglars broke into the house. They set fire to the shed. 2. He has found your bag. 9. We called for the doctor. They didn’t look after the children properly. 7. Prize. People play football all over the world. 5. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. 6. 3. 7. when I passed by. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. I have lent John two of my books. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. His coworkers must do something for him. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 5. They will give me a reward. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 6. 2.Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. They are building a new house round the corner. They have given me a nice present. 7. I will invite my friend to a party. He hasn’t slept in his bed. They will finish the work today. 3. 2. 2. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 4. We objected to his proposal. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. The teacher asked me a difficult question. I teach them English. 10. 6. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 9. 8. 10. We laughed at John. 8. . 5. 3. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. Someone has found the missing child. 4. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. 4. A specialist will repair my TV set. 9. 8. The policeman will show us the way. 3. The noise frightened me.
15. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 9. 3. 2. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. 6. 8. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 2. 4. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XV-lea. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. 5. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 6.4. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. 9. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. 8. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. 7. I was recommended a very good doctor. This house has been built out of stone and cement. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. The pupils will be told where to sit. 12. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. 3. This book will soon be forgotten. Will someone tell him the details? 6. English is spoken all over the world. 14. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 10. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. 10. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. Have you fed the dog? 7. A reception was held in his honour. 11. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. He hates being made fun of. . 4. 7. These books mustn’t be taken away. 5. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. 13. 6. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa.
will. are sensul de a putea. ought to. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? . need. may. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. can’t Ex. Ex. might. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc.LECTIA VI VERBELE MODALE Can.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. Ex. He cannot (can’t) speak English. (Pot sa fac aceasta. shall. a fi in stare Ex. must. I can do this. Can is a model verb. He can speak English. prezent Negativ: cannot. Can 1. Se folosesc inlocuitori. could. Can = infinitiv. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". should. I can make this traslation. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. Ex. prezent.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. Ex. • Nu au toate timpurile. would. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense.
dar se .) Cu acest sens. you may. Soarele nu a apus inca. poti. a avea permisiunea Ex. Ex. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. Se traduce cu a sti sa. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. El e in strainatate. (Stiu sa inot. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut.) Negativ: may not. In vorbirea familiara. Ex. May 1. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Ex. I can swim. Father. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. are sensul de a putea. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. 3. can I take your car? Tata. He could have been here in time.) I can speak English. 2. Ex. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. (Da. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada.). nu e posibil sa. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. The sun hasn’t set yet. Ex. He is abroad.Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut Ex. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. Ex. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza.
prezent Nu are alte timpuri. It may/might rain. to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must. Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Ex. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Ex. Ia-ti umbrela. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. Must 1. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. Negativ: must not. Trebuie sa plec acasa. It’s got late. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. Take your umbrella. Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Ring up John. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. A trebui Ex. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. . You might have written me a letter when you were in England. s-ar putea sa ploua. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. He said I might smoke in that room. Telefoneaza-I lui John. You may/might help me when I am in need. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. He may/might be at home now. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. to be permitted to. Ex. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Ex.foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). 2. May/might pot exprima un repros. Ex. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. S-a facut târziu. I must go home. Cu acest sens. se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. 3.
se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. dar a fost facuta. need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus. Let’s go home. se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul • . Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. • Ex. He doesn’t need this book. Need Exista doua verbe: • To need: verb obisnuit. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Hai sa-l vizitam. Probabil ca e târziu. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. nu e nevoie. De asemenea. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte. Hai sa mergem acasa. se foloseste verbul must. Nu. poate avea sensul probabil ca: Ex. Let’s call on him. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. cu sensul de a fi nevoie Ca verb modal. • Need: verb modal. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara. you needn’t. you must! (Da. Probabil ca era târziu. notional. ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. Ex. It must have been late. Ex. cu sensul de a avea nevoie Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No. Cu acest sens. John must be at home now. It must be late.2.
Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. aici e limita de viteza. Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta. Ex. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa. Ex. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. ar fi bine sa. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede. Folosit cu persoana I. Ex. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. ar fi cazul sa. o obligatie morala. interogativ. Ex. there is a speed limit here. Should. We didn’t need to do this exercise. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. You needn’t drive so fast. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you? Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III. se adauga infinitivul trecut. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. . You mustn’t drive so fast. poate indica. Shall Folosit cu persoana I. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. we have enough time. de asemenea. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. avem destul timp.Ex. solicitarea unui sfat. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. shall indica viitorul. o recomandare. Ex. o oferta sau o sugestie. o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. shall poate arata o promisiune. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie".
Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. o in trecut When I was a child. Would • Formula de politete. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. • Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. care are numai forma de trecut. This radio won’t work. Nota: In afara de „would". O fi sora ei. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. This girl looks very much like Jane. mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti. When I was a child.Will. cerere politicoasa: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. my mother used to read me fairy tales. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. . my mother would read me fairy tales. • Actiune repetata: . Ex.in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. She will be her sister. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. Când eram copil. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal.
4. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 7. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 19. 9. You may not speak to your mother like that. You might pay more attention to your work. 3. 20. He ought to tell me the truth. He may be at home. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. This child may have another cake. He should go to school everyday. I cannot translate ten pages a day. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. You needn’t do this. 14. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . You might change your mind about that. 2. 17. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. 13. It might rain. It can’t be too late. 12. 8. 15. 15. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. He can swim very well. 8. 12. 5. 6. 14. 4. 13. 1. 7. I must learn English. You may leave earlier. 6. 16. 18. She can lend you that book. 10. I must go soon. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. She can play the piano very well. You might write to me more often. 9. 3. You may not smoke in this room. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. acolo unde este necesar: 1. John must be ill. 5. I must look up the words in the dictionary. Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 10. . He must be delayed at the office.Exercitii cu verbe modale 1. 11. 11. 2.
18. 10. 2. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 5. He …reach the Moon and walk there. Don’t wait. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 4. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. 19. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. He probably came home very early. 1. 9. 5. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. .16. 1. He was probably late. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. 2. You must have forgotten to lock the door. He is probably older than he looks. It is possible for her to be very late. He must speak English well. It may/might snow in the mountains. 3. He …even drive on its surface. 5. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. Man …travel through space now. holidays will be very different. there is plenty in the fridge. 1. She is probably a very good doctor. John could be a winner. 4. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. 6. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. You probably forgot to lock the door. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. You have probably forgotten his address. 8. 20. 7. He needn’t buy milk. 17. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. 1. He probably thinks I am wrong. 3.
9. 8. 5. 4. 7. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. People … speak during the concert. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. I’ll give you as much as you . 4. 8. You can’t be right. 3. 2. The sky is clear. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. but I doubt it. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. I have bought his latest book. 5. I think she was angry with you. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : You … take an umbrella. 1.2. I … return the books before the 1st of September. You…water the flowers. 10. 7. You … take sleeping pills too often. 2. You … worry about money. 3. It is possible that I come home early. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. 8. 5. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 10. perhaps it is a good one. I don’t believe it is his fault. 1. 6. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. I don’t believe it was his fault. I don’t think the weather will change. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. they are addictive. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. I don’t believe she has got so fat. 6. You can’t have been right. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. 6. 3. I don’t think this is a true story. want. 1. it will soon start raining. Take your umbrella. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. 6. perhaps it will rain. I don’t believe you were right. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 4. 9. 7. 10. 9.
I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. 9. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. You …not expect everybody to obey you. I …read one book a day. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. Go to sleep. 7. 5. She …write an article for this magazine every week. I am sorry you wasted your time. 9. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. for once? This …be John’s house. 8. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 4. 11. 6. 9. You …(wait) for me. 2. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 2. 8. When I was young. he was back soon. …you tell me the truth. He …read for hours on end. 7. 6. you…get a nice present. 10. 9. 3. I …(get up) so early today.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 4. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. I …(answer) the questions. You …(lend) him so many books. It’ll get stale. 10. 2. 5. The student …(write) such a long composition. he will never read them all. You …do this whether you like it or not. You …not go to bed so late at night. I …wear my hair long. … you correct my exercise. but I forgot it was Sunday.1. 6. I promise you not …be disturbed. 8. 10. which would have saved me a lot of work. We …(wait) too long. 10. I wrote him a letter. … you help me solve this problem? 3. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: . 5. You …(buy) so much bread. 3. 4. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. please? This letter is full of mistakes. Completati spatiile goale cu must. If you win the contest. you …re-type it. I …(answer) the questions. This door … not unlock. which was very convenient. I …(see) him for that. please? 7. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. When I was a teenager.
12. am baut deja doua astazi. The child … (leave) home. 12. I …(be) in the garden. 5. 4. 3. He …(swim) across the Danube." "His family consider he should. 9. 17. 13. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. he is a nice boy. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda.1. 16. 6. 5. Traduceti in limba engleza. I didn’t hear the phone. 10." "Yes. Nu. 11. 7. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. I locked the door and took the key with me. 2. 3. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora." 1. 8. Nu stiu sa crosetez. 14. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. He …(be) at home. the road is dry. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. 2. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 6. 9. She is away. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. He has one of his own. Va trebui sa plec curând. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. 8. . I haven’t got my bag with me. It …(rain) here. 4. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. You…(lend) him your text – book. he is a very poor swimmer. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. The light was on in his room. but he himself believes he needn’t. 10. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. I …(leave) it on the bus. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. 7. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. You …(see) Anna yesterday. 18. John …(do) such a thing.
o incuiasem chiar eu. va rog. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. 29. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. 24. 23. 26. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. Vreti. 20. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. 21. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. 27. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. 22. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. . Unde mergem acum? 28. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns.19. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25.
might. Fie ce-o fi. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. o urare. It is impossible that he do this. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. o dorinta sau un blestem. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. may. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta.LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. 1. Apare in propozitii exclamative. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. exprimând o lozinca. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. Ex. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. d. Somebody bring me a glass of water. De asemenea. Ex. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. It is necessary that you be present. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. Everybody leave the hall. would + infinitiv. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. . in situatii in care. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. it is desirable that. in engleza contemporana. Ex. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. Come what may. it is necessary that. it is likely that. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. Ex.
to insist. to suggest. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. se foloseste would. to recommend. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. to urge. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. I wish I had been born in England. apare ca were la toate persoanele. in England now. 1. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. to order Ex. Ex. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. . Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. You speak English as if you had lived in England.e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. I wish it would stop raining. • I wish (mi-as dori. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. • Ex. • Ex. I wish I were Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. to demand. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia.
In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. It is impossible that he should have done this. it is necessary that. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. to demand. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. 1. Dupa cum se observa. De asemenea. In exemplul de mai sus. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. Ex. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). (E timpul. It is impossible that he should do this. Ex.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. (Era de mult timpul. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense.d)It is time. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. I would sooner stay at home tonight.) It is high time. should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. to recommend. to urge. .) Ex. to insist. • Ex. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. It is necessary that you should be present. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. It is time the child went to bed. It is high time you began to study seriously. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. to suggest. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. a. Ex.
in secundara se foloseste may. a. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Intrebari introduse prin how. Ex. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. in secundara se foloseste might. . fie in vorbirea direca. where. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. fie in vorbirea indirecta. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. Hurry up lest you miss the train. may. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. I hope that he may pass the exam. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit.• Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. why. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. to be afraid Ex. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. • Dupa so that.when. • Ex. in order that Ex. • Dupa to hope. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus.
iar in aceste cazuri. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. I wish I might borrow your car. etc. I wish the weather were fine. • Dupa it is possible. 5. Dupa whoever. Whoever you may/might be. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. I regret I can’t go to the concert. 2. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. you have no right to do this. it was possible Ex. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. however. It is possible that he may be here in time. . No matter who you may/might be. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. no matter when. It was possible that he might be here in time. I am sorry my friend is ill. 1. 4. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. I will ring you up. Oricine ai fi. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. 3. I wish I could speak English. Ex. I regret I am not a student. iti voi telefona.I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. wherever. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. • Ex. you have no right to do this. whichever. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. whenever. Oriunde as fi. Wherever I may/might be.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I am sorry you live so far away. I regret I have only one child. I regret I have no children. I am sorry books are so expensive. I am sorry it rains so often.
1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii, astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I am sorry you had an accident. I was sorry you were out when I called. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I am sorry I was late for the party. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I was sorry you had got a fine. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize.
1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii, astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I wish he would take my advice. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat.
1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv:
1. You behave as if you (own) the place. 2. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 3. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. I am cold, I would rather you (close) that window. 5. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 6. It’s time we (go) home. 7. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 8. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 10. If only my telephone (work)! 11. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 12. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 13. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. 14. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. 15. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 16. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 17. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. If only I (become) a millionaire. 20. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 2. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. 3. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 4. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua, am putea merge la plaja! 6. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. 9. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. 10. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 11. As prefera sa merg la teatru. 12. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 13. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 14. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin.
16. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 17. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 18. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 19. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 20. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara, dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul, la tara. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 2. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. 3. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 4. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 5. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 6. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 7. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. 8. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 9. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte.
8. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot, astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). Orice mi-ai spune, nu te pot crede. Oricât te-ai stradui, nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. Oricând te vei intoarce, eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta.
All success (attend) you! 18. 2. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. 12. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras.7. The road is wet. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 19. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 7. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 10. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! . 14. 5. I wish I (be) there when it happened. 3. 9. 8. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. 8. 6. 11. 16. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. Oricare ar fi motivul. 4. I wish I (find) another. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 15. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 10. 9. 17. 1. you should remember your own phone number. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 13. I have such a boring job.
Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. in cazul verbelor neregulate. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate.LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. diateza si timpuri. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). .
) 1. Ex.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. I made him study English. to understand. Ex. Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv.) f.) He ordered the door to be locked. (Consider ca el este un bun student. verbe exprimând un ordin. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. to allow. Ex. to know. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. Ex. to expect. to consider. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).) I let him go out and play. to dislike.) c. Ex. to hate. to admit. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. to order. to cause. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. I rely on (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. . Nominativ cu infinitiv you to do this. to suppose. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to believe.) b.) d. to like. to watch. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. to feel. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. verbe declarative: to state. I’d like him to come with me. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. to count upon/on . I want you to go now. I consider him to be a good student. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. Ex. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think.) I want John to do this.) They declared him to be the man of the year. to wish. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.) e. He admitted the news to be false. I saw him leave the room.) I expected him to come in time. to hear. to declare.Ex. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.
a. He was declared to be the man of the year. to say. He proved to be a good journalist. He is said to be a good writer. to expect. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. For – phrase . to make. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. He was made to study English. He is considered to be a good student. He considered the news to be false. to hear. to prove. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. to seem. She is sure (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. The news was considered to be false. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain to come in time. Ex. de obicei.) I happened to meet him in the street. 1. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". to turn out. to suppose. I made him study English.) If I happen to meet him.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. They declared him to be the man of the year. I consider him to be a good student.a.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. to consider. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. I will tell him where you are. to believe. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. ii voi spune unde esti. cu verbele: to happen. to know. b. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. Ex.
2. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. to watch. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând.Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând.) I heard her singing. Ex. to smell. precum si cu verbele to find.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see.) Nominativul absolut I (should) come. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. It is easy for me to do this. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. to hear.) I left / found her crying. Nominativ cu Participiu pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: He was seen leaving.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. Ex. It is impossible that It is necessary that I (should) go there.) It is necessary for me to go there. . Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. (E usor sa fac asta.) It is impossible for him to come. (Am auzit-o cântând. a fost vazut plecând. a fost auzita cântând. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând.) was heard singing.) This remains for him to decide. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1. Ex. Este Ex: (El She (Ea 3. to leave.
Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. She had two sons killed in the war. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. 10. 5. 13. 2. 9. 8. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 11. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. Ex. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. .) Weather permitting. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 15. 7. vom merge la plaja. 4. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 3. Cred ca el e un sot bun. (Orele fiind terminate. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1.Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. (Daca vremea va permite. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. 14. we shall go to the beach. 6.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. 12. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. Ex: The classes being over. I-am privit jucând fotbal. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. (Voi merge sa ma coafez.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. we went home. I had my bedroom window broken. am mers acasa. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat.) I will have my hair done.
8. This problem is too difficult. 10. I ordered a taxi. 4. You should take it. The time has come. 2. 3. 1. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 6. 4. 8. 1. a gifted child. You should bear it in mind. 7. 2. This is a valuable piece of advice. It is important that you should come to the office. The match was about to begin. It is possible that I might buy a car. 4. I didn’t want her to miss the train. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. It is impossible that he should have said that. I don’t want you to catch a cold. I can’t solve it. This is the main thing. This is a strange thing. 2. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: This translation is easy. know the truth. They heard him repeat it several times. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should It is important to know the truth. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. This fact is important. I can’t believe she said that. 10. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. 6. 3. The people were impatient. . 9. 5. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 7. It’s time we met again. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was She was thought to be a gifted child. You should read it. 9.2. at once. I cam make it. This translation is easy for me to make. It is necessary that he be present. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. We should do it now. We should have a heart to heart talk. I have closed the window. 5. This is a good book. 1. 3. It is advisable that you should resign.
Everybody. I could hear her typing. we were seared about having floods. The rain having stopped. They said she was ill. we sat down to dinner. It is sure they have had an argument. The decision being taken in my favour. we hurried to the beach. 8. 5. Expected that he would resign. I saw the plane landing. 7. I saw her lying on the beach. 6. 9. 5. Everybody being at home. 6.3. letter. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. the audience left the hali. The river having risen in the night. I went to post it. 2. It was proved that she was a liar. 10. 10. The plane having taken off. I stopped smoking. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. She heard the baby crying. I saw her fainting. 8. I heard the child breaking the vase. 6. 4. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. I found the boy breaking the window. 4. 3. I went shopping. 7. 8. 3. 9. 6. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. 4. I had to change them. The dog was heard barking. . The sun having risen. l. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her 5. Weather permitting. The letter being written. She heard the hunters shooting. 5. I found her digging in the garden. 7. I saw the peasants working in the field. 9. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. 10. I went home relaxed. I thought she was unable to win the contest. The mud having ruined my shoes. The concert being over. 2.
it is raining. I am not going. I always have. Do I always believe? 6. My mother isn’t resting. is drinking. he doesn’t get up early. Do you usually get. What book are you reading? 10. he walks. are you thinking? I am thinking. She goes shopping on Saturdays. don’t understand. She doesn’t talk. remembers. Whom are you ringing up? 13. 14. Do they live? 8. The child isn’t learning. Is my friend wearing? 7. 19. Are they swimming? 6. am taking. Now I am doing my homework in English. Is my mother resting? 8. am. They aren’t swimming. 1 don’t like. . Do I trust? 10. I don’t love. 4. 5. Are we studying? 9. Is he telling? 4. 7. are you waiting? I am waiting. Do you play? 5. My friend isn’t wearing. 10. Are you writing. Does he have? 9. 20. It isn’t raining. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. Do you smoke? 17. drinks. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. always borrow/is always borrowing. 9. 2. 15. I don’t have. Am I having? 3. 13. 4. write. 14. I don’t understand. You aren’t typing. speaks. 1 am cooking. 8. Do you dream? I dream 9. Do you go? 16. 6. Do I understand? 4. He isn’t telling. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. 3.CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. They don’t live. I don’t trust. On Sundays. he is having. Do I love? 2. 2. I don’t always believe. Does she talk? 3. You don’t play. We aren’t studying. 12. It snows in winter. 18. I am not having. do you do? 3. What do you do on your free days? 12. are you hurrying? I don’t want. He doesn’t remember. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. go. 7. I don’t like coffee. Is Ann knitting? 10. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. Do you like? 8. Is it raining? 2. it often rains. Are you typing? 5. I do not study in the evening. He doesn’t go to school by underground. 11. Ann isn’t knitting. The secretary is just typing a report. Does he remember? 7. 6. He doesn’t have.
I like to swim a lot. He didn’t translate. 5. 19. 1 first met. I slept. They didn’t drink. Yesterday I got up early. Exercitiul 2: 1. I didn’t sell. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. That sounded. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. you came in. I had breakfast and then I left for school. 14. 18. When did you buy this TV set? 12. 10. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous . 8. 17. What were you doing last Tuesday. I always made. 19. I met. This time yesterday it was raining. I often read English books. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. We didn’t work. When I go to the seaside. He didn’t forbid. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 16. 4. 2. 6. You drank. 20. He sat for his first exam last week. 10. He met. Did I enjoy? 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. How often do you write to your parents? 18. I was driving to Sinaia. He didn’t change. Yesterday. 2. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 9. 9. I entered. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. 5. he had. 5. she was having. 6. Last Sunday. 3. Did they drink? 3. he waslearning. 10. I was watching. While I was looking for my passport. were you going. He didn’t think. my friends played chess. He didn’t come. You asked. Did he translate? 10. I played. Did you sleep well last night? 3. Yesterday I lost my gloves. I didn’t hate. I didn’t enjoy. I owned. he realized. 8. I was writing. Did we work? 7. 1 liked. 3. I found this old photo. 4. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. Did I sell? 6. were you doing? 7. I arrived. I got up late yesterday morning. 17. While it was raining. 16. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 6. When did you return from the mountains? 11. Did he change? 5. 7. 7.Why are you opening the window? I5. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. the teacher was writing. Did I hate? 4. 9. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. he wasn’t wearing. 2. he was working. 8. 4. Did he come? 8. someone rang up. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. I was talking. She is packing her luggage. You spoke. Did he think? 2. Last night. 13.
He has been. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. I have lent. 4. Have you visited? 12. I haven’t written. Have you ever driven? 16. Since I bought a car. 3. Have you been to this town before? Yes. 5. I have been cooking. I have seldom walked to my office. 7. I have’ been shopping. 4. 11. 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. 7.Exercitiul 1: l. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 3. have you cooked? 7. 9. She has changed. I got up. A child has broken the window. Has John left? Yes. I have just had. We must replace it. Have you lived? I have lived. 4. I have been doing. I didn’t succeed. he left an hour ago. 20. 10. 12. 6. 18. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. He has been sleeping. 5. We have walked 10 km so far. Exercitiul 3: I. 19. have you been wearing? 6. I5. I returned. Have you been? I have been. We have known. two years ago. I spent a month here. have you been. began. I have been asking. Have you ever eaten? 13. 11 . The child has been playing. It has been snowing for two hours. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. 8. He hasn’t gone. He has always relied. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous . 2. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 10. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. I have bought. I have already seen. I have been watering. 15. 10. Have you ever tried? I tried. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. How long have you been learning English? 5. Have you watered? 3. Have you paid? 19. 7. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. He hasn’t come. Have you seen? she left. Exercitiul 2: l. 10. 6. 5. 9. 8. I saw. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. he has caught. He has been fishing. He has been a Minister for two years. I had it at 8 o’clock. 2. 8. 13. 14. He has just left. I was. I have been wearing. we left. Have you been. she has been trying. I have lost. 14. 9. 8. 4. 6. I haven’t been. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. What did you look at? It was an accident. 20. the engine – drivers have gone. The radio has been playing. 1t hasn’t rained. The weather has got warmer lately. 17. I got. It has been raining. Have you read? 18.
they had finished. She will be watching. 5. 4. 6. 9. I shall/will succeed. I realized I had left my bag at home. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. she had been studying. 10. 7. 2. I shall/will pass. Exercitiut 2: 1. he went. Exercitiul 3: 1. 5. she had been writing. had eaten. 3. 6. it had been raining. had listened. I shall/will be swimming. will be crying. I shall/will know. 8. we had been walking. she had already been. he had learned/he had been learning. I rang him up. 6. 8. 5. 5. had been having. When I arrived at the bus stop. 3. 6. 7. He . 4. He will be. 9. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. he had got married. they had been waiting. 9. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. 6. had been speaking. 2. had been swimming. I shall/will remember. She had just gone out. I went to bed. 4. I was sorry I had hurt him. 4. You will be. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. he went. 7. he had been. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. it had been raining.Exercitiul 1: 1. 3. I had returned. 3. had not told. 8. 10. 2. 3. Wil1 you remember? 9. 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. he told. 2. 4. she told. he had visited. I called. they had been. 7. As soon as the guests had left. we realized. had been climbing. 6. congratulated. 10. Will you be needing? 5. 10. had left. 10. we had lost. 2. wilt be rising. it will probably be raining. 5. You will like. we asked. he had thought. 2. 7. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. he had caught. 8. had been cooking. You will not/won’t find. she had been cleaning and dusting. Will you recognize? 4. He thanked me for what I had done for him. it had been raining. 8. he handed it to the teacher. she had not passed. I had met. 7. I found out. 3. I entered. had spread. As soon as he had finished writing the paper.
I shall/will have saved five million lei. Exercitiul 2: 1. 6. I shall/will have paid off. I shall/will be working. he wanted. will/shall will be climbing. will have spent. had already begun. did not remember. 4. Exercitiul 4: 1. would end. they would remain. 2. they were talking.will be studying. 5. he had just left. 3. they will have been married. 8. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 6. 2. 10. 8. By this time next year. On Friday. you were. 10. 9. 6. 10. 5. 2. 4. 3. he had been travelling. you spoke. 7. 9. he would pass. I shall/will have been cooking. he had stolen. he would give. 7. 3. he would finish. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 8. 8. I had heard. 9. will have risen. 7. would be cancelled. 2. 9. I had lost. I shall/will have read 8. We shall/will have taken. I shall/will have been working. you were. he would win. 6. 4. 7. I played/I was playing. 5. I would remain. 8. we had been digging. 10. between twelve and one o’clock. 9. 6. 4. prices would go up. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. I shall/will have finished. You had to type. I usually read. 5. I had read. Exercitiul 3: 1. You will have seen. 4. 10. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. I had not enjoyed. 3. I had done. 3. 5. he would drive. I shall/will be having. . 9. they will be having their last English class. he had left. Exercitiul 3: 1. 10. was shining. you would soon have. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 2. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 7.
14. had failed. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. I have been reading. 16. 9. begin. I work/I worked. melts. you see. do not eat. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. 15. 6. we reach. 3. 19. you see. 10. 2. 3. is. you have just told. you have drunk. I was. I was. 11. 6. they had known. 12. 4. he has repaired. I finish. 8. would not go. you are reading. 2. 4. they have been. 20. 4. we went. 18. I finish. 2. 7. he would change. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. he would not remember. 8. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. I will earn/will be earning. 9. 10. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. 20. I read. she has learnt. he has arrived. 13. you have read. 3. 17. they have done. 3. I have received. 12. 2. I knew you were in Bucharest. I would spend. 7. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 11. 8. 14. he had eaten. he had to write. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: . she notices you have broken. I want. 5. 12. you see. 7. 5. he tells. there are. I had not eaten. 10. I have. Exercitiul 6: 1.Exercitiul 4: 1. 5. 18. they had been listening. 10. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. will soon move. 11. 6. 15. we will drink. he had not expected. 9. 17. The secretary told me the manager was busy. is. 13. he had never seen. he would have. she looks. 8. is born. arrive. he hoped. Exercitiul 7: l. he trusted. you had been wearing. it would not be raining when I arrived. you finish. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. she has changed. Exercitiul 5: 1. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 16. is. 6. I have suffered. 9. I had not decided. 7. you do. 5. 19. 4.
You would catch the train if you took a taxi. it goes on. 5. 3. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 2. you had driven. 4. 5. 5. 3. I will greet 2. I would have answered. 8. 7. he would have told. you wouldn’t have got. 3. he would not make. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 4. 8. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. I will eat at a restaurant. she will be. I wouldn’t do. Exercitiul 4: l. If it had rained. If it rains. I had not told. It would have been. I knew. he had realized. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. 6. I moved. 3. he leaves. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. 7. I had worked. 10. I will buy. he will get. Would you buy? 4. will you promise? 6. 9. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. would you give him some? 3. 10. You will see him if you wait. the streets would have been wet. I were. you will be. I saw. 9. 4. 5. I will lend. 7. I had known. the streets would be wet. 6. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 9.l. 9. 8. 8. you had invited. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. 6. 8. 7. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. I would have answered. the streets will be wet. If it rained. 6. 10. 2. 6. Exercitiul 2: 1. 7. 5. you will not pass. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 3. If a beggar asked you for money. he had tried. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. 9. 5. Exercitiul 5: 1. 2. 10. you were. you take. 10. 2. 4. I will answer. you will be. I gave up. If dinner is not ready in time. 7. I would not have made. What would you do if you meet John? 12. you will not find. I would buy. 2. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. you would have read. he would take. LECTIA IV . What will you do if you meet John? 11.
He said she would go shopping right then. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. He asked me when I would be back. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. He told me to take that pill. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He told me not to smoke so much. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. 9. He asked me if I could lend him a book. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 2. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 10. 7. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 6. 5. 2. 5. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. 6. He said he was very busy on that day. 4. He asked me if I would like a cake. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. 2. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 8. . 11. 4. He told me to read that text. He said he had gone to England two years before. 11. He asked me how long I had been learning . 8. He asked me how I had travelled. 8. He asked me if the train had left.English. 2. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 9. 3. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 10. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 7. 5. 6. He said he had seen that film a week before. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. 6. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. Exercitiul 2: 1. 8. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 3. 7. Exercitiul 4: 1. 5. 12. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. He told me to open the door. 9. 12. 9. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He asked me if I would help him. 10. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. He asked me who that man was. 7. He told me to be careful with his books. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 4. 4. 3. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking.
The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). 7. I was frightened by the noise. Exercitiul 2: 1. The missing child has been found (by someone). Football is played all over the world. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. when I passed by. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. 9. The work will be finished today (by them). His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us).LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. Exercitiul 3: 1. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 4. I have been given a nice present (by them). John was laughed at (by us). Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 7. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. 6. They are taught English (by me). The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). A reward will be given to me (by them). 5. 3. Your bag has been found (by him). 4. A nice present has been given to me (by them). 8. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). 3.: 3. 9. 9. Fire was set to the shed (by them). I’m not always told the truth by my friend. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). Has the dog been fed? 7. 6. 5. 4. 6. His proposal was objected to (by us). English is taught to them (by me). The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 7. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. 5. 8. 10. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. I will be given a reward (by them). The doctor was called for (by us). The truth is not always told to me by my friend. 2. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). 10. 2. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). Exercitiul 4: 1. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). John has been lent two of my books (by me). Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? . 2. The house was broken into (by burglars). A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 8. We will be shown the way by the policeman.
You won’t have to do. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. They have built this house out of stone and cement. He could swim. 2. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 12. 14. 4. The child was allowed/permitted to have. I will have to go. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 5. 2. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. People will soon forget this book. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. We were told very interesting things at the conference. 8. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. 13. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. 3. He will be able to swim. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 7. 9. I had to go.8. Exercitiul 6: l. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 9. 11. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 15. 6. 5. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. 3. People mustn’t take away these books. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. 7. 6. Many new blocks are being built in our district. She will be able to lend. 6. I won t be able to translate. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. People speak English all over the world. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. 10. 8. 2. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. 5. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. Were you told about the meeting? 9. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 10. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. I couldn’t translate. 7. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. 4. 3. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. They held a reception in his honour. 8. He was not . We were asked to show our passports. The museum was closed for repairs. 10. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. She could lend. 4. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. He hates people making fun of him. You didn’t have to do. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century.
She will be able to read and write. He can’t be . can. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. 10. can’t. Exercitiul 6: 1. You might have paid. I will have to look up. 15. 13. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. 6. 7. 3 It might have rained. She may/might have been angry. This must be the best. 6. 8. 13. 5. He must be older. Exercitiul 2: 1. She may/might be very late. 5. 12. 5. She will be able to play. You must have forgotten. 4. 2. 11. He could read and write. 19. It can t have been. 9. 4. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. 7. 10. 3. 2. He must have been delayed. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. Exercitiul 5: 1. 3. 6. John could have been. It can’t be his fault. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 4. 5. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. John must have been. He must have come home. She can’t have got. 6. He needn’t have bought. You might have changed. can. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 9. The weather can’t change. can. You can’t have been. You must have known the lesson. 19. 3. He must think. 10. 8. 17. It can’t have been his fault. 6. You must have left your umbrella. can’t. 8. You should have visited. Exercitiul 4: l. 14. 9. He may/might have done. 12. She may/might have returned. I had to learn. He must have been late. You needn’t have done. 2. He may have been. You can’t have seen. Exercitiul 3: 1. It may/might be a good one. 15. 14. You shouldn’t have gone. 2. He must have been. It must have taken a long time. 4. 2. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. He can’t have passed. 20. It may/might rain. I will have to learn. can. He should have gone. She may/might have been out. 3. You might have written. 5. 16. It must have been. He ought to have told. 18. It can’t have been. 7. She could play. He may/might have been right. I may/might come home. I had to look up. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20.allowed/permitted to come. 16.
Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 7. 11. I will have to leave soon. will. can’t have rained. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". needn’t have got up. 3. 5. 8. This can’t be a true story. 10. should. 6. needn’t have lent. needn’t. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 10. 2. should. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. She can’t have married. needn’t have written. 2. can’t have seen. 3. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. would. 5. 5. 10. needn’t have waited. would. didn’t need to answer. mustn’t. 2. should. Exercitiul 13: 1. will. 9. 4. can’t have left. Exercitiul 11: 1. 9. 6. 7. 3. She can’t have learned English. 2. mustn’t. mustn’t. You can’t miss the train. Exercitiul 9: 1. needn’t. 3. would. 7. didn’t need to wait. 4. 6. 7. 4. must have taken. 10. 10. 7.at the office. Exercitiul 8: l. needn’t have bought. shall. 9. 8. would. 5. S. 2. 8. didn’t need to see. I could play the piano when I was a child. must have been. 10. 4. will. All the children ought to/should do some housework. I can’t knit. can’t have swum. 2. All the students can and must write this paper. needn’t. would. should. 6. 9. Exercitiul 12: 1. must have been. 5. 6. shall. will. 8. shall. needn’t have lent. 6. 9. 4. must have left. 7. You will have to help me more today. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. mustn’t. will. shall. 3. 10. needn’t. mustn’t. 12. 8. can’t have done. 9. 5. a . needn’t. would. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 4. 8. didn’t need to buy. 3. 7. needn’t have answered. 9. Exercitiul 10: 1. will. Exercitiul 7: 1.
porter could help you. 13. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 14. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. No, we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 16. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her, because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 17. You needn’t have made coffee for me. I have already drunk two, today. 18. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958, as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 19. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 20. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night, I rang you up and nobody answered. 21. I must have been still at the faculty. 22. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 23. You ought to/should have insisted. 24. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 25. I promise you, you shall have the book tomorrow. 26. You can’t have found the door open. I had locked it myself 27. Where shall we go now? 28. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 29. Will you, please, wait for a few minutes? 30. You may not speak during the exam. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 2. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 3. I wish I were a student. 4. I wish I could go to the concert. 5. I wish I could pay the piano. 6. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 7. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 8. 1 wish I had children. 9. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 10. I wish it didn’t rain so often. Exercitiul 2: l. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. 2. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 3. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 4. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. 5. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 6. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 7. I wish you had won the competition. 8. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 9. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 10. I wish I had won the Great Prize. Exercitiul 3: 1. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 2. I wish he would accept my proposal. 3. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 4. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. S. I wish they would sign the contract. 6. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. 7. I wish you
would take a driving licence. 8. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 9. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 10. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. Exercitiul 4: 1. you owned. 2. I were. 3. you didn’t waste. 4. you closed. S. you started. 6. we went. 7. I stayed, watched. 8. I were. 9. I had entered. 10. my telephone worked. 11. hadn’t caught a cold. 12. he would have. 13. you were. 14. he told. 15. his daughter didn’t get married. 16. he took, stopped. 17. I hadn’t forgotten. 18. his book would become. 19. I would become. 20. I got. Exercitiul 5: l. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles, too. 4. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain, we could go to the beach. 6. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. I would rather you got up earlier. 9. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 10. I would rather you went to the theatre. 11. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 12. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 13. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 14. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. She looks as if she were a model. 16. You speak as if you were angry with me. 17. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 18. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 19. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 20. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp, but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. Exercitiul 6: 1. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 2. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 3. It is important that you (should) know English well. 4. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 5. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 6. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 7. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 8. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 9. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7:
1. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 2. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 3. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 4. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 5. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 6. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 7. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 8. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. Exercitiul 8: 1. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 2. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. 3. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 4. Whatever you may/might tell me, I can’t believe you. 5. No matter how hard you may/might try, you can’t win such a competition. 6. Whenever you may/might return, I will be at home waiting for you. 7. Whoever may/might have told you this about me, you shouldn’t have believed it. 8. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 9. It is possible that she might be away. 10. Whatever the reason may/might be, you shouldn’t lie to me. Exercitiul 9: 1. it might not get. 2. it should get. 3. they (should) divorce. 4. should have told. 5. you may/might be. 6. we (should) leave. 7. hadn’t broken down. 8. he were. 9. he were. 10. you retired. 11. she should have left. 12. might prosper. 13. you should have. 14. you may/might understand. 15. we should take. 16. (should) have. 17. may attend. 18. I had been. 19. I would find. 20. I had. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. I expected you to come earlier. 2. He wanted me to help him. 3. She made me understand what had happened. 4. I think him to be a good husband. 5. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 6. John admitted the fault to be his. 7. I rely on you to lend me some money. 8. I watched them playing football. 9. I saw him speaking to his friend. 10. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 11. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 12. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 13. I saw some children playing in the park. 14. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 15. He made me miss the train. Exercitiul 2:
6. He was heard to repeat it several times. It is important for you to come to the office at once. am plecat la cumparaturi. 3. 5. 2. 7. 8. . It is possible for me to buy a car. 9. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. 2. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. He was expected to resign. Exercitiul 6: 1. 6. 2. 10. 4. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 5. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. It is advisable for you to resign. ne-am asezat la cina. She could be heard typing. 8. 5. The plane was seen landing. 6. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. She was said to be ill. Concertul fiind terminat. It is impossible for him to have said that. 6. am plecat acasa linistit. They are sure to have had an argument. The people were impatient for the match to begin. The hunters were heard shooting. This is the main thing for us to do. This is a good book for you to read. 9. She was found digging in the garden. 8. 8. 10. The baby was heard crying. 4. publicul a parasit sala. She was seen fainting. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. She was seen lying on the beach. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 5. 4. a trebuit sa-i schimb. am mers sa o pun la posta. 7. 7. It is necessary for him to be present. 3. The peasants were seen working in the field. She (was) proved to be a liar. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. Exercitiul 5: 1. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. Exercitiul 4: 1. 4. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 2. Intrucât soarele rasarise. The boy was found breaking the window. It is recommendable for you to read this book. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 10. 9. 6. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. Daca vremea va permite. 2. 9. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 5. The child was heard breaking the vase. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 3. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. 10. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. 9. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 8. 10.1. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 3. She seemed to be satisfied with me. It’s time for us to meet again. Intrucât ploaia incetase. 7. 3. 7.
born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug .LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig was. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug been borne.
to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden .
to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt. learned left lent let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt. learned left lent let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden .
to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt .
to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.