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LOGICAL CIRCUITS

by

Ion Mihail Nichita and Florin Felix Nichita

Abstract: In this paper we study some constructions of big combinational logical circuits from

smaller combinational logical circuits. We also present the set-theoretical Yang-Baxter

equation, and show that the problems presented in this paper are related to it.

1. INTRODUCTION

directions

treated by this journal: mathematics and informatics.

This paper is related to a previous paper on combinational logical circuits

which appeared in this journal (see [1]). In that paper, the authors presented an

application of feed-forward neural networks: the simulation of combinational logical

circuits, CLC’s for short. For more details on neural networks we refer to [2] and [3].

We will consider some different constructions in this paper. Starting with small

combinational logical circuits, we build bigger combinational logical circuits.

Our paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is an informal introduction to

combinational logical circuits. Our material might be sufficient for readers with

background in the area, but for those who need a review on combinational logical

circuits we recommend [1]. We also define when two CLC’s are equivalent. In section

3, we give a set of problems. For some of them we give solutions. In section 4, we

present the set-theoretical Yang-Baxter equation. We show that the problems 2 and 3

are a particular case of this famous equation. On the other hand, they highlight the

signification of this equation.

2. PRELIMINARIES

outputs, for which the outputs could be expresed according to the inputs.

We propose the following notation for this combinational logical circuit: CLC[n,m].

Ion Mihail Nichita, Florin Felix Nichita -Some problems on combinational

logical circuits

X - the set of input variables,

Z - the set of output variables

F:XÆZ - the input-output function.

Starting with small combinational logical circuits, we can build a bigger CLC:

In this paper we start the study of this type of constructions. Since the general

case is too complex, we will consider just constructions of combinational logical

circuits with 3 inputs and 3 outputs, denoted CLC[3,3], from combinational logical

circuits with 2 inputs and 2 outputs, CLC[2,2]. For example, we can use two identical

CLC[2,2]

F:XÆZ,

G:XÆZ

are called equivalent if:

F(0,0, …,0,0) = G(0,0,…,0,0)

F(0,0, …,0,1) = G(0,0,…,0,1)

…………….

F(1,1, …,1,0) = G(1,1,…,1,0)

F(1,1, …,1,1) = G(1,1,…,1,1)

Ion Mihail Nichita, Florin Felix Nichita -Some problems on combinational

logical circuits

i)

F:X={(0,0),(0,1),(1,0),(1,1)}ÆZ={(0,0),(0,1),(1,0),(1,1)} ,

F (X,Y) = ( (X∨Y)∧Y, X )

ii)

G:X={(0,0),(0,1),(1,0),(1,1)}ÆZ={(0,0),(0,1),(1,0),(1,1)} ,

G(X,Y) = (Y,X)

Proof. We just need to check the definition:

F(0,0) = ((0∨0)∧0, 0) = (0∧0, 0) = (0,0) = G(0,0)

F(0,1) = ((0∨1)∧1, 0) = (1∧0, 0) = (1,0) = G(0,1)

F(1,0) = ((1∨0)∧0, 1) = (1∧0, 1) = (0,1) = G(1,0)

F(1,1) = ((1∨1)∧1, 1) = (1∧1, 1) = (1,1) = G(1,1)

the following two ways:

Find a CLC[2,2] such that these two bigger combinational logical circuits are

equivalent.

Ion Mihail Nichita, Florin Felix Nichita -Some problems on combinational

logical circuits

in the following two ways:

Find a CLC[2,2] such that these two bigger combinational logical circuits are

equivalent.

(The reader should check the details.)

theory and quantum groups (see [4], [6]). Many papers in the literature are devoted to

finding solutions for it.

Finding all solutions for this equation (the classification of solutions) is an even

harder problem. A complete classification was obtained only in dimension 2, using

computer calculations.

We present bellow the set-theoretical version of the Yang-Baxter equation (see

[5]).

Ion Mihail Nichita, Florin Felix Nichita -Some problems on combinational

logical circuits

R×Id : S×S×S→ S×S×S, R×Id(u,v,w) = (u′,v′,w)

Id×R : S×S×S→ S×S×S, Id×R(u,v,w) = (u,v′,w′)

(R×Id)ο(Id×R)ο(R×Id) = (Id×R)ο(R×Id)ο(Id×R)

the same as solving Problems 2 and 3. The computations are difficult, even in this

particular case; so, we need to use computer calculations. This gives a grasp about the

difficulty of the original problem.

REFERENCES

[1] Remus Joldes, Ioan Ileana, Corina Rotar - Utilization of Neural Networks in

the Simulation of Combinational Logical Circuits,Acta Universitatis Apulensis,

no. 3 /2002.

[2] Ioan Ileana, Remus Joldes, Emilian Ceuca and Ioana-Maria Ileana, -

Optoelectronic Neural Networks. Optical Interconnectation of Neurons by

Computer Generated Holograms (I), Acta Universitatis Apulensis, no. 3 /2002.

[3] D. Dumitrescu, H. Costin – Neural Networks. Theory and applications.

Ed. Teora, Bucharest, 1996.

[4] Florin Felix Nichita - On Yang-Baxter Systems, ICTAMI 2002, “1 Decembrie

1918” University of Alba Iulia (lecture notes at the conference).

[5] J.H. Lu, M. Yan, Y.C. Zhu – On the set-theoretical Yang-Baxter equation

Duke Mathematical Journal, Vol.104, No. 1, 2000.

[6] L. Lambe and D. Radford – Introduction to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation

and quantum groups: an algebraic approach. Mathematics and its Applications,

423. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1997.

Authors:

Ion Mihail Nichita, minichita@fx.ro , Center of Computer Science, Ploiesti,

Romania.

Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania.

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