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TSAT

Transient Security Assessment Tool

Model Manual

A product of

Powertech Labs Inc.


Surrey, British Columbia
Canada
www.powertechlabs.com
www.DSATools.com

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TSAT Model Manual

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without prior written consent of Powertech Labs Inc.

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LICENSE TYPE in the License.

−2011
Copyright Powertech Labs Inc. 2001−

Portion of the TSAT code is copyrighted 1998 by Chris Maunder

Last modified – April 2011

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TSAT Model Manual

CONTENTS

1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 7
1.1 Overview of the Data Sets ................................................................................ 7
1.1.1 Dynamic Data ....................................................................................................... 7
1.1.2 Relay Data ............................................................................................................ 9
1.1.3 Dynamic Representation Data ............................................................................. 9
1.1.4 Monitor Data ......................................................................................................... 9
1.1.5 Criteria Data ....................................................................................................... 10
1.1.6 Contingency Data ............................................................................................... 10
1.1.7 Transaction Data ................................................................................................ 10
1.1.8 Other Data .......................................................................................................... 10
1.2 Component Identification Methods.................................................................. 11
1.2.1 Bus Number Identification .................................................................................. 11
1.2.2 Bus Name Identification ..................................................................................... 11
1.2.3 Equipment Name Identification .......................................................................... 12
2 Synchronous Machine Data ................................................................................. 16
2.1 Modelling Considerations ............................................................................... 16
2.1.1 Interface and Initialization ................................................................................... 16
2.1.2 Synchronous Machine ........................................................................................ 16
2.1.3 Saturation ........................................................................................................... 17
2.1.4 Control Systems ................................................................................................. 19
2.1.5 Examples ............................................................................................................ 20
2.2 Synchronous Machine Models and Data Formats........................................... 21
2.3 Exciter/AVR Models and Data Formats .......................................................... 39
2.4 Power System Stabilizer Models and Data Formats ....................................... 59
2.5 Governor Models and Data Formats ............................................................... 65
3 Wind Generator Data............................................................................................. 75
3.1 Modelling Considerations ............................................................................... 75
3.1.1 Interface and Initialization ................................................................................... 75
3.1.2 Modelling Approach ............................................................................................ 75
3.1.3 Model Structure .................................................................................................. 75
3.1.4 Examples ............................................................................................................ 76
3.2 WECC Generic Type 1 Wind Generator Model ............................................... 77
3.3 WECC Generic Type 2 Wind Generator Model ............................................... 82
3.4 WECC Generic Type 3 Wind Generator Model ............................................... 87
3.5 WECC Generic Type 4 Wind Generator Model ............................................... 94
3.6 Enercon WEC Model ENRCN (ExF2) ............................................................. 99

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4 Generator Powerflow Matching and Modification Data .................................... 102


5 Load Data............................................................................................................. 104
5.1 General Structure ......................................................................................... 104
5.2 Modelling Considerations ............................................................................. 106
5.2.1 Interface and Initialization of General Induction Machine ................................ 106
5.2.2 Induction Machine Saturation Representation ................................................. 107
5.2.3 Induction Machine Load Characteristics .......................................................... 107
5.2.4 Induction Machine Under-Voltage Tripping and Reconnection Relay ............. 108
5.2.5 Starting and Restarting of General Induction Motor ......................................... 108
5.2.6 Induction Motor Components in the Composite Load Model ........................... 109
5.2.7 Static Load Components in the Composite Load Model .................................. 110
5.2.8 Application Notes ............................................................................................. 111
5.2.9 Examples .......................................................................................................... 112
5.3 Models and Data Formats ............................................................................ 113
6 Under-Load Tap Changer Data ........................................................................... 130
6.1 Modelling Considerations ............................................................................. 130
6.2 Models and Data Formats ............................................................................ 131
7 FACTS Devices Data ........................................................................................... 137
7.1 Standard SVCs Model and Data Format ....................................................... 138
8 HVDC Links and Converter-Based FACTS Data ............................................... 148
8.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 148
8.1.1 Interface with Powerflow .................................................................................. 149
8.1.2 DC System Solution Parameters...................................................................... 151
8.2 Available Converter Models .......................................................................... 152
8.2.1 Line Commutated Converter Model ................................................................. 152
8.2.2 Self Commutated Voltage-Sourced Converter Model ...................................... 153
8.2.3 Simplified Converter Model .............................................................................. 154
8.3 User-Defined Controls .................................................................................. 156
8.3.1 The UDC Concepts .......................................................................................... 156
8.3.2 Block Definition ................................................................................................. 156
8.3.3 Sources ............................................................................................................ 158
8.3.4 Interfaces .......................................................................................................... 160
8.3.5 Signal Processing ............................................................................................. 163
8.3.6 Naming Conventions ........................................................................................ 168
8.3.7 Relationship to Control Block Diagrams ........................................................... 169
8.3.8 Techniques for Using UDC ............................................................................... 169
8.3.9 Handling Initialization ....................................................................................... 170
8.3.10 Applying STRUCTURE Blocks ......................................................................... 174
8.4 UDC Block Models and Data Formats .......................................................... 176
9 Relay Data ............................................................................................................ 198
9.1 Overview of Relay Models ............................................................................ 198
9.2 Models and Data Formats ............................................................................ 198

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10 Dynamic Representation Data File Format ........................................................ 230


10.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 230
10.2 Basic Rules and Structure ............................................................................ 230
10.3 Area Data Section ........................................................................................ 231
10.4 Zone Data Section ........................................................................................ 232
10.5 Bus Data Section .......................................................................................... 233
10.6 Generator Simplification (By Area) Data Section .......................................... 233
10.7 Generator Simplification (By Zone) Data Section .......................................... 234
10.8 Generator Simplification (By Bus) Data Section ............................................ 235
10.9 Model Representation (System-Wide) Data Section ..................................... 236
10.10 Model Representation (By Area) Data Section ............................................ 237
10.11 Model Representation (By Zone) Data Section ........................................... 237
10.12 Model Representation (by Bus) Data Section .............................................. 237
10.13 Interpretation and Examples ....................................................................... 238
11 Monitor Data ........................................................................................................ 242
11.1 Basic Rules and Structure ............................................................................ 243
11.2 Additional Quantities Data Section................................................................ 245
11.3 Generator Data Section ................................................................................ 246
11.4 Generator State Data Section ....................................................................... 249
11.5 UDM Data Section ........................................................................................ 249
11.6 SVC Data Section......................................................................................... 250
11.7 Motor Data Section ....................................................................................... 251
11.8 Load Data Section ........................................................................................ 253
11.9 Bus Data Section .......................................................................................... 255
11.10 Branch Data Section ................................................................................... 257
11.11 DC Converter Data Section ......................................................................... 259
11.12 DC Control Block Data Section ................................................................... 260
11.13 DC Bus Data Section .................................................................................. 261
11.14 Interface Data Section................................................................................. 261
11.15 Region Data Section ................................................................................... 262
12 Criteria Data ......................................................................................................... 265
12.1 Criteria Data File format................................................................................ 265
12.2 Applications to Contingencies ....................................................................... 274
12.3 Migration of Scenario Parameters to Criteria Data File ................................. 274
12.4 Example ....................................................................................................... 275
13 Contingency Data ................................................................................................ 277
13.1 Basic Concepts............................................................................................. 277
13.2 Switching Command References .................................................................. 279
13.3 Contingency Template .................................................................................. 373
13.3.1 Event Code ....................................................................................................... 373
13.3.2 Subsystem Definition Code .............................................................................. 376

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13.3.3 Contingency Title Code .................................................................................... 377


13.4 Examples...................................................................................................... 380
14 Other Data Requirements ................................................................................... 386
14.1 Transaction Data .......................................................................................... 386
14.1.1 Powerflow Solution Parameter Data File ......................................................... 388
14.1.2 Interface And Circuit File .................................................................................. 390
14.1.3 Transfer file....................................................................................................... 391
14.1.4 Generator Capability File .................................................................................. 407
14.1.5 Generator Coupling File ................................................................................... 410
14.2 Sequence Network Data ............................................................................... 413
15 Data in Non-TSAT Formats ................................................................................. 414
15.1 Importing PTI PSS/E Data ............................................................................ 414
15.1.1 Powerflow Data ................................................................................................ 414
15.1.2 Dynamic Data ................................................................................................... 415
15.1.3 Sequence network data .................................................................................... 422
15.1.4 Other Remarks ................................................................................................. 422
15.1.5 Remarks ........................................................................................................... 422
15.2 Importing GE PSLF Data .............................................................................. 423
15.2.1 Powerflow Data ................................................................................................ 423
15.2.2 Dynamic Data ................................................................................................... 423
15.3 Importing BPA Data ...................................................................................... 428
15.3.1 Powerflow Data ................................................................................................ 428
15.3.2 Dynamic Data ................................................................................................... 428
15.3.3 Data Conversion Remarks ............................................................................... 429

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TSAT Model Manual

1 Introduction

This manual describes the models, and the associated data formats, that are available in the Transient
Security Assessment Tool (TSAT). You may consult other manuals to get additional information of
TSAT:

• TSAT User's Manual for application and operation of TSAT


• UDM Manual for descriptions of user-defined models in TSAT
• DSAOA Manual for application and operation of TSAT’s output analysis module DSAOA

Descriptions of the following data sets are included in this manual:

• Dynamic data
• Relay data
• Dynamic representation data
• Monitor data
• Criteria data
• Contingency data
• Transfer data
• Interface and circuit data
• Generator capability data
• Generator coupling data
• Other TSAT data
• Data in non-TSAT formats

Data that TSAT accepts may not only be in TSAT format, but also be in other widely used formats,
referred to as non-TSAT formats. The TSAT format is described in detail, while for non-TSAT formats
only the necessary information is provided for conversion and interface of various models to TSAT. The
user should consult the appropriate manuals of the concerned programs for their modelling details.

1.1 Overview of the Data Sets

1.1.1 Dynamic Data

Dynamic data refer to the data of those devices in the system, which need to be modelled in dynamic
simulations, but are not included in powerflow data. TSAT supports, either directly or through model
conversion, models of the following devices with various degrees of details:

• Synchronous machine, generator or motor, including controls


• Induction motor and static voltage/frequency dependent load models
• Under-load tap changer, or phase regulator
• FACTS devices such as SVC, STATCOM, TCSC, TCPST, TCBR, UPFC.
• HVDC link
• Wind turbine generator, PV, and energy storage devices (modelled as user-defined model)
• Relay and special protection system (SPS)

In addition to TSAT format, the programs accept dynamic data in the following formats; they can be used
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TSAT Model Manual

together with data in TSAT format at the same time:

• PTI PSS/E
• GE PSLF
• BPA

Dynamic data in TSAT format can be classified into three types:

• Standard AC dynamic models. These include synchronous machine and its control system models
(Section 2), induction machine and other load models (Section 0), under-load tap changer model
(Section 6), and relay models (Section 9).

• User-defined AC dynamic models. These include user-defined models for exciter, power system
stabilizer, governor, UEL, OEL, FACTS devices, wind generator and controls, SPS, etc. (refer to
the UDM Manual for details).

• HVDC and converter-based FACTS models (Section 8).

When preparing dynamic data, it is required that the above three types of models are included in different
data files with the following rules:

• For standard AC dynamic models, the data file must start with the following record:

[DSA 8.0 Dynamics]

In this record, the version number 8.0 may change as new versions of TSAT are released. Data
for each dynamic model is entered with the following general format:

BUS, ‘MODEL’, ID, p1, p2, . . . /

In the above, BUS is the bus number, bus name, or equipment name, to which the dynamic device
is connected, MODEL is model name, ID is the devicde ID, p1, p2, etc are the parameters of the
model. Parameters can be comma or space delimitered. If a parameter is not to be used, it can be
missed from the above list (in such as case, comma must be used as the delimiter to indicate the
missed parameter). The slash (/) must be used to terminate the data of the model. If the data list
for a model is long and cannot be appropriately fit in one data record, it can be continued in the
next record. In such a case, a slash cannot be placed at the end of any data record to be continued.

• For user-defined AC dynamic models, the data file must start with the following record:

[DSA 8.0 UDM]

In this record, the version number 8.0 may change as new versions of TSAT are released. The
data formats for user-defined AC models are described in the UDM Manual.

• For HVDC and converter-based FACTS models, the data file must start with the following record:

[DSA 8.0 UDC]

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In this record, the version number 8.0 may change as new versions of TSAT are released. The
data formats for HVDC and converter-based FACTS models are described in Section 8 of this
manual.

For all three types of models, it is allowed that they are split into multiple data files, provided that the
above file header is correctly included in each data files.

When using dynamic data in non-TSAT format, the default format is specified by the format flag in the
Dynamic Data section of the TSAT case file (see TSAT case file format in TSAT User Manual). If the
format flag is not specified in the TSAT case file, TSAT assumes that the dynamic data is in PTI PSS/E
format.

1.1.2 Relay Data

Common relay models are supported in TSAT. Relay models and data formats are described in Section 9.
When running TSAT, relay data is included in the dynamic data section.

1.1.3 Dynamic Representation Data

The dynamic models specified for a case can be customized using the dynamic representation data, for the
following purposes:

• Dynamics in specific areas, zones, or bus ranges can be ignored


• Generators in specific areas, zones, or bus ranges can be simplified

The dynamic representation data format required in TSAT is the same as the similar data in SSAT. The
format of the dynamic representation data and its usage are described in Section 10.

1.1.4 Monitor Data

TSAT selectively stores the simulation results in a binary result file, based on the specifications in the
monitor data file. Quantities of the following types can be monitored:

• Generator
• Generator state
• UDM (including generator controls and FACTS devices)
• SVC
• Motor
• Load
• Bus
• Branch
• DC converter
• DC control block
• DC bus
• Interface
• Region

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The format of the monitor data is described in Section 11.

1.1.5 Criteria Data

TSAT checks for security violations from simulation results according to the security criteria specified in
criteria data. The security criteria data can include transient stability (several indices are available),
damping, transient voltage, transient frequency, and relay margin.

TSAT allows different types of security criteria to be applied to different components in the system by
using the subsystem concept. The components in a subsystem are monitored during the simulation and if
the criteria specified for them are violated, appropriate actions will be triggered.

The format of the criteria data is described in Section 12.

1.1.6 Contingency Data

Contingency data are used for the following purposes:

• Setting up the disturbance to be simulated, such as a fault and its subsequent clearance
• Manual switching of devices, such as line tripping, generator tripping, and load shedding
• Miscellaneous simulation controls such as simulation length and step size

In TSAT a set of the switching commands defining a sequence of switching activities comprises one
contingency. Multiple contingencies can be embedded in one contingency data file to be used in one
simulation session. Contingency template can also be used to define multiple contingencies by rules. The
format of the contingency data is described in Section 12.

1.1.7 Transaction Data

If transaction analysis is to be performed using TSAT, the following additional data are required:

• Transfer data
• Interface and circuit data
• Generator capability data
• Generator coupling data
• Powerflow solution parameter data

The formats of these data sets are described in Section 14. Since transaction analysis can also be
performedn using Powertech’s VSAT and SSAT programs, additional information is available in the
VSAT and SSAT manuals on these data sets.

1.1.8 Other Data

When using some of the special features in TSAT, the following additional data are required:

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• Powerflow solution parameter data if the base powerflow case needs to be solved using custom
solution parameters. The format of this data is the same as the powerflow solution parameter data
used in transaction analysis.

• Sequence network data if fault impedances are to be computed for unbalanced fault simulations.
TSAT does not have its own format for these data; it accepts data in a non-TSAT format. Section
14 describes the data and the source of the format.

1.2 Component Identification Methods

In TSAT, there are three methods that can be used to identify components (generator, load, shunt, etc.):

• By bus numbers
• By bus names
• By equipment names

The choice of a method can be made independently for a specific data set or a modelling feature. For
example, models in dynamic data can be identified with bus numbers, but the monitoring data in the
TSAT case can be set to use bus names.

Exceptions

• When specifying sequence network data in PSS/E format, only bus number identification method
is allowed.

• Special rules are used for identifying AC buses in DC model data. Refer to Section 7 for details.

1.2.1 Bus Number Identification

A bus number is any integer between 1 and 999999. In most cases, it must be included in the powerflow
data.

1.2.2 Bus Name Identification

A bus name is a 16-character text string. In most cases, it must be matched with powerflow data by some
sort of rules (including capitalization). For example, if the powerflow is in PSS/E Rev 30 format, a bus
name will consist of a 12-character string for the name of the bus as specified in the powerflow and a 4-
character string to indicate the kV rating of the bus.

When bus names are allowed for a data set,

• It must be enclosed in singles quotes and entered in the data. This is required for most for data
sets except for the conitngency data.

• For contingency data, a full 16-character bus name should be entered, without single quotes, right
after the delimiter (;). One exception applies: if a bus name has trailing blank spaces, the blank
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spaces can be ignored if a delimitered item (such as another bus or ID) follows this bus
specification. For example, if the name of a bus is ABC (so there are 13 trailing blank spaces), the
full name must be specified in the following command ( indicates a blank space):

One phase to ground fault at bus ;ABC*

However, for the following command, these trailing spaces can be ignored (assuming that there is
a generator connected at this bus with ID 1:

Disconnect generator ;ABC;1

1.2.3 Equipment Name Identification

An equipment name is a 32-character text string. It can be used to identify any of the following
components:

• Bus
• Shunt (fixed or switchable)
• Load
• Generator
• Transmission line
• Transformer (two-winding or three-winding)

In order to use equipment names to identify components, these names must be included in the powerflow
data. Note that since in this option each component is identified entirely by an equipment name, some
concepts used in bus number and bus name identification method are not applicable; for example, there is
no generator ID, no from-bus and to-bus, etc.). As a result, data format may change. The following gives
the general rules in using equipment names to identify components.

Bus

Generally, a node name is placed in the data where the bus is required. The following comments apply to
some special situations.

In dynamic data, if a remote bus in a model is not used, enter either a blank string (‘ ’) or 0. For example,

'GENERATOR ABCD ','IEEEG1',4,’ ’,0,25,0.125,0,0.45,2,-2,0.87,0,0.2,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,/

or

'GENERATOR ABCD ','IEEEG1',4,0,0,25,0.125,0,0.45,2,-2,0.87,0,0.2,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,/

are both valid.

Shunt

For the Disconnect shunt command in contingency data,

• A fixed shunt name must be provided for the Disconnect fixed shunt command.
• A switchable shunt name must be provided for the Disconnect switched shunt command.
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• A node name must be provided for the Disconnect shunt command. In this case, all shunts
connected at the bus denoted by the node name will be disconnected.

To specify an SVC in monitor data or to add an SVC tripping action in an SPS model, an optional ID can
be provided to indicate the type of component in the powerflow data to interface:

• If the ID = ‘FS’: the SVC name must be a fixed shunt name


• If the ID = ‘SS’: the SVC name must be a switchable shunt name
• If the ID = ‘SH’: the SVC name must be a node name; the outputs are from all shunts at the node
• If the ID is not specified, the SVC name must be a generator name

Load

Generally, a load name is placed in the data where the load bus is required. The following comments
apply to some special situations.

For the IEELBL model in dynamic data, if ID = *, bus name must be specified in the bus data field; if ID
= anything else, load name must be specified in the bus data field.

In contingency data, the following commands include specification of an induction motor. To determine
how the motor is interfaced with the powerflow data, an ID GN (without any quotes) can be specified in
the second data field (motor ID field) to indicate that the induction motor is interfaced with a generator in
the powerflow data. In this case, a generator name should actually be provided for the motor in the first
data field (motor bus field). If this ID is not provided and a motor name (in single quotes) is specified in
the first data field (motor bus field), TSAT will try to match the motor name with any available load
names in the powerflow data, and if unsuccessful with any node names:

Disconnect induction motor


Change induction motor torque

The above approach also applies when preparing other types of data involving motors (for example,
monitor data and SPS data).

Generator

Generally, a generator name is placed in the data where the generator bus is required. Generator ID must
still be kept but will be ignored. The following comments apply to some special situations.

Transmission lines and transformers

Generally, a line (or transformer) name is placed in the data where the first bus is required for such
components. The following comments apply to some special situations.

Some relay models may trip a line. A line name must be entered in the from-bus data field. The to-bus
and line ID data fields are not used but must be kept.

When preparing interface data for transaction analysis, a special convention is used to indicate the flow
and direction on a circuit included in an interface. Referring to Figure 1-1, use the following methods to
obtain four possible flows for a circuit:

Include branch = 'LINEID-ABC-XYZ 12 ' 0 For flow A

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Include branch = '-LINEID-ABC-XYZ 12 ' 0 For flow B


Include branch = 'LINEID-ABC-XYZ 12 ' 1 For flow C
Include branch = '-LINEID-ABC-XYZ 12 ' 1 For flow D

In this method, it is assumed that the from-bus and to-bus are the buses defined in powerflow for the
circuit.

From-bus To-bus
'LINEID-ABC-XYZ 12 '

A C
B D

Figure 1-1: Flow definition with equipment name definition

In contingency data, the following commands include specification of a branch (either a transmission line
or a transformer). The branch name (in single quotes) should be provided in the first data field (from-bus
field). Optionally, a node name (in single quotes) may be provided in the second data field (to-bus field)
to indicate the “from side” of the branch (if this node name is not provided, the from-bus in the
powerflow data is assumed as the from-side of the branch):

Three phase fault on line


One phase to ground fault on line
Two phase to ground fault on line
Add line
Add pi line
Add transformer
Modify line
Modify pi line
Modify transformer
Remove line
Remove three winding transformer
Reconnect line
Tap line

The above approach also applies when preparing other types of data involving branches (for example,
ULTC data, SPS data, monitor data).

Equipment name identification method does not apply to sectional lines. So the following commands in
contingency data are not supported (if these are required, another method must be used):

Modify sectional line


Remove sectional line
Reconnect sectional line
Flash capacitor gap
Reinsert capacitor gap

Similarly, equipment name identification method cannot be used for relay model TTMSL.

Area and zone


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Some of the models are identified by areas and zones (for example, load models). With the equipment
name option, the area and zone names included in the powerflow case should be used for this purpose.

Other

Due to the nature of the data requirements, following commands in contingency data are not supported for
equipment name method:

Pre-simulation outage
Pre-simulation dispatch

Similarly, the “Model Representation (by Bus) Data Section” in dynamic representation data is not
supported with the equipment name identification option.

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TSAT Model Manual

2 Synchronous Machine Data

TSAT supports various synchronous machine models, generator and motor, including their controls. This
section describes the machine data in TSAT format only. Machine data in non-TSAT formats, namely,
PTI PSS/E, GE PSLF, and BPA are also accepted in TSAT, as described in Section 15.

2.1 Modelling Considerations

2.1.1 Interface and Initialization

A synchronous machine in TSAT is interfaced with generator data in the powerflow. Accordingly,
dynamic models for synchronous machines must match generator data in the powerflow data. The
following rules apply when matching dynamic models with powerflow data:

• A synchronous machine is identified by its bus number/name and ID. Only when both bus
number/name and ID match, dynamic models of a synchronous machine is assigned to the
generator in the powerflow data. Models in dynamic data that cannot be matched with any
generators in powerflow data are ignored. Likewise, generators in powerflow data that do not
have matching models in dynamic data are net out as constant impedance.

Alternatively, a synchronous machine can be matched with the powerflow data by using the
equipment name method. Refer to Section 1.2 for details.

• The terminal voltage, active, and reactive power of a synchronous machine are obtained from
powerflow data and are used to initialize the machine. In addition, the rated generator MVA base
and machine source impedance in powerflow data may also be used for dynamic models (refer to
individual models for details).

• If the active power output of a generator is negative in powerflow data, a synchronous motor
model is assumed. Otherwise, a generator model is assumed.

A synchronous machine may be represented by the following set of models:

• Synchronous machine and saturation (mandatory)


• Exciter/AVR (optional)
• Power system stabilizer (optional)
• Governor (optional)
• Other controls (optional)

Each of these models has a unique model type. The models for one generator can be entered
independently in any order in a dynamic data file. If more than one model exists for a device (for example
an exciter/AVR model at a generator), the last model is used.

2.1.2 Synchronous Machine

The synchronous machine models used in TSAT generally follow those described in the following book:

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TSAT Model Manual

P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Sychronous machine parameters can be entered in either basic form (in terms of reactances and
resistences) or standard form (in terms of reactances and tiem constants). Effect of magnetic saturation
can be modelled using a number of options as described in Section 2.1.3.

2.1.3 Saturation

Four saturation models are available to represent magnetic saturation in synchronous machine:

• Type 1: exponential model on d-axis

• Type 2: exponential model on both axis (same characteristics)

• Type 4: quadratic model on d-axis

• Type 5: quadratic model on both axis (same characteristics)

Exponential saturation model

The exponential model uses the saturation curve shown in Figure 2-1. This saturation curve is divided
into three regions, which are modelled differently.

Region I

This region is up to a flux linkage value of ψL and corresponds to the air-gap line. No saturation effect is
considered in this region.

Air-gap Line

ψ A
M
Flux Linkage or Machine Terminal Voltage

ψ IM
ψ A
N

ψM
ψN
ψ KA
ψK
Region III
ψL

Region II

Region I

MMF or Machine Field Current

Figure 2-1: Open circuit saturation curve for a synchronous machine

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TSAT Model Manual

Region II

This region is between ψL and ψM. A saturation factor, Ksat, is calculated to account for the saturation
effect:

ψ
K sat =
ψ + ψ1

where ψ is the actual flux linkage in Region II. ψ1 is a function of ψ given by

(ψ -ψ L )
ψ l = Asat e B sat

The Asat and Bsat constants can be calculated from any two points, ψ K and ψ N , in Region II on the
saturation curve and the corresponding points, ψ AK and ψ AN , on the airgap line, as follows:

ψ AN -ψ N 
ln A 
 ψ K -ψ K 
Bsat =
ψ N -ψ K

ψ AN -ψ N
Asat = (ψ -ψ )
eBsat N L

Region III

This corresponds to flux linkage higher than ψ M . The characteristic in this region is assumed to be a
straight line. The saturation factor, Ksat, is calculated as:

ψ
K sat = A
ψM + RS(ψ - ψ M )

where ψ AM is the flux linkage on the air gap line corresponding to ψ M and RS is the ratio of the slopes of
air gap line and the characteristic in Region III.

The saturated values of Xad and Xaq are computed by multiplying the unsaturated values by their
respective saturation factor Ksat.

Quadratic saturation model

The quadratic saturation model is handled as follows.

• The saturation model is assumed to be


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TSAT Model Manual

B( V − A )2
S=
V

where V is the machine terminal voltage magnitude, A and B are coefficients determined from
the input S(1.0) and S(1.2) given at V=1.0 pu and V=1.2 pu.

• There are only two regions for evaluation of the saturation factor: a linear region for V ≤ A and
the nonlinear region for V > A.

• In the nonlinear region, the saturation effect is modelled by the “excitation boost” method, i.e.,
the saturation effect is accounted for by adjusting the flux linkages to achieve the same machine
terminal voltage.

Remarks

When TSAT converts a saturation model in a non-TSAT format, the approach used will be the same as
that required for the particular saturation model, which may be different from the approach described
above.

2.1.4 Control Systems

A synchronous machine may have a number of controls systems. These systems can be modelled as
follows:

• Exciter/AVR: an exciter/AVR model can be added to any synchronous machine model except for
the classical model (CGEN). Generally two types of exciter/AVR models can be used:

 Standard models: these models are described in Section 2.3.


 User-defined models: these models are described in DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model
Manual.

• Power system stabilizer (PSS): a PSS model can be added to any synchronous machine model
that has an exciter/AVR model. Geneally two types of PSS models can be used:

 Standard models: these models are described in Section 2.4.


 User-defined models: these models are described in DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model
Manual.

• Overdexcitation limiter (OEL): an OEL model can be added to any synchronous machine model
that has an exciter/AVR model. OEL can only be modelled by user-defined models, as described
in DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model Manual.

• Underexcitation limiter (UEL): a UEL model can be added to any synchronous machine model
that has an exciter/AVR model. UEL can only be modelled by user-defined models, as described
in DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model Manual.

• Turbine/governor: a turbine/governor model can be added to any synchronous machine model.


Geneally two types of turbine/governor models can be used:

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TSAT Model Manual

 Standard models: these models are described in Section 2.5.


 User-defined models: these models are described in DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model
Manual.

2.1.5 Examples

Figure 2-2 shows the sample data of a synchronous machine with exciter/AVR and governor models.

123,'DG0S5',1,700,0,1.88,1.85,0.2,0.31,0.48,0.27,0.27,6.4,0.71,0.017,0.027,
3.1,0.0,0,0.13,0.56/
123,'EXC1', 1,0,0,100.0,0.02,1,0.76,0,0,0,0,0.04,1.0,0,0,3.5,-3.5,0,0,0,0,0/
123,'GOV4', 1,0,0,1.0,20.0,0.1,0,0.035,1,0,0.26,11.1,0.31,0,0.28,0,0.72,0,0,0,0/

Figure 2-2: Sample dynamic model data of a synchronous machine

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TSAT Model Manual

2.2 Synchronous Machine Models and Data Formats

There are 9 synchronous machine models with various degrees of model complexity, parameter forms,
and saturation models. These models and their data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S1

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in standard form and type 1 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG0S1’, I, MVA, Ra, Xd, Xq, Xl, X′d, X′q, X″d, X″q, T′d0, T′q0, T″d0, T″q0, H, KD, α, Asat, Bsat, ψL, ψM, RS /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xd - Unsaturated direct axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xq - Unsaturated quadrature axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′d - Unsaturated direct axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′q - Unsaturated quadrature axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″d - Unsaturated direct axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″q - Unsaturated quadrature axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T′d0 - Direct axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T′q0 - Quadrature axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″d0 - Direct axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″q0 - Quadrature axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
Asat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
Bsat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
ψL - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region II characteristic starts.
ψM - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region III characteristic starts.
RS - Ratio of the slopes of air-gap line and the Region III characteristic.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S1

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkq1 ψkq2
* optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero.

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xd, Xq, X′d, T′do, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.
2. If T″do < Tmin , then T″do is set to zero.
3. If T″qo < Tmin , then T″qo is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S2

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in standard form and type 2 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG0S2’, I, MVA, Ra, Xd, Xq, Xl, X′d, X′q, X″d, X″q, T′d0, T′q0, T″d0, T″q0, H, KD, α, Asat, Bsat, ψL, ψM, RS /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xd - Unsaturated direct axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xq - Unsaturated quadrature axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′d - Unsaturated direct axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′q - Unsaturated quadrature axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″d - Unsaturated direct axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″q - Unsaturated quadrature axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T′d0 - Direct axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T′q0 - Quadrature axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″d0 - Direct axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″q0 - Quadrature axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used onlu for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
Asat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
Bsat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
ψL - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region II characteristic starts.
ψM - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region III characteristic starts.
RS - Ratio of the slopes of air-gap line and the Region III characteristic.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S2

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkq1 ψkq2
* optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero.

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xd, Xq, X′d, T′do, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.
2. If T″do < Tmin , then T″do is set to zero.
3. If T″qo < Tmin , then T″qo is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S4

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in standard form and type 4 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG0S4’, I, MVA, Ra, Xd, Xq, Xl, X′d, X′q, X″d, X″q, T′d0, T′q0, T″d0, T″q0, H, KD, α, S(1.0), S(1.2) /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xd - Unsaturated direct axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xq - Unsaturated quadrature axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′d - Unsaturated direct axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′q - Unsaturated quadrature axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″d - Unsaturated direct axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″q - Unsaturated quadrature axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T′d0 - Direct axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T′q0 - Quadrature axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″d0 - Direct axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″q0 - Quadrature axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
S(1.0) - Saturation coefficient.
S(1.2) - Saturation coefficient.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S4

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkq1 ψkq2
* optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero.

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xd, Xq, X′d, T′do, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.
2. If T″do < Tmin , then T″do is set to zero.
3. If T″qo < Tmin , then T″qo is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S5

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in standard form and type 5 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG0S5’, I, MVA, Ra, Xd, Xq, Xl, X′d, X′q, X″d, X″q, T′d0, T′q0, T″d0, T″q0, H, KD, α, S(1.0), S(1.2) /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xd - Unsaturated direct axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xq - Unsaturated quadrature axis synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′d - Unsaturated direct axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′q - Unsaturated quadrature axis transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″d - Unsaturated direct axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X″q - Unsaturated quadrature axis subtransient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T′d0 - Direct axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T′q0 - Quadrature axis transient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″d0 - Direct axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
T″q0 - Quadrature axis subtransient open circuit time constant in seconds.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
S(1.0) - Saturation coefficient.
S(1.2) - Saturation coefficient.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG0S5

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkq1 ψkq2
* optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero.

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xd, Xq, X′d, T′do, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.
2. If T″do < Tmin , then T″do is set to zero.
3. If T″qo < Tmin , then T″qo is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S1

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in basic form and type 1 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG1S1’, I, MVA, Xad, Xaq, Xl, Ra, Xfd, Rfd, Xkq1, Rkq1, Xkd1, Rkd1, Xkq2, Rkq2, Xkd2, Rkd2, Xkq3, Rkq3, H, KD, α,
Asat, Bsat, ψL, ψM, RS /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Xad - Unsaturated direct axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xaq - Unsaturated quadrature axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xfd - Field winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rfd - Field winding resistance in per unit on machines MVA base.
Xkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd1 - First direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd1 - First direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
Asat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
Bsat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
ψL - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region II characteristic starts.
ψM - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region III characteristic starts.
RS - Ratio of the slopes of air-gap line and the Region III characteristic.

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Powertech Labs Inc. Page 30


TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S1

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6* +7* +8*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkd2 ψkq1 ψkq2 ψkq3
*optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xad, Xaq, Xfd, Rfd, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S2

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in basic form and type 2 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG1S2’, I, MVA, Xad, Xaq, Xl, Ra, Xfd, Rfd, Xkq1, Rkq1, Xkd1, Rkd1, Xkq2, Rkq2, Xkd2, Rkd2, Xkq3, Rkq3, H, KD, α,
Asat, Bsat, ψL, ψM, RS /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Xad - Unsaturated direct axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xaq - Unsaturated quadrature axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xfd - Field winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rfd - Field winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd1 - First direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd1 - First direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
Asat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
Bsat - Coefficient in saturation characteristic.
ψL - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region II characteristic starts.
ψM - Flux linkage on the saturation curve where the Region III characteristic starts.
RS - Ratio of the slopes of air-gap line and the Region III characteristic.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S2

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6* +7* +8*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkd2 ψkq1 ψkq2 ψkq3
*optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xad, Xaq, Xfd, Rfd, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

Powertech Labs Inc. Page 33


TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S4

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in basic form and type 4 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG1S4’, I, MVA, Xad, Xaq, Xl, Ra, Xfd, Rfd, Xkq1, Rkq1, Xkd1, Rkd1, Xkq2, Rkq2, Xkd2, Rkd2, Xkq3, Rkq3, H, KD, α,
S(1.0), S(1.2) /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Xad - Unsaturated direct axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xaq - Unsaturated quadrature axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xfd - Field winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rfd - Field winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd1 - First direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd1 - First direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
S(1.0) - Saturation coefficient.
S(1.2) - Saturation coefficient.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S4

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6* +7* +8*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkd2 ψkq1 ψkq2 ψkq3
*optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xad, Xaq, Xfd, Rfd, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S5

Model Descriptions

This model uses parameters in basic form and type 5 saturation model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘DG1S5’, I, MVA, Xad, Xaq, Xl, Ra, Xfd, Rfd, Xkq1, Rkq1, Xkd1, Rkd1, Xkq2, Rkq2, Xkd2, Rkd2, Xkq3, Rkq3, H, KD, α,
S(1.0), S(1.2) /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Xad - Unsaturated direct axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xaq - Unsaturated quadrature axis mutual reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xfd - Field winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rfd - Field winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq1 - First quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd1 - First direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd1 - First direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq2 - Second quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkd2 - Second direct axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Rkq3 - Third quadrature axis damper winding resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).
α - This parameter is used only for synchronous motor, as the exponential in the load
α
characteristic of the motor: Tm = Kω (K is determined by TSAT based on the initial
condition). It is ignored for generator model.
S(1.0) - Saturation coefficient.
S(1.2) - Saturation coefficient.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model DG1S5

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6* +7* +8*


Variable ω δ ψfd ψkd1 ψkd2 ψkq1 ψkq2 ψkq3
*optional state – not counted if the associated parameters are zero

Data Restrictions

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xad, Xaq, Xfd, Rfd, and H. These parameters cannot
be equal to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Synchronous Machine Model CGEN

Model Descriptions

This represents the so-called classical model for synchronous machine. Saturation is not applicable to this
model.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘CGEN’, I, MVA, Ra, X′d, H, KD /


Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Ra - Armature resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′d - Transient (or subtransient) reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
H - Inertia time constant of the machine in MW-second/MVA.
KD - Damping coefficient in (p.u. torque)/(p.u. speed deviation).

If both Ra and X′d are zero or not entered, the values in powerflow data are used.

State Counter

The synchronous machine states are counted first in a generator.

State +1 +2

Variable ω δ

Data Restriction

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is X’d and H. These parameters cannot be equal to
zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

2.3 Exciter/AVR Models and Data Formats

There are 13 standard exciter/AVR models in TSAT format. An exciter/AVR can be added to a generator
with any synchronous machine model, except for the classical model (CGEN).

The main input signal for an exciter/AVR is bus voltage magnitude from either the local generator
terminal bus (default), or a remote bus (specified by the parameter BUSR). Other input signals (from PSS,
OEL, and/or UEL) may be added at various locations in AVR as indicated by the flags LVS, IVOEL, and
IVUEL.

Each exciter/AVR model has a line-drop compensation function (with parameters RC and XC). This
function is included in the model only if either RC or XC is non-zero, and generator terminal voltage is
used as the feedback signal (i.e., BUSR = 0).

For rotating excitation system, a saturation model can be applied to account for the saturation effect in
exciter. The exponential saturation model (same as the one described in Section 2.1.3) is used.
Simplifications are made by assuming only two regions for a saturation curve, a linear region and a
nonlinar region. The breakpoint for these two regions is determined automatically from the saturation
characteristics provided using four parameters, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), where E is the exciter output voltage
and S is the saturation function value.

A data checking feature in TSAT checks for small time constants in exciter/AVR models and makes sure
that they do not cause potential problems in simulations. The rules used for the checking are described for
each exciter/AVR model. The minimum time constant, Tmin, is described in TSAT User Manual. This
data checking feature can be disabled in TSAT. Refer to TSAT User Manual on how to do this.

Each exciter/AVR model has a number of common parameters shown below:

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
BUSR - Bus number, name, or node equipment name of a remote bus whose voltage is taken as input
for the AVR. If the local machine bus voltage is to be used, set BUSR to 0.

The standard exciter/AVR models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC1

Model Descriptions

VREF (2) VT
VRMAX
E TV

VT +
VC 1 1 + sTC HV KA VR + 1 VE EFD
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ ∑
1 + sTR + 1 + sTB GATE 1 + sTA sTE
IT

(1A) +
VT
VRMIN ∑ KE
ETV
(1B) +

S E (VE )

sK F
1 + sTF

Notes:

1. PSS output signal is added to (1A) 2. UEL output signal is added to:
OEL output signal is added to (1B) (1A) if IVUEL= 0 or 1
(2) if IVUEL= 2

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC1’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, KA, TA, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KF, TF, TC, TB, VRMAX,
VRMIN, ETV, ETMIN, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA< Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
VT
6. If ETV = 0, is set to 1.0.
E TV
7. If VT < ETMIN, VR is set to 1.0.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5

Control Block TR TF TB TA TE

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC2

Model Descriptions

VREF VT
VRMAX
E TV
+
VT +
VC 1 1 + sTC KA VR + 1 VE EFD
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ ∑
1 + sTR + 1 + sTB 1 + sTA sTE
IT

(1A) RX
VT
VRMIN
E TV
(1B) +
∑ SE (VE )
+

sK F
1 + sTF
Notes:

1. PSS and UEL output signals are added to (1A)


OEL output signal is added to (1B)

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC2’, I, BUSR, KA, TA, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KF, TF, TC, TB, VRMAX, VRMIN, ETV,
ETMIN, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
VT
6. If ETV = 0, is set to 1.0.
E TV
7. If VT < ETMIN, VR is set to 1.0.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5

Control Block TR TF TB TA TE

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC3

Model Descriptions

V/Hz Limit IFD


0.0
E
E/f K 22
÷ +
∑ K21
s
f (p.u.) K CIFD
-1.0 IN =
VTH
IN
VREF ′
XDE − XDE X′DE FEX = f (IN )
VRMAX
F EX
VT VC + +
1 + 1 + sTC 1 + sTK 1 + sTC1 + 1 VE + + E FD
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT + ∑
KA ∑ ∑ ×
1 + sTR 1 + sTB 1 + sTA 1 + sTB1 sTE VTH
IT +
(1A) V EMIN
VRMIN
+
∑ KE
(1B)
+
VOMX
ETLMT SE (VE )
VT + 1 + sTL1 sKF
∑ K ETL ∑
1 + sTL2 1 + sTF

Notes:
1.0 − 0.58IN IN ≤ 0.433
 2
1. PSS and UEL output signals are added to (1A) 2. FEX =  0.75 − IN 0.433 < IN < 0.75
OEL output signal is added to (1B) 1.732(1.0 − I ) I ≥ 0.75
 N N

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC3’, I, BUSR, KA, TA, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KC, KF, TF, TC, TB, TC1, TB1, VRMAX,
VRMIN, VEMIN, TK, XDE, X′DE, KETL, TL1, TL2, ETLMT, VOMX, K21, K22, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA< Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
6. If TB ≠ 0 and TB1 < Tmin, then TB1 is set to zero.
7. If TL2 ≠ 0 and TL2 < Tmin then TL2 is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC3

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8*
Control
Block TR K22 TL2 TF TB TA TE TB1
*optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC4

Model Descriptions

+ V LN
K LN ∑

V REF VFEMAX − (XDE − X′DE )IFD


VAMAX K E + SE (VE )

VT VC +
1 1 + sTC HV + KA + + 1 VE + VTH + EFD
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ ∑ × ∑ ∑ ×
1 + sTR + 1 + sTB GATE 1 + sTA sTE
IT + +
FEX
(1A) (B) (2) VEMIN
VAMIN
FEX = f (IN )
(1B)
(A) ∑ + KE X′DE
+ IN
KR

+ K I
S E (VE ) IN = C FD
+ VTH
VF
VN
KN ′
XDE − XDE IFD
s VN KF
1 + sTF
EFD
EFDN
Notes:

1. PSS output signal is added to (1A) 3. VF is added to: (A) if LVF = 0


OEL output signal is added to (1B) (B) if LVF = 1

2. UEL output signal is added to: 1.0 − 0.58IN IN ≤ 0.433


(1A) if IVUEL = 0 or 1  2
(2) if IVUEL = 2 4. FEX =  0.75 - IN 0.433 < IN < 0.75
1.732(1.0 − I ) I ≥ 0.75
 N N

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC4’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, LVF, KA, TA, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KC, KF, KN, EFDN, TF,
TC, TB, VAMAX, VAMIN, VFEMAX, VEMIN, KR, XDE, X′DE, KLN, VLN, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
6. KLN > 0.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC4

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
Control
Block TR TF TB TA TE

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC5

Model Descriptions

V/Hz Limit VREF VOMX ETLMT


0.0
VT VC VT
1 E E/f + + 1 + sTL1
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT
1 + sTR
÷ +
∑ K 21
K 22
s
∑ K ETL
1 + sTL2
∑ +
IT f (p.u.)
-1.0

VAMAX VRMAX
(2) (B)

+ 1+ sTC 1+ sT6 1+ sTC2 HV LV + 1 VE + V TH + EFD


KA ∑ ∑ ×
+ ∑ 1+ sTB 1+ sTA 1+ sTB2 GATE GATE sTE
(1) +
V EMIN FEX
V AMIN V RMIN
(A) FEX = f (IN)
s KF SE(VE ) X′DE
IN
1+ sTF +
+
∑ KE K I
Notes: IN = C FD
+ VTH

1. PSS output signal is added to (1) 3. OEL output signal is added to: IFD
+
(A) if IVOEL = 0 or 1 ′
XDE − XDE
2. UEL output signal is added to: (B) if IVOEL = 2
(1) if IVUEL = 0 or 1
(2) if IVUEL = 2 1.0 − 0.58IN IN ≤ 0.433
 2
4. FEX =  0.75 − IN 0.433 < IN < 0.75
1.732(1.0 − I ) I ≥ 0.75
 N N

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC5’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, IVOEL, KA, TA, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KC, KF, TF, TC, TB,
TC2, TB2, VAMAX, VAMIN, VRMAX, VRMIN, VEMIN, T6, XDE, X′DE, KETL, TL1, TL2, ETLMT, VOMX,
K21, K22, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
6. If TB1 ≠ 0 and TB1 < Tmin, then TB1 is set to zero.
7. If TL2 ≠ 0 and TL2 < Tmin, then TL2 is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC5

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8*
Control Block TR K22 TL2 TF TB TA TE TB2
*optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC6

Model Descriptions

VT VC
1
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT
1 + sTR
IT

VREF VFEMAX − (XDE − XDE′ )IFD


VAMAX (2) (B) K E + SE (VE )
VRMAX
+ 1 + sTC KA + + 1 VE + V TH EFD
LV HV LV +
∑ ∑ KB ∑ ∑ ×
+ 1 + sTB 1 + sTA GATE GATE GATE sTE +
(1)
V RMIN FEX
VAMIN 0
(A) KL ∑
+ SE (VE ) X′DE FEX = f (IN )
VLMT
KH + IN
∑ + KE K I
+ IN = C FD
sK F VTH

1 + sTF + X − X′ IFD
Notes: DE DE

1. PSS output signal is added to (1) 3. OEL output signal is added to:
(A) if IVOEL = 0 or 1
2. UEL output signal is added to: (B) if IVOEL = 2
(1) if IVUEL = 0 or 1
(2) if IVUEL = 2 1.0 − 0.58IN IN ≤ 0.433
 2
4. FEX =  0.75 − IN 0.433 < IN < 0.75
1.732(1.0 − I ) I ≥ 0.75
 N N

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC6’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, IVOEL, KA, TA, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KC, KF, TF, TC, TB,
VAMAX, VAMIN, VRMAX, VRMIN, VFEMAX, XDE, X′DE, KB, KH, KL, VLMT, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5

Control Block TR TF TB TA TE

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC7

Model Descriptions
V REF (2)
VRMAX EFDMAX

VT VC + VI
1 HV 1 + sTC KA VR 1 EFD
VC = VT + (RC + jX C )IT ∑ A ∑
1 + sTR + GATE 1 + sTB 1 + sTA + + sTE
IT
VB +
(1A) VRMIN 0

KE
(1B)
sKF
1 + sTF
(
VT VE +
VE = K P VT + jK IIT ×
IT +
FEX

Notes: FEX = f (IN )


IN
1. PSS output signal is added to (1A) 3. Arithmetic at junction A:
K I IFD
OEL output signal is added to (1B) VI = VR ⋅ VB if LVI = 0 IN = C FD
VE
2. UEL output signal is added to: VI = VR + VB if LVI = 1
(1A) if IVUEL = 0 or 1
(2) if IVUEL = 2 1.0 − 0.58IN IN ≤ 0.433

4. FEX =  0.75 − IN2 0.433 < IN < 0.75
1.732(1.0 − I ) IN ≥ 0.75

N

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC7’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, LVI, KA, TA, KE, TE, KC, KF, TF, TC, TB, VRMAX, VRMIN, EFDMAX,
KP, KI, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
6. KP and KI must not be zero simultaneously.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5

Control Block TR TF TB TA TE

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC8

Model Descriptions

VGMAX

KG
VREF (2)
VRMAX VMMAX
VIMAX
VC + EFMAX
VT EFD
1 HV 1 + sTC KA + KM +
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ ∑ ×
1 + sTR + GATE 1 + sTB 1 + sTA 1 + sTM
IT
+
VIMIN
(1A) VRMIN VMMIN

(1B) sKF
1 + sTF
(
VBMAX
VT VE
VE = K P V T + j(K I + K P XL )IT + ×
IT + F
EX
Notes:
FEX = f (IN )
1. PSS output signal is added to (1A) IN
OEL output signal is added to (1B) IFD
K CIFD
IN =
2. UEL output signal is added to (1A) if IVUEL = 0 or 1 VE
(2) if IVUEL = 2

1.0 - 0.58IN IN ≤ 0.433



jθ p 2
3. K p = K p e 4. FEX =  0.75 − IN 0.433 < IN < 0.75
1.732(1.0 − I ) I ≥ 0.75
 N N

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC8’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, KM, TM, KA, TA, KG, VIMAX, VIMIN, VRMAX, VRMIN, VMMAX,
VMMIN, VGMAX, EFMAX, KC, KF, TF, TC, TB, KP, KI, θP, XL, VBMAX, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If KG ≠ 0 and TM < 0.4, then TM is set to 0.4.


KG = 0 and TM < Tmin, then Tm is set to Tmin.
2. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
6. KP and KI must not be zero simultaneously.
7. θP is in degrees.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC8

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
Control Block TR TF TB TA TM

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC9

Model Descriptions

V REF
KV VRMA X EFDMAX

VC +
VT IF |VERR |> KV, VR = VRMAX EFD
1 VRMAX − VRMIN + 1
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ IF |VERR < −KV, VR = VRMIN ∑
1 + sTR VERR sK V TRH IF |VERR | < KV, VR = VRH sTE
IT +
VRH
−KV VRMIN EFDMIN

+
KE
(1A) +
(1B)

Notes: S E (VE )

1. PSS and UEL output signals are added to (1A)


OEL output signal is added to (1B)

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC9’, I, BUSR, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), KV, TRH, EFDMAX, EFDMIN, VRMAX, VRMIN,
TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. TE > 0; if TE < Tmin, then TE is set to Tmin.


2. KV ≠ 0.
3. TRH > 0; if KV . TRH < Tmin, then TRH is set to Tmin / KV.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4

Control Block TR TRH TB TE

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC10

Model Descriptions

V REF
VRMAX

VT +
VC 1 1 + sTC KA + 1 VE EFD
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ ∑
1 + sTR + 1 + sTB 1 + sTA sTE
IT
(1A)
VRMIN +
∑ KE
(1B) +

sKF 1+ sTF3
SE (VE )
1 + sTF1 1 + sTF2
Notes:

1. PSS and UEL output signals are added to (1A)


OEL output signal is added to (1B)

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC10’, I, BUSR, KA, TA, KE, TE, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), TC, TB, KF, TF1, TF3, TF2, VRMAX,
VRMIN, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin and either of the following conditions is satisfied: TF1 = 0 or the TB block
exits (i.e. TB ≠ 0 and TB ≠ TC), then TA is set to zero.
2. If TA < Tmin and TF1 ≠ 0 and the TB block does not exist (i.e. TB = 0 or TB = Tc), then TA is set to
Tmin.
3. TE > 0; if TE < 10×Tmin, then TE is set to 10×Tmin.
4. If TF1 ≠ 0 and TF1 < Tmin, then TF1 is set to zero.
5. If TF2 ≠ 0 and TF2 < Tmin, then TF2 is set to zero.
6. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
7. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4* +5* +6*

Control Block TR TE KA TF2 TF1 TB


*optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC30

Model Descriptions
VREF

VT +
VC 1
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑
1 + sTR
IT (2) VT
VRMAX − K VFIFD
VSMAX VIMAX E TV
(1A)
+
(1B) + + 1 + sTC KA E FD
+ HV
∑ ∑ ∑
1 + sTB GATE 1 + sTA
VOMX
ETLMT
VSMIN VIMIN VT
VT + 1 + sTL1 VRMIN + K VFIFD
∑ K ETL E TV
1 + sTL2

IFD + sK F 1+ sTF1
∑ KIFL
1 + sTF 1 + sTF2

IFLMT

Notes:
VT
1. PSS output signal is added to (1A) 3. For bus - fed exciter, VRMAX − K VFIFD is set to zero
OEL output signal is added at (1B) E TV
if VT < E TMIN . For alternator - fed exciter, enter zero
2. UEL output signal is added to
(1A) if IVUEL = 0 or 1 for E TV .
(2) if IVUEL = 2

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC30’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, KA, TA, TC, TB, KF, TF, TF1, TF2, VIMAX, VIMIN, VRMAX, VRMIN,
ETV, KVF, ETMIN, KIFL, IFLMT, KETL, TL1, TL2, ETLMT, VOMX, VSMAX, VSMIN, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin then TA is set to Tmin.


2. If KF = 0, then TF is set to zero.
If TF = 0, then KF is set to zero.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB < Tmin and TA = 0 and TF ≠ 0 then TB is set Tmin.
If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, and either of the following conditions is satisfied: TA≠ 0 or TF = 0, then TB
is set to zero.
6. If TF2 ≠ 0 and TF2 < Tmin, then TF2 is set to zero.
7. If TL2 ≠ 0 and TL2 < Tmin, then TL2 is set to zero.
VT
8. If ETV = 0, is set to 1.0.
E TV

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC30

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2* +3* +4* +5* +6


Control
Block TR TL2 TF2 TF TB TA
* optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC32

Model Descriptions

VREF
VT +
VC 1
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT
1 + sTR Σ
IT
VT
VRMAX − K VFIFD
V SMAX VIMAX ETV
(1A)
ETLMT V OMX
+ +
(1B) 1 + sTC + KA EFD
+
VT
+ 1 + sTL1 Σ Σ 1 + sTB
Σ 1 + sTA
Σ K ETL
1 + sTL2
0 V SMIN VIMIN VT
VOMN
(A) (B) (C) VRMIN + K VFIFD
E TV
VT
VTMAX
V TMIN
HV
Vout Time
GATE
VOMX VOMXe-ACON(t-t2) V out
1+ sTF1 sTF
0 Time 1 + sTF2 1 + sTF
t1 t2 t3
BCON
t3 − t2 =
ACON
+ IFD
KIFL Σ
Notes: IFLMT

1. PSS and UEL output signals are added to (1A) 3. The voltage limiter output
OEL output signal is added at (1B) signal is added to:
VT (A) if LIMOUT = 0
2. For bus - fed exciter, VRMAX − K VFIFD is set to zero (B) if LIMOUT = 1
E TV (C) if LIMOUT = 2
if VT < E TMIN . For alternator - fed exciter, enter zero
for E TV

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC32’, I, BUSR, LIMOUT, KA, TA, TC, TB, KF, TF, TF1, TF2, VIMAX, VIMIN, VRMAX,
VRMIN, ETV, KVF, ETMIN, KIFL, IFLMT, KETL, TL1, TL2, ETLMT, VTMAX, VTMIN, VOMAX, VOMIN,
ACON, BCON, VSMAX, VSMIN, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin then TA is set to zero.


2. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TF2 ≠ 0 and TF2 < Tmin, then TF2 is set to zero.
5. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
6. If TL2 ≠ 0 and TL2 < Tmin, then TL2 is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC32

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3* +4* +5* +6


Control
Block TR TL2 TF TF2 TB TA
* optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

Exciter Model EXC34

Model Descriptions
VREF

VT
+
VC 1
VC = VT + (R C + jX C )IT ∑ (2)
1 + sTR
IT (C) (ii)
VAMAX VRMAX VT − K CIFD
VIMAX

+ +
(1) + HV 1 + sTC 1 + sTC1 KA + HV LV
EFD
∑ ∑
+ GATE 1 + sTB 1 + sTB1 1 + sTA GATE GATE

(A)
VIMIN VAMIN VRMIN VT
(i)
(B)
sK F
1 + sTF
(
+ IFD
KLR ∑
Notes:

1. PSS output signal is added to: (1) if LVS = 0 or 1 0


(2) if LVS = 2 ILR

2. UEL output signal is added to: (A) if IVUEL = 0 or 1


(B) if IVUEL = 2
(C) if IVUEL = 3

3. OEL output signal is added to: (i) if IVOEL = 0 or 1


(ii) if IVOEL = 2

Data Format

IBUS, ‘EXC34’, I, BUSR, IVUEL, IVOEL, LVS, KA, TA, TC, TB, TC1, TB1, KF, TF, VIMAX, VIMIN,
VAMAX, VAMIN, VRMAX, VRMIN, KC, KLR, ILR, TR, RC, XC /

Data Restrictions

1. If TA ≠ 0 and TA < Tmin, then TA is set to zero.


2. If TB ≠ 0 and TB < Tmin, then TB is set to zero.
3. If TF ≠ 0 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to zero.
4. If TR ≠ 0 and TR < Tmin, then TR is set to zero.
5. If TB1 ≠ 0 and TB1 < Tmin, then TB1 is set to zero.

State Counter

The exciter states are counted after the synchronous machine states.

State +1 +2 +3* +4* +5*

Control Block TR TA TF TB TB1


* optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

2.4 Power System Stabilizer Models and Data Formats

There are 4 standard power system stabilizer (PSS) models in TSAT format. A PSS can be added to a
generator when an exciter/AVR model is available for the generator.

Each PSS model has a number of common parameters shown below:

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
BUSR - Bus number, name, or node equipment name of a remote bus whose frequency is taken as
input for the PSS. If local inputs are used for the PSS, set BUSR to 0. For model PSS12, there
may be two such remote buses, BUSR1 and BUSR2.

The input signals to a PSS can be of different types. This is determined using the input type code ITYPE
(or ITYPE1 and ITYPE2 if two inputs are available):

ITYPE = 0 or 1: generator rotor speed deviation in per unit.


= 2: accelerating power of the generator in per unit on machine MVA base.
= 3: bus frequency in per unit.
= 4: electrical power output of the generator in per unit on machine MVA base.
= 5: bus voltage magnitude in per unit.

Input types 1, 2, and 4 must be from the local generator. Input types 3 and 5 may be from a remote bus
(specified by the parameter BUSR, or BUSR1 and BUSR2 if two inputs are available) with optional load
compensation RC + jXC. For input type 3, the per unit bus frequency is obtained by applying a combined
digital filter and washout function to the bus voltage angle. The digital filter sampling time is the same as
the integration step, and the washout time constant is TF (a parameter in PSS data).

In some situations, it is desirable to disable PSS when the generator active power output is low. This can
be achieved by using the PTHR parameter: the PSS is disabled if the generator active power (in pu on
machine MVA base) is lower than PTHR.

A data checking feature in TSAT checks for small time constants in PSS models and makes sure that they
do not cause potential problems in simulations. The rules used for the checking are described for each
PSS model. The minimum time constant, Tmin, is described in TSAT User Manual. This data checking
feature can be disabled in TSAT. Refer to TSAT User Manual on how to do this.

The standard PSS models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

PSS Model PSS1

Model Descriptions

VSMAX

VSI sT5 1 + sT1 1 + sT3 VS


KS
1 + sT5 1 + sT2 1 + sT4

VSMIN

Data Format

IBUS, ‘PSS1’, I, BUSR, ITYPE, KS, T5, T1, T2, T3, T4, VSMAX, VSMIN, TF, RC, XC, PTHR /

Data Restrictions

1. T5 ≥ Tmin.
2. If T2 ≠ 0 and T2 < Tmin, then T2 is set to zero.
3. If T4 ≠ 0 and T4 < Tmin, then T4 is set to zero.
4. If T2 or T4 is zero, the corresponding lead/lag block is ignored.
5. If the input type is bus frequency and TF < 0.01, then TF is set to 0.01. Further more, if Tmin > 0.01,
then TF is set to Tmin.

State Counter

The PSS states are counted after the exciter/AVR states.

State +1* +2 +3** +4**

Control Block TF T5 T2 T4
* optional state – counted only when the input type is bus frequency.
** optional state- not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

PSS Model PSS4

Model Descriptions

VSMAX

VSI sT5 1 + sT1 + s 2 T3 VS


KS
1 + sT5 1 + sT2 + s 2T4

VSMIN

Data Format

IBUS, ‘PSS4’, I, BUSR, ITYPE, KS, T5, T1, T2, T3, T4, VSMAX, VSMIN, TF, RC, XC, PTHR /

Data Restrictions

1. T5 ≥ Tmin.
2. If T2 = 0, T1 is set to zero.
3. If T4 = 0, T3 is set to zero.
4. If T4 < Tmin, T4 is set to zero, and in this case if T2 < Tmin, T2 is also set to zero.
5. If the input type is bus frequency and TF < 0.01, then TF is set to 0.01. Further more, if Tmin > 0.01,
then TF is set to Tmin.

State Counter

The PSS states are counted after the exciter/AVR states.

State +1* +2 +3** +4**


Control Block TF T5 T2/T4 (first state) T2/T4 (second state)
* optional state – counted only when the input type is bus frequency.
** optional state- not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

PSS Model PSS9

Model Descriptions
VSMAX

sT11 1 + sT1 1 + sT3 V′S If ∆VT ≤ VC , VS = VS′ VS


K S1
1 + sT12 1 + sT2 1 + sT4 If ∆VT > VC , VS = 0

VSMIN

VS1 sT5 sT6 1 + (1 + sTFD )m +


∑ ∑
1 + sT5 1 + sT6 1 + sT7 (1 + sTFG )n
+
KS3

PE sT8 sT9 K S2
1 + sT8 1 + sT9 1 + sT10

Notes:

1. ∆VT=|V T0 |-|VT|

Data Format

IBUS, ‘PSS9’, I, BUSR, ITYPE, n, m, T11, T12, T1, T2, T3, T4, VSMAX, VSMIN, KS1, T5, T6, T7, KS2, T8,
T9, T10, KS3, TFD, TFG, TF, RC, XC, PTHR, VC /

Data Restrictions

1. If T5 ≠ 0, T5 must be equal to or greater than Tmin.


2. If T6 ≠ 0, T6 must be equal to or greater than Tmin.
3. If T7 ≠ 0 and T7 < Tmin then T7 is set to zero.
4. If T8 ≠ 0, T8 must be equal to or greater than Tmin.
5. If T9 ≠ 0, T9 must be equal to or greater than Tmin.
6. If T10 ≠ 0 and T10 < Tmin, then T10 is set to zero.
7. If m > n, m is set to n.
8. If TFG ≠ 0 and TFG < Tmin, then TFG is set to zero.
9. If m=n=0, or m=n and TFG = TFD, then the ramp track filter is ignored.
10. If T12 ≠ 0 and T12 < Tmin, then T12 is set to zero.
11. If T2 ≠ 0 and T2 < Tmin, then T2 is set to zero.
12. If T4 ≠ 0 and T4 < Tmin then T4 is set to zero.
13. If the input type is bus frequency and TF < 0.01, then TF is set to 0.01. Further more, if Tmin > 0.01,
then TF is set to Tmin.

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TSAT Model Manual

PSS Model PSS9

State Counter

The PSS states are counted after the exciter/AVR states.

State +1* +2** +3** +4** +5** +6** +7** +8**


Control Block TF T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 TFG
State ... +(n+7)** +(n+8)** +(n+9)** +(n+10)**
Control Block ...
TFG T12 T2 T4
* optional state – counted only when the input type is bus frequency.
** optional state- not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

PSS Model PSS12

Model Descriptions

VSI2 K2
VSMAX
1 + sT2 +

sTQ0 ′
1 + sTQ1 ′
1+ sTQ2 ′
1 + sTQ3 V′S If VCL ≤ VT ≤ VCU, VS = VS′ VS

1 + sTQ0 1 + sTQ1 1 + sTQ2 1 + sTQ3 All other VT values, VS = 0
VSI1 K1 +
1 + sT1
VSMIN

Data Format

IBUS, ‘PSS12’, I, BUSR1, ITYPE1, BUSR2, ITYPE2, K1, T1, K2, T2, T′Q0, TQ0, T′Q1, TQ1, T′Q2, TQ2,
T′Q3, TQ3, VSMAX, VSMIN, TF, RC, XC, PTHR, VCU, VCL /

Data Restrictions

1. If T1 ≠ 0 and T1 < Tmin, then T1 is set to zero.


2. If T2 ≠ 0 and T2 < Tmin, then T2 is set to zero.
3. If TQn ≠ 0 and TQn < Tmin, then TQn is set to zero (n=0, 1, 2, 3). If TQ0 = 0, the washout is ignored.
4. If TQn = 0, then T′Qn is set to zero (n=1, 2, 3).
5. If the input type is bus frequency and TF < 0.01, then TF is set to 0.01. Further more, if Tmin > 0.01,
then TF is set to Tmin.

State Counter

The PSS states are counted after the exciter/AVR states.

State +1* +2* +3** +4** +5* +6** +7** +8**

Control Block TF (for VSI1) TF (for VSI2) T1 T2 TQ0 TQ1 TQ2 TQ3
* optional state – counted only when the input type is bus frequency.
** optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

2.5 Governor Models and Data Formats

There are 7 standard governor models in TSAT format. A governor can be added to a generator with any
synchronous machine model.

The main input signal for a governor is its speed. This signal must be taken form the local generator. At
the output, there is a base conversion constant (PMAX) which is the ratio of the turbine rating over the
generator rating.

A data checking feature in TSAT checks for small time constants in governor models and makes sure that
they do not cause potential problems in simulations. The rules used for the checking are described for
each governor model. The minimum time constant, Tmin, is described in TSAT User Manual. This data
checking feature can be disabled in TSAT. Refer to TSAT User Manual on how to do this.

Each governor model has a number of common parameters shown below:

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).

The standard governor models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV4

Model Descriptions
PREF RMAX 1.0

+
∆ω (p.u.) 1 + sT2 1 1
K1
1 + sT1 Σ T3 s

RMIN 0.0

PMECH
+ + +
Σ Σ Σ PMAX
+ + +

K2 K3 K4 K5

1 1 1 1
1 + sT4 1 + sT5 1 + sT6 1 + sT7

K9 K6 K7 K8

+ + +
+ + PLMECH
+
Σ Σ Σ PLMAX

Notes:

1. K5 = 1−(K2+ K3 + K4 + K6 + K7 + K8 + K9)
2. PLMAX is determined at model initialization

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV4’, I, LPBUS, ID, PMAX, K1, T1, T2, T3, RMAX, RMIN, T4, T5, T6, T7, K2, K3, K4, K6, K7,
K8, K9 /

LPUBS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the low-pressure unit with a cross-
compound turbine. If a low-pressure unit does not exist, set LPBUS to 0.
ID - Unit ID of the low-pressure unit with a cross-compound turbine. If a low-pressure unit does
not exist, set ID to 0.

Data Restrictions

1. If T1 ≠ 0 and T1 < Tmin then T1 is set to zero.


2. If T3 < Tmin, then T3 is set to Tmin.
3. If T4 ≠ 0 and T4 < Tmin, then T4 is set to zero.
4. If T5 ≠ 0 and T5 < Tmin, then T5 is set to zero.
5. If T6 ≠ 0 and T6 < Tmin, then T6 is set to zero.
6. If T7 ≠ 0 and T7 < Tmin, then T7 is set to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV4

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7*
Control Block T1 Integrator T4 T5 T6 T7 -
* Reserved for future use.

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV6

Model Descriptions

REF
1.0

+
∆ω (p.u.) 1 1 1+ sT2 + PMECH
∑ ∑ PMAX
R 1 + sT1 1 + sT3

VMIN

Dt

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV6’, I, PFL, R, T1, T2, T3, VMIN, Dt /

Data Restrictions

1. If T1 < Tmin, then T1 is set to Tmin.


2. If T3 ≠ 0 and T3 < Tmin, then T3 is set to zero.

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1 +2

Control Block T1 T3

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV7

Model Descriptions

∆ω (p.u.)
D1

1
R
1.0

PREF + LV 1 1 + sT2 + PMECH


∑ ∑ P MAX
GATE 1 + sT1 1 + sT3

VMIN

+ 1
∑ Kt ∑
1 + sT4
+ +
LL

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV7’, I, PFL, R, T1, T2, T3, VMIN, Dt, T4, Kt, LL /

Data Restrictions

1. If T1 < Tmin, then T1 is set to Tmin.


2. If T3 ≠ 0 and T3 < Tmin, then T3 is set to zero.
3. If T4 ≠ 0 and T4 < Tmin, then T4 is set to zero.

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1 +2 +3

Control Block T1 T3 T4

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV8

Model Descriptions

PREF

1.0
+
∆ω (p.u.) 1 + sT2 1 1 1 + sT6 PMECH
K1 ∑ PMAX
1 + sT1 1 + sT3 1 + sT4 1 + sT5

VMIN

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV8’, I, PMAX, K1, T1, T2, T3, VMIN, T4, T5, T6 /

Data Restrictions

1. If T1 = 0, T2 is set to zero; if T1 ≠ 0 and T1 < Tmin, then T1 is set to Tmin.


2. If T3 ≠ 0 and T3 < Tmin, then T3 is set to zero.
3. If T4 ≠ 0 and T4 < Tmin, then T4 is set to zero.
4. If T5 = 0, T6 is set to zero; If T5 ≠ 0 and T5 < Tmin, then T5 is set to Tmin.

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4
Control Block T1 T3 T4 T5

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV20

Model Descriptions
ωr
RMXO 1.0
+
ω (p.u.) + + 1 1
Σ Σ Σ KS
s GFL - GNL

RMXC 0

+
Rp Σ

g0
1
1 +
s Σ Rt 1 + sTG

1
TR

+ +

÷
G 1 u + PMECH
u
+
× Σ sTW Σ
+
× PMAX

G +
HEAD uNL

Notes:

1. g0 and uNL are determined at model initialization

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV20’, I, PFL, KS, RP, RMXO, RMXC, Rt, TR, GFL, GNL, TG, TW, HEAD, GBF, RBFC, TDB1,
DB1 /

GBF - Buffer region in per unit on turbine base (see note on RBFC for interpretation).
RBFC - Maximum gate closing rate in buffer region. If the gate position (state variable #1) is less than
GBF, the gate closing speed must be slower than RBFC.
TDB1 - Type of the deadband. If TDB1 ≤ 1, intentional deadband without hysteresis is assumed; if TDB1
> 1.0, unintentional deadband is assumed. Refer to the deadband block (Type DBD) in user-
defined model section for an explanation of deadband types.
DB1 - Magnitude of dead band.

Data Restrictions

1. If TW < Tmin, then TW is set to Tmin.


2. If TG ≠ 0 and TG < Tmin, then TG is set to zero.
3. If HEAD = 0, then HEAD is set to 1.
4. RBFC ≥ 0.0.

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV20

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4
Control Block Integrator TR TW TG

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV21

Model Descriptions

ωr
VELO GMAX

+
ω (p.u.) 1 1 1- sT P MECH
Σ TG (1 + sTP ) T PMAX
s 1+ s W
2

VELC GMIN

+
Σ R
+

sTD
DD
1 + sTD

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV21’, I, PMAX, R, TG, TP, TD, DD, VELO, VELC, GMAX, GMIN, TW /

Data Restrictions

1. If TP ≠ 0 and TP < Tmin, then TP is set to zero.


2. If 0 < TD < Tmin, then TD is set to Tmin.
3. If TW ≠ 0 and TW / 2 < Tmin, then TW is set to 2Tmin.

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1 +2 +3 +4
Control Block TP Integrator TD TW

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TSAT Model Manual

Governor Model GOV22

Model Descriptions

P REF
GMAX
+
∆ω (p.u.) 1 1+ sT2 1+ sT4 1
∑ TW
R 1 + sT1 1 + sT3 1+ s
2
GMIN

K1 K3

+
PMECH
+
∑ PMAX

Data Format

IBUS, ‘GOV22’, I, PMAX, R, T1, T2, T3, T4, GMAX, GMIN, TW, K1, K3 /

Data Restrictions

1. If T1 ≠ 0 and T1 < Tmin, then T1 is set to zero.


2. If T3 ≠ 0 and T3 < Tmin, then T3 is set to zero.
3. If TW ≠ 0 and TW < Tmin, then TW is set to zero.

State Counter

The governor states are counted after the excitation system states.

State +1* +2* +3


Control Block T1 T3 TW
*optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

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TSAT Model Manual

3 Wind Generator Data

TSAT supports four standard wind generator models. This section describes these models. In addition to
the standard models, user-defined models can also be created for wind generators. Please refer to
DSATools UDM Manual for details on creating user-defined models for wind generators. Wind generator
data in non-TSAT formats, namely PTI PSS/E and GE PSLF, are also accepted in TSAT, as described in
Section 15. Wind generator models with mixed formats cannot be used for a specific generator. In other
words, a wind generator must be presented entirely using either TSAT models or third party models.
However, it is possible to use TSAT models for some wind generators and third party models for other
generators in a system.

3.1 Modelling Considerations

3.1.1 Interface and Initialization

A wind generator in TSAT is interfaced with generator data in the powerflow. Accordingly, dynamic
models for wind generators must match generator data in the powerflow data. The following rules apply
when matching dynamic models with powerflow data:

• A wind generator is identified by its bus number/name and ID. Only when both bus number/name
and ID match, dynamic models of a wind generator is assigned to the generator in the powerflow
data. Models in dynamic data that cannot be matched with any generators in powerflow data are
ignored. Likewise, generators in powerflow data that do not have matching models in dynamic
data are net out as constant impedance.

Alternatively, a wind generator can be matched with the powerflow data by using the equipment
name method. Refer to Section 1.2 for details.

• The terminal voltage, active, and reactive power of a wind generator are obtained from
powerflow data and are used to initialize the machine. In addition, the rated generator MVA base
in powerflow data may also be used for dynamic models (refer to individual models for details).

• A negative active power output of a wind generator in powerflow data causes initialization errors.

3.1.2 Modelling Approach

The wind generator models used in TSAT are developed based on the works of the Western Electricity
Coordinating Council (WECC) Wind Generator Modelling Group. The modelling information can be
found in the WECC website www.wecc.biz.

3.1.3 Model Structure

Generally speaking, a wind generator model includes three components:

• A generator model, this can be an induction machine, a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) or

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TSAT Model Manual

a Voltage Source Converter (VSC)

• An electric control system model

• A mechanical control system model (including turbine-generator mechanical system model)

Unlike synchronous machine models, all these three components are mandatory. And models of different
types of wind generators cannot be mixed. For example, a type 1 electric control system model cannot be
used with a type 3 wind generator model.

3.1.4 Examples

Figure 3-1 shows the sample data of a wind generator model (including control system model).

123,'WGNC',1,100,0.8,1,5,0.9,0.5/
123,'WGNCE',1,0,'Q','Y',5,3,0.6,0.05,1.12,0.04,0.45,1.1,0.69,0.78,0.98,1.12,0.74,
1.2,0.1,40,0.436,-0.436,1.1,0.9,1.45,0.5,0.05,0,0.02,1,5,18,0.05,0.15/
123,'WGNCT',1,100,1,4.94,0,0.007,21.98,0.875,1.8,1.5,150,25,3,30,27,0,10,0.3,1.0/

Figure 3-1: Sample dynamic model data of a wind generator

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TSAT Model Manual

3.2 WECC Generic Type 1 Wind Generator Model

These models represent a wind generator utilizing a conventional squirrel cage induction generator.

The wind generator and its control systems are represented by three models: WGNA, WGNAT and
WGNAE (optional).

The models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Squirrel Cage Induction Machine Model WGNA

Model Descriptions

This represents the conventional squirrel cage induction generator.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNA’, I, MVA, Xs, X', Ra, T'o, S(1.0), S(1.2), X'', Xl, T''o/

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Xs - Synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′ - Transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Ra - Stator resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T'o - Transient open-circuit time constant in seconds.
S(1.0) - Saturation coefficient.
S(1.2) - Saturation coefficient.
X'' - Sub-transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Stator leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T''o - Sub-transient open-circuit time constant in seconds.

Data Restriction

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xs, X′, T′o. These parameters cannot be equal to
zero.
2. If X″ is equal to zero. Then T''0 is set to zero, and single cage induction machine is assumed.
3. If T''0 is equal to zero. Then X″ is set to zero, and single cage induction machine is assumed.

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Turbine and Pitch Control Model WGNAT

Model Descriptions
ω T (turbine speed p.u.)
PI MAX

KP
+
ω REF 1 1 PMECH
∑ ∑ 1 + sT2
+ 1 + sT1
+ K
+
I

s
PE 1 PI MIN
∑ K DROOP
1 + sTPE
+

PREF

PE
One-mass Model

PMECH ωT = ωG
+
∑ ÷ 1 1
2H s

Two-mass Model
ωT (turbine speed )
ω
ο
+
PMECH 1
÷ +

2H T
1
+
∑ ωT
s
+
D SHAFT ∑ 1 K
s
+
PE 1
÷ ∑
2HG
1
+
∑ ωG
s
+ +
ω
ο
ωG (generator speed )

When HTFRAC > 0, two-mass model is used, otherwise one-mass model is used and:

K = 2(2π ⋅ FREQ1 ) H T
2 HG
H T = H × H TFRAC HG = H − HT
H

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TSAT Model Manual

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNAT’, I, PBASE, H, D, HTFRAC, FREQ1, DSHAFT, TPE, KDROOP, KP, KI, PIMAX, PIMIN, T1, T2/

Notes

1. If PBASE = 0, then PBASE is set to machine MVA base.


2. Parameters are per unit on PBASE.
3. The minimum data requirement for this model is H and KDROOP. These parameters cannot be equal to
zero.
4. KP and KI can not both be zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Voltage and Frequency Protection Model WGNAE

Model Descriptions

This model can be configured to have two stages of under-voltage protection, two stages of over-voltage
protection, two stages of under-frequency protection and two stages of over-frequency protection.

This model is optional.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNAE’, I, UV1L, UV1T, OV1L, OV1T, UF1L, UF1T, OF1L, OF1T, UV2L, UV2T, OV2L, OV2T, UF2L,
UF2T, OF2L, OF2T/

Parameter Descriptions

UV1L First stage under-voltage threshold (pu)


UV1T Timer for first stage under-voltage tripping (seconds)
OV1L First stage over-voltage threshold (pu)
OV1T Timer for first stage over-voltage tripping (seconds)
UF1L First stage under-frequency threshold (pu)
UF1T Timer for first stage under-frequency tripping (seconds)
OF1L First stage over-frequency threshold (pu)
OF1T Timer for first stage over-frequency tripping (seconds)
UV2L Second stage under-voltage threshold (pu)
UV2T Timer for second stage under-voltage tripping (seconds)
OV2L Second stage over-voltage threshold (pu)
OV2T Timer for second stage over-voltage tripping (seconds)
UF2L Second stage under-frequency threshold (pu)
UF2T Timer for second stage under-frequency tripping (seconds)
OF2L Second stage over-frequency threshold (pu)
OF2T Timer for second stage over-frequency tripping (seconds)

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TSAT Model Manual

3.3 WECC Generic Type 2 Wind Generator Model

These models represent a wind generator utilizing an induction generator with variable rotor resistance.

The wind generator and its control systems are represented by three models: WGNB, WGNBT and
WGNBE. All three models are mandatory.

The models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Induction Machine Model WGNB

Model Descriptions

This represents a induction generator with variable rotor resistance. The value of the rotor resistance is
controlled by external control system (WGNBE model).

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNB’, I, MVA, Xs, X', Xl, Ra, T'o, S(1.0), S(1.2), Wrot0/

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
MVA - MVA base of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base
of the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
Xs - Synchronous reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Xl - Stator leakage reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
X′ - Transient reactance in per unit on machine MVA base.
Ra - Stator resistance in per unit on machine MVA base.
T'o - Transient open-circuit time constant in seconds.
S(1.0) - Saturation coefficient.
S(1.2) - Saturation coefficient.
Wrot0 - Initial generator rotor speed in pu on system frequency base.

Data Restriction

1. The minimum data requirement for this model is Xs, X′, T′o, Wrot0. These parameters cannot be equal
to zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Turbine and Pitch Control Model WGNBT

Model Descriptions
ω T (turbine speed p.u.)
PI MAX

KP
+
ω REF 1 1 PMECH
∑ ∑ 1 + sT2
+ 1 + sT1
+ K
+
I

s
PE 1 PI MIN
∑ K DROOP
1 + sTPE
+

PREF

PE
One-mass Model

PMECH ωT = ωG
+
∑ ÷ 1 1
2H s

Two-mass Model
ωT (turbine speed )
ω
ο
+
PMECH 1
÷ +

2H T
1
+
∑ ωT
s
+
D SHAFT ∑ 1 K
s
+
PE 1
÷ ∑
2HG
1
+
∑ ωG
s
+ +
ω
ο
ωG (generator speed )

When HTFRAC > 0, two-mass model is used, otherwise one-mass model is used and:

K = 2(2π ⋅ FREQ1 ) H T
2 HG
H T = H × H TFRAC HG = H − HT
H

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TSAT Model Manual

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNBT’, I, PBASE, H, D, HTFRAC, FREQ1, DSHAFT, TPE, KDROOP, KP, KI, PIMAX, PIMIN, T1, T2/

Notes

1. If PBASE = 0, then PBASE is set to machine MVA base.


2. Parameters are per unit on PBASE.
3. The minimum data requirement for this model is H and KDROOP. These parameters cannot be equal to
zero.
4. KP and KI can not both be zero.

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Electric Control and Protection Model WGNBE

Model Descriptions

PE KP
1 + sTP R MAX

REXT
1.0 ∑ K PP + K IP /s
External rotor
+ resistance (p.u.)
ωE KW RMIN
∑ 1 + sTW
Generator +
Speed (p.u.)
Power-slip curve

The output signal of this model is the external rotor resistance of the generator.

This model can be configured to have two stages of under-voltage protection, two stages of over-voltage
protection, two stages of under-frequency protection and two stages of over-frequency protection.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNBE’, I, TW, KW, TP, KP, KPP, KIP, RMAX, RMIN, SLIP1, SLIP2, SLIP3, SLIP4, SLIP5, POWR1, POWR2,
POWR3, POWR4, POWR5, UV1L, UV1T, OV1L, OV1T, UF1L, UF1T, OF1L, OF1T, UV2L, UV2T, OV2L, OV2T, UF2L, UF2T,
OF2L, OF2T/

Notes

1. Parameters are per unit on machine MVA base.


2. Frequencies are per unit on system frequency base.
3. Refer to WGNAE model for description of parameters of voltage and frequency protection.

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TSAT Model Manual

3.4 WECC Generic Type 3 Wind Generator Model

These models represent a wind generator utilizing a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG).

The wind generator and its control systems are represented by three models: WGNC, WGNCT and
WGNCE. All three models are mandatory.

The models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Doubly Fed Induction Generator Model WGNC

Model Descriptions

This is a simplified DFIG model.

E" QCMD 1 High Voltage IIORC


-1 Reactive Current
From 1 + 0.02s
WGNCE X" Control Logic

LVPL
RLVPL LVPL
Low Voltage
I PCMD Active Current
+ ∑ 50.0
1 Control Logic
From S
WGNCE

-RLVPL

Angle
Calculation

L
VTERM
VPL
LVPLSW = 0
1.11
V 1
1 + 0.02s
LVPLSW = 1
0.0 X"
V
VLVPL1 VLVPL2

Low Voltage Power Logic

Angle Calculation Block details

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TSAT Model Manual

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNC’, I, MVA, X'', LVPLSW, RLVPL, VLVPL2, VLVPL1, Kpll, Kipll, Pllmax/

Notes

1. If machine MVA base is not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base of the
matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
2. If LVPLSW = 0, the low voltage control power logic is disabled.
3. VLVPL2 > VLVPL1
4. RLVPL > 0

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Turbine and Pitch Control Model WGNCT

Model Descriptions
PIMAX PIRATE PIMAX

ωG θ
∑ ∑ + ∑
1 1
K PP + K IP /s TPI
Generator + + S
Speed (p.u.) Blade Pitch
+ angle (degree)
PIMIN -PIRATE PIMIN

ω REF
PIMAX

PORD
∑ K PC + K IC /s
From +
WGNCE
PIMIN

θ PMECH
PSET ∑ X ∑
K AERO
Blade Pitch +
angle (degree) +

PM0
θΟ

PE
One-mass Model

PMECH ωT = ωG
+
∑ ÷ 1 1
2H s

Two-mass Model
ωT (turbine speed )
ω
ο
+
PMECH 1
÷ +

2H T
1
+
∑ ωT
s
+
D SHAFT ∑ 1 K
s
+
PE 1
÷ ∑
2H G
1
+
∑ ωG
s
+ +
ω
ο
ωG (generator speed )

When HTFRAC > 0, two-mass model is used, otherwise one-mass model is used and:

K = 2(2π ⋅ FREQ1 ) H T
2 HG
H T = H × H TFRAC HG = H − HT
H
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TSAT Model Manual

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNCT’, I, PBASE, VW, H, D, KAERO, THETA2, HTFRAC, FREQ1, DSHAFT, KPP, KIP, KPC, KIC,
PIMAX, PIMIN, PIRATE, TPI, PSET/

Notes

1. If PBASE = 0, then PBASE is set to machine MVA base.


2. Parameters are per unit on PBASE.
3. The minimum data requirement for this model is H, KAERO, TPI. These parameters cannot be equal to
zero.
4. The initial wind speed Vw is only used only when the WTG is generating rated power and the Vw is greater than
1.0 pu. When the WTG is generating rated power and the Vw is greater than 1.0 pu, the initial pitch angle will
be initialized as:
T
(
θ 0 = HETA2 1.0 − VW−2
0.75
)
Otherwise:
θ0 = 0

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Electric Control and Protection Model WGNCE

Model Descriptions

VREF
K IV /s

+ +
VC 1 1
1 + sTR ∑ 1/FN ∑ 1 + sTC
+
K PV
1 + sTV

Voltage Regulator

PFREF
tan
VARFLG = ‘V’
Q MAX

PE 1 Q CMD
VARFLG = ‘PF’
1 + sTP X

Power Factor Regulator VARFLG = ‘Q’


Q MIN

QE VTERM Q REF
VMAX XIQMAX
E"QCMD
Q CMD VLTFLG = ‘Y’
∑ K QI /s ∑ K QV /s
+ + To WGNC
VLTFLG = ‘N’
VMIN XIQMIN

ωG

Generator
Speed (p.u.)

ω +
PE 1 REF
F (PE ) ∑ K PTRQ + K ITRQ /s X
1 + sTSP

Power-Speed
Curve

To WGNCT PWRAT PMAX


IPMAX
PORD IPCMD
+ ∑
1
TPC
1
S
÷
To WGNC

-PWRAT PMIN
VT
To WGNCT

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TSAT Model Manual

This model can be configured to have two stages of under-voltage protection, two stages of over-voltage
protection, two stages of under-frequency protection and two stages of over-frequency protection.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNCE’, I, RBUS, VARFLG, VLTFLG, TSP, KPTRQ, KITRQ, TPC, PMAX, PMIN, PWRAT, IPMAX, WPMIN,
WP20, WP40, WP60, PWP100, WP100, KQI, KQV, QMAX, QMIN, VMAX, VMIN, XIQMAX, XIQMIN, TP, XC, TR, FN,
KIV, KPV, TV, TC, UV1L, UV1T, OV1L, OV1T, UF1L, UF1T, OF1L, OF1T, UV2L, UV2T, OV2L, OV2T, UF2L,
UF2T, OF2L, OF2T/

Notes

1. KPTRQ, KITRQ, PMAX, PMIN, PWRAT, IPMAX, PWP100 are per unit on PBASE specified in WGNCT model.
2. Other parameters are per unit on machine MVA base specified in WGNC model.
3. The power-speed curve is defined as shown in Figure 3-2.

Active power PE (pu)

1.0

PWP100

0.6

0.4

0.2

Pmin

WP100
Generator speed ωG (pu)
WPmin WP20 WP40 WP60

Figure 3-2: Power–Speed curve

4. RBUS is the bus number (or bus name, equipment name) of the remote control bus for voltage
regulation.
5. VARFLG = ‘V’ for voltage control
VARFLG = ‘Q’ for constant reactive power control
VARFLG = ‘PF’ for power factor control
6. VLTFLG = ‘Y’ to enable fast close loop terminal voltage control
7. Refer to WGNAE model for description of parameters of voltage and frequency protection.

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TSAT Model Manual

3.5 WECC Generic Type 4 Wind Generator Model

These models represent a wind generator utilizing a full Voltage Source Converter (VSC) interface to the
system.

The wind generator and its control systems are represented by three models: WGND, WGNDT and
WGNDE. All three models are mandatory.

The models and data formats are shown below.

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TSAT Model Manual

Doubly Fed Induction Generator Model WGND

Model Descriptions

This is a simplified VSC converter model. Only the grid side converter is represented. The DC link, the
generator side converter and the generator are simplified.

I QCMD -1 High Voltage IIORC


From Reactive Current
1 + 0.02s Control Logic
WGNDE

LVPL
RLVPL LVPL
Low Voltage
I PCMD Active Current
+ ∑ 50.0
1 Control Logic
From S
WGNDE

-RLVPL

L
VTERM
VPL
LVPLSW = 0 GLVPL

V 1
LVPLSW = 1 1 + 0.02s
0.0 X"
V
VLVPL1 VLVPL2

Low Voltage Power Logic

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGND’, I, MVA, LVPLSW, RLVPL, VLVPL2, VLVPL1, GLVPL/

Notes

1. If machine MVA base is not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base of the
matched generator in powerflow data will be used.
2. If LVPLSW = 0, the low voltage control power logic is disabled.
3. VLVPL2 > VLVPL1
4. RLVPL > 0
5. GLVPL > 0

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TSAT Model Manual

Simplified Wind Generator Mechanical System Model WGNDT

Model Descriptions

PREF PREF

DPMX

PE + PORD
1 + ∑ K ∑
1 + sTPW K PP + IP
s
To WGNDE
DPMN

sK F
1 + sTF

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNDT’, I, TPW, KPP, KIP, TF, KF, DPMX, DPMN/

Notes

1. Parameters are per unit on MVA base specified in WGND model.

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TSAT Model Manual

Wind Generator Electric Control and Protection Model WGNDE

Model Descriptions

VREF
K IV /s QMAX
+ +
VREG 1 1 Q ORD
1 + sTR ∑ 1/FN ∑ 1 + sTC
+
K PV
QMIN
1 + sTV
QMAX
VARFLG = ‘V’

PF REF
tan
VARFLG = ‘PF’
VARFLG = ‘Q’ QMIN
PE 1
1 + sTP X
Q REF

QE
VMAX IQMX

IQCMD
+ +
∑ K QI /s ∑ K QV /s
To WGND
VMIN VT IQMN

PQFLG Converter Current Limit

IPMX I PCMD
PORD
÷
From WGNDT To WGND

VT

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TSAT Model Manual

P,Q Priority Flag


(PQFLAG)

PQFLAG = ‘Q’ PQFLAG = ‘P’

VT

IQMN IQMN
IQMX IQMX

1.6
Q
MAX
-1 VT -1
1.0

IQMXV

IQHL Minimum

Minimum Minimum

IPCMD
2
1.7 2.89 - IPCMD

IQCMD
2
2.89 - IQCMD
I PHL

Minimum Minimum

IPMX IPMX

This model can be configured to have two stages of under-voltage protection and two stages of over-
voltage protection.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘WGNDE’, I, RBUS, ‘VARGLG’, ‘PQFLG’, KQI, KVI, VMAX, VMIN, QMAX, QMIN, TR, TC, KPV, KIV, FN,
TV, TPWR, IPHL, IQHL, UV1L, UV1T, OV1L, OV1T, UV2L, UV2T, OV2L, OV2T/

Notes

1. Parameters are per unit on MVA base specified in WGND model.


2. RBUS is the bus number (or bus name, equipment name) of the remote control bus for voltage
regulation.
3. VARFLG = ‘V’ for voltage control
VARFLG = ‘Q’ for constant reactive power control
VARFLG = ‘PF’ for power factor control
4. PQFLG = ‘Q’ for Q priority current limiter (reduce P first)
PQFLG = ‘P’ for P priority current limiter (reduce Q first)

5. Refer to WGNAE model for description of parameters of voltage protection.

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3.6 Enercon WEC Model ENRCN (ExF2)

Model Descriptions

This represents an Enercon Wind Energy Converter (WEC) for positive sequence phasor domain
simulations. It also includes a model of the Enercon Farm Control Unit (FCU) which provides reactive
power, power factor or voltage control at the Point of Connection (PoC).

Data Format

IBUS, 'ENRCN', I, CBUS, FBUS, ID, NWEC, STATCOM, FCU_MODE, UVRT_MODE, Prat, Imax,
QMAX_EXP, QMAX_IMP, U_UVP1, U_SL_UVRT, TD_UVRT, U_OVP2, U_SL_OVRT, TD_OVRT,
T_RAMP, K_PAM, K_QUM, F_OF, TD_OF, F_UF, TD_UF, KP1_FCU, KI1_FCU, TD1_FCU,
KP2_FCU, TD2_FCU, QMAX_EXP_POC, QMAX_IMP_POC, QREF_OFF, TF1_FCU, TF2_FCU,
U_RESET_UV, U_RESET_OV, Ts /

Parameter Descriptions

IBUS - Bus number, name, or generator equipment name of the machine.


I - ID of the machine (may or may not be enclosed in single quotes).
CBUS - PoC bus, HV bus of the farm step-up transformer
FBUS - LV bus of the farm step-up transformer
ID - ID of the farm step-up transformer
NWEC - Number of WEC represented by the model

STATCOM - 0: No STATCOM option;


1: STATCOM option

FCU_MODE - 0: No remote control (FCU off)


1: Control type 1 (voltage control)
2: Control type 2 (voltage-droop control)
3: Control type 3 (reactive power control)
4: Control type 4 (power factor control)

UVRT_MODE - 0: FD-Configuration
1: FT/FTQ-Configuration with ZPM
2: FT/FTQ-Configuration with PQM
3: FT/FTQ-Configuration with PAM
4: FT/FTQ-Configuration with QUM1
5: FT/FTQ-Configuration with QUM2

Prat - Rated power of one WEC, [kW]


Imax - Short circuit current, [A]
QMAX_EXP - Max. reactive power export, [pu of Prat]
QMAX_IMP - Max. reactive power import, [pu of Prat]
U_UVP1 - Threshold value for undervoltage detection, [pu]
U_SL_UVRT - Threshold value for undervoltage clearance detection, [pu]
TD_UVRT - Maximum UVRT time, [s]
U_OVP2 - Threshold value for overvoltage detection, [pu]
U_SL_OVRT - Threshold value for overvoltage clearance detection, [pu]

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TD_OVRT - Maximum OVRT time, [s]


T_RAMP - ZPM: current ramp time, [s]
K_PAM - PAM: reactive current factor, [-]
K_QUM - QUM2: dQ/dU-slope, [-]
F_OF - Threshold value for overfrequency detection, [Hz]
TD_OF - Overfrequency protection delay time, [s]
F_UF - Threshold value for underfrequency detection, [Hz]
TD_UF - Underfrequency protection delay time, [s]
KP1_FCU - Proportional gain 1, [-]
KI1_FCU - Integral gain, [1/s]
TD1_FCU - Time delay 1, [s]
KP2_FCU - Proportional gain 2, [-]
TD2_FCU - Time delay 2, [s]
QMAX_EXP_POC - Max. reactive power export at controlled bus, [pu of NWEC*Prat]
QMAX_IMP_POC - Max. reactive power import at controlled bus, [pu of NWEC*Prat]
QREF_OFF - Reactive power offset, [pu of NWEC*Prat]
TF1_FCU - Voltage filter time constant, [s]
TF2_FCU - Power filter time constant, [s]
U_RESET_UV - Lower threshold for output reset, [pu]
U_RESET_OV - Upper threshold for output reset, [pu]
Ts - Sampling time, default = 0.001s

Data Restriction

4. The step-up transformer between FBUS and CBUS must be modelled explicitly. Furthermore, there
must be only one transformer between these buses.
5. Sampling time will be internally set to 0.001s if the PTI data format is used.
6. Use the following table as a guide for load flow setup for different WEC types.

Transformer
Pmax Pmin MBASE Qmax Qmin
WEC type Config. Rated Power
[MW] [MW] [MVA] [MVAR] [MVAR] [MVA]
E-44 FD, FT 0.9 0 0.9 0.36 -0.30 1.0
E-48 FD, FT 0.8 0 0.8 0.41 -0.41 0.9
E-53 FD, FT 0.8 0 0.8 0.41 -0.41 0.9
FD, FT 0.98 -0.98 2.5
E-70 2.3 0 2.3
FTQ 1.59 -1.59 2.8
FD, FT 1.10 -0.96 2.5
E-82 E1/E2 2.0 0 2.0
FTQ 1.50 -1.50 2.8
FD, FT 0.98 -0.98 2.5
E-82 E2 2.3 0 2.3
FTQ 1.59 -1.59 2.8
FD, FT 1.80 -1.75 3.5
E-82 E3 3.0 0 3.0
FTQ 2.30 -2.30 3.8
FD, FT 1.70 -1.70 3.5
E-101 3.0 0 3.0
FTQ 2.20 -2.20 3.8
FT 3.80 -3.80 10.0
E-126 7.5 0 7.5
FTQ 4.80 -4.80 10.0

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The short-circuit reactance of all transformers is about 6%.

7. Use the following table as a guide for dynamic setup for different WEC types.

Prat Imax QMAX_EXP QMAX_IMP


WEC type Config.
[kW] [A] [pu] [pu]
E-44 FD, FT 900 1500 0.40 0.33
E-48 FD, FT 800 1500 0.51 0.51
E-53 FD, FT 800 1500 0.51 0.51
FD, FT 4000 0.43 0.43
E-70 2300
FTQ 4500 0.69 0.69
FD, FT 3500 0.55 0.48
E-82 E1/E2 2000
FTQ 4000 0.75 0.75
FD, FT 4000 0.43 0.43
E-82 E2 2300
FTQ 4500 0.69 0.69
FD, FT 5500 0.60 0.58
E-82 E3 3000
FTQ 6000 0.77 0.77
FD, FT 5500 0.57 0.57
E-101 3000
FTQ 6000 0.73 0.73
FT 14000 0.51 0.51
E-126 7500
FTQ 16000 0.64 0.64

8. Use the following table as a guide to monitor FCU reference values.

FCU reference value Control Type TSAT Signal


Uref, [pu] 1 and 2 UREF
Qref, [pu] 3 QREF
PFref 4 The initial value PFREF0 is written in the
message report.
Qref_FCU QREF_FCU

9. To apply a step change to the FCU reference, create a contingency and set the value of UREFIVL,
QREFIVL, or PFRIVL depending on the type of control. Example:

Change UDM Block ;WTGUDM ;UREFIVL ;1 ; ;1 0.01 SET


Change UDM Block ;WTGUDM ;QREFIVL ;1 ; ;1 0.16 SET
Change UDM Block ;WTGUDM ;PFRIVL ;1 ; ;1 1.94 SET

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4 Generator Powerflow Matching and Modification Data

Model Descriptions

TSAT uses a special model called GPFM to either match or modify the generator rated MVA and in case
of the classical generator also the stator resistance (Rsource) and transient reactance (Xsource) values
specified in the power flow data.

For DSATools generator models including the wind turbines, whenever the MVA parameter is entered 0
in this model, the corresponding value specified in the powerflow is used as the MVA base for the
machine.

For PSS/E and PSLF models, the MVA base is not specified in the dynamic model directly. In this case
the MVA base specified in the powerflow is used and GPFM model provides an option for you to change
the MVA base for the dynamical simulation without having to change the powerflow data.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘$$GPFM’, I, 1.0, 1.0, Rsource, Xsource, MVA /

Notes

1. The first two parameters after the generator definition and model name are reserved for future
compatibility. They should be entered as 1.0.

Figure 4-1 shows a sample GPFM model dispayed in the dynamic data editor of TSAT. In addition to the
parameters specified for this model, the following are also shown:

• The generator active and reactive power (Pgen, Qgen) from the powerflow data

• The matching Status for the generator between the powerflow and dynamics data:

-4 : generator is in powerflow data and out-of-service, but not in dynamics data


-3 : generator is in dynamics data, but not in powerflow data
-2 : generator is in powerflow data and in-service, but not in dynamics data
-1 : generator is netted as a load
0 : generator is matched in powerflow and dynamics, but is out-of-service
1 : generator is matched in powerflow and dynamics and is in-service

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Figure 4-1: GPFM model dialog in TSAT Dynamic Data Editor

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5 Load Data

TSAT supports a versatile load model. This section describes this load model and its data format. Load
data in non-TSAT formats, namely, PTI PSS/E, GE PSLF, and BPA are also accepted in TSAT, as
described in Section 15. Load models with mixed formats cannot be used for a specific bus. In other
words, the load at a bus must be presented entirely using either TSAT models or third party models.
However, it is possible to use TSAT models for loads at some buses and third party models for loads at
other buses in a system.

Note that in addition to the load models described in this section, synchronous motor models are also
supported in TSAT. These are described in Section 2.

5.1 General Structure

The load model at a bus has the general structure shown in Figure 3-1.

Powerflow bus Feeder bus Internal load bus


RT+jXT
RF+jXF Static load model

3P1
VF
M1 jBSS
3P2



1P
Mx

Figure 5-1: General structure of load model

In this structure,

• M1, . . . Mx are general induction machines. Any of general motor models MOT1LB, MOT1LI,
MOT6LB, MOT6LI can be used for these. If there is a generator at this bus in the powerflow, an
induction generator model (MOT1G, MOT6G) can be used; see notes later.

• All components connected at the internal load bus form a composite load model which can be
represented by any of the composite load models LOADB, LOADZ, LOADA, and LOADS. The
induction motor components (3P1, 3P2, and 1P) in such a model can further be connected to a
template induction motor model:

 3P1 and 3P2 are two 3-phase induction motor models represented by the MOT3PH model
(similar to MOT1LB)
 1P is a single-phase induction motor model repsented by the MOT1PH model

• An optional transformer can be added between the powerflow bus and feeder bus. If XT is equal to
or less than the zero impedance line threshold (regardless the value of RT), the transformer is
ignored. If the transformer is present, its tap is calculated so that the feeder bus voltage is exactly at

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the specified VF.

• An optional feeder segment can be added between the feeder bus and internal load bus. If XF is
equal to or less than the zero impedance line threshold (regardless the value of RF), the feeder
segment is ignored.

• The compensator BSS is added at the feeder bus. If the transformer is not present, it will effectively
be added at the powerflow load bus; if the feeder segment is not present, it will effectively be added
at the internal load bus. This compensator is never shed with load shedding actions, even if 100% of
the load is shed.

Note that additional shunts may be added to compensate for reactive power after induction motor
initialization. See Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.6 for details.

• For the composite load components, only the total load power at the internal load bus can be
monitored in simulations. Power of the individual component (for example the 3P1 motor) cannot
be monitored.

• When specifying the powerflow bus in the load data, all three identification methods (bus number,
bus name, and equipment name) can be used. Refer to Section 1.2 for details. The feeder bus and
internal load bus (if present) will have bus numbers (names, or equipment names) assigned by
TSAT.

With this modelling structure, it is possible to represent a load with many modelling options. For example,

• If the entire load is to be represented by one or more induction motors, enter the motor models (say
MOT1LB) in the dynamic data set as required. Do not enter any composite load models (LOADx
models).

• If the entire load is to be represented by static load models connected at the powerflow load bus,
use one of two approaches:

 If the model is simple (for example the classic ZIP model) and same across the entire system,
the default load model can be used. This can be set in computation parameters in a TSAT case.

 To specify a custom static load model for a bus, use the LOADB model and set the following
parameters to zero:

KPMOT31, KPMOT32, KPMOT1, LDfact, RT, XT, VF, RF, XF, Bss

 To specify a simple composite load model without the transformer and feeder, use the LOADB
model and set the following parameters to zero:

LDfact, RT, XT, VF, RF, XF, Bss

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5.2 Modelling Considerations

5.2.1 Interface and Initialization of General Induction Machine

General induction machine models (M1…Mx in Figure 3-1) in TSAT can be interfaced with the
powerflow data in three modes:

1. Interface with a generator (MOT1G and MOT6G). In this case, the induction machine bus number
and ID must match the generator bus number and ID to be interfaced in the powerflow data. This is
the way to model induction generators.

2. Interface with specified portion of the total load at a load bus (MOT1LB and MOT6LB). In this
case, the initial active power of the induction machine is specified as a percentage (P%) of the total
active power at a powerflow load bus. This is one of ways to model induction motors. An induction
machine ID can be specified but it is used only for recognition of the model.

3. Interface with a load ID (MOT1LI and MOT6LI). In this case, the induction machine bus number
and ID must match the load bus number and ID to be interfaced in the powerflow data. This is
another way to model induction motors.

It is possible to include multiple induction machine models at the same bus (with different ID), provided
that loading for each machine is appropriately assigned. The exception is that you cannot use interface
mode 2 and 3 at the same load bus; in other words, you cannot use model MOT1LB and MOT1LI to
represent load at the same load bus.

Independent of the powerflow interface mode, two types of induction machine models are supported in
TSAT:

• Third order model with 3 state variables (MOT1G, MOT1LB, and MOT1LI): slip s, V′d, and V′q.

• First order model with 1 state variable (MOT6G, MOT6LB, and MOT6LI): slip s.

An induction machine is initialized using the active power assigned to it (depending on powerflow
interface mode). The following two quantities are calculated during the initialization process:

• slip s: s is calculated using the machine terminal bus frequency as the base. In some cases, s cannot
be solved for the given condition. This usually happens when the active power of the machine and
the machine MVA base are not consistent. The solution is either to reduce the active power of the
machine or to increase the machine MVA base.

• Reactive power QM0 of the machine: QM0 is computed after the slip s is obtained. To balance the
power flow, an equivalent shunt Bcomp may be added at the powerflow load bus. Bcomp is equal to the
difference between the reactive load power assigned to the machine and the calculated machine
reactive power:

Q0
Q M 0 + Bcomp V02 = P%
100

For example, assume that a powerflow load bus has 100 MW and 30 MVAR of load. A MOT1LB
model is added at this bus with P%=30. Thus 30 MW and 9 MVAR of load is assigned to this
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machine. Further assume that after initialization, the machine takes 12 MVAR of reactive power.
Then a capacitor will be added at the load bus that generates 3 MVAR at the initial bus voltage.

Note the following with regard to Bcomp added to compensate for the induction machine reactive power:

• When monitoring the machine in simulation, the reactive power from Bcomp is not included.

• Bcomp is disconnected when the machine is tripped, either manually as specified in the contingency
data, by an SPS action, or by under-voltage relay (see Section 5.2.4). If the machine is restarted
during the simulation, Bcomp is reconnected.

5.2.2 Induction Machine Saturation Representation

Saturation effect may be considered for all induction machine models (except for MOT1PH) for the
magnetizing reactance if the saturation characteristics (E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2)) are provided. The saturation
model used is similar to the quadratic model for synchronous machine described in Section 2.1.3.

5.2.3 Induction Machine Load Characteristics

There are three torque-speed characteristics, which can be used for all induction machine models (except
for MOT1PH). The flag LOAD in the machine data specifies this.

• Exponential (LOAD=0 or 1) with torque-speed relationship as,

b
Tm = Tm0[K′(1 − s) a +K s ]

where Tm0 is the torque at the initial condition, and K′ is determined by TSAT such that at the initial
condition,

b
K′(1-s ) + K s = 1.0
a

a, b, and K are the data required for this characteristic. s is the motor slip (ω0−ω)/ω0.

• Polynomial (LOAD=2) with torque-speed relationship as,

2
Tm = Tmo [a(1-s ) +b(1-s)+c]

Where Tm0 is the torque at the steady state, and c is determined by the program such that at the pre-
fault condition,

2
a(1-s ) +b(1-s)+c = 1.0

a and b are the data required for this characteristic.

• Constant (LOAD=3) with torque-speed relationship as,


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Tm = Tm o

Where Tm0 is the torque at the steady state. There are no data required for this characteristic.

5.2.4 Induction Machine Under-Voltage Tripping and Reconnection Relay

All induction machine models (except for MOT1PH) have a built-in under-voltage tripping and
reconnection relay operating with four parameters VI, TI, VC, and TC. The induction machine is tripped
after the machine bus voltage magnitude is below VI for TI seconds. A machine tripped by its under-
voltage relay is reconnected to the system if the machine bus voltage is above VC for TC seconds.

The following rules apply to the operation of this relay:

• If VI is zero, the relay is disabled.


• VI must be less than the machine bus voltage magnitude in the powerflow. Otherwise, an error
message is given and the relay is disabled.
• If the machine bus voltage magnitude recovers to VI before TI seconds, the timer is reset.
• For a tripped machine to be reconnected to the system, its bus voltage magnitude must be higher
than VC continuously for TC seconds.
• An induction machine can be reconnected only once.
• Once an induction machine is tripped by this relay, it can only be reconnected to the system by the
reconnection feature, not by other means (such as the induction machine starting or restarting
features available through switching commands).
• An induction machine tripped by a switching command (manual tripping), by an SPS action, or by
transfer tripping as a result of a UVLFB or UFLSB relay action cannot be reconnected by its
reconnection relay.

5.2.5 Starting and Restarting of General Induction Motor

Motor starting

An induction motor can be started from a standstill during a simulation, or restarted after being tripped.

• An induction motor can be started during a simulation using the Start induction motor command in
the contingency data (refer to Section 12 for details on the usage of this command). The motor can
be started at any time during the simulation, provided its dynamic data is included in the dynamic
data file with the following rules:

 The data must be prepared with either MOT1LS or MOT6LS model.

 The active power percentage (P%) will be interpreted as the percentage of the motor MVA
base (BMVA). Other load specficiations at the motor bus do not include the unstarted motor
load. The motor load is not applied to the system until the switching command starting the
motor is executed.

 When the motor is started, a new load will be added to the motor bus. The active power of the

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load is determined from P%, and then, the corresponding reactive power is calculated based on
the active power and the bus voltage at the motor starting time.

 It is recommended to use a small simulation step size (for example, 0.005 seconds) during the
motor starting period to ensure enough accuracy of the results.

Motor restarting

An induction motor can be restarted, after being disconnected from the system, using the Restart
induction motor command in the contingency data (refer to Section 12 for details on the usuage of this
command). A motor disconnected by its under-voltage tripping relay cannot be restarted.

Restarting can be applied to any induction motor model in TSAT format.

A small simulation step size (for example, 0.005 seconds) is recommended during the motor restarting
period to ensure enough accurancy of the results.

5.2.6 Induction Motor Components in the Composite Load Model

The induction motor components in the composite load model are comprised of 3 motors, two 3-phase
induction motors and a single-phase induction motor. The total power from these motors is

Pmotor = Pm31 + Pm32 + Pm1


2
Q motor = Q m31 + Q m32 + Q m1 + (B Comp31 + B Comp32 + B Comp1 ) V

The initial active power is assigned as follows:

P
Pm310 = K PMOT31 0
100
P
Pm320 = K PMOT32 0
100
P
Pm10 = K PMOT1 0
100

and the reactive power compensation is calculated as follows:

Q0
Qm310 + BComp31V02 = K PMOT31
100
Q
Qm320 + BComp32 V02 = K PMOT32 0
100
P 1
Qm10 + BComp1V02 = K PMOT1 0 * −1
100 Comp 2PF

Note:

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• The initial power (P0 and Q0) in the above equations is the load power at the powerflow load bus
minus any power taken by the general induction motor models (i.e., the MOT1LB, MOT1LI,
MOT6LB, and MOT6LI models).

• V0 is the load bus voltage at the initial condition.

• By setting KPMOT31, KPMOT32, or KPMOT1 to zero, any of the three induction motors can be ignored in
the composite load model.

• The parameters for the induction motor models are assigned with the template models MOT3PH
and MOT1PH. Default models for large 3-phase motor, small 3-phase motor, and single-phase
motor are provided and can be used if no template model is matched. Parameters of the default
motor models are shown in the MOT3PH and MOT1PH model data sheets.

• Handling of the compensator (BComp31, etc.) is the same as the general induction motor models (see
Section 5.2.1). Particularly, when these induction motors are included in load shedding, the shunt
compensations are reduced by the same proportion.

5.2.7 Static Load Components in the Composite Load Model

The static load model in the composite load model has the following components:

P0  
a1 a2 a3
V V V
P= K P1   + K P2   + K P3   + f P (K DLP , V) (1 + K Pf ∆f)
100   V0   V0   V0  

Q0  
b1 b2 b3
V V V
Q= K Q1   + K Q2   + K Q3   + f Q (K DLQ , V) (1 + K Qf ∆f)
100   V0   V0   V0  

where

• The initial power (P0 and Q0) are the load power at the powerflow load bus minus

 Any power taken by the general induction motor models (i.e., the MOT1LB, MOT1LI,
MOT6LB, and MOT6LI models).

 Any power taken by the induction motor components in the composite load model (i.e., the
MOT3PH and MOT1PH models).

• V0 is the load bus voltage at the initial condition.

• fP(KDLP,V) and fQ(KDLQ, V) are active and reactive component of discharge lighting load with the
following characteristics:

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 V
K DLP V > 0.75
 V0


f P (K DLP , V) =  V
 10K DLP V (V − 0.65) 0.65 ≤ V ≤ 0.75
 0


0 V < 0.65

 V
4.5

 K DLQ V > 0.75


 V0

 4.5
f Q (K DLQ , V) =  V
 10K DLQ (V − 0.65) 0.65 ≤ V ≤ 0.75
 V 0

0 V < 0.65


• ∆f is the frequency change of the load bus in percent.

• During initialization, a shunt may be added so that the discharge lighting load portion has a 0.9
power factor.

• Sum of all static loads at one bus should add to 100:

KP1+KP2+KP3+KDLP=100
KQ1+KQ2+KQ3+KDLQ=100

5.2.8 Application Notes

Load ID matching

Each load model can be specified at load buses for either a particular load component (identified by a load
ID in the powerflow data) or the entire consolidated load at the buses.

Application precedence

Composite load models can be specified for loads at individual buses, in zones, areas, or the entire system.
In case that a load is covered by multiple model specifications, the following rules are applied to
determine the appropriate model:

• For models of the same type (for example, LOADB), the last one is used.

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• For models of the different types, LOADB has the highest priority, followed by LOADZ, LOADA,
and LOADS.

Load netting

If a load is not covered by any static load components, the default model specified in the TSAT case file
is used for any load not covered by motor models. If the static load component definition in a composite
load model is incomplete, i.e., sum of KP1, KP2, KP3, and KDLP is not equal to 100, or sum of KQ1, KQ2,
KQ3, and KDLQ is not equal to 100, the static load component is ignored and the default model is applied.

Static load models at low bus voltages

At very low bus voltages during a simulation, the characteristics of the static load models are adjusted so
as to ensure reasonsable responses of the system. When | V |< V THZH , the exponentials (i.e., a1, a2, a3, b1,
b2, b3) are gradually changed toward those of constant impedance model, as shown in Figure 5-2, until
| V |= V THZL , where the model becomes purely constant impedance.

Voltage exponents

2.0

a1 , a2
b1 , b2

VTHZL VTHZH
Load bus voltage in per unit

Figure 5-2: Voltage exponent adjustment at low voltages

V THZH and V THZL are two parameters satisfying V THZH ≥ VTHZL . They are specified in the Computation
Parameter dialog in TSAT’s Case Wizard.

The original load model is resumed as soon as the voltage recovers to the high threshold shown above.

5.2.9 Examples

Assume that a load bus has 100 MW and 30 MVAR of load. A MOT1LB model is added at this bus with
P%=30. The remaining load is to be represented by a LOADB model with the following parameters:

KP1 KP2 KP3 KDLP KQ1 KQ2 KQ3


20 50 30 0 10 40 50
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KDLQ a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3
0 0 1 2 0 1 2
KPf KQf KPMOT31 IDMOT31 KPMOT32 IDMOT32 KPMOT1
0 0 0 ‘ ’ 0 ‘ ’ 0
IDMOT1 LDfact RT XT VF RF XF
‘ ’ 1 0 0 0 0 0
BSS
0

This will result in four model components at the load bus: motor, constant power (P), constant current (I),
and constant impedance (Z) with initial power shown in the following table:

Load Motor Constant P Constant I Constant Z


P (MW) 30 14 35 21
Q (MVAR) 9* 2.1 8.4 10.5
* Including possible shunt added at the bus.

5.3 Models and Data Formats

All load models and their data formats are described in the following sheets.

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Motor Model MOT1G

Model Descriptions

This model interfaces with a powerflow generator and it has 3 dynamic states.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT1G’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Generator bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Motor ID. This must match the generator ID in the powerflow, unless equipment name is used
to identify the generator.
P% - This parameter is included for this model only for consistency with other models. It is ignored
by TSAT.
MVA - Base MVA of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base of
the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT1LB

Model Descriptions

This model interfaces with a specified portion of load at a load bus and it has 3 dynamic states.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT1LB’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Motor ID. This is assigned to the motor for recognition purpose.
P% - Active power of the induction motor as a percentage of the total load active power at the
powerflow bus. A same percentage of the total load reactive power at the powerflow bus is also
assigned to the induction motor. For more information on the handling of the reactive power of
the motor; see Section 5.2.1.
MVA - Base MVA of the induction motor. If MVA is negative, it is interpreted as the motor loading
factor, and the actual MVA base is computed as |P/MVA| where P is the active power loading
of the motor in MW.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT1LI

Model Descriptions

This model interfaces with a load ID and it has 3 dynamic states.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT1LI’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Load ID. This must match a load ID in the powerflow, unless equipment name is used to
identify the load. Use ‘*’ as the ID to include all load at the bus (in this case, this model is the
same as MOT1LB except that it does not have an explicit ID).
P% - Active power of the induction motor as a percentage of the load active power at the powerflow
bus with ID I. A same percentage of the load reactive power at the powerflow bus with ID I is
also assigned to the induction motor. For more information on the handling of the reactive
power of the motor; see Section 5.2.1.
MVA - Base MVA of the induction motor. If MVA is negative, it is interpreted as the motor loading
factor, and the actual MVA base is computed as |P/MVA| where P is the active power loading
of the motor in MW.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT1LS

Model Descriptions

This model does not interface with any load in powerflow. It is used only in motor starting feature. The
model has 3 dynamic states.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT1LS’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Motor ID. This is used for monitoring purpose.
P% - Active power of the induction motor to be started as a percentage of the motor MVA base. In
other words, (P%*MVA)/100 is equal to the steady state active power of the induction motor.
MVA - Base MVA of the induction motor. MVA must be a positive number.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT6G

Model Descriptions

This model interfaces with a powerflow generator and it has 1 dynamic state.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT6G’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Generator bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Motor ID. This must match the generator ID in the powerflow, unless equipment name is used
to identify the generator.
P% - This parameter is included for this model only for consistency with other models. It is ignored
by TSAT.
MVA - Base MVA of the machine. If not specified (i.e., no value or zero is entered), the MVA base of
the matched generator in powerflow data will be used.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT6LB

Model Descriptions

This model interfaces with a specified portion of load at a load bus and it has 1 dynamic state.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT6LB’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Motor ID. This is assigned to the motor for recognition purpose.
P% - Active power of the induction motor as a percentage of the total load active power at the
powerflow bus. A same percentage of the total load reactive power at the powerflow bus is also
assigned to the induction motor. For more information on the handling of the reactive power of
the motor; see Section 5.2.1.
MVA - Base MVA of the induction motor. If MVA is negative, it is interpreted as the motor loading
factor, and the actual MVA base is computed as |P/MVA| where P is the active power loading
of the motor in MW.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT6LI

Model Descriptions

This model interfaces with a load ID and it has 1 dynamic state.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT6LI’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Load ID. This must match a load ID in the powerflow, unless equipment name is used to
identify the load. Use ‘*’ as the ID to include all load at the bus (in this case, this model is the
same as MOT6LB except that it does not have an explicit ID).
P% - Active power of the induction motor as a percentage of the load active power at the powerflow
bus with ID I. A same percentage of the load reactive power at the powerflow bus with ID I is
also assigned to the induction motor. For more information on the handling of the reactive
power of the motor; see Section 5.2.1.
MVA - Base MVA of the induction motor. If MVA is negative, it is interpreted as the motor loading
factor, and the actual MVA base is computed as |P/MVA| where P is the active power loading
of the motor in MW.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Motor Model MOT6LS

Model Descriptions

This model does not interface with any load in powerflow. It is used only in motor starting feature. The
model has 1 dynamic state.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘MOT6LS’, I, P%, MVA, T′, T″, H, X, X′, X″, Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, a, b, K, VI, TI,
V C, T C /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the motor.
I - Motor ID. This is used for monitoring purpose.
P% - Active power of the induction motor to be started as a percentage of the motor MVA base. In
other words, (P%*MVA)/100 is equal to the steady state active power of the induction motor.
MVA - Base MVA of the induction motor. MVA must be a positive number.

Machine resistance, reactances, and inertia constant are in per unit on machine MVA base.

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Static Load Model LOADB

Model Descriptions

This model applies a static load model to a specified bus.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘LOADB’, I, KP1, KP2, KP3, KDLP, KQ1, KQ2, KQ3, KDLQ, a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, KPf, KQf,
KPMOT31, IDMOT31, KPMOT32, IDMOT32, KPMOT1, IDMOT1, LDfact, RT, XT, VF, RF, XF, Bss /

IBUS - Powerflow load bus number, name, or equipment name to apply the model.
I - Load ID (not required if equipment name is used to identify the load). If an actual ID is
specified, the model will be applied only to the load component with the ID in the
powerflow. If an asterisk (*) is specified as the ID, the model applies to the entire
consolidated load at the bus.
IDMOT31 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the first 3-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (3P1) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default large motor parameters are used (see
MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT32 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the second 3-phase induction
motor in the composite load model (3P2) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string
must match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this
string does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default small motor parameters are
used (see MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT1 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the single-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (1P) specified with MOT1PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT1PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT1PH model ID, the default parameters are used (see MOT1PH
data sheet for details).
LDfact - Load factor. This must be greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1. If any other value is
entered, it is set to 1.

Note:

1. RT, XT, RF, XF, Bss are in pu on a MVA base calculated as (total load MW at the bus)/ LDfact.

2. All load components must be specified as percentage.

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Static Load Model LOADZ

Model Descriptions

This model applies a static load model to a specified zone.

Data Format

IZONE, ‘LOADZ’, I, KP1, KP2, KP3, KDLP, KQ1, KQ2, KQ3, KDLQ, a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, KPf, KQf,
KPMOT31, IDMOT31, KPMOT32, IDMOT32, KPMOT1, IDMOT1, LDfact, RT, XT, VF, RF, XF, Bss /

IZONE - Zone number or name to apply the model.


I - Load ID (not required if equipment name is used to identify the load). If an actual ID is
specified, the model will be applied only to load components in the specified zone with
the ID in the powerflow. If an asterisk (*) is specified as the ID, the model applies to the
entire consolidated load at all buses in the specified zone.
IDMOT31 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the first 3-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (3P1) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default large motor parameters are used (see
MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT32 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the second 3-phase induction
motor in the composite load model (3P2) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string
must match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this
string does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default small motor parameters are
used (see MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT1 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the single-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (1P) specified with MOT1PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT1PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT1PH model ID, the default parameters are used (see MOT1PH
data sheet for details).
LDfact - Load factor.

Note:

1. RT, XT, RF, XF, Bss are in pu on a MVA base calculated as (total load MW at the bus)/ LDfact.

2. All load components must be specified as percentage.

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Static Load Model LOADA

Model Descriptions

This model applies a static load model to a specified area.

Data Format

IAREA, ‘LOADA’, I, KP1, KP2, KP3, KDLP, KQ1, KQ2, KQ3, KDLQ, a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, KPf, KQf,
KPMOT31, IDMOT31, KPMOT32, IDMOT32, KPMOT1, IDMOT1, LDfact, RT, XT, VF, RF, XF, Bss /

IAREA - Area number or name to apply the model.


I - Load ID (not required if equipment name is used to identify the load). If an actual ID is
specified, the model will be applied only to load components in the specified area with
the ID in the powerflow. If an asterisk (*) is specified as the ID, the model applies to the
entire consolidated load at all buses in the specified area.
IDMOT31 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the first 3-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (3P1) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default large motor parameters are used (see
MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT32 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the second 3-phase induction
motor in the composite load model (3P2) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string
must match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this
string does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default small motor parameters are
used (see MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT1 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the single-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (1P) specified with MOT1PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT1PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT1PH model ID, the default parameters are used (see MOT1PH
data sheet for details).
LDfact - Load factor.

Note:

1. RT, XT, RF, XF, Bss are in pu on a MVA base calculated as (total load MW at the bus)/ LDfact.

2. All load components must be specified as percentage.

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TSAT Model Manual

Static Load Model LOADS

Model Descriptions

This model applies a static load model to the entire system.

Data Format

0, ‘LOADS’, I, KP1, KP2, KP3, KDLP, KQ1, KQ2, KQ3, KDLQ, a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, KPf, KQf, KPMOT31,
IDMOT31, KPMOT32, IDMOT32, KPMOT1, IDMOT1, LDfact, RT, XT, VF, RF, XF, Bss /

I - Load ID (not required if equipment name is used to identify the load). If an actual ID is
specified, the model will be applied only to load components in the entire syste with the
ID in the powerflow. If an asterisk (*) is specified as the ID, the model applies to the
entire consolidated load at all buses in the system.
IDMOT31 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the first 3-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (3P1) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default large motor parameters are used (see
MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT32 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the second 3-phase induction
motor in the composite load model (3P2) specified with MOT3PH model (i.e., this string
must match the ID of a MOT3PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this
string does not match any MOT3PH model ID, the default small motor parameters are
used (see MOT3PH data sheet for details).
IDMOT1 - A 2-character string in single quotes. This is the ID of the single-phase induction motor in
the composite load model (1P) specified with MOT1PH model (i.e., this string must
match the ID of a MOT1PH model in order to use that model for this load). If this string
does not match any MOT1PH model ID, the default parameters are used (see MOT1PH
data sheet for details).
LDfact - Load factor.

Note:

1. RT, XT, RF, XF, Bss are in pu on a MVA base calculated as (total load MW at the bus)/ LDfact.

2. All load components must be specified as percentage.

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TSAT Model Manual

Template Induction Motor Model MOT3PH

Model Descriptions

This model supplies a template 3-phase induction motor model for use in the composite load model
(LOADx) models.

Data Format

0, ‘MOT3PH’, I, MVA, T', T'', H, X, X', X'', Rs, Xl, E1, S(E1), E2, S(E2), LOAD, A, B, K, VI, TI, VC,
TC /

I - ID of motor template, a 2-character string in single quotes.

For description of other parameters, see MOT1LB data sheet.

Two sets of default parameters are built in TSAT:

Default parameters for large motor

MVA -0.900
T' 0.717
T'' 0.003
H 1.000
X 3.083
X' 0.187
X'' 0.135
Rs 0.014
Xl 0.083
E1 0.0
S(E1) 0.0
E2 0.0
S(E2) 0.0
LOAD 1
A 1.0
B 0.0
K 0.0
VI 0.0
TI 0.0
VC 0.0
TC 0.0

Default parameters for small motor

MVA -0.800
T' 0.150
T'' 0.012
H 0.600
X 2.528

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X' 0.447
X'' 0.173
Rs 0.037
Xl 0.132
E1 0.0
S(E1) 0.0
E2 0.0
S(E2) 0.0
LOAD 1
A 1.0
B 0.0
K 0.0
VI 0.0
TI 0.0
VC 0.0
TC 0.0

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Template Induction Motor Model MOT1PH

Model Descriptions

This model supplies a template single-phase induction motor model for use in the composite load model
(LOADx) models.

Data Format

0, ‘MOT1PH’, I, CompLF, Tv, Tf, CompPF, Vstall, Rstall, Xstall, Tstall, LFadj, Kp1, Np1, Kq1, Nq1,
Kp2, Np2, Kq2, Nq2, Vbrk, Frst, Vrst, Trst, CmpKpf, CmpKqf, Vc1off, Vc2off, Vc1on, Vc2on, Tth,
Th1t, Th2t, fuvr, uvtr1, ttr1, uvtr2, ttr2 /

I - ID of motor template, a 2-character string in single quotes.

For the descriptions of parameters in this model, please refer to “AC Unit Model Specifications.PDF”
available for downloading at

http://www.wecc.biz/committees/StandingCommittees/PCC/TSS/MVWG/032708/default.aspx

A set of default parameters are built in TSAT:

CompLF 1.0
Tv 0.05
Tf 0.05
CompPF 0.97
Vstall 0.6
Rstall 0.124
Xstall 0.114
Tstall 0.033
LFadj 0.0
Kp1 0.0
Np1 1.0
Kq1 6.0
Nq1 2.0
Kp2 12.0
Np2 3.2
Kq2 11.0
Nq2 2.5
Vbrk 0.86
Frst 0.5
Vrst 0.6
Trst 0.4
CmpKpf 1.0
CmpKqf -3.3
Vc1off 0.5
Vc2off 0.4
Vc1on 0.6

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Vc2on 0.5
Tth 20.0
Th1t 0.7
Th2t 1.3
fuvr 0
uvtr1 0.85
ttr1 2
uvtr2 0.8
ttr2 1

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6 Under-Load Tap Changer Data

TSAT supports a dynamic Under-Load Tap Changer (ULTC) model. This is the only dynamic ULTC
model supported in TSAT. Dynamic ULTC models in non-TSAT formats must be manually converted to
TSAT format.

6.1 Modelling Considerations

Figure 6-1 shows the dynamic ULTC model. This model controls a load-compensated voltage (regulated
voltage). The ULTC tap is moved by one step if all of the following conditions are met:

• The regulated voltage falls beyond the control range (VREF±DB),


• The time delay (TD0 or TD1) is met, and
• Tap limits (AMAX, and AMAX) are not reached.

VREF ∆n

Vm Timer
VT VT′ 1
KP VC + ∆V ε Vm T 1 = (T 1 + ∆ t)Vm if Vm ≠ 0 T1
VC = VT′ + (R C + jX C )I ′T Σ T 1 = 0 if V m = 0
∆V T 1 = 0 if ∆ n ≠ 0
IT
KC
I′T ε 2 DB T 1 = 0 if V m changes sign between
−1 two consecutive samplings

Time Delay Element


A0 AMAX
VD = 0 if T1 < TD +
Motor Drive Unit and
VD = 1 if T1 > TD VD ∆n n = n + ∆ n or n = n − ∆ n n ∆A + A1 A
Tap Changer Mechanism
(n = 0 at time 0)
KA Σ
and T1 > 0
e− STM
VD = - 1 if T 1 > TD
and T 1 < 0 AMIN

Notes:

TD is set to TD0 for the first tap movement and the subsequent tap movements if the voltage returns
within the deadband around the reference value; in all other situations, T D is set to TD1.

Figure 6-1: Dynamic ULTC model

The dynamic ULTC model can be applied either to individual transformers, or to specified zones, areas,
or the entire system. When applied to one transformer, the transformer may be a regular transformer or an
ULTC defined in powerflow. When applied to zones, areas, or the entire system, the dynamic ULTC
model will be matched with only ULTC models in powerflow.

When a dynamic ULTC model is matched with a powerflow ULTC model, you have an option to either
specify the following ULTC parameters, or let TSAT get them from the powerflow data:

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• Reference value of the voltage magnitude at the regulated bus


• Tap step size.
• Maximum transformer turns ratio.
• Minimum transformer turns ratio.

When a dynamic ULTC model is matched with a regular powerflow transformer model, you must provide
values for all mandatory ULTC parameters.

There is no dynamic state for the ULTC model.

6.2 Models and Data Formats

The ULTC models and their data formats are described in the following sheets.

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ULTC Model ULTCB

Model Descriptions

This model applies the ULTC model to a specified transformer.

Data Format

PBUS, ‘ULTCB’, I, SBUS, RBUS, REG, VREF, DB, ε, KP, KC, TD0, TD1, TM, KA, AMAX, AMIN, NMV,
TMV, RC, XC /

PBUS - Primary-side bus number, name, or transformer equipment name of the ULTC.
SBUS - Secondary-side bus number or name of the ULTC. If equipment name is used to identify the
ULTC, refer to Section 1.2.3 on how to enter this parameter.
ID - ID of the ULTC.
RBUS - Regulated bus number, name, or node equipment. If this bus is not provided (i.e., entered as
zero or not entered), the secondary bus of the ULTC is taken as the regulated bus.
REG - Flag to determine how the tap controls the regulated bus voltage:
REG = 0 the secondary-side bus is taken as the control bus.
REG = 1 the primary-side bus is taken as the control bus.
VREF - Reference value of the voltage magnitude at the regulated bus in per unit. If VREF = 0, the
voltage at the regulated bus in powerflow data is used.
DB - Deadband of the regulated bus voltage magnitude in per unit. DB = (Vmax-Vmin)/2 where Vmax
and Vmin are upper and lower limits of the regulated bus voltage magnitude.
ε - Hysteresis band of the regulator relay characteristic in per unit of the regulated bus voltage
magnitude.
KP - Potential transformer turns ratio in per unit. Default = 1.0.
KC - Current transformer turns ratio in per unit. Default = 1.0.
TD0 - Time delay for the first tap movement in a simulation and for the first tap movement after the
controlling voltage has returned within deadband, in seconds. No default value is allowed.
TD1 - Time delay for the second and subsequent tap movements in seconds. Default = 0.
TM - Time delay of the motor drive unit and tap changer mechanism in seconds. Default = 1.0.
KA - Tap step size on powerflow primary and secondary bus voltage bases. If not provided, default is
taken as the tap size in powerflow data.
AMAX - Maximum transformer turns ratio in per unit on powerflow primary and secondary bus voltage
bases. If not provided, default is taken as the maximum turns ratio in powerflow data.
AMIN - Minimum transformer turns ratio in per unit on powerflow primary and secondary bus voltage
bases. If not provided, default is taken as the miniimum turns ratio in powerflow data.
NMV - ULTC blocking counter. Any tap movement will be blocked after the NMV tap movements. If
NMV=0, this counter is disabled.
TMV - ULTC blocking timer. Any tap movement will be blocked after TMV seconds from the first tap
movement. If TMV=0, this timer is disabled.
RC - Resistance part of the load compensation impedance, in per unit on system common MVA base.
XC - Reactance part of the load compensation impedance, in per unit on system common MVA base.

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TSAT Model Manual

ULTC Model ULTCB

Data Restrictions

1. There must be a transformer (or ULTC) from PBUS to SBUS with ID I (or with the specified
transformer equipment name) in the powerflow data.

2. If the primary and secondary buses of a ULTC model in the dynamic data are reversed from the
sequence defined in the powerflow data, the sequence in the powerflow data is used. The rest of the
data is assumed to be correct.

3. If NMV and TMV are both non-zero, the ULTC is blocked when either the counter or the timer is
reached during the simulation.

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TSAT Model Manual

ULTC Model ULTCZ

Model Descriptions

This model applies the ULTC model to a specified zone.

Data Format

IZONE, ‘ULTCZ’, 0, DB, ε, TD0, TD1, TM, NMV, TMV /

IZONE - Zone number or name to apply the ULTC model.

Referred to model ULTCB for explanation of other parameters.

The following parameters in the ULTC model are obtained from the powerflow data:

VREF, KA, AMAX, AMIN

The following defaults are used for the ULTC model:

RBUS = secondary bus of the ULTC


REG = secondary bus of the ULTC
KP = 1.0
KC = 1.0

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TSAT Model Manual

ULTC Model ULTCA

Model Descriptions

This model applies the ULTC model to a specified area.

Data Format

IAREA, ‘ULTCA’, 0, DB, ε, TD0, TD1, TM, NMV, TMV /

IAREA - Area number or name to apply the ULTC model.

Referred to model ULTCB for explanation of other parameters.

The following parameters in the ULTC model are obtained from the powerflow data:

VREF, KA, AMAX, AMIN

The following defaults are used for the ULTC model:

RBUS = secondary bus of the ULTC


REG = secondary bus of the ULTC
KP = 1.0
KC = 1.0

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TSAT Model Manual

ULTC Model ULTCS

Model Descriptions

This model applies the ULTC model to the entire system.

Data Format

0, ‘ULTCS’, 0, DB, ε, TD0, TD1, TM, NMV, TMV /

Referred to model ULTCB for explanation of other parameters.

The following parameters in the ULTC model are obtained from the powerflow data:

VREF, KA, AMAX, AMIN

The following defaults are used for the ULTC model:

RBUS = secondary bus of the ULTC


REG = secondary bus of the ULTC
KP = 1.0
KC = 1.0

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TSAT Model Manual

7 FACTS Devices Data

TSAT supports standard SVC and saturable reactor models. These models are entered in fixed format.
The data section for these models starts with the keyword NSVC (format: 1X,A4). The data section
including all standard SVC and saturable reactor models is terminated by the keyword EDATA (format:
A5). Each of these devices is modelled as a current source injected into the AC network, while the AC
network acts as a voltage source towards the device. That is,

_ _
I = jB svc V

Where, Bsvc is the susceptance of SVC or reactor, positive for inductive and negative for capacitive.

In addition to the standard models, TSAT also supports various Flexible AC Transmission System
(FACTS) device models using the user-defined modeling capability. These cover the following model
types:

1. Shunt compensators:

 Static VAr Compensator (SVC).

 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), also known as Static Condenser (STATCON).

2. Series compensators:

 Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)

 Thyristor-Controlled Series Resistor (TCSR).

 Static Series Synchronous Compensator (SSSC), also known as Series Power Flow Controller
(SPFC).

3. Series controlled transformers:

 Thyristor-Controlled Tap Changing Transformer (TCTCT), also known as Static Tap Changer
(STC).

 Thyristor-Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST), also known as Static Phase Shifter
(SPS) or Thyristor-Controlled Phase Regulator (TCPR).

 Combination of TCTCT and TCPST as one device with two controllers, also known as Static
Tap-changer/Phase-shifter (STP).

4. Shunt dynamic brakes:

 Thyristor-Controlled Braking Resistor (TCBR), also known as Static Dynamic Brake (SDB).

 Thyristor-Controlled Braking Capacitor (TCBC).

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TSAT Model Manual

 Mechanical versions of thre above.

 Thyristor-Controlled Voltage Limiter (TCVL).

5. Shunt and/or series devices (modelled using Voltage-Sourced Converter (VSC) modelling
capabilities):

 STATCOM, with or without an energy component, such as Superconducting Magnetic Energy


Storage (SMES), battery, fuel cell, or a renewable source such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydro,
etc.

 SSSC, with or without an energy component, such as Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
(SMES), battery, fuel cell, or a renewable source such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydro, etc.

 Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).

These models are described in DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model Manual.

7.1 Standard SVCs Model and Data Format

These models and their data formats are described in the following sheets.

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 1 Model and Data Format

Block Diagram

VREF QC QC
1.0 − 1.0 −
QL QL

V SEN + 1+ sT1 1+ sT 2 1 B SVC (p.u.)


Σ K
1 + sT3 1 + sT 4 1 + sT 5

QC QC
− −
QL QL

Notes:

1. If T3, T4, or T5 is equal to zero, the corresponding block is bypassed.

2. QL is the TCR rating in MVAR and the MVA base of the SVC
QC is the fixed capacitor rating in MVAR

Data Format

BUS IM ID TYPE Q% DIV SBUS


Format (I5, 1X, A2, A2, I5, 1X, F5.0, 2I5) for bus number
Format (A12, 1X, A2, A2, I5, F5.0, I5, A12) for bus name
K QL QC T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Format (8F10.5)

BUS - Bus number or name of the SVC


IM - Interface method of the SVC with the power flow
= FS – The SVC is interfaced with the fixed shunt at the bus
= SS – The SVC is interfaced with the switchable shunt at the bus
= SH – The SVC is interfaced with both the fixed and switchable shunt at the bus
= Any string but FS, SS, and SH – The SVC is interfaced with the generator at the bus
ID - Unit identification (ID) of the SVC
TYPE - SVC type; = 1
Q% - Initial reactive power of the SVC, taken as follows:
For bus shunt interface, percentage of the total reactive power from the shunt
For bus shunt interface, percentage of the total reactive power generation at the bus
DIV - Subdivision number of the simulation step size. Default = 1
SBUS - Sensing bus number or name of the SVC. Default = SVC bus

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 1 Model and Data Format

State Counter

The SVC states are counted after the generic dynamic loads.

State +1* +2* +3*


Control Block T3 T4 T5
* optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

Data Restrictions

1. If T3 ≠ 0 and T3 < Tmin, then T3 is set to zero


2. If T4 ≠ 0 and T4 < Tmin, then T4 is set to zero
3. If T5 ≠ 0 and T5 < Tmin, then T5 is set to Tmin
4. K>0
5. QL > 0
6. QC ≥ 0

Data Sheet

Parameter Value Parameter Value

BUS T1
IM T2
ID T3
TYPE T4
Q% T5
DIV

SBUS
K

QL
QC

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 2 Model and Data Format

Block Diagram

VERR
IF VERR ≥ DVHI QC QC
VREF 1.0 − 1.0 −
VEMAX VMAX VEMAX B R′ = MAX(BR ,B MAX ) QL QL
IF DVLO < VERR < DVHI
VSEN 1 + 1+ sTS2 1+ sTS4 BR B R′ = B R B R′ 1 B(p.u. )
1 + sTS1 Σ 1 + sTS3 1 + sTS5
KSVC
IF VERR ≤ DVLO 1 + sTS6
B R′ = MIN(BR ,B)
QC QC
VEMIN VMIN VEMIN where − −
QL QL
B = B MIN + K SD (VERR + DV)

Notes: BSH (p.u.) SWITCH

1. QL is the TCR rating in MVAR and the MVA base of the SVC +
QC is the fixed capacitor rating in MVAR B (p.u.) Σ BSVC (p.u.)

2. If VERR ≥DV2, SWITCH will close after TD seconds


BIAS (p.u.)
3. DVHI=DV, DVLO= DV if DV>0
DVHI=B MAX/KSVC, DVLO=BMIN/KSVC if DV=0

4. If VMAX and VMIN are both zero, the regulator non-windup


limits are ignored. Otherwise, the windup limits are ignored.

Data Format

BUS IM ID TYPE Q% DIV SBUS


Format (I5, 1X, A2, A2, I5, 1X, F5.0, 2I5) for bus number
Format (A12, 1X, A2, A2, I5, F5.0, I5, A12) for bus name
TS1 VEMAX TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 KSVC Format (7F10.5)

KSD QL BMAX BMIN QC TS6 DV Format (7F10.5)

VMAX VMIN VEMIN BIAS DV2 BSH TD Format (7F10.5)

BUS - Bus number or name of the SVC


IM - Interface method of the SVC with the power flow
= FS – The SVC is interfaced with the fixed shunt at the bus
= SS – The SVC is interfaced with the switchable shunt at the bus
= SH – The SVC is interfaced with both the fixed and switchable shunt at the bus
= Any string but FS, SS, and SH – The SVC is interfaced with the generator at the bus
ID - Unit identification (ID) of the SVC
TYPE - SVC type; = 2
Q% - Initial reactive power of the SVC, taken as follows:
For bus shunt interface, percentage of the total reactive power from the shunt
For bus shunt interface, percentage of the total reactive power generation at the bus

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 2 Model and Data Format

DIV - Subdivision number of the simulation step size. Default = 1


SBUS - Sensing bus number or name of the SVC. Default = SVC bus

State Counter

The SVC states are counted after the generic dynamic loads.

State +1* +2* +3* +4*


Control Block TS1 TS3 TS5 TS6
* optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

Data Restrictions

1. If TS1 ≠ 0 and TS1 < Tmin, then TS1 is set to zero


2. If TS3 ≠ 0 and TS3 < Tmin, then TS3 is set to zero
3. If TS5 ≠ 0 and TS5 < Tmin, then TS5 is set to Tmin
4. If TS6 ≠ 0 and TS6 < Tmin, then TS6 is set to Tmin
5. KSVC > 0
6. QL > 0
7. QC ≥ 0
8. If VEMAX is zero or blank, a default value of 999.9 is used
9. If VEMIN is zero or blank, a default value of 999.9 is used

Data Sheet

Parameter Value Parameter Value Parameter Value

BUS TS1 DV

IM TS2 DV2
ID TS3 KSD
TYPE TS4 BMAX
Q% TS5 BMIN
DIV TS6 BIAS (p.u)

SBUS VEMAX BSH (p.u.)

KSVC VEMIN TD

QL VMAX

QC VMIN

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 3 Model and Data Format

Block Diagram

VERR
IF VERR ≥ DVHI QC QC
VREF 1.0 − 1.0 −
VEMAX VMAX VEMAX B R′ = MAX(BR ,B MAX ) QL QL
IF DVLO < VERR < DVHI
VSEN 1 + 1+ sTS2 1+ sTS4 BR B R′ = B R BR′ 1 B(p.u. )
+
1 + sTS1
Σ Σ 1 + sTS3 1 + sTS5
K SVC
1 + sTS6
+ IF VERR ≤ DVLO
VSCS
B R′ = MIN(BR ,B)
VEMIN VMIN VEMIN where Q QC
− C −
B = B MIN + K SD (VERR + DV) QL QL

Pline (p.u.) B SH (p.u.) SWITCH


φ RAD s ∆ fbus (p.u.) K S1 1+ sTS8
VSCSMAX
ω 0 (1 + sTF ) 1 + sT7 1 + sTS9 +
Pacc (p.u.) B (p.u.) Σ B SVC (p.u.)
+ sTS13
Σ K S3
1 + sTS13
+ BIAS (p.u.)
VSEN (p.u.)
K S2 1+ sTS11
QSVC (p.u.) VSCSMAX
1 + sT10 1 + sTS12
I S V C (p .u. )

Notes:

1. QL is the TCR rating in MVAR and the MVA base 4. If VMAX and VMIN are both zero, the regulator non-windup
of the SVC limits are ignored. Otherwise, the windup limits are ignored.
QC is the fixed capacitor rating in MVAR
5. Inputs from system (and machine) are in per unit on the system
2. DVHI=DV, DVLO= -DV if DV>0 common base. Inputs from SVC are in per unit on the SVC base.
DVHI=BMAX/KSVC, DVLO=B MIN/KSVC if DV=0

3. If -VERR ≥ DV2, SWITCH will close after TD seconds

Data Format

BUS IM ID TYPE Q% DIV SBUS


Format (I5, 1X, A2, A2, I5, 1X, F5.0, 2I5) for bus number
Format (A12,1X, A2, A2, I5, F5.0, I5, A12) for bus name
TS1 VEMAX TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 KSVC Format (7F10.5)
KSD QL BMAX BMIN QC TS6 DV Format (7F10.5)
VMAX VMIN VEMIN BIAS DV2 BSH TD Format (7F10.5)
Format (4I10, 8X, A2) for bus number
MT1 MT2 FBUS TBUS CID Used if MT1 = 0
Format (2I10, 2A12, A2) for bus name
Format (2I10, F10.5, I10) for bus number
MT1 MT2 TF NBUS Used if MT1 = 1
Format (2I10, F10.5, A12) for bus name
Format (3I10, 8X, A2) for bus number
MT1 MT2 GBUS GID Used if MT1 = 2
Format (2I10, A12, 2X, A2) for bus name
KS1 TS7 TS8 TS9 TS13 KS3 VSCSMAX Format (7F10.5)
KS2 TS10 TS11 TS12 Format (4F10.5)

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 3 Model and Data Format

BUS - Bus number or name of the SVC


IM - Interface method of the SVC with the power flow
= FS – The SVC is interfaced with the fixed shunt at the bus
= SS – The SVC is interfaced with the switchable shunt at the bus
= SH – The SVC is interfaced with both the fixed and switchable shunt at the bus
= Any string but FS, SS, and SH – The SVC is interfaced with the generator at the bus
ID - Unit identification (ID) of the SVC
TYPE - SVC type; = 3
Q% - Initial reactive power of the SVC, taken as follows:
For bus shunt interface, percentage of the total reactive power from the shunt
For bus shunt interface, percentage of the total reactive power generation at the bus
DIV - Subdivision number of the simulation step size. Default = 1
SBUS - Sensing bus number or name of the SVC. Default = SVC bus
MT1 - Type of the first input to the stabilizing circuit
= 0 VSEN input
= 1 QSVC input
= 2 ISVC input

State Counter

The SVC states are counted after the generic dynamic loads.

State +1* +2* +3* +4* +5* +6* +7* +8* +9* +10*
Control Block TF TS7 TS9 TS10 TS12 TS13 TS1 TS3 TS5 TS6
* optional state – not counted if the associated control block does not exist.

Data Restrictions

1. If TS1 ≠ 0 and TS1 < Tmin, then TS1 is set to zero


2. If TS3 ≠ 0 and TS3 < Tmin, then TS3 is set to zero
3. If TS5 ≠ 0 and TS5 < Tmin, then TS5 is set to zero
4. If TS6 ≠ 0 and TS6 < Tmin, then TS6 is set to Tmin
5. If MT1 = 1 and TF < Tmin, then TF is set to Tmin
6. If TS7 ≠ 0 and TS7 < Tmin, then TS7 is set to zero
7. If TS9 ≠ 0 and TS9 < Tmin, then TS9 is set to zero
8. If TS10 ≠ 0 and TS10 < Tmin, then TS10 is set to zero
9. If TS12 ≠ 0 and TS12 < Tmin, then TS12 is set to zero
10. If TS13 ≥ Tmin
11. KSVC > 0
12. QL > 0
13. QC ≥ 0
14. If VEMAX is zero or blank, a default value of 999.9 is used
15. If VEMIN is zero or blank, a default value of 999.9 is used
16. If VSCMAX is zero or blank, a default value of 999.9 is used

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TSAT Model Manual

Static VAR Compensator (SVC) Type 3 Model and Data Format

Data sheet

Parameter Value Parameter Value Parameter Value

BUS VEMAX CID

IM VEMIN TF
ID VMAX NBUS

TYPE VMIN GBUS

Q% DV GID

DIV DV2 KS1


SBUS KSD KS2

KSVC BMAX KS3


QL BMIN TS7

QC BIAS (p.u.) TS8


TS1 BSH (p.u.) TS9

TS2 TD TS10

TS3 MT1 TS11

TS4 MT2 TS12

TS5 FBUS TS13


TS6 TBUS VSCSMAX

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TSAT Model Manual

Saturable Reactor Type 6 Data Format

Model Diagram

3
V2
Terminal Voltage (p.u.)

2
V1

0
Excitation Current

Data Format

Format (I5, 1X,A2, I5, F5.0) for bus number


BUS IM ID TYPE Q%
Format (A12, 1X, A2, A2, I5, F5.0) for bus name
V1 V2 G1 G2 Format (4F10.5)

BUS- Bus number or name of the saturable reactor


IM - Interface method of the saturable reactor with the powerflow
= FS – The saturable reactor is interfaced with the fixed shunt at the bus
= SS – The saturable reactor is interfaced with the switchable shunt at the bus
= SH – The saturable reactor is interfaced with the fixed and switchable shunt at the bus
(default)
ID - Unit identification (ID) of the saturable reactor
TYPE - Storable reactor type; = 6
Q% - Initial reactive power of the saturable reactor from the shunt at the bus
Slope of region 1
G1 - =
Slope of region 2
Slope of region 1
G2 - =
Slope of region 3

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TSAT Model Manual

Saturable Reactor Type 6 Data Format

State Counter

There is no state assigned to this model.

Data Restrictions

1. If V1 is zero or blank, a default value of 99.999 is used


2. If V2 is zero or blank, a default value of 99.999 is used

Data Sheet

Parameter Value

BUS

IM

ID

TYPE
Q%

V1
V2
G1
G2

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TSAT Model Manual

8 HVDC Links and Converter-Based FACTS Data

This section describes the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission and converter-based
Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers data format in TSAT.

8.1 Introduction

TSAT supports a versatile and comprehensive User-Defined Control (UDC) facility under the keyword
NDCL (format: 1X, A4). Line commutated converter, self commutated Voltage-Sourced Converter
(VSC) using Gate-Turn-Off (GTO) thyristors, etc., and simplified converter models are available, which
provide for the following models of HVDC links and FACTS devices:

1. Detailed models of HVDC transmission systems having two or more terminals, with line and/or
self commutated converters.

2. Functional (also known as response, performance, etc.) models of HVDC transmission systems
having two or more terminals, with line and/or self commutated converters.

3. Simplified (load-netted) models of HVDC transmission systems having two or more terminals,
with line and/or self commutated converters.

4. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), with or without an energy component, such as


Super conductive Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Battery Energy Storage System (BESS),
fuel cell, or a renewable source such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydro, etc.

5. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), with or without an energy component similar to
those for STATCOM.

6. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).

7. Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC).

There is only one dynamic data set in the NDCL data block, since all dc links are viewed as one multi-
converter system, no matter whether they are physically connected or not. The FACTS controller models
are also viewed as dc links in this system. The entire dc system model structure is shown in Figure 8-1.

The NDCL data block is terminated by the keyword EDATA (Format: A5), right after the last UDC
record ENDUDC:. Anywhere after the dc system solution parameter data record, any string between two
asterisks (*) is interpreted as comments.

DC links that do not have models in the NDCL data block will be automatically replaced by simplified
models based on the power flow information. DC links that have models in the NDCL data block may
also be represented by simplified models during simulations. Another option is to simplify the ac system,
either partially or fully, the latter being called the HVDC standalone option. In this case, generators will be
represented by an equivalent voltage source behind impedance. It is, in particular, useful for trouble shooting
when setting up the dc controls, and in situations where a difficulty is hard to be attributed to either ac or dc
systems. These options can be set by using the dynamic representation data described in Section 10.
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V1 V2 ... VN

P1
yc1
Q1
cond1 CONVERTER
#1 I1
FROM
CONTROLS OF
DC
ALL DC
P2
LINKS USING yc2
INDIVIDUAL
CONVERTER Q2
BASIC BLOCKS cond2 #2
FROM
AC AC
I2
NETWORK
LOOPS AND
INTERFACE
BYPASS PATHS PN
ARE ALLOWED ycN
CONVERTER QN
condN #N
SOURCE
SIGNALS IN

DC NETWORK
yc can be:
CONNECTING
α, γ, Ιd, or Vd ALL
cond can be: CONVERTERS
COMFAIL, BYPASS or BLOCK

Figure 8-1: The Structure of User-Defined DC Model

8.1.1 Interface with Powerflow

The dc model is interfaced to power flow in PSF/PFB format, although a PSF/PFB powerflow may be
converted from another powerflow format. The main interface point is the converter name. A TSAT dc
converter name has the following format:

dc bus 1, dc bus 2, ac bus,0., circuit

where dc bus1 and dc bus 2 are the dc bus names (up to 8 characters without quotes), ac bus is the ac bus
name (up to 16 characters), circuit is the converter ID. Depending on the original powerflow format, the
information in a converter name is obtained as follows.

Native PSF/PFB format

Native PSF/PFB supports both line commutated converter and self commutated VSC models.

dc bus1, dc bus 2, and converter ID are defined in the powerflow data. For a VSC model, when it is series-
connected on the ac side (in FACTS controller models), only its first ac bus is used in the converter name. A
shunt-connected converter on the ac side is allowed to have an isolated fictitious ac infinite bus (identified in
PSF/PFB as zero bus number or blank bus name) having 1.0 pu voltage. This provides for easy

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TSAT Model Manual

representations of the energy components (e.g., storage devices) used in some FACTS controller
configurations. When entering the ac bus data in a converter name, two possibilities exist:

• If the buses are identified by numbers, the ac bus string includes the bus number (left justified). This
is followed in the next data field by 0. (with no leading or intermediate blanks). For example, if for
converter #1 in a PSF/PFB powerflow, dc buses are ‘REC01’ and ‘GROUND’ respectively, and this
converter is connected at ac bus number 11, this converter is identified in the DC dynamic data as

REC01, GROUND, 11, 0., 1

• If the buses are identified by names, the ac bus string includes the 16-characters bus name. This is
followed in the next data field by 0. (with no leading or intermediate blanks). For example, if for
converter #1 in a PSF/PFB powerflow, dc buses are ‘REC01’ and ‘GROUND’ respectively, and this
converter is connected at ac bus name ‘SAMPLBUS 345.’, this converter is identified in the DC
dynamic data as

REC01, GROUND, ‘SAMPLBUS 345.’, 0., 1

Note that in this case, if the bus name contains a blank character, either fill the blank with the #
character, or enclose the bus name with single quotes. This applies to dc buses as well.

PSS/E format

PSS/E’s two-terminal and multi-terminal dc models are automatically converted in TSAT (similar to that in
converted PSF/PFB). Note that for the multi-terminal model to go through and be set up correctly, the
powerflow must be solved in TSAT (for the two-terminal model solving the powerflow in TSAT is not
necessary if it is considered a solved case). Furthermore, the two-terminal dc model is automatically
expanded in TSAT (similar to that in converted PSF/PFB), as shown in Figure 8-2. The PSS/E powerflow dc
line resistance is divided into three sections as shown to allow for proper representation of smoothing
inductors and line dynamics, and large shunt resistances are added to provide the means for applying dc line-
ground faults. Each link will then have four dc nodes (dc buses) that are named as shown in the figure. The
dc link order (01, 02, etc.) is as entered in powerflow. Since PSS/E does not allow multiple converters at the
same bus, converter ID is always set to 1.

The ac bus and kV should be entered using the bus number method for the native PSF/PFB powerflow.

PSLF format

PSLF’s two-terminal and multi-terminal dc models are automatically converted in TSAT (similar to that in
converted PSF/PFB). The dc bus names specified in the PSLF powerflow are directly used as dc bus 1 or dc
bus 2. If the converter is grounded, the grounding bus is named “GROUND”. Since PSLF does not allow
multiple converters at the same bus, converter ID is always set to 1.

In PSLF powerflow, ac buses are always identified by their numbers. Therefore, the ac bus and kV should be
entered using the bus number method for the native PSF/PFB powerflow.

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RECxx SRRxx SRIxx INVxx


• • • •
Rectifier 0.01 R dc 0.98 R dc 0.01 R dc Inverter
HT AC Bus HT AC Bus
aaaaa • 10 MΩ 10 MΩ • bbbbb

GROUND

Identification of Rectifier: RECxx, GROUND, aaaaa, 0., 1


Identification of Inverter: INVxx, GROUND, bbbbb, 0., 1
Identification of DC Lines: RECxx, SRRxx, 1
SRRxx, SRIxx, 1
SRIxx, INVxx, 1
SRRxx, GROUND, 1
SRIxx, GROUND, 1

xx is 01 for the 1st link, 02 for the 2nd link, 03 for the 3rd link, etc.
aaaaa and bbbbb are ac bus numbers
0. is the character string for the ac bus kV (not actual kV)

Figure 8-2: Expansion of PSS/E Two-Terminal HVDC Link in TSAT

BPA format

BPA’s two-terminal and multi-terminal dc models are automatically converted in TSAT (similar to that in
converted PSF/PFB). The dc bus names specified in the BPA powerflow are directly used as dc bus 1 or dc
bus 2. If the converter is grounded, the grounding bus is named “GROUND”. Since BPA does not allow
multiple converters at the same bus, converter ID is always set to 1.

In BPA powerflow, buses are always identified by their names. Therefore, the ac bus and kV should be
entered using the bus name method for the native PSF/PFB powerflow.

8.1.2 DC System Solution Parameters

This is the first data record following the NDCL keyword. It contains the following dc system solution
parameters. The data must be entered in fixed format:

DTDC DTUDC UDAMP CDAMP LDAMP LTOL RFLAG Format (6F9.5, I2)

DTDC dc (network) solution time step in seconds


DTUDC UDC solution time step in seconds
UDAMP damping term for UDC solution integration (0 to 1)
CDAMP damping term for capacitance model (0 to 1)
LDAMP damping term for inductance model (0 to 1)
LTOL control loop initialization tolerance
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RFLAG reduction flag


If set to –1, an automatic reduction of fast dynamics of the dc network is applied. It treats the
capacitive voltages and the inductive currents of the dc network as fast and slow variables,
respectively. In effect, the inductive differential equations are solved at every dc time step as
usual, while capacitive differential equations are solved at every second dc time step. The
controls are solved at every control time step as usual. Note that the reduction will happen
only when the ac step size is an even multiple of the dc step size. No reduction is applied at
any other value of RFLAG.

After this data record, the data for user-defined control (UDC) blocks are entered in free format, as
described below.

8.2 Available Converter Models

Three types of converter models are available in TSAT, namely, (1) line commutated converter; (2) self-
commutated VSC; and (3) simplified converter models. They are described below.

8.2.1 Line Commutated Converter Model

The dynamic model of the line commutated converter is shown in Figure 8-3.

Id
DC Bus 1 •
P + jQ
+
• AC Bus
+
Vd V∠θ
Tap
Rec. Inv. −


DC Bus 2 •

Figure 8-3: Line Commutated Converter Model

The dc voltage of this model can be controlled by varying its firing angle. It injects the following real and
reactive powers.

P = − Vd Id MW

2 2 1/2
Q = − kc (Vd0 − Vd ) Id MVAr

Vd = kc Vd0 cos α − 3 Xc Id /π = − kc Vd0 cos γ + 3 Xc Id /π

Vd0 = 3 2 Nb nt at VLL /π

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Where,
Vd converter dc voltage in kV
Id converter dc current in kA
α converter firing angle in degrees, limited by 0° ≤ α ≤ 180°
γ converter extinction (margin) angle in degrees, limited by 0° ≤ γ ≤ 180°
Xc commutating reactance in Ohms
Vd0 no-load (open-circuit) dc voltage (i.e., commutating voltage)
VLL ac line-line voltage on converter side
Nb number of bridges in series on the dc side
nt transformer nominal voltage ratio of dc to ac side
at transformer tap position in pu at converter side
kc 1.0 for rectifier and –1.0 for inverter

If the powerflow is in PSS/E (either RAWD or SAVED) format and not solved in TSAT again, a more
detailed formula, compatible with PSS/E, is used for Q to avoid a mismatch in TSAT.

8.2.2 Self Commutated Voltage-Sourced Converter Model

The dynamic model of the VSC is shown in Figure 8-4.

Id
DC Bus 1 •
+ jXL jXt P + jQ
• • AC Bus 1
+ + V1 ∠θ1
Vd Vi ∠θ1+α V∠θ
− − AC Bus 2
• •
− V2 ∠θ2
DC Bus 2 •

Figure 8-4: Voltage-Sourced Converter Model

The internal ac voltage of this model can be controlled in both magnitude and angle. It injects the
following real and reactive powers:

P = Vd Vc γ sin (α + θc) / Xc = − Vd Id MW

2 2
Q = Vd Vc γ cos (α + θc) / Xc − Vbase V / Xc MVAr

Vi = kc Vd γ / (nt at Vbase) , θi = θ1 + α

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Vc = kc Vbase V / (nt at) , θc = θ1 - θ

Xc = Nb (XL+ Xt)

Where,
α converter power angle in degrees, unlimited if α control mode, limited by −90° ≤ α + θc ≤ 90°
if calculated internally
γ modulation ratio (pu fundamental), −1.0 ≤ γ ≤ 1.0
V converter ac voltage in per unit
Vd converter dc voltage in kV
Id converter dc current in kA
Vc converter (commutating) voltage in kV
θc converter (commutating) angle in degrees (0.0 for shunt converter)
Xc converter (commutating) reactance in Ohms
Xt transformer reactance per bridge in Ohms
XL additional ac series inductive reactance per bridge in Ohms (large XL, in effect, converts the
voltage source to a current source)
Nb number of bridges in series on the dc side
nt transformer nominal voltage ratio of dc to ac side
at transformer tap position in pu at converter side
kc dc to ac gain of the converter at |γ| = 1.0 (chosen in power flow as 1.0, 6 /4, 6 /π, or 0.727)

Note that the converter may be connected to two ac buses, i.e., in series, which is used in some FACTS
controllers such as SSSC, UPFC, and IPFC. A UPFC is set up as a two terminal dc system with self
commutated converters. The shunt converter usually provides for a more or less constant dc voltage and
regulates an ac bus (self or remote). The series converter may control both real and reactive power flows of
an ac line (or sum of several branch flows, etc.). In an IPFC the dc voltage is held constant by one series
converter (slave VSC), which may also control its line real power flow, while the other series converter
(master VSC) may control both real and reactive power flows of its line. A generalized FACTS controller
may also be modelled using more than two converters.

An SSSC is similar to the series element of a UPFC (or one series element of IPFC). A source converter is
needed to provide the back dc voltage, whether there is an energy component or just a capacitor on the dc
side. In case of just a capacitor, P of the series converter may be controlled at zero by controlling the
converter for zero Id. A STATCOM is similar to the shunt element of a UPFC, and needs a source converter
as well. Its P can be kept at zero by controlling its Id at zero. Alternatively, with an energy component such
as a SMES, BESS, wind, etc., both P and Q injections may be controlled by controlling both α and γ of the
interface converter. The VSC model can also be used to model equivalents of other FACTS controllers or
HVDC links, e.g., a DC Light link.

8.2.3 Simplified Converter Model

A simplified dc converter model exists in TSAT that is based on the following dc link assumptions:

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• Each converter is normally on either constant dc current control or constant dc voltage control
(normally one on voltage and the rest on current control).
• The dc network is purely resistive.
• The controls are instantaneous.

These assumptions imply that the link model has no dynamics (i.e., the model is algebraic). The resistive dc
network and constant dc current converters cause the voltage drops in the dc network to be constant. Thus,
the instantaneous controls hold all converters dc current and dc voltage constant independent of the ac system
variations. Hence, the real and reactive power injections of each line commutated converter (for dc current
leaving the converter) are related to the initial conditions (denoted by subscript 0) as,

P = –Vd Id = P0

2 2 2 2 2 1/2
Q = – [(Q0 + P0 ) V / V0 – P0 ]

The real power is, thus, constant and the reactive power depends on the converter ac voltage only. This
idealization of the dc system becomes less accurate as the ac system variations become more severe. The
model is particularly inaccurate when the ac system variations are significant enough to cause the highly
nonlinear controls such as Voltage Dependent Current Order Limiter (VDCOL) become active, or to cause a
mode shift in the dc system. Under such conditions, P and Q are likely to drop, with P more rapidly than Q.
To accommodate this, a breaking point in the ratio of ac voltage to its initial value, Vb, is assumed to
correspond to the point where the reactive power consumption of the converter drops to Q = Qb Q0 Vb, and
for voltage ratios below Vb, the reactive power is changed linearly and the real power is calculated from the
above equation, i.e.,

Q = Qb Q0 V / V0

2 2 2 2 1/2
|P| = [(1 – Qb) Q0 /(1 – V / V0 )] V / V0

The sign of P will be the same as that of P0. For V/V0 less than 0.3 the converter is assumed to be blocked
(both P and Q equal to zero). The whole P and Q characteristics are shown in Figure 8-5. The default for Qb
is 0.95, which may be changed using an OTHER block with SIMPLE subtype (as explained in the UDC
section below).

For self commutated VSC, the real power is held constant over the whole range. A unity power factor
condition is also imposed, which results in varying Q similar to a susceptance, i.e.,
2 2
Q = Q0 V / V0 .

In TSAT the simplified dc model is applied on a converter basis. This means that, if the simplified dc model
is to be used for a converter, the converter will be blocked first (by TSAT) and then the simplified equivalent
P and Q will be injected into the converter ac bus instead. Therefore, the user should make sure that all
converters of a particular link are either designated as simplified models (or simply not represented by any
interface blocks), or represented in full. Otherwise, part of the system may be blocked without proper
equivalent injections, resulting in erroneous response.

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P/P0 Q/Q0

1.0 • 1.0 •
QbVb

V/V0 V/V0
0 0.3 V 1.0 0 0.3 V 1.0
b b
Figure 8-5: P and Q Characteristics of the Simplified Converter Model for Line Commutation

8.3 User-Defined Controls

Modeling of dc control systems is built upon a complete capability for creating models from basic functions.
This capability is known as User Defined Control (UDC). The UDC capability provides for the definition of
controllers for each dc converter through the interconnection of a wide range of basic building blocks. The
UDC feature handles the ordering and initialization of the control system so that the user needs to be
concerned only with the definition of the control system. The complexity of the control system can range
from the very simple (a fixed quantity on the converter) to the very detailed (full bipolar, dynamic controls
with logic for special sequences).

8.3.1 The UDC Concepts

Although there is a wide range of building blocks available for model building and the definition of these
blocks varies greatly, there are some common points related to User Defined Control, namely:

• The models must derive a converter control quantity from input variables.
• Many dc and ac quantities are available as inputs to the control model.
• Most inputs to UDC blocks may, themselves, be outputs of other blocks; the exceptions are fixed
parameters such as time constants.
• The UDC system will accept blocks in essentially any order and will place the blocks into a solution
order where each block is calculated once all of its inputs have been calculated.
• UDC block definitions use a free format input, so data may be arranged for readability.
• Comments may be imbedded in the UDC data, so documentation of models is simplified.
• A UDC data set contains definitions of the control systems as well as any dc related disturbances.
• An integration procedure known as damped trapezoidal integration is employed for all integration
calculations.

8.3.2 Block Definition

All UDC blocks are defined in a free format statement of the following form:
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Block name, TYPE, SUBTYPE, Print Flag, Inputs and Parameters:

The block name must be unique. The block name can be used as an input to other blocks and the output
value of the named block will be used as the input to those other blocks during the solution process. Block
names are limited to eight case-sensitive alphanumeric characters (up to 17 characters if they refer to blocks
in a STRUCTURE subtype discussed later).

Each element of the statement must be followed by a comma except for the last, which must be followed by a
colon. The statement can be spread over as many lines as desired. All inputs and parameters must be
entered; there are no defaults. A comment may be entered by preceding and following it with an asterisk.
Comments can occur between block descriptions or within a block description. The Print flag (P or N) is
read but not used.

To simplify the process of model building, UDC blocks are divided into broad categories, known as
types. These types reflect the basic nature of the building blocks. Within the types, there are from one to
as many as 26 subtypes, reflecting specific functions within the broader classifications.

UDC blocks fall into four basic categories:

1. Data sources, including the following block types:


• SOURCE
• FROMDC
• FROMAC

2. Interfaces to dc network devices and message printing, including the following block types:
• INTERFACE
• BREAKER
• PRINT

3. Data processing, including the following block types:


• UNARY
• BINARY
• MULTIPLE
• LIMIT
• SBLOCK
• LOGIC
• SETUP
• SUBSYSTEM
• OTHER

4. Similar repeating controls, including the following type:


• STRUCTURE

The models and data formats of all UDC blocks are shown in Section 8.4.

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8.3.3 Sources

There are three UDC block types that provide inputs to the models. These types comprise basic sources
interfaced to special source functions, dc and ac systems.

SOURCE Blocks

Subtypes TIME, DTAC, DTDC, and DTCC are used to obtain simulation parameters for use in UDC.

FROMDC Blocks

The subtype VCONV returns the converter dc voltage while VCOMM returns the open-circuit dc voltage
Vdo for line commutated converters and Vc for self-commutated voltage-sourced converters (as defined in
Section 8.2). The subtype BRIDGE returns the number of bridges represented by the converter model. The
subtypes COMFAIL and BLOCK return the value 1.0 if the converter model is in the commutation failure or
block modes, respectively, and 0.0 otherwise. The subtype ICONV returns the dc current of the converter,
following the converter sign convention, i.e. positive when leaving bus 1 of the converter. The line
monitoring subtypes PLINE and ILINE return the flows from dc bus 1 to dc bus 2. In these subtypes the
circuit number is significant.

The subtype IMODE (initial mode) returns the powerflow control mode of the converter. This block is
intended to be used primarily as an input to a logic function in the control model. The following code is used
in the control mode definition of a converter in powerflow:

VD converter dc voltage
ID converter dc current
AL converter firing angle (or power angle in self commutation)
GA converter extinction angle (or modulation ratio in self commutation)
PA converter ac active power injection
QA converter ac reactive power injection
AT converter tap position

For a line-commuted converter, the converter control mode used in the powerflow is a combination of two of
the above control codes. Therefore, in the control model, if an IMODE block is to provide input to a logic
function, the output (8-character name) of the IMODE block will have to be compared with the following
control mode texts:

'VDAL' 'IDAL'
'VDGA' 'IDGA' 'ALGA'
'ALPA' 'GAPA'
'VDQA' 'IDQA' 'ALQA' 'GAQA' 'PAQA'
'VDAT' 'IDAT' 'ALAT' 'GAAT' 'PAAT' 'QAAT'

Note:

1. In the control mode definition, the order of the character pairs is not significant, so 'VDAL' is
equivalent to 'ALVD'.

2. The control modes 'VDID', 'VDPA' and 'IDPA' are not permitted in the powerflow.

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3. The control mode text is enclosed in single quotes (').

For a self-commuted voltage-sourced converter, a third code is added to the converter control mode
definition.

When the output of an IMODE block is used inside the program, or printed/plotted in the output, an integer
value is used for each control mode. The following is the conversion between the control mode and the
associated integer values:

Line Third code in self commutation


First two codes
commutation VD ID AL GA PA QA AT
VDID or IDVD 11 111 211 311 411 511 611 711
VDAL or ALVD 12 112 212 312 412 512 612 712
VDGA or GAVD 13 113 213 313 413 513 613 713
VDPA or PAVD 14 114 214 314 414 514 614 714
VDQA or QAVD 15 115 215 315 415 515 615 715
VDAT or ATVD 16 116 216 316 416 516 616 716
IDAL or ALID 17 117 217 317 417 517 617 717
IDGA or GAID 18 118 218 318 418 518 618 718
IDPA or PAID 19 119 219 319 419 519 619 719
IDQA or QAID 20 120 220 320 420 520 620 720
IDAT or ATID 21 121 221 321 421 521 621 721
ALGA or GAAL 22 122 222 322 422 522 622 722
ALPA or PAAL 23 123 223 323 423 523 623 723
ALQA or QAAL 24 124 224 324 424 524 624 724
ALAT or ATAL 25 125 225 325 425 525 625 725
GAPA or PAGA 26 126 226 326 426 526 626 726
GAQA or QAGA 27 127 227 327 427 527 627 727
GAAT or ATGA 28 128 228 328 428 528 628 728
PAQA or QAPA 29 129 229 329 429 529 629 729
PAAT or ATPA 30 130 230 330 430 530 630 730
QAAT or ATQA 31 131 231 331 431 531 631 731

The subtype RMODE (run mode) returns the stability control mode of a converter. This block is intended
to be used primarily as an input to a logic function in the control model. The stability control mode may
have one of the following texts:

'VOLTAGE' converter dc voltage


'CURRENT' converter dc current
'ALPHA' converter firing angle (or power angle in self commutation)
'GAMMA' converter extinction angle (or modulation ratio in self commutation)
'BYPASS' converter bypass
'COMFAIL' converter commutation failure
'BLOCK' converter block

Therefore, in the control model, if an RMODE block is to provide input to a logic function, the output (8-
character name) of the RMODE block will have to be compared with the above control mode texts. When
the output of an RMODE block is used inside the program, or printed/plotted in the output, an integer value is

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used for each control mode. The following is the conversion between the control mode and the associated
integer values:

Second control mode in self commutation


First control Line
mode commutation VOLTAGE CURRENT ALPHA GAMMA BYPASS COMFAIL BLOCK

'VOLTAGE' 1 0 0 11 12 8 9 10
'CURRENT' 2 0 0 13 14 8 9 10
'ALPHA' 3 11 13 0 15 8 9 10
'GAMMA' 4 12 14 15 0 8 9 10
'BYPASS' 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
'COMFAIL' 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
'BLOCK' 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Note:

1. Similar to IMODE block, the control mode text is enclosed in single quotes (').

2. For self commutation, the second control mode in text value comes after the first eight characters,
e.g., 'ALPHA GAMMA' (there are three blanks after ALPHA).

3. For self commutation, the combinations of control modes that produce 0 in the above table are not
allowed.

4. For self commutation, one 'BYPASS', 'COMFAIL', or 'BLOCK' mode is enough to produce such
control mode for the converter irrespective of the other mode of the converter.

The subtype ISHUNT returns the current measured, in amps, from the first named dc node (in this block
description) to GROUND, i.e., the current of the first side capacitance of the line. This current will be 0.0 at
initialization. R or RL lines will return the value 0.0 throughout the simulation.

If a dc bus name contains a blank character, either fill the blank with the # character, or enclose the bus name
with single quotes.

FROMAC Blocks

In FROMAC blocks the bus number/name convention is similar to that of converter (depending on the
powerflow format). If bus name is used to identify buses, the 16-character ac bus name must match the name
specified in the powerflow data. If a bus name has blanks, either use the # symbol to replace blanks, or
enclose the bus name in single quotes.

For the ILINE, PLINE and QLINE subtypes, flow will be calculated from the first bus to the second bus for
the circuit specified. Note that circuit ID is a one-character string and should be taken as the first character of
the actual ac circuit (the second character is assumed to be a blank). The subtype SPEED provides for
synchronous generator speed deviation. The subtypes V12MAG and V12ANG provide for the magnitude and
angle of ac voltage difference, from bus 1 to bus 2.

8.3.4 Interfaces

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Converters and breakers in a dc network must be controlled. The converter must be given an input (or two
inputs for self commutation), while a breaker must be given open and close commands. Interface blocks can
be used for this purpose. Before the stability solution can proceed, each converter or breaker must have one
and only one corresponding interface block defined. Printing a user-specified message also needs to be
interfaced to the output.

If the interface block is not defined for a converter, a simplified model as described in Section 8.2.3 will be
assumed automatically for the converter (a dummy interface is added by the program). Similarly undefined
breakers will be simplified, i.e., they will remain at their initial statuses.

INTERFACE Blocks

There is only one block in this type (i.e., no subtypes). The control mode of the converter can be specified as
a combination of VOLTAGE, CURRENT, ALPHA, GAMMA, COMFAIL, BYPASS or BLOCK.

The actual control mode of the converter at any given time is determined when the first true logical
expression (each mode definition is followed by a logical expression; see data sheet) is encountered from the
order that the mode definition is entered in the data. Initialization can be performed to any specified value or
to the solved powerflow value.

There are four basic control modes (with actual control inputs to the INTERF block) – voltage, current, alpha,
and gamma. These basic modes are augmented by higher level modes for commutation failure, bypassing
and blocking modeling. These are described as follows:

Mode Description Unit


VOLTAGE dc voltage kV
CURRENT dc current Ampere
ALPHA converter firing angle degree
(power angle for self commutation)
GAMMA converter extinction angle degree
(modulation ratio for self commutation) (per unit for self commutation)
COMFAIL commutation failure no unit - dummy value only
BYPASS bypass no unit - dummy value only
BLOCK blocking no unit - dummy value only

An INTERF block has control over a converter. The interface to the converter models is at the valve group
level, but the signal supplied to the converter is not necessarily firing angle (or power angle and modulation
ratio in self commutation). This enables the convenient use of functional models, i.e., to idealize part of the
controls such as pole controls that are considered to be fast as compared to electromechanical modes.

The INTERF block permits definition of a set of control modes, for each input, where each input may be
qualified by a logical expression. The solution process for the block runs through the logic provided, in input
order, until a logical expression is found to be true. At that point, the converter control is fixed to the mode
corresponding to the true logical expression. The logical expression syntax is similar to that described for the
LOGIC block in Section 8.3.5.

Since an input to the INTERF block may be another UDC block, it is possible to set up detailed controls, e.g.,
a current controller having control over the converter firing angle, with full modeling of the controller
dynamics. It is just as easy to set up a model that for example forces the converter voltage to follow a
predefined function of time (or simply a constant). Through the use of the interface logic, it is then possible
to mix both of these extremes of control modeling on one converter.
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The INTERF block will normally initialize to the first input (with true logical expression) that provides the
specified INITIAL mode. Alternatively, it may be initialized to a desired value by using it as the end block of
a UDC subsystem (to be discussed later). The desired value may be provided through the optional input of
the INITIAL definition (which can be either a parameter or the output of another block); its default is the
power flow value of the corresponding converter.

The INTERF block directly controls the operation of the dc converter model. Thus, operation under
VOLTAGE, CURRENT, ALPHA and GAMMA are obvious modes of operation. The three additional
modes, BLOCK, BYPASS and COMFAIL require further explanation.

In the BLOCK mode the converter current is set to zero, as if the converter were actually blocked. The
voltage across the converter is calculated as part of the dc solution. In simple models with line inductance
and no line capacitance the dc voltages may be unrealistically high during a BLOCK. BLOCK should be
used with extreme care. A real converter may not block in the manner represented here.

The operation of the BYPASS and COMFAIL modes is similar and involves the converter running at zero
voltage, with all current flowing through a bypass switch, or a bypass valve pair without commutation. Thus,
the real and reactive ac powers are zero for a BYPASSed converter (as they are for a BLOCKed converter).
A BYPASSed converter may pass reverse current whereas a COMFAILed converter will not.

BREAKER Blocks

There are two subtypes for the BREAKER blocks: BREAK and DISCON. BREAK includes a full dc
breaker model while DISCON is a simple dc circuit disconnect switch.

Due to the unique nature of dc transmission, dc breakers are much more complicated than ac breakers.
The breaker model in TSAT includes a number of features that are common in dc breakers, such as:

• A switch
• A parallel capacitor
• A parallel energy dissipation device

During the breaker operation, the capacitor is charged to help extinct current. The voltage on the capacitor
is limited by the zinc-oxide arrester. Figure 8-6 shows the breaker operation process. The following
parameters are required to describe the breaker operation:

• Open delay time (seconds): time of arcing.


• Voltage rise time (kV/second): the rate for capacitor charging.
• Maximum voltage (kV): the voltage limit set by the ZnO device.
• Maximum opening current (A): the current above which arcing will continue indefinitely.
• Opening current (A): residual current when the breaker fully opens.
• Closing delay time (seconds): time between breaker closing request and its operation.

The DISCON subtype should be applied to open the circuit only if the current through it is zero or very
small (defined by the maximum opening current in Ampere).

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Breaker voltage;
Breaker current

Possible current
through the breaker

Breaker voltage
Maximum voltage
Maximum opening
current

Open delay time


Opening current

Time

Breaker open Breaker starts Breaker


request time opening fully opens

Figure 8-6: Characteristics of dc breaker model

PRINT Blocks

This block prints a message to the message file when the input to the block becomes positive. The output
value of the block becomes 1.0 after the message is printed and is set to 0.0 when the input becomes zero or
negative. Once the output is equal to 0.0, the block is ready to print when the input again becomes positive.

The message can be up to 72 characters long, enclosed in single quotes ('). Each time the message is printed
the message is stamped with a time flag in the following format:

At Initialization: Message
or
At xx.xxx seconds: Message

8.3.5 Signal Processing

Between control inputs and interface blocks, all of the processing of the signals in the control model must
take place. Several different types of blocks are available.

UNARY Blocks

The operation of most of these blocks is straightforward. Error checking is provided within the blocks to
handle infeasible situations such as the Arc Sine or Arc Cosine of a number greater than 1, taking the log of a
negative number, or the inverse of 0.0. For the subtype INV, the inverse of 0.0 produces an output of 99.0,
and an error message is printed to indicate this condition.

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UNARY blocks take one input that may be a real number or the name of another UDC block (in this case the
output of the UDC block is used as the input to the UNARY block).

BINARY Blocks

The operation of most of these blocks is straightforward. BINARY blocks take two inputs that may be real
numbers or the names of other UDC blocks (in this case the outputs of the UDC blocks are used as the inputs
to the BINARY block).

MULTIP Blocks

The operation of most of these blocks is straightforward. MULTIP blocks take any number of inputs that
may be real numbers or the names of other UDC blocks (in this case the outputs of the UDC blocks are used
as the inputs to the MULTIP block). The MULTIP blocks may also be specified as MULTIPLE.

LIMIT Blocks

For all subtypes the minimum limit is applied before the maximum limit. The limits are not checked for
consistency during the solution so it is possible that the output of a block is limited to a value less than or
equal to the minimum limit (this may happen when the maximum limit is derived from the output of another
block and it is changed during the solution).

In all subtypes, the inputs and limits may be real numbers or from the outputs of other UDC blocks; transfer
function parameters (K, a, b, c, d, T) must be real numbers. In saturating lead-lag subtype (DYNAMIC),
parameters c and d must not be 0.0 (gains and integrators are provided separately). Figure 9-7 shows the
implementation of this block and how limiting occurs. The set of limits is applied to the output while a
second set of limits is calculated, based on the input value, and applied to the integrator. This form of limit
results in the output responding immediately if the sign of the input changes (i.e., non-windup limit).

The RATE function is based on a digital controller function. The output exactly tracks the input unless
tracking would involve a change in one time step, which exceeds the specified rate limits. In this case the
output is changed to allow the input, at the limited rate.

Mx
Max
u + 1 y
+ Σ 1
b−
ad + Σ
s c c

Min
Mn
Max ⋅ c - a ⋅ u Min ⋅ c - a ⋅ u
d Mx = Mn =
 ad   ad 
c b − c   b − c 

Figure 8-7: Dynamic LIMIT Block Implementation

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The VRATE function can have the time constant (T) as a variable. The rate limit is applied to the input of the
integrator, which is used in the implementation of a lag. This function is very useful for the modeling of the
VDCOL function, which is typically applied and released with different time constants.

SBLOCK Blocks

These blocks are useful if it is necessary to represent a transfer function higher than first order, without
incurring the effects of the sequential solution inherent in the UDC system.

As for the LIMIT type, the input and limits may be real numbers or from the outputs of other UDC blocks,
while the transfer function parameters must be real numbers.

The internal representation of the block is shown in Figure 8-8. When the output is limited, the integrator
values are also limited so that a change of the input, which should result in the output leaving a limit, will
lead to an immediate response at the output (i.e., non-windup limit). For NORMAL subtype no limits are
applied. The transfer function order should be an integer, although a real number will be accepted (the integer
part of the number will be used).

Max
+ 1
an
+
Σ cn y
+ + Min
+

an-1 - an bn-1 an-1 - an bn-1 a1 - an b1 a0 - an b0

Mx
u + 1 1 1 1
Σ ...
s s s s
− − xn xn-1 x1
x2
− Mn

bn-1

bn-2
b1
b0

Max ⋅ c n - a n u Min ⋅ c n - a n u
y a s n + a n -1s n -1 + ... + a 1s + a 0 Mx = Mn =
= n n  a n c0   a n c0 
u c n (s + b n -1s n -1 + ... + b1s + b 0 ) a 0 - c  a 0 - c 
 n   n 

Figure 8-8: SBLOCK Implementation (All Limits Ignored for NORMAL Subtype)

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LOGIC Blocks

In all subtypes, inputs and values within logical expressions may be real numbers or from the outputs of other
UDC blocks. For input that is to be interpreted as logical value, a zero is taken as FALSE while any non-zero
value is taken as TRUE. For output, TRUE and FALSE have values of 1 and 0, respectively.

A logical expression is defined using the following syntax:

X, Operator, Y

where,
X and Y: constant or output from another block
Operator: any of LT, LE, GT, GE, EQ, NE texts (to represent <, ≤, >, ≥, =, ≠, respectively)

The operation of the AND, NOT, OR, XOR (exclusive OR) subtypes is straightforward.

The EXPRESS subtype converts a logical expression to its corresponding value (i.e., 0 or 1).

The COUNTER subtype provides a way to count events. The output starts at 0.0 and is incremented by 1.0
every time the logical expression is changed from FALSE to TRUE.

In the FLIPFLOP subtype, the output is initially at 0.0. It is set to 1.0 if the first logical expression is TRUE
and reset to 0.0 if the second logical expression is TRUE. If both logical expressions are true, the output
either is reset to 0.0 or stays at 0.0.

The output of the subtype TIMER is determined by two logics, set logic (the first logical expression) and
reset logic (the second logical expression). The TIMER output is determined based on the following:

• Reset mode: this is the case when the reset logic is TRUE, no matter what value the set logic has. The
output of the block in the reset mode is zero.

• Set mode: if the set logic is TRUE and the reset logic is FALSE, the block increases its output with
time. For example, if the block enters the set mode from the reset mode at simulation time t0, and
stays in this mode until simulation time t (>t0), the output of the block will be t-t0.

• Continue in the previous mode: If both set and reset logics are FALSE, the block will continue in the
previous mode. That is, if the block is in the reset mode before entering this set of conditions, the
block output stays at zero; if the block is in the set mode before entering this set of conditions, the
block will continue to increase its output with time. If both set and reset logics are FALSE at
initialization, the block is assumed to be in reset mode.

In the subtype SWITCH, the output is determined using the following table:

LOGIC 1 LOGIC 2 Output


TRUE TRUE u1
TRUE FALSE u1
FALSE TRUE u2
FALSE FALSE The output signal does not change (i.e., remains the same as that of
previous time step). If this condition occurs at initialization, the output is u1.

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The subtype ZERO provides a digital sampling function. The sampling is controlled by two parameters:
desired time of the first sample (td) and sample interval (ti).

SETUP Blocks

The SUBSYSTEM blocks can be used to simplify the process of initialization of the control model, i.e., when
it is appropriate to let the program determine initial conditions. Use of these blocks is described in Section
8.3.9.

SUBSYSTEM Blocks

Similarly to the SETUP blocks, the SUBSYSTEM blocks can be used to simplify the process of initialization
of the control model. The SUBSYSTEM blocks are used when it is appropriate to let the program determine
initial conditions. Use of these blocks is described in Section 8.3.9.

OTHER Blocks

The subtypes RLC, LINEDC, TAP, and BRIDGE provide means for modifying the dc network during
simulation.

The subtype RLC overwrites the power flow values for dc line parameters before the dc system is initialized.
Thus, L and C values can easily be added to a resistive line. If the resistance value does not agree with the
power flow value, then a proper dc initialization is not assured.

The subtype LINEDC changes the dc line parameters when the logical expression becomes TRUE,
permitting pseudo dc line switching (or dc faults) during the solution; no effect in initialization. The network
configuration cannot be modified during the solution but its component values can be changed. Since in the
dc line models solution involving inductance and capacitance includes values with history terms, it is not
recommended that the inductance and capacitance values be modified.

The subtype TAP is used to represent transformer tap changer operation. If the input (usually a voltage
magnitude) is beyond a low or high limit for longer than T1 or T2 seconds respectively, then the converter
transformer tap position is increased or decreased by the amount given by the step value. Tap is assumed on
the converter side of the transformer. Output of the TAP block is the transformer tap change, starting from
zero, and increasing or decreasing by the step each time the tap position is changed.

The subtype BRIDGE is used to change the number of bridges represented by a converter. This subtype can
be used, therefore, to represent blocking of one or more series groups in a pole, if the original (powerflow)
model incorporates more than one bridge in the converter model.

The subtype DELAY models communications delays. The delay time (T) is rounded to a multiple of the
UDC solution time step.

The subtype DIGIT models quantization effects such as those occurring in dc control systems, particularly in
telecommunication coding circuits.

The subtype LEVEL provides the means of initiating a control action based on the occurrence of an event (as
expressed in the logical function). Once the control action is started, the LEVEL block will ignore further
events (i.e., when the logical expression becomes TRUE), until its output has reset to the start value.

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The subtype HYSTER provides a hysteresis model. Since the output could have two possible values for a
given input during initialization, an Initial Path variable must be provided in the data to determine the
correct output at initialization. During the time solution, path switching will take place automatically.

The subtypes DEADB1 and DEADB2 include two different dead band models. While the blocks in the
figure have the symmetrically placed bands for positive and negative inputs, these bands can be placed
anywhere for positive and negative inputs.

The subtype RAMPER extends the subtype LEVEL for more complicated control sequences. All of the
inputs to a RAMPER block can be variables (i.e., outputs from other UDC block) rather than real
numbers. If variables are used as inputs, the values used in one control sequence are those taken at the
time when the control sequence is initiated (i.e., the start logic or logical expression 1 becomes TRUE),
and these values are not changed until the control sequence is completed or reset. Unlike the LEVEL
block, a control sequence in the RAMPER block can be terminated (reset) any time when the reset
condition (logical expression 2) is met.

The subtype SAMPLE provides a triggered sample-and-hold model. The quantity at input 1 (u1) is sampled
when the sample logic (logical expression 1) becomes TRUE and held until another sample is requested or
until the release logic (logical expression 2) becomes TRUE. In the release mode, the second input (u2) is
passed to the output. If the same quantity is specified for both inputs, the SAMPLE block will track and hold
the input for the given logics.

The subtype SIMPLE may be used to request a simplified converter model. In this case, the converter will be
represented by the simplified model described in Section 8.2.3, even if an interface block is defined for the
converter. The Q break parameter (Qb) should be between 0.0 and 1.0; if out of this range, a default of 0.95
will be used.

In an OTHER block, inputs to the block or to its logical expressions may be real numbers or the outputs of
other UDC blocks. Other parameters, except for the line resistance that may be the output of another block,
must be real numbers (unless otherwise specified in the above).

8.3.6 Naming Conventions

UDC block names have three formats:

• For regular blocks, the block names can be up to 8 alphanumeric characters. The period (.) cannot be
contained in the block name.
• For blocks in a structure, the block names can be up to 9 alphanumeric characters. The first character
must be period (.) and the rest cannot contain period (.).
• For blocks expanded from structure subtypes, the block name can be up to 17 alphanumeric
characters, consisting of the structure block name and the block name within the structure including
the period (.).

It is recommended that a naming convention be adopted in the development of a UDC model so that a
particular variable can be easily identified for a specific converter and a specific function.

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8.3.7 Relationship to Control Block Diagrams

An examination of the UDC block descriptions reveals that they have been established to simplify the
modeling of controls for dc systems and that they are models of control functions, not control
implementation. Many of the simpler blocks, for example the two input adder or the multiple input
maximum selection block, are often encountered in control block diagrams, so the translation from block
diagram to UDC is very straightforward.

Other functions, for example a Voltage Dependent Current Order Limiter (VDCOL), may be shown as a
single block on a control drawing but will require several UDC blocks to implement. Still other functions, for
example the commutation failure which occurs at low extinction angles, will not necessarily appear on any
control drawing but are characteristics of dc transmission and must be modelled with UDC blocks.

The following basic checks will be automatically made by the internal converter models:

• Reverse current cannot flow in a line commutated converter unless it is bypassed. In such a situation
the dc system will be re-solved as if the converter were blocked. In a VSC, reverse voltage is not
allowed, resulting in re-solving as if the converter were bypassed.

• Extinction angles less than zero degrees or firing angles greater than 180 degrees will result in
commutation failure for a line commutated converter. Commutation failure does not exist for a
VSC; its modulation ratio is limited between ±1 pu.

• Firing angles less than zero degrees, or extinction angles more than 180 degrees, will lead to firing at
zero degrees for a line commutated converter. For a VSC, power angle has no internal limit except
for functional models, where it will be limited between −90−θC and 90−θC degrees.

Except for firing at zero, if any of these events occurs an appropriate message will be produced, followed by
a second message once the event is ended. These messages may sometimes be an indication of deficiencies
in the models, especially for events involving firing and extinction angles.

8.3.8 Techniques for Using UDC

When developing UDC models, there are some techniques that either simplify the development of the models
or improve the operation of these models. Some of these include:

• Start model development with a flow chart or control block diagram and then write the UDC model
based on this diagram.

• Develop and test a model in modules, not all at once. Use UDC sources as test signals for the
modules being tested.

• Ensure that the time constants in a model are compatible with the solution time step. As a general
rule the minimum time constant should be at least three times the solution time step. The damped
trapezoidal integration method used in the program permits larger time steps with a minimum loss of
accuracy, if the damping factor is adjusted properly.

• When using logical expressions, avoid the use of exact equality conditions and use inequalities
instead; e.g.,
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Do not use TIME, EQ, 0.1


Use TIME, GE, 0.1

• While the FROMDC blocks checking for initial or running mode appear to generate alphanumeric
outputs (if the block is used as an input to a logical expression, it is compared to a word such as
'ALPHA'), the block outputs are numbers. Mode shifts can be followed through examination of
these quantities.

8.3.9 Handling Initialization

The UDC system initializes the block output quantities from input to output. In most practical dc systems the
inputs (voltages, currents, etc.) and the outputs (converter control settings) are all known from the steady state
power flow solution. The problem of initialization then becomes a problem of adjustment of set points within
the control system to ensure that the inputs and outputs are compatible.

The block input order is not related to the block solution order. UDC models should be specified in a manner
that simplifies building, documentation and maintenance. If a message appears indicating that a loop or
subsystem cannot be ordered (which happens very rarely), some input reordering may be required. The
reordering will involve ensuring that the loop signal path input blocks are defined before blocks that provide
limits or other non-signal path inputs to the loop. Figure 8-9 shows a simple loop with signal path and limit
inputs.

Limit Input Limit Input

Signal
To the rest
Path A B
of the system
Input
Feedback

Figure 8-9: UDC Model Showing Signal Path and Limit Inputs

In practical control systems set points can take the form of reference settings (sometimes through
potentiometers) and of integrator output values. In UDC, setting of reference values and initial values on
integrators are used to establish the steady state solution for the control models.

The user has several choices available for calculation and establishment of the steady-state solution. In some
cases it may be very easy to directly calculate the necessary initial reference values using other UDC blocks.
In other cases, especially when non-linearities are present, direct calculation of the required quantities may be
difficult. In such cases the program can be directed to calculate the correct initial values. The blocks which
are involved in the initialization process are those in the SETUP and SUBSYS types.

Initialization by Pre-Calculation

SETUP blocks can be used effectively for establishment of initial conditions when the required values can
be calculated. The VALUE block has the characteristic that its output will stay at the value of its input
calculated during initialization, for the duration of the solution. It can be considered as an analog of a
potentiometer setting that provides a reference. An OFFSET block combines the function of the VALUE
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block with a summing function; it can be used to simplify the UDC model setup. The integrator blocks,
INTEG and LINTEG, can be initialized in a manner similar to the process of the VALUE block. The
START block can be used to initialize a specific block in the model, before other initialization
calculations take place.

A sample of a dc current controller initialization using the VALUE and LINTEG blocks is given in Figure
8-10. This simple example requires a set point equal to the initial dc current and an integrator initial value
equal to the cosine of the firing angle. The UDC statements for this regulator are as follows:

Current, FROMDC, ILINE, P, Convpos, Smoothr, 1: * input dc current *


Setpoint, SETUP, VALUE, P, Current: * dc current set point *
Error, BINARY, MINUS, P, Setpoint, Current: * error signal *
Inalf, FROMDC, ALPHA, P, Convpos, GROUND,
ACBus, 230., 1: * converter firing angle *
Cosalf, UNARY, COS, P, Inalf: * initial output of integrator *
Alfmin, SETUP, VALUE, N, -1.0: * integrator low limit *
Alfmax, SETUP, VALUE, N, 1.0: * integrator high limit *
Prop, BINARY, MULT, P, Error, -1.5: * proportional gain *
Integ, SETUP, LINTEG, P, Cosalf, Error, -1.0, Alfmin, Alfmax: * integrator *
Alford, BINARY, PLUS, P, Prop, Integ: * PI controller output *
Nonlin, UNARY, ACOS, N, Alford: * alpha signal *
Convert, INTERF, P, Convpos, GROUND, ACBus, 230., 1,
Alpha, Nonlin,
INITIAL ALPHA: * converter interface *

Smoothr
t=0 α@t=0
Setpoint From Power Flow
Prop
Convpos + +
α
− ∑
Current Alfmax ∑ Nonlin Convert
Alford
Error + Converter
ACBus Integ
Interface
230. t=0
Alfmin
Inalf Cosalf

GROUND Alpha Order

ac and dc Networks UDC

Figure 8-10: Initialization by Pre-calculation

Initialization by pre-calculation involves some overhead during the solution since the blocks involved in the
initialization calculation (such as the VALUE blocks) are recalculated at each time step, but the results of
these calculations may be ignored.

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Initialization by Subsystems

When nonlinearities are present, or pre-calculations of initial conditions are complex and time consuming, the
SUBSYS blocks provide an alternative method for initialization. These blocks work to initialize a part of the
overall model called a subsystem (although, in extreme cases, a subsystem may be the entire model).

A subsystem begins with a start block. This can be a reference block (VALUE or OFFSET) or an integrator
(INTEG or LINTEG), all as SUBSYSTEM subtype. The subsystem terminates with an end block. This can
be an INTERFACE block or a BREAK block. In a UDC model, each of the four SUBSYSTEM subtypes
(VALUE, OFFSET, INTEG, and LINTEG) starts a subsystem and the end block of this subsystem is defined
in the start block (the “end block name” and “output number” parameters). A subsystem is a part of the UDC
model and it can be considered independent of other parts of the model at steady state (or during
initialization). For example, the reference type blocks provide this isolation since their outputs are determined
to meet the desired subsystem output. Integrators provide isolation, as the output and input are unrelated at
steady state.

Usually, an INTERFACE block provides the termination for a subsystem. The INTERFACE block is usually
initialized to a power flow quantity (such as the converter firing angle α) and has a known value. In some
cases a subsystem terminated before an interface block may be desirable. In these situations a BREAK block
can be used to indicate the location and value of a desired quantity at steady state. After initialization, the
BREAK block is ignored (its output is always set to its input).

Establishment of initial conditions for a subsystem starts with specifying the following:

• The starting value of the quantity (i.e., a rough estimate of the output of the start block) that can be
adjusted to produce the desired output, namely, the “initial value” parameter in the VALUE,
OFFSET, INTEG, or LINTEG subtypes in SUBSYSTEM blocks at initialization.

• The increment coefficient for the quantity to be adjusted during the initialization process, namely, the
“increment” parameter in the VALUE, OFFSET, INTEG, and LINTEG subtypes of the
SUBSYSTEM blocks.

• The calculation tolerance for the desired output during the initialization process, namely, the
“tolerance” parameter in the VALUE, OFFSET, INTEG, and LINTEG subtypes of the
SUBSYSTEM blocks.

• The location the desired quantity, namely, the “end block name” and “output number” parameters in
the VALUE, OFFSET, INTEG, and LINTEG subtypes of the SUBSYSTEM blocks. The output
number is:

 1 if the end block is an INTERFACE block of a line commutated converter.


 1 or 2 (depending on the desired control signal) if the end block is an INTERFACE block of a
self commutated voltage-sourced converter.
 a dummy value (to be ignored) if the end block is a BREAK block.

• Limits on the quantity to be adjusted, namely, the “low limit (initial)” and “high limit (initial)”
parameters in the VALUE, OFFSET, INTEG, and LINTEG subtypes of the SUBSYSTEM blocks.
These limits are ignored if both are zero.

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• The desired value of the quantity to be adjusted, namely, the “desired value” parameter in the
BREAK subtype of the SUBSYSTEM blocks or in the INITIAL definition of an INTERFACE
block, which is defaulted by the appropriate power flow value (as described before).

With the above information identified, the UDC will change the value of the quantity to be adjusted until
either the desired output value is obtained within the tolerance, or a limit is reached. The final value of the
quantity being adjusted becomes the initial value to the subsystem. Subsystems may take a small amount of
extra time to initialize, but there is no overhead during the solution.

Figure 8-11 shows an example that is similar to that of Figure 8-10, but uses a subsystem to initialize part of
the regulator. In this example, the subsystem start block is an integrator (block named Integ) and the
subsystem end block is an interface block (block named Convert). At the initialization, the output of block
Integ is adjusted so that the output of block Convert is, with equal to the initial firing angle α obtained from
the powerflow. The UDC statements for this regulator are as follows:

Current, FROMDC, ILINE, P, Convpos, Smoothr, 1: * input dc current *


Setpoint, SETUP, VALUE, P, Current: * dc current set point *
Error, BINARY, MINUS, P, Setpoint, Current: * error signal *
Alfmin, SETUP, VALUE, N, -1.0: * integrator low limit *
Alfmax, SETUP, VALUE, N, 1.0: * integrator high limit *
Prop, BINARY, MULT, P, Error, -1.5: * proportional gain *

* Subsystem starts here *

Integ, SUBSYS, LINTEG, P, 15.0, Error, -1.0, Alfmin, Alfmax, 0.1, 0.001,
Convert, 1, 5.0, 30.: * integrator starting the subsystem *
Alford, BINARY, PLUS, P, Prop, Integ: * PI controller output *
Nonlin, UNARY, ACOS, N, Alford: * alpha signal *
Convert, INTERF, P, Convpos, GROUND, ACBus, 230., 1,
Alpha, Nonlin,
INITIAL ALPHA: * converter interface ending the subsystem *

Smoothr
t=0 α@t=0
Setpoint From Power Flow
Prop
Convpos + + α
− ∑
Current Alfmax ∑ Nonlin Convert
Error + Alford
Integ Converter
ACBus Interface
230.
Alfmin t = 0
Calculated by the Subsystem

GROUND Alpha Order

ac and dc Networks UDC Names in rectangle boxes (such as


Nolin) are the functional blocks
defined in the UDC data shown above.

Figure 8-11: Initialization by Subsystems

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Initialization of Loops

In some control system models, loops may arise where the input to a block depends on the value of the
output of the same block. In UDC, such loops are detected automatically during ordering and are
initialized using an iterative approach. During the time solution of these same loops there is an inherent
one UDC time-step delay on the feedback within the loop; iteration is not used during solution.

Loops may be feed-forward, feedback or a combination. They may involve, or be involved, in subsystems.
The UDC system will identify all of the loops and subsystems (UDC treats subsystems as loops during
initialization) and will perform the required initialization.

8.3.10 Applying STRUCTURE Blocks

There is often a significant amount of duplication in detailed control models for a dc system. In particular,
proportional plus integral (PI) controllers are commonly used and may appear more than once, especially in
an inverter control system.

In order to reuse a specific UDC function, it is possible to duplicate that part of the model by copying all
related blocks and changing the names appropriately. This process is, however, prone to errors, and the
resulting model may be too lengthy to understand. To enable the effective reuse of UDC functions, a facility
known as STRUCTURE block is available. This block lets the user define a more complex function with
basic UDC blocks, which can have fixed and variable inputs and parameters and can be used wherever
needed within the dc system, as many times as required. This, in effect, provides a way for creating a user-
defined subtype.

STRUCTURE blocks are only defined within the input file and are not stored in a separate library. They are
used during the input data processing of UDC to create new blocks, which go into the UDC input path (i.e.,
will be added to the UDC system). Therefore, they must be defined before they are used. So it is best to place
them at the beginning of the UDC data.

A STRUCTURE block has the following general format:

DEFINE STRUCTURE, XXXXXXXX:


...
Basic UDC block definitions
...
END STRUCTURE:

In this format,

• The DEFINE and END statements start and end a structure respectively. All blocks included in this
structure must be entered between these two statements.

• XXXXXXXX (up to 8 characters) is the user-defined subtype (identifier) name.

• Basic UDC block definitions may include any standard UDC types and subtypes, except for
INTERFACE.

The following rules must be taken into consideration in the basic UDC block definitions:

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• The block name must begin with a period (.). If a block in the structure is referenced (e.g., as an
input) in another block in the same structure, this period (.) must be present. Note that blocks defined
outside a structure cannot have their names beginning with a period (.).
• If a block in a structure uses an input block that comes from outside the structure, the standard block
name should be used (i.e., it should not begin with a period).
• A block in one structure cannot reference a block in another structure. However, a standard UDC
block can reference a block in a structure by using the expanded block name (up to 17 characters).
• A block in a structure cannot be a STRUCTURE type (i.e., no recursive STRUCTURE definition).
• If an input parameter of a block is to be specified when the structure is used in the main UDC model,
a percent (%) sign is used to designate the parameter.

Once a structure subtype is defined, it can be used anywhere in the main UDC model by using the statement:

BBBBBBBB, STRUCTURE, XXXXXXXX, input list:

Note that XXXXXXXX is the subtype (identifier) name of the structure (explained above). When TSAT
interprets this statement, it replaces it with all blocks defined in the structure, using the following rules:

• All block names in the structure are expanded with the prefix BBBBBBBB. For example, a block
named .BLK will be expanded as BBBBBBBB.BLK.

• All percent (%) signs in the structure are replaced by the parameters in the input list of the calling
statement, in the encountered order.

An example of a structure for a filter function is shown in Figure 8-12. The required UDC statements are
as follows:

DEFINE STRUCTURE, FILTER: * start of the structure *


.Out, SBLOCK, NORMAL, N, %, 1, 1.0, 0.0, 0.01, 1.0:
END STRUCTURE: * end of the structure *

Test, STRUCTURE, FILTER, Inp: * call of the structure *

s
Inp Out
1 + 0.01s
FILTER

Figure 8-12: A STRUCTURE Example

The above call of structure is equivalent to the following expanded block:

Test.Out, SBLOCK, NORMAL, N, Inp, 1, 1.0, 0.0, 0.01, 1.0:

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8.4 UDC Block Models and Data Formats

This section shows the models and data formats of all standard UDC blocks:

SOURCE
FROMDC
FROMAC
INTERFACE
BREAKER
PRINT
UNARY
BINARY
MULTIP
LIMIT
SBLOCK
LOGIC
SETUP
SUBSYSTEM
OTHER

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UDC SOURCE Blocks

SOURCE y

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter Description of Subtype

Name, SOURCE, DC, Print, amplitude, start time: Step function


RAMP, Print, ramp rate, start time: Ramp function
SIN, Print, amplitude, frequency (Hz), Sinusoidal function
phase (deg), start time:
TIME : Simulation time
DTAC : Ac solution time step
DTDC : Dc (network) solution time step
DTCC : UDC solution time step

Remarks:

1. Name is a text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to Section 8.3.2)
for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. All times are in seconds.

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UDC FROMDC Blocks

Converter, dc bus, or dc line description

u
= y

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameters Description of Subtype


Name, FROMDC, VCONV, Print, Converter name: Converter voltage (kV)
VCOMM, Print, Converter name: Commutating voltage (kV)
ICONV, Print, Converter name: Converter current (A)
ALPHA, Print, Converter name: Converter firing angle (degree) for line
commutation and converter power angle
(degree) for self commutation
GAMMA, Print, Converter name: Converter extinction angle (degree) for line
commutation and converter modulation ratio
(PU) for self commutation
PAC, Print, Converter name: Active power (MW)
QAC, Print, Converter name: Reactive Power (MVAR)
BRIDGE, Print, Converter name: Number of bridges
XC, Print, Converter name: Commutating reactance (Ohm)
TAP, Print, Converter name: Tap position (PU)
COMFAIL, Print, Converter name: True if converter is in commutation failure
BLOCK, Print, Converter name: True if converter is blocked
VNODE, Print, dc bus name: Voltage at dc node (kV)
VDIFF, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Voltage difference between two dc nodes (kV)
PLINE, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Power flow in dc line (MW)
ILINE, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Current in dc line (A)
IMODE, Print, Converter name: Initial (Power flow) control mode
RMODE, Print, Converter name: Running (stability) control mode
RL, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Dc line resistance (Ohm)
LL, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Dc line inductance (mH)
CL1, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: 1st side dc line capacitance (µF)
CL2, Print, dc bus 1, de bus 2, circuit: 2nd side dc line capacitance (µF)
IBRKR, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Dc breaker current (A)
SBRKR Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Dc breaker status
INODE, Print, dc bus name: Dc node current injection (A)
ISHUNT, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit: Current in 1st dc line capacitance (A)

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Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. Converter name format is described in Section 8.1.1.

4. dc bus 1 and dc bus 2 refer to dc node names.

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UDC FROMAC Blocks

Ac bus, ac line, or generator description

u ~ y

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameters Description of Subtype

Name, FROMAC, VMAG, Print, ac bus, 0.: Bus voltage (PU)


VANG, Print, ac bus, 0.: Bus angle (degrees)
FREQ, Print, ac bus, 0.: Bus frequency (Hz)
ILINE, Print, ac bus 1, 0., Line current (A)
ac bus 2, 0., circuit:
PLINE, Print, ac bus 1, 0., Line active power (MW)
ac bus 2, 0., circuit:
QLINE, Print, ac bus 1, 0., Line reactive power (MVAR)
ac bus 2, 0., circuit:
SPEED, Print, ac bus, 0., GID: Generator speed deviation (PU)
V12MAG, Print, ac bus 1, 0., Voltage difference magnitude (PU)
ac bus 2, 0.:
V12ANG, Print, ac bus 1, 0., Voltage difference angle (degrees)
ac bus 2, 0.:

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. ac bus is entered using the format described in Section 8.1.1.

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UDC Converter INTERFACE Block

y1 (1st Setpoint)
u1 (1st Control Input Set) Converter y2 (2nd Setpoint)
u2 (2nd Control Input Set) Interface Nature of 1st Setpoint
Nature of 2nd Setpoint

Type Inputs and Parameters

Name, INTERF, Print, converter name,


first set of control signals definition,
INITIAL, {VOLTAGE CURRENT ALPHA GAMMA}[, desired value],
second set of control signals definition,
INITIAL, {VOLTAGE CURRENT ALPHA GAMMA}[, desired value]:

In the above, first and second sets of control signals definition are combinations of any of the following
signals, as many times as required, in any desired order, with appropriate inputs and logics:

VOLTAGE, input [, logical expression],


CURRENT, input [, logical expression],
ALPHA, input [, logical expression],
GAMMA, input [, logical expression],
COMFAIL, dummy input [, logical expression],
BYPASS, dummy input [, logical expression],
BLOCK, dummy input [, logical expression],

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The block type can also be entered as INTERFACE.

3. The Print flag should be P or N.

4. Converter name is entered using the format described in Section 8.1.1.

5. For line-commuted converters, the data ends (with a colon) after the first INITIAL signal definition; for
self-commutated converters, both signals are required.

6. Quantities in [ ] are optional.

7. One and only one of the four quantities in { } must be specified.

8. Refer to Section 8.3.4 for more details.

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UDC BREAKER Control Blocks

BREAK

open logic
Breaker
Control y (modify network)
close logic

parameters

DISCON

open logic
Disconnect
Control y (modify network)
close logic

parameters

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter Description of Subtype

Name, BREAKR, BREAK, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit, Dc breaker


open request, open delay time (s),
voltage rise time (kV/s), maximum
voltage (kV), maximum opening
current (A), opening current (A)
close request, closing delay time (s):
DISCON, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit, Dc disconnector
open request, maximum opening
current (A), close request:

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The block type can also be entered as BREAKER.

3. The Print flag should be P or N.

4. Open request and close request are from outputs of other blocks (logical signals).

5. Refer to Section 8.3.4 for interpretation of other parameters.

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UDC PRINT Blocks

Printing
u y
Interface

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameters Description of Subtype

Name, PRINT, MESSAGE, Print, Dev, input, message: Prints message to message file

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. Dev (output device control flag) should be F or S, but is not used.

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TSAT Model Manual

UDC UNARY Blocks

u y
f(u)

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter Description of Subtype

Name, UNARY, SIN, Print, input (deg): Sine


COS, Print, input (deg): Cosine
TAN, Print, input (deg): Tangent
ASIN, Print, input: Arcsine (degrees)
ACOS, Print, input: Arccosine (degrees)
ATAN, Print, input: Arctangent (degrees)
SINH, Print, input: Hyperbolic sine
COSH, Print, input: Hyperbolic cosine
TANH, Print, input: Hyperbolic tangent
ABS, Print, input: Absolute value
EXP, Print, input: y=eu
LOG, Print, input: y=ln(u)
INV, Print, input: y=1/u
UDNONL, Print, input, u1, y1, u2, y2, . . ., un, yn: Nonlinear function

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. The subtype UDNONL provides the means for introducing nonlinearities. There is no limit to the number
of points on the curve. For every point a pair of numbers (X, Y) are specified; the X values must be
monotonically increasing. Linear interpolation is used to determine the output for intermediate points. If
the input value lies outside the range of specified points, linear extrapolation is used.

4. Refer to Section 8.3.5 for more details.

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UDC BINARY Blocks

PLUS
DIV
u1 + u1
∑ y y
+ ÷
u2 u2
÷
MINUS
u1
+
∑ y
− POWER
u2
u1
y = u1u 2 y
MULT u2
u1
∏ y

u2

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter Description of Subtype

Name, BINARY, PLUS, Print, input 1, input 2: u1+u2


MINUS, Print, input 1, input 2: u1−u2
MULT, Print, input 1, input 2: u1×u2
DIV, Print, input 1, input 2: u1÷u2
POWER, Print, input 1, input 2: u1u 2

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. For subtype POWER, the first input u1 cannot be negative.

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UDC MULTIP Blocks

SUM
MIN
u1
+ u1
u2 + u2
• y • Minimum y
+ ∑
• • Selection
• •
un un

SUMMER

u1 K1
+
MAX
+
u2 K2 ∑ y u1
.
• + u2
• Maximum y

• • Selection

un Kn un

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter

Name, MULTIP, SUM, Print, input 1, input 2, ..., input n:


SUMMER, Print, input 1, gain 1, input 2, gain 2, ..., input n, gain n:
MIN, Print, input 1, input 2, ..., input n:
MAX, Print, input 1, input 2, ..., input n:

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. The block type may also be specified as MULTIPLE.

4. All gains must be real numbers.

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UDC LIMIT Blocks

STATIC RATE

high limit up rate high limit

u K y u 1 y

low limit down rate low limit

DYNAMIC VRATE

high limit up rate high limit

as + b 1
u y u y
cs + d 1 + sT

low limit down rate low limit

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter

Name, LIMIT, STATIC, Print, input, K, low limit, high limit:


DYNAMIC, Print, input, a, b, c, d, low limit, high limit:
RATE, Print, input, down rate, up rate, low limit, high limit:
VRATE, Print, input, T, down rate, up rate, low limit, high limit:

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. All parameters in transfer functions (K, a, b, c, d, and T) must be real numbers; c and d must not be 0.

4. Inputs and limits may be real numbers or output of other UDC blocks.

5. Refer to Section 8.3.5 for more details.

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UDC SBLOCK Blocks

NORMAL

an s n + an-1 sn-1 +...+ a1 s + a0


u y
cn sn + cn-1 sn-1 +...+ c1 s + c0

LIMIT high limit

an s n + an-1 sn-1 +...+ a1 s + a0


u y
cn sn + cn-1 sn-1 +...+ c1 s + c0

low limit

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter

Name, SBLOCK, NORMAL, Print, input, n, an, an-1, ..., a1, a0, cn, cn-1, ..., c1, c0:
LIMIT, Print, input, low limit, high limit,
n, an, an-1, ..., a1, a0, cn, cn-1, ..., c1, c0:

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. All parameters in transfer functions (a and c coefficients) must be real numbers.

4. Order n should be an integer. If a real number is entered, the integer part of the number is used.

5. Inputs and limits may be real numbers or output of other UDC blocks.

6. Refer to Section 8.3.5 for more details.

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UDC LOGIC Blocks

AND EXPRESS

LOGIC y
• y

COUNTER
OR
LOGIC y (initially 0)
• y


FLIPFLOP

NOT LOGIC 1
LOGIC 2
y

y
TIMER

XOR LOGIC 1 (set)


y
LOGIC 2 (reset)
• y


ZERO
ti u
SWITCH
u y y
u1 LOGIC 1
y
u2 LOGIC 2 td t

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameter

Name, LOGIC, AND, Print, input 1, ..., input n:


OR, Print, input 1, ..., input n:
NOT, Print, input:
XOR, Print, input 1, ..., input n:
SWITCH, Print, input 1, logical expression 1, input 2, logical expression 2:
EXPRESS, Print, logical expression:
COUNTER, Print, logical expression:
FLIPFLOP, Print, logical expression 1, logical expression 2:
TIMER, Print, logical expression 1, logical expression 2:
ZERO, Print, input, td, ti:

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Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. Parameters td and ti must be real numbers.

4. Refer to Section 8.3.5 for more details.

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UDC SETUP Blocks

START
Places output value as the output
y value of the designated block

VALUE

y Output is held constant at the initial


u
value of the input

OFFSET

u1 Output is the sum of u2 and the the


y initial value of u1
u2

INTEG

K Initial output is set to the initial


u y
s value of the “initial value” input

LINTEG
high limit

K Initial output is set to the initial


u y value of the “initial value” input
s
low limit

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameters

Name, SETUP, START, Print, destination block, output value:


VALUE, Print, input (initial value):

OFFSET, Print, input 1 (initial value), input 2:

INTEG, Print, initial value, input, K:


LINTEG, Print, initial value, input, K, low limit, high limit:

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Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. Refer to Section 8.3.9 for more details.

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UDC SUBSYSTEM Blocks

BREAK
Output is held at desired value, and by
adjusting the output of the subsystem start
u y block at initialization, input is made equal
to the output and kept the same afterwards

VALUE
Starting from the value of u , output is
adjusted at initialization so that the desired
u y
value of the subsystem is obtained, and is
kept the same afterwards

OFFSET

u1 Output is the sum of u2 and an adjusted


y value that is determined similar to that of
u2 VALUE subtype and starting from u1

INTEG
Initial output is adjusted so that the
K
u y desired value of the subsystem is
s obtained at initialization

LINTEG
high limit
K Initial output is adjusted so that the
u y desired value of the subsystem is
s
obtained at initialization
low limit

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameters

Name, SUBSYS, BREAK, Print, input, desired value:


VALUE, Print, input (initial value), increment, tolerance, end block name,
end block output number, low limit, high limit:
OFFSET, Print, input 1 (initial value), input 2, increment, tolerance, end block name,
end block output number, low limit, high limit:
INTEG, Print, initial value, input, K, increment, tolerance, end block name,
end block output number, low limit, high limit:
LINTEG, Print, initial value, input, K, low limit (solution),
high limit (solution), increment, tolerance, end block name,
end block output number, low limit (initial), high limit (initial):

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Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The block type can also be entered as SUBSYSTEM.

3. The Print flag should be P or N.

4. Refer to Section 8.3.9 for more details.

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TSAT Model Manual

UDC OTHER Blocks

LINEDC
Dc line parameters are changed whenever
LOGIC y
LOGIC goes TRUE

RLC

y Sets dc line parameters before initialization

TAP Max • If u < Min for time > T1, y and converter
tap position are increased by Step, subject
u
Conv.
y to the maximum tap (set in powerflow)
side • If u > Max for time >T2, y and converter
Min
tap position are decreased by Step, subject
to the minimum tap (set in powerflow)
BRIDGE

y Number of converter bridges is changed to


LOGIC
desired value whenever LOGIC goes TRUE

DELAY

u e-sT y y = u delayed by T

DIGIT

u y y = Quantized u

SIMPLE

Simplified converter

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UDC OTHER Blocks (Continued)

Finish Value LEVEL


Start
Value
y
Duration Reset
Time
t
LOGIC = TRUE LOGIC = TRUE

y L3 RAMPER
L2 L4
L1 L5
t1 t2 t3 t4
y
L0 L0
t
Start Reset (directly to L0)

y HYSTER
Path 2 Level A
output starts on
P1 P3 Path 1 for initial
u u y
P2 P4 path ≥ 0 and on
Path 2 otherwise
Level B
Path 1

y DEADB1
Negative Band Positive Level
u u y
Negative Level Positive Band

y DEADB2
Negative Band Positive
Slope
u u y
Negative
Slope Positive Band

y SAMPLE

u1 u1
y
u2 u2
t
Sample Release Sample

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UDC OTHER Blocks (Continued)

Type Subtype Inputs and Parameters

Name, OTHER, LINEDC, Print, logical expression, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit, R (Ohms), L (mH),
C1 (µF), C2 (µF):
RLC, Print, dc bus 1, dc bus 2, circuit, R (Ohms), L (mH), C1 (µF), C2 (µF):
TAP, Print, input, Converter name, Min, T1, Max, T2, Step:
BRIDGE, Print, logical expression, Converter name, Desired number of bridges:
DELAY, Print, input, T:
DIGIT, Print, input, Quantum:
SIMPLE, Print, Converter name, Qb:
LEVEL, Print, logical expression, Start Value, Finish Value, Duration, Reset Time:
RAMPER, Print, logical expression 1 (Start), logical expression 2 (Reset),
L0, L1, t1, L2, t2, L3, L4, t3, L5, t4:
HYSTER, Print, input, Level A, Level B, P1, P2, P3, P4, Initial Path:
DEADB1, Print, input, Positive Band, Positive Level, Negative Band, Negative Level:
DEADB2, Print, input, Positive Band, Positive Slope, Negative Band, Negative Slope:
SAMPLE, Print, input 1, input 2, logical expression 1 (Sample),
Logical expression 2 (Release):

Remarks:

1. Name is a case-sensitive text string (without quotes) with up to eight alphanumeric characters (refer to
Section 8.3.2 for exceptions).

2. The Print flag should be P or N.

3. Converter name is entered using the format described in Section 8.1.1.

4. Refer to Section 8.3.5 for more details.

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TSAT Model Manual

9 Relay Data

TSAT supports several types of commonly used automatic relay models. This section describes the relay
models and data in TSAT format. Compatible relay models in non-TSAT formats are converted to TSAT
format when they are provided in a data format supported by TSAT. Refer to Section 15 for details on the
conversion of these relay models.

9.1 Overview of Relay Models

The following relay models are supported in TSAT:

• Switched shunt models controlling either bus voltage or combined reactive power injection into a
bus.
• Under-voltage load shedding models for individual buses, zones, areas, and the entire system.
• Under-frequency load shedding models for individual buses, zones, areas, and the entire system.
• Impedance/distance relay model.
• Transfer trip models for generators, induction motors, branches, and branch sections.

There is no dynamic state for any relay models. Relay models can be interfaced with the powerflow with
bus numbers, names, or equipment names. Refer to Section 1.2 for details.

Since these relay models operate very differently with deifferent modelling assumptions and actions, they
are described separately in Section 9.2.

The relay data is included in the dynamic data file, or in a separate data file and then included in the
dynamic data section in a TSAT case file.

9.2 Models and Data Formats

The relay models and their data formats are described in the following sheets.

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TSAT Model Manual

Switchable Shunt Model SSHV

Model Descriptions

This model can be used to control the voltage of a specified bus by switching shunt banks. It may be
interfaced with a switched shunt model in powerflow, in which case the shunt data can be obtained from
the powerflow, or it may contain complete data for a switched shunt to be added at any bus.

The basic operation principle is simple: if the voltage of the regulated bus is over a set maximum for a set
time, a reactor bank is switched in (or equivalently a capacitor bank is switched out). Similarly, if the
voltage of the regulated bus is below a set minimum for a set time, a capacitor bank is switched in (or
equivalently a reactor bank is switched out). The actual capacitor/reactor bank to be switched in or out
depends on the following factors:

• The current position of the shunt.


• The next available bank to be switched.

For example, assume that a switched shunt at bus 123 consists of

• Two 50 MVAR capacitor banks


• Two 75 MVAR reactor banks

If at the initial condition (i.e., from the powerflow solution), one 50 MVAR capacitor is switched in, a
second 50 MVAR capacitor bank will be switched in if the regulated bus voltage is below the set
minimum for the set time. In another possible scenario, if at the initial condition, one 75 MVAR reactor is
switched in, this reactor will be switched out if the regulated bus voltage is below the set minimum for the
set time.

The shunt relay has four timers: two for upper limit violation condition and two for low limit violation
condition. For either limit violation condition, the first timer accounts for the relay pick-up, and the
second accounts for the breaker closing delay. The initiation of the pick-up timer is based on the upper or
low voltage limits. At any given time, there can only be one timer initiated. The relay pick-up timer is
reset if the regulated voltage falls within the limits; however, the breaker closing timer will not be reset in
such a case. All timers can be set to be instantaneous.

Note the following when applying this model:

• The order of the shunt banks is important; the switching sequence follows exactly this order. For
example, assume that two capacitor banks are available at a bus: 50 and 100 MVAR respectively
(entered in this order), and none of them is switched in. If the system condition requires switching
in one capacitor bank, the 50 MVAR bank, rather than the 100 MVAR bank, will be switched in
first.

• An SVC cannot be located at the same bus as the switched shunt.

If IOPT = 0, there must be one and only one switched shunt model defined at IBUS in the powerflow.
Particularly, if there is more than one switched shunt model defined at IBUS in the powerflow, IOPT
must be set to 1 and the shunt bank details (STEP1, BINC1, STEP2, BINC2, …) must be provided in the
model data.

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TSAT Model Manual

Switchable Shunt Model SSHV

Data Format

IBUS, ‘SSHV’, 0, BUSR, IOPT, HVDSW, HVTIM, HVBDY, LVDSW, LVTIM, LVBDY, STEP1,
BINC1, STEP2, BINC2, . . . . . . /

IBUS - Switched shunt bus number, name, or equipment name.


BUSR - Regulated bus number, name, or equipment name. If BUSR is not entered or entered with
zero, IBUS is used as the regulated bus.
IOPT - Flag to specify switched shunt data source:
= 0: the shunt data is taken from powerflow data.
= n (n>0): n sets of shunt data (STEPi, BINCi) are included in the model.
HVDSW - Regulated bus voltage magnitude deviation in per unit with respect to the initial voltage in
powerflow. It is used as the upper limit to initiate the switched shunt pick-up relay. If
HVDSW is not entered or entered with a non-positive value, the upper voltage limit of the
regulated bus from powerflow is used.
HVTIM - Time delay of the upper voltage pick-up relay in cycles.
HVBDY - Upper voltage breaker closing time in cycles.
LVDSW - Regulated bus voltage magnitude deviation in per unit with respect to the initial voltage in
powerflow. It is used as the low limit to initiate the switched shunt pick-up relay. If LVDSW
is not entered or entered with a non-positive value, the low voltage limit of the regulated bus
from powerflow is used.
LVTIM - Time delay of the low voltage pick-up relay in cycles.
LVBDY - Low voltage breaker closing time in cycles.
STEPi - Number of steps in the i-th reactor/capacitor bank.
BINCi - Admittance increment for each step in the i-th reactor/capacitor bank in MVAR at unity
voltage. Positive values represent capacitors.

Data Restrictions

1. IOPT must be an integer.

2. HVDSW ≤ 0.5, if HVDSW > 0.

3. LVDSW ≤ 0.5, if LVDSW > 0.

4. STEPi and BINCi are required only if IOPT > 0. Further, the following requirements must be met for
STEPi and BINCi:

• They must be entered in pairs.


• The number of STEPi and BINCi pairs must be equal to IOPT.
• STEPi > 0; BINCi ≠ 0.
• The reactor banks (with negative BINCi) must be entered before capacitor banks (with positive
BINCi).
• The shunt data must be consistent with the initial value in powerflow if a switched shunt is
defined in powerflow. For example, if a switched shunt is defined in powerflow with an initial
value of 50 MVAR, the STEPi and BINCi must be provided so that at least one combination of
these banks will give 50 MVAR. So, one possibility is two 25 MVAR bank. However, two 33
MVAR banks would be inconsistent with this initial condition.

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TSAT Model Manual

Switchable Shunt Model SSHQ

Model Descriptions

This model is similar to the SSHV switched shunt model, except that it controls a reactive power injection
into a bus. The controlled reactive power is the sum of the reactive power from a regulated generator and
the switched shunt. Thus the model operates as illustrated in Figure 9-1. Basically, if the combined
reactive power is over a set maximum for a set time, a reactor bank is switched in (or equivalently a
capacitor bank is switched out). Similarly, if the combined reactive power is below a set minimum for a
set time, a capacitor bank is switched in (or equivalently a reactor bank is switched out).

Normally, the regulated generator should be an induction generator. It is not advised to use this model
with a synchronous generator.

Q of the regulated
generator and shunt

UPPTOL

SETVL

Operation of the First set of shunts


DWNTOL

T0 T0+DWNTIM+DWNBRK T

Figure 9-1: Operation logic of the SSHQ model

Please refer to the SSHV model for other operation details.

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TSAT Model Manual

Switchable Shunt Model SSHQ

Data Format

IBUS, ‘SSHQ’, 0, GBUS, ID, IOPT, UPPTOL, UPPTIM, UPPBRK, DWNTOL, DWNTIM, DWNBRK,
SETVL, STEP1, BINC1, STEP2, BINC2, . . . . . . /

IBUS - Switched shunt bus number, name, or equipment name.


GBUS - Bus number, name, or equipment name of the regulated generator.
ID - ID of the regulated generator.
IOPT - Flag to specify switched shunt data source:
= 0: the shunt data is taken from powerflow data.
= n (n>0): n sets of shunt data (STEPi, BINCi) are included in the model.
UPPTOL - Upper limit deviation of the combined generator and shunt reactive power output in MVAR
with respect to the specified set value (SETVL). The pick-up relay timer is initiated once this
reactive power is higher than the limit.
UPPTIM - Upper limit time delay of the pick-up relay in cycles.
UPPBRK - Upper limit breaker closing time in cycles.
DWNTOL - Down limit deviation of the combined generator and shunt reactive power output in MVAR
with respect to the specified set value (SETVL). The pick-up relay timer is initiated once this
reactive power is lower than this limit.
DWNTIM - Down limit time delay of the pick-up relay in cycles.
DWNBRK - Down limit breaker closing time in cycles.
SETVL - The set value of the combined generator and shunt reactive power output in MVAR.
STEPi - Number of steps in the i-th reactor/capacitor bank.
BINCi - Admittance increment for each step in the i-th reactor/capacitor bank in MVAR at unity
voltage. Positive values represent capacitors.

Data Restrictions

1. IOPT must be an integer.

2. 0 < UPPTOL ≤ 1000; 0 < DWNTOL ≤ 1000.

3. STEPi and BINCi are required only if IOPT > 0. Further, the following requirements must be met for
STEPi and BINCi:

• They must be entered in pairs.


• The number of STEPi and BINCi pairs must be equal to IOPT.
• STEPi > 0; BINCi ≠ 0.
• The reactor banks (with negative BINCi) must be entered before capacitor banks (with positive
BINCi).
• The shunt data must be consistent with the initial value in powerflow if a switched shunt is
defined in powerflow. For example, if a switched shunt is defined in powerflow with an initial
value of 50 MVAR, the STEPi and BINCi must be provided so that at least one combination of
these banks will give 50 MVAR. So, one possibility is two 25 MVAR bank. However, two 33
MVAR banks would be inconsistent with this initial condition.

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TSAT Model Manual

Under-Voltage Load Shedding Relay Model UVLSB

Model Descriptions

This model sheds load at a specified bus when the bus voltage is below the set point for a set time. A
maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified. In addition to load shedding, shunts at the load bus
can be shunt by using the SOPT option. When shunt shedding is specified (i.e., SOPT > 0), the required
shunt shedding is applied with the first load shedding triggered by this relay.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

It is possible to perform transfer tripping following a UVLSB relay trips. This can be a generator trip
(with the TTGEN model), a motor trip (with the TTMOT model), a branch trip (with the TTBRAN
model), or a branch section trip (with the TTMSL model). Please refer to the descriptions of these transfer
trip models later in this section for details on how to use them.

If the load bus specified in this model is covered by a region-based UVLS model (UVLSZ, UVLSA, or
UVLSS model), the region-based UVLS model is not applied to this load bus.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘UVLSB’, I, BUSR, ITYPE, STEP, SOPT, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name.


I - Relay ID (this is primarily used when a transfer tripping is connected with this model).
BUSR - Sensing bus number, name, or equipment name. If BUSR is not entered or entered with zero,
IBUS is used as the sensing bus.
ITYPE - Relay operation criterion:
= 0 or 1: repopnd to sensing bus voltage magnitude.
= 2: respond to sensing bus voltage magnitude deviation with respect to value in powerflow.
STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SOPT - Flag to specify options for shunts at the load bus:
≤ 0: no action for shunts at the load bus.
0 < SOPT < 1: shed shunts proportionally.
SPi - Voltage set point for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

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Powertech Labs Inc. Page 203


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Voltage Load Shedding Relay Model UVLSB

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. If SOPT > 1, it is set to 1.

3. If ITYPE = 2, voltage magnitude deviation set points (SPi) must be enerted as positive numbers.

4. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

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TSAT Model Manual

Under-Voltage Load Shedding Relay Model UVLSZ

Model Descriptions

This model sheds loads in a specified zone (defined in powerflow) when the bus voltages are below the
set point for a set time. A maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

Note:

1. Sensing bus is always the load bus.


2. Shunt shedding is not allowed.
3. Transfer tripping models (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, and TTMSL models) cannot be triggered as
a result of load shedding from this model.
4. If a UVLSB model exists for a load bus in the zone covered by this model, this model will not be
applied to the load bus. If, however, a load bus in the zone covered by this model is also covered by a
UVLSA or UVLSS model, the UVLSA or UVLSS model is not applied to this load bus.

Data Format

IZONE, ‘UVLSZ’, 0, ITYPE, STEP, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

IZONE - Zone number or name to apply the UVLS relay.


ITYPE - Relay operation criterion:
= 0 or 1: repopnd to sensing bus voltage magnitude.
= 2: respond to sensing bus voltage magnitude deviation with respect to value in powerflow.
STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SPi - Voltage set point for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. If ITYPE = 2, voltage magnitude deviation set points (SPi) must be enerted as positive numbers.

3. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

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Powertech Labs Inc. Page 205


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Voltage Load Shedding Relay Model UVLSA

Model Descriptions

This model sheds loads in a specified area (defined in powerflow) when the bus voltages are below the set
point for a set time. A maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

Note:

1. Sensing bus is always the load bus.


2. Shunt shedding is not allowed.
3. Transfer tripping models (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, and TTMSL models) cannot be triggered as
a result of load shedding from this model.
4. If a UVLSB or UVLSZ model exists for a load bus in the area covered by this model, this model will
not be applied to the load bus. If, however, a load bus in the area covered by this model is also
covered by a UVLSS model, the UVLSS model is not applied to this load bus.

Data Format

IAREA, ‘UVLSA’, 0, ITYPE, STEP, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

IAREA - Area number or name to apply the UVLS relay.


ITYPE - Relay operation criterion:
= 0 or 1: repopnd to sensing bus voltage magnitude.
= 2: respond to sensing bus voltage magnitude deviation with respect to value in powerflow.
STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SPi - Voltage set point for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. If ITYPE = 2, voltage magnitude deviation set points (SPi) must be enerted as positive numbers.

3. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

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Powertech Labs Inc. Page 206


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Voltage Load Shedding Relay Model UVLSS

Model Descriptions

This model sheds loads in the entire system when the bus voltages are below the set point for a set time.
A maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

Note:

1. Sensing bus is always the load bus.


2. Shunt shedding is not allowed.
3. Transfer tripping models (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, and TTMSL models) cannot be triggered as
a result of load shedding from this model.
4. If a UVLSB, UVLSZ, or UVLSA model exists for a load bus, this model will not be applied to the
load bus.

Data Format

0, ‘UVLSS’, 0, ITYPE, STEP, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

ITYPE - Relay operation criterion:


= 0 or 1: repopnd to sensing bus voltage magnitude.
= 2: respond to sensing bus voltage magnitude deviation with respect to value in powerflow.
STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SPi - Voltage set point for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. If ITYPE = 2, voltage magnitude deviation set points (SPi) must be enerted as positive numbers.

3. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

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Powertech Labs Inc. Page 207


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Frequency Load Shedding Relay Model UFLSB

Model Descriptions

This model sheds load at a specified bus when the bus frequency is below the set point for a set time. A
maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified. In addition to load shedding, shunts at the load bus
can be shunt by using the SOPT option. When shunt shedding is specified (i.e., SOPT > 0), the required
shunt shedding is applied with the first load shedding triggered by this relay.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

It is possible to perform transfer tripping following a UFLSB relay trips. This can be a generator trip
(with the TTGEN model), a motor trip (with the TTMOT model), a branch trip (with the TTBRAN
model), or a branch section modification (with the TTMSL model). Please refer to the descriptions of
these transfer trip models later in this section for details on how to use them.

If the load bus specified in this model is covered by a region-based UFLS model (UFLSZ, UFLSA, or
UFLSS model), the region-based UFLS model is not applied to this load bus.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘UFLSB’, I, BUSR, STEP, SOPT, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name.


I - Relay ID.
BUSR - Sensing bus number, name, or equipment name. If BUSR is not entered or entered with zero,
IBUS is used as the sensing bus.
STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SOPT - Flag to specify options for shunts at the load bus:
≤ 0: no action for shunts at the load bus.
0 < SOPT < 1: shed shunts proportionally.
SPi - Frequency set point in Hz for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. If SOPT > 1, it is set to 1.

3. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

Powertech Labs Inc. Page 208


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Frequency Load Shedding Relay Model UFLSZ

Model Descriptions

This model sheds loads in a specified zone (defined in powerflow) when the bus frequencies are below
the set point for a set time. A maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

Note:

1. Sensing bus is always the load bus.


2. Shunt shedding is not allowed.
3. Transfer tripping models (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, and TTMSL models) cannot be triggered as
a result of load shedding from this model.
4. If a UFLSB model exists for a load bus in the zone covered by this model, this model will not be
applied to the load bus. If, however, a load bus in the zone covered by this model is also covered by a
UFLSA or UFLSS model, the UFLSA or UFLSS model is not applied to this load bus.

Data Format

IZONE, ‘UFLSZ’, 0, STEP, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

IZONE - Zone number or name to apply the UFLS relay.


STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SPi - Frequency set point in Hz for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

Powertech Labs Inc. Page 209


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Frequency Load Shedding Relay Model UFLSA

Model Descriptions

This model sheds loads in a specified area (defined in powerflow) when the bus frequencies are below the
set point for a set time. A maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

Note:

1. Sensing bus is always the load bus.


2. Shunt shedding is not allowed.
3. Transfer tripping models (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, and TTMSL models) cannot be triggered as
a result of load shedding from this model.
4. If a UFLSB or UFLSZ model exists for a load bus in the area covered by this model, this model will
not be applied to the load bus. If, however, a load bus in the area covered by this model is also
covered by a UFLSS model, the UFLSS model is not applied to this load bus.

Data Format

IAREA, ‘UFLSA’, 0, STEP, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

IAREA - Area number or name to apply the UFLS relay.


STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).
SPi - Frequency set point in Hz for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

Powertech Labs Inc. Page 210


TSAT Model Manual

Under-Freuqency Load Shedding Relay Model UFLSS

Model Descriptions

This model sheds loads in the entire system when the bus frequencies are below the set point for a set
time. A maximum 10 stages of load shedding can be specified.

The percentage of load shedding at different stages always refers to the base load at the initial condition.

Note:

1. Sensing bus is always the load bus.


2. Shunt shedding is not allowed.
3. Transfer tripping models (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, and TTMSL models) cannot be triggered as
a result of load shedding from this model.
4. If a UFLSB, UFLSZ, or UFLSA model exists for a load bus, this model will not be applied to the
load bus.

Data Format

0, ‘UFLSS’, 0, STEP, SP1, T1, TCB1, PLS1, . . . . . . /

STEP - Number of load shedding stages (SPi, Ti, TCBi, PLSi).


SPi - Frequency set point in Hz for stage i of the relay.
Ti - Time delay in cycles for stage i of the relay.
TCBi - Breaker operation time in cycles for stage i of the relay.
PLSi - Percentage of the base load at the bus to be shed in stage i of the relay.

Data Restrictions

1. STEP must be an integer and 1 ≤ STEP ≤ 10.

2. The following requirements must be met for SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi:

• They must be entered in sets.


• The number of (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets must be equal to STEP.
• (SPi, Ti, TCBi, and PLSi) sets can be entered in any order in the data.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model DIST

Model Descriptions

This model is used to represent an impedance (Figure 9-2) or distance (Figure 9-3) relay. This model
cannot be used with a transfer tripping model (TTGEN, TTMOT, TTBRAN, TTMSL).

ZB

ZT

• CT, CB

AT, A B

R
0

Figure 9-2: Impedance relay characteristics

Zone 2

Zone 1

75°

Figure 9-3: Distance relay characteristics

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model DIST

Data Format

IBUS1, ‘DIST’, I, IBUS2, ITYPE, DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4, DT5, DT6, DT7, DT8, TRC /

BUS1 - From-bus number, name, or branch equipment name of the branch.


BUS2 - To-bus number or name of the branch. Refer to Section 1.2.3 on how to enter this if the
branch is to be identified by equipment name.
I - ID of the branch.
ITYPE - Flag to indicate relay type:
= 0 or 1: impedance relay (default).
= 2: distance relay.

Depending on the relay type, parameters DTi (i = 1, . . ., 8) and TRC are interpreted differently:

For impedance relay (ITYPE = 0 or 1): referring to Figure 9-2


DT1 - CT, center location of Circle T in per unit on system MVA base.
DT2 - Angle AT in degrees.
DT3 - ZT, diameter of Circle T in per unit on system MVA base.
DT4 - TT, Circle T trippin time in cycles.
DT5 - CB, center location of Circle B in per unit on system MVA base.
DT6 - Angle AB in degrees.
DT7 - ZB, diameter of Circle B in per unit on system MVA base.
DT8 - TB, Circle B tripping time in cycles.
TRC - Time delay for line reclosing in cycles. If TRC is nonzero, the tripped line will be reclosed
after TRC cycles. There is no reclosing if TRC = 0.

For distance relay (ITYPE = 2): referring to Figure 9-3


DT1 - R/X ratio.
DT2 - R1, Zone 1 reach (default value = 0.8).
DT3 - R2, Zone 2 reach (default value = 1.2).
DT4 - AMIN, minimum torque angle that activates the relay logic in degrees (default value = 60
degrees).
DT5 - AMAX, maximum torque angle in degrees (default value = 70 degrees).
DT6 - Not used for this relay.
DT7 - Not used for this relay.
DT8 - T, relay time delay in cycles.
TRC - Time delay for line reclosing in cycles. If TRC is nonzero, the tripped line will be reclosed
after TRC cycles. There is no reclosing if TRC = 0.

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model MHOBL

Model Descriptions

This model represents a mho distance relay with parallel blinders as shown in Figure 9-4.

BL
RC
H
RCH
CD

Figure 9-4: Mho distance relay with Hydro One blinder characteristics

Data Format

IBUS1, ‘MHOBL’, ID, IBUS2, FBUS1, SBUS1, TBUS1, ID1, FBUS2, SBUS2, TBUS2, ID2, FBUS3,
SBUS3, TBUS3, ID3, TZ1, RCH1, CA1, CD1, TZ2, RCH2, CA2, CD2, TZ3, RCH3, CA3, CD3,
DRANG, Ithr, Strip, Srecl, Ttrip, Trecl, Tv, BLRCH, BLMTA, IMON/

IBUS1 - Near-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the branch equipment name.
IBUS2 - Far-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the equipment name of the near-end bus.
ID - ID of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the subject of self-tripping action.
FBUS1 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name
SBUS1 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS1 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 1 specified for transfer-
tripping action.

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ID1 - ID of branch 1.
FBUS2 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS2 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS2 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 2 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID2 - ID of branch 2.
FBUS3 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS3 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS3 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 3 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
TZ1 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
RCH1 - Zone 1 reach in per unit on system base.
CA1 - Zone 1 center angle in degrees.
CD1 - Zone 1 center distance from the origin of the RX-plane in per unit on system base.
TZ2 - Zone 2 time delay in cycles.
RCH2 - Zone 2 reach in per unit on system base.
CA2 - Zone 2 center angle in degrees.
CD2 - Zone 2 center distance from the origin of the RX-plane in per unit on system base.
TZ3 - Zone 3 time delay in cycles.
RCH3 - Zone 3 reach in per unit on system base.
CA3 - Zone 3 center angle in degrees.
CD3 - Zone 3 center distance from the origin of the RX-plane in per unit on system base.
DRANG - Maximum torque angle of the polarizing unit in degrees.
Ithr - Minimum pickup current in per unit on system base.
Strip - Self-tripping time delay in cycles.
Srecl - Self-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Ttrip - Transfer-tripping time delay in cycles.
Trecl - Transfer-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Tv - Time delay for the memory voltage in seconds.
BLRCH - Blinder reach in per unit on system base.
BLMTA - Blinder maximum torque angle in degrees.
IMON - 0 = monitor and operate; 1 = only monitor

Data Restrictions

1. RCHi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
2. CDi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
3. BLRCH ≥ 0
4. The same blinders are applied to all the three zones.
5. The principle of operation of the polarizing unit is shown in Figure 9-5. DRANG defines the direction
of the current where the maximum positive torque happens. If the projection of the current seen at the
relay location on to this direction is less than Ithr, then the tripping is blocked by the directional unit.
The voltage used in the directional unit a memorized voltage delayed from the actual voltage by Tv
seconds.

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Position of I for
maximum positive
torque
Positive torque
area

DR
90°

AN
I

G
Negative torque
area
V
Ithr
System
Reference

Figure 9-5: Principle of operation of the polarizing unit

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model MHOLD

Model Descriptions

This model represents a mho distance relay with load encroachment characteristic as shown in Figure 9-6.

PL
AR
R
LA
N

RCH

PL
CD

AF
ZLR
CA
R

NL
ZLF AF

Figure 9-6: Mho distance relay with load encroachment characteristics

Data Format

IBUS1, ‘MHOLD’, ID, IBUS2, FBUS1, SBUS1, TBUS1, ID1, FBUS2, SBUS2, TBUS2, ID2, FBUS3,
SBUS3, TBUS3, ID3, TZ1, RCH1, CA1, CD1, TZ2, RCH2, CA2, CD2, TZ3, RCH3, CA3, CD3,
DRANG, Ithr, Strip, Srecl, Ttrip, Trecl, Tv, ZLF, PLAF, NLAF, ZLR, PLAR, NLAR, IMON /

IBUS1 - Near-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the branch equipment name.
IBUS2 - Far-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the equipment name of the near-end bus.
ID - ID of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the subject of self-tripping action.
FBUS1 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name
SBUS1 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action.
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TBUS1 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 1 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID1 - ID of branch 1.
FBUS2 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS2 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS2 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 2 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID2 - ID of branch 2.
FBUS3 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS3 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS3 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 3 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
TZ1 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
RCH1 - Zone 1 reach in per unit on system base.
CA1 - Zone 1 center angle in degrees.
CD1 - Zone 1 center distance from the origin of the RX-plane in per unit on system base.
TZ2 - Zone 2 time delay in cycles.
RCH2 - Zone 2 reach in per unit on system base.
CA2 - Zone 2 center angle in degrees.
CD2 - Zone 2 center distance from the origin of the RX-plane in per unit on system base.
TZ3 - Zone 3 time delay in cycles.
RCH3 - Zone 3 reach in per unit on system base.
CA3 - Zone 3 center angle in degrees.
CD3 - Zone 3 center distance from the origin of the RX-plane in per unit on system base.
DRANG - Maximum torque angle of the polarizing unit in degrees.
Ithr - Minimum pickup current in per unit on system base.
Strip - Self-tripping time delay in cycles.
Srecl - Self-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Ttrip - Transfer-tripping time delay in cycles.
Trecl - Transfer-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Tv - Time delay for the memory voltage in seconds.
ZLF - Radius of the right blinder circle in per unit on system base.
PLAF - Top side angle of the right blinder in degrees.
NLAF - Bottom side angle of the right blinder in degrees.
ZLR - Radius of the left blinder circle in per unit on system base.
PLAR - Top side angle of the left blinder in degrees.
NLAR - Bottom side angle of the left blinder in degrees.
IMON - 0 = monitor and operate; 1 = only monitor

Data Restrictions

1. RCHi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
2. CDi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
3. ZLF ≥ 0
4. ZLR ≥ 0
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5. The angles PLAF, NLAF, PLAR, and NLAR should not be given such that the forward and reverse
blinder areas overlap.
6. The same blinders are applied to all the three zones.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model MHOX

Model Descriptions

This model represents a reactance relay as shown in Figure 9-7.

Figure 9-7: Distance relay with reactance characteristics

Data Format

IBUS1, ‘MHOX’, ID, IBUS2, FBUS1, SBUS1, TBUS1, ID1, FBUS2, SBUS2, TBUS2, ID2, FBUS3,
SBUS3, TBUS3, ID3, TZ1, X1, TZ2, X2, TZ3, X3, DRANG, Ithr, Strip, Srecl, Ttrip, Trecl,
Tv, IMON /

IBUS1 - Near-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the branch equipment name.
IBUS2 - Far-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the equipment name of the near-end bus.
ID - ID of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the subject of self-tripping action.
FBUS1 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name
SBUS1 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS1 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 1 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID1 - ID of branch 1.
FBUS2 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS2 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action.

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TBUS2 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 2 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID2 - ID of branch 2.
FBUS3 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS3 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS3 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 3 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
TZ1 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
X1 - Zone 1 reach in per unit on system base.
TZ2 - Zone 2 time delay in cycles.
X2 - Zone 2 reach in per unit on system base.
TZ3 - Zone 3 time delay in cycles.
X3 - Zone 3 reach in per unit on system base.
DRANG - Maximum torque angle of the polarizing unit in degrees.
Ithr - Minimum pickup current in per unit on system base.
Strip - Self-tripping time delay in cycles.
Srecl - Self-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Ttrip - Transfer-tripping time delay in cycles.
Trecl - Transfer-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Tv - Time delay for the memory voltage in seconds.
IMON - 0 = monitor and operate; 1 = only monitor

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model LENS

Model Descriptions

This model represents a distance relay with lens characteristic as shown in Figure 9-8.

CA
R
Offang

Figure 9-8: Distance relay with lens characteristics

Data Format

IBUS1, ‘LENS’, ID, IBUS2, FBUS1, SBUS1, TBUS1, ID1, FBUS2, SBUS2, TBUS2, ID2, FBUS3,
SBUS3, TBUS3, ID3, TZ1, RCH1, CA1, ABrat1, Offset1, Offang1, TZ2, RCH2, CA2, ABrat2, Offset2,
Offang2, DRANG, Ithr, Strip, Srecl, Ttrip, Trecl, Tv, IMON /

IBUS1 - Near-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the branch equipment name.
IBUS2 - Far-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the equipment name of the near-end bus.
ID - ID of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the subject of self-tripping action.
FBUS1 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name
SBUS1 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS1 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 1 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID1 - ID of branch 1.

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FBUS2 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS2 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS2 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 2 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID2 - ID of branch 2.
FBUS3 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS3 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS3 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 3 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
TZ1 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
RCH1 - Zone 1 reach in per unit on system base.
CA1 - Zone 1 center angle in degrees.
ABrat1 - Zone 1 A to B ratio.
Offset1 - Zone 1 offset distance from the origin in per unit on system base.
Offang1 - Zone 1 offset angle in per unit on system base.
TZ2 - Zone 2 time delay in cycles.
RCH2 - Zone 2 reach in per unit on system base.
CA2 - Zone 2 center angle in degrees.
ABrat2 - Zone 2 A to B ratio.
Offset2 - Zone 2 offset distance from the origin in per unit on system base.
Offang2 - Zone 2 offset angle in per unit on system base.
DRANG - Maximum torque angle of the polarizing unit in degrees.
Ithr - Minimum pickup current in per unit on system base.
Strip - Self-tripping time delay in cycles.
Srecl - Self-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Ttrip - Transfer-tripping time delay in cycles.
Trecl - Transfer-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Tv - Time delay for the memory voltage in seconds.
IMON - 0 = monitor and operate; 1 = only monitor

Data Restrictions

1. RCHi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2
2. CDi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2
3. Offseti ≥ 0; i = 1, 2
4. Offangi = CAi or CAi + 180; i=1, 2

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Impedance/Distance Relay Model RLQUAD

Model Descriptions

This model represents a distance relay with quadrilateral characteristic as shown in Figure 9-9.

Figure 9-9: Distance relay with quadrilateral characteristics

Data Format

IBUS1, ‘RLQUAD’, ID, IBUS2, FBUS1, SBUS1, TBUS1, ID1, FBUS2, SBUS2, TBUS2, ID2, FBUS3,
SBUS3, TBUS3, ID3, TZ1, R1Z1, X1Z1, RFZ1, DIRZ1, TZ2, R1Z2, X1Z2, RFZ2, DIRZ2, TZ3, R1Z3,
X1Z3, RFZ3, DIRZ3, DRANG, Ithr, Strip, Srecl, Ttrip, Trecl, Tv, IMON /

IBUS1 - Near-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the branch equipment name.
IBUS2 - Far-end bus number or bus name of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the
subject of self-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this field must be set to
the equipment name of the near-end bus.
ID - ID of the branch which is monitored by the relay and is the subject of self-tripping action.
FBUS1 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name
SBUS1 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 1 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS1 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 1 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID1 - ID of branch 1.

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FBUS2 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS2 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 2 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS2 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 2 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID2 - ID of branch 2.
FBUS3 - From-bus or primary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action. If the equipment name method is used, this
field must be set to the branch equipment name.
SBUS3 - To-bus or secondary bus (in case of a three-winding transformer) number or bus name of
branch 3 specified for transfer-tripping action.
TBUS3 - Tertiary bus number or bus name of three-winding transformer 3 specified for transfer-
tripping action.
ID3 - ID of branch 3.
TZ1 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
R1Z1 - Zone 1 R-coordinate of the intersection between the line characteristic and the upper segment
of the relay characteristic, per unit on system base.
X1Z1 - Zone 1 X-coordinate of the intersection between the line characteristic and the upper segment
of the relay characteristic, per unit on system base.
RFZ1 - Zone 1 RFZ reach in per unit on system base.
DIRZ1 - Zone 1 direction (0 = forward; 1 = reverse).
TZ2 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
R1Z2 - Zone 2 R-coordinate of the intersection between the line characteristic and the upper segment
of the relay characteristic, per unit on system base.
X1Z2 - Zone 2 X-coordinate of the intersection between the line characteristic and the upper segment
of the relay characteristic, per unit on system base.
RFZ2 - Zone 2 RFZ reach in per unit on system base.
DIRZ2 - Zone 2 direction (0 = forward; 1 = reverse).
TZ3 - Zone 1 time delay in cycles.
R1Z3 - Zone 3 R-coordinate of the intersection between the line characteristic and the upper segment
of the relay characteristic, per unit on system base.
X1Z3 - Zone 3 X-coordinate of the intersection between the line characteristic and the upper segment
of the relay characteristic, per unit on system base.
RFZ3 - Zone 3 RFZ reach in per unit on system base.
DIRZ3 - Zone 3 direction (0 = forward; 1 = reverse).
DRANG - Maximum torque angle of the polarizing unit in degrees.
Ithr - Minimum pickup current in per unit on system base.
Strip - Self-tripping time delay in cycles.
Srecl - Self-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Ttrip - Transfer-tripping time delay in cycles.
Trecl - Transfer-reclosing time delay in cycles.
Tv - Time delay for the memory voltage in seconds.
IMON - 0 = monitor and operate; 1 = only monitor

Data Restrictions

1. R1Zi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
2. X1Zi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
3. RFZi ≥ 0 ; i = 1, 2, 3
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TSAT Model Manual

Generator Transfer Trip Model TTGEN

Model Descriptions

This model trips a generator in response to an under-voltage load shedding (UVLSB model) or under-
frequency load shedding (UFLSB model) action. If the UVLSB or UFLSB model includes multiple stages
of load shedding, this transfer tripping responds always to the first stage load shedding. Note that zone,
area, or system UVLS or UFLS relay models (i.e., UVLSZ, UVLSA, UVLSS, UFLSZ, UFLSA, and
UFLSS models) cannot cause such transfer tripping actions.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘TTGEN’, I, MODEL, GENBUS, GID, Td /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name with a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model.
I - UVLSB or UFLSB relay ID.
MODEL - Load shedding model at the load bus:
= ‘UVLSB’: tripping generator in response to the UVLSB relay action.
= ‘UFLSB’: tripping generator in response to the UFLSB relay action.
GENBUS - Bus number, name, or equipment name of the generator to be tripped.
GID - ID of the generator to be tripped.
Td - Time delay in cycles for generator tripping.

Data Restrictions

1. There must be a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model (as specified by the MODEL parameter) at the load
bus IBUS.

2. The generator to be tripped must be in service in the system and it must have a dynamic model.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Motor Transfer Trip Model TTMOT

Model Descriptions

This model trips an induction motor in response to an under-voltage load shedding (UVLSB model) or
under-frequency load shedding (UFLSB model) action. If the UVLSB or UFLSB model includes multiple
stages of load shedding, this transfer tripping responds always to the first stage load shedding. Note that
zone, area, or system UVLS or UFLS relay models (i.e., UVLSZ, UVLSA, UVLSS, UFLSZ, UFLSA,
and UFLSS models) cannot cause such transfer tripping actions.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘TTMOT’, I, MODEL, MOTBUS, MID, Td /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name with a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model.
I - UVLSB or UFLSB relay ID.
MODEL - Load shedding model at the load bus:
= ‘UVLSB’: tripping motor in response to the UVLSB relay action.
= ‘UFLSB’: tripping motor in response to the UFLSB relay action.
MOTBUS - Bus number, name, or equipment name of the motor to be tripped.
MID - ID of the motor to be tripped.
Td - Time delay in cycles for motor tripping.

Data Restrictions

1. There must be a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model (as specified by the MODEL parameter) at the load
bus IBUS.

2. The motor to be tripped must be represented by one of the dynamic models described in Section 4 or
in a third party format.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Branch Transfer Trip Model TTBRAN

Model Descriptions

This model trips a branch in response to an under-voltage load shedding (UVLSB model) or under-
frequency load shedding (UFLSB model) action. If the UVLSB or UFLSB model includes multiple stages
of load shedding, this transfer tripping responds always to the first stage load shedding. Note that zone,
area, or system UVLS or UFLS relay models (i.e., UVLSZ, UVLSA, UVLSS, UFLSZ, UFLSA, and
UFLSS models) cannot cause such transfer tripping actions.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘TTBRAN’, I, MODEL, FBUS, TBUS, ID, Td /

IBUS - Load bus number, name, or equipment name with a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model.
I - UVLSB or UFLSB relay ID.
MODEL - Load shedding model at the load bus:
= ‘UVLSB’: tripping branch in response to the UVLSB relay action.
= ‘UFLSB’: tripping branch in response to the UFLSB relay action.
FBUS - From-bus number, name, or branch equipment name of the branch to be tripped.
TBUS - To-bus number or name of the branch to be tripped. Refer to Section 1.2.3 on how to enter
this if the branch is to be identified by equipment name.
ID - ID of the branch to be tripped.
Td - Time delay in cycles for branch tripping.

Data Restrictions

1. There must be a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model (as specified by the MODEL parameter) at the load
bus IBUS.

2. The branch to be tripped must be in service in the powerflow.

This document contains proprietary information and shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Powertech.

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TSAT Model Manual

Branch Section Transfer Modification Model TTMSL

Model Descriptions

This model modifies parameters of a branch section in response to an under-voltage load shedding
(UVLSB model) or under-frequency load shedding (UFLSB model) action. Practically, it is primarily
used to re-insert a capacitor section in a sectional line once a UVLS or UFLS relay is triggered. If the
UVLSB or UFLSB model includes multiple stages of load shedding, this transfer action responds always
to the first stage load shedding. Note that zone, area, or system UVLS or UFLS relay models (i.e.,
UVLSZ, UVLSA, UVLSS, UFLSZ, UFLSA, and UFLSS models) cannot cause such transfer actions.

Data Format

IBUS, ‘TTMSL’, I, MODEL, FBUS, TBUS, ID, SEC, R, X, GFBUS, BFBUS, GTBUS, BTBUS, Td /

IBUS - Load bus number or name with a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model.
I - UVLSB or UFLSB relay ID.
MODEL - Load shedding model at the load bus:
= ‘UVLSB’: modifying branch in response to the UVLSB relay action.
= ‘UFLSB’: modifying branch in response to the UFLSB relay action.
FBUS - From-bus number or name of the branch to be modified.
TBUS - To-bus number or name of the branch to be modified.
ID - ID of the branch to be modified.
SEC - Sectional ID of the branch to be modified.
R - New value for the resistance of the branch section in per unit on system MVA base after
modification.
X - New value for the reactance of the branch section in per unit on system MVA base after
modification.
GFBUS - New value for the conductance as the from-bus shunt in per unit on system MVA base after
modification.
BGBUS - New value for the susceptance as the from-bus shunt in per unit on system MVA base after
modification. The line charging (if exists) should be included in this parameter.
GTBUS - New value for the conductance as the to-bus shunt in per unit on system MVA base after
modification.
BTBUS - New value for the susceptance as the to-bus shunt in per unit on system MVA base after
modification. The line charging (if exists) should be included in this parameter.
Td - Time delay in cycles for branch modification.

Data Restrictions

1. There must be a UVLSB or UFLSB relay model (as specified by the MODEL parameter) at the load
bus IBUS.

2. The branch to be modified must be in service in the powerflow and it must be a sectional line.

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10 Dynamic Representation Data File Format

This section describes the TSAT dynamic representation data file format.

10.1 Introduction

Dynamic representation data is used to customize dynamic models (without explicit modifications of
dynamic data) for an SSAT scenario. The format of a TSAT dynamic representation data is compatible
with SSAT, with the extension for bus name support.

Note that the dynamic representation specifications do not apply to network (powerflow) models. In other
words, the network representation of the system is always from the actual powerflow, only subject to
contingencies applied in contingency analysis.

10.2 Basic Rules and Structure

The following are the basic rules of a TSAT dynamic representation file:

• It is an ASCII text file.

• Most of the contents are case-insensitive except for

 any text descriptions, and


 any system information such as bus names and IDs.

• Any line starting with a slash “/” will be treated as a comment line. Blank lines are ignored.

• The first line of a dynamic representation file must be the program identifier:

[TSAT 8.0]

where the version number (8.0) may change in different releases. There are no comment lines allowed
before this line. For compatibility purpose, TSAT accepts SSAT dynamic representation data with
header [SSAT 8.0].

A TSAT dynamic representation file has the following general format:

[TSAT 8.0]

{Area}
... ...
{End Area}

{Zone}
... ...
{End Zone}

{Bus}
... ...
{End Bus}
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{GS Area}
... ...
{End GS Area}

{GS Zone}
... ...
{End GS Zone}

{GS Bus}
... ...
{End GS Bus}

{Model}
... ...
{End Model}

{Model Area}
... ...
{End Model Area}

{Model Zone}
... ...
{End Model Zone}
{Model Bus}
... ...
{End Model Bus}

where each data section enclosed by a keyword pair (such as the {Area} and {End Area}) contains one
type of specification. Any non-comment or non-blank record (except for the first record of the file)
outside of these data sections will result in an error message.

In the above general structure, Area, Zone, and Bus data sections apply to the specified models in a
subsystem (in terms of areas, zones, or buses), while the Model data section applies to the specified
models in the entire system. The final dynamic model customization to be used in the TSAT scenario is
obtained by combining all data sections, as described in Section 10.13.

10.3 Area Data Section

The area data section has the following syntax:

{Area}
area_keyword
area_1
area_2
... ...
{End Area}

where area_keyword can be either Included or Excluded.

Included indicates that all following areas should be included in the area subsystem specification
Excluded indicates that all following areas should be excluded from the area subsystem
specification

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The area_1, area_2, … are the area numbers/names to be included/excluded. When bus name or
equipment name identification option is used, a 12-character area name enclosed in single quotes should
be used for each area.

If area_keyword is not specified, the default will be Included.

When including an area, all dynamics in the area that are contained in dynamic data are retained for the
TSAT scenario. When excluding an area, all dynamics in the area that are contained in dynamic data are
ignored for the TSAT scenario, which means

• All generators in the area are net out (as constant impedance loads no matter what load model is
specified)
• All load dynamics in the area are ignored and default load models are used
• All non converter-based FACTS devices in the area are ignored
• All DC models and convert-based FACTS devices in the area are however still retained

10.4 Zone Data Section

The zone data section has the following syntax:

{Zone}
zone_keyword
zone_1
zone_2
... ...
{End Zone}

where zone_keyword can be either Included or Excluded.

Included indicates that all following zones should be included in the zone subsystem specification
Excluded indicates that all following zones should be excluded from the zone subsystem
specification

The zone_1, zone_2, … are the zone numbers to be included/excluded. When bus name or equipment
name identification option is used, a 12-character zone name enclosed in single quotes should be used for
each zone.

If zone_keyword is not specified, the default will be Included.

When including a zone, all dynamics in the zone that are contained in dynamic data are retained for the
TSAT scenario. When excluding a zone, all dynamics in the zone that are contained in dynamic data are
ignored for the TSAT scenario, which means

• All generators in the zone are net out (as constant impedance loads no matter what load model is
specified)
• All load dynamics in the zone are ignored and default load models are used
• All non converter-based FACTS devices in the zone are ignored
• All DC models and convert-based FACTS devices in the zone are however still retained

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10.5 Bus Data Section

The bus data section has the following syntax:

{Bus}
bus_keyword
from_bus_1, to_bus_1
from_bus_2, to_bus_2
... ...
{End Bus}

where bus_keyword can be either Included or Excluded.

Included indicates that all following bus ranges should be included in the bus subsystem
specification
Excluded indicates that all following bus ranges should be excluded from the bus subsystem
specification

The from_bus_1, to_bus_1, … are the bus ranges to be included/excluded. If any to-bus is missing
from a bus range, a single bus equal to the from-bus is assumed.

When bus name or equipment name identification option is used, a bus name or generator equipment
name should be used for each bus and only one name is entered on each data record (i.e., no range
specification is allowed).

If bus_keyword is not specified, the default will be Included.

When including a bus range, all dynamics in the bus range that are contained in dynamic data are retained
for the TSAT scenario. When excluding a bus range, all dynamics in the bus range that are contained in
dynamic data are ignored for the TSAT scenario, which means

• All generators in the bus range are net out (as constant impedance loads no matter what load
model is specified)
• All load dynamics in the bus range are ignored and default load models are used
• All non converter-based FACTS devices in the bus range are ignored
• All DC models and convert-based FACTS devices in the bus range are however still retained

10.6 Generator Simplification (By Area) Data Section

The generator simplification (by area) data section has the following syntax:

{GS Area}
simplification_keyword
Default Damping = def_damp
area_1
area_2
... ...
{End GS Area}

where simplification_keyword can be either Classical or Infinite bus.

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Classical indicates that all detailed generator models (any model that includes rotor
dynamics) in the specified areas should be simplified to the classical model
Infinite bus indicates that all detailed generator models (any model that includes rotor
dynamics) in the specified areas should be simplified to infinite buses behind
transient reactances

The value def_damp is the default damping factor. It applies to classical generator simplification for
those generators who have a damping value of zero in the detailed machine data. The damping value for
these generators is calculated as the product of def_damp and the machine inertia (H). If the Default
Damping line is missing from this data section, a value of 1.0 is assumed for def_damp.

The area_1, area_2, … are the area numbers within which the generators are to be simplified. When
bus name or equipment name identification option is used, a 12-character area name enclosed in single
quotes should be used for each area.

If simplification_keyword is not specified, the default will be Classical.

Note that when a detailed generator model is simplified to a classical model, the following is assumed:

• The generator MVA base, inertia (H), transient reactance ( X ′d ), and damping (D) are used as the
parameters of the classical model. The rest of the parameters are ignored.

• All generator controls (exciter, PSS, governor, etc.) are ignored.

10.7 Generator Simplification (By Zone) Data Section

The generator simplification (by zone) data section has the following syntax:

{GS Zone}
simplification_keyword
Default Damping = def_damp
zone_1
zone_2
... ...
{End GS Zone}

where simplification_keyword can be either Classical or Infinite bus.

Classical indicates that all detailed generator models (any model that includes rotor
dynamics) in the specified zones should be simplified to the classical model
Infinite bus indicates that all detailed generator models (any model that includes rotor
dynamics) in the specified zones should be simplified to infinite buses behind
transient reactances

The value def_damp is the default damping factor. It applies to classical generator simplification for
those generators who have a damping value of zero in the detailed machine data. The damping value for
these generators is calculated as the product of def_damp and the machine inertia (H). If the Default
Damping line is missing from this data section, a value of 1.0 is assumed for def_damp.

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The zone_1, zone_2, … are the zone numbers within which the generators are to be simplified. When
bus name or equipment name identification option is used, a 12-character zone name enclosed in single
quotes should be used for each zone.

If simplification_keyword is not specified, the default will be Classical.

Note that when a detailed generator model is simplified to a classical model, the following is assumed:

• The generator MVA base, inertia (H), transient reactance ( X ′d ), and damping (D) are used as the
parameters of the classical model. The rest of the parameters are ignored.

• All generator controls (exciter, PSS, governor, etc.) are ignored.

10.8 Generator Simplification (By Bus) Data Section

The generator simplification (by bus) data section has the following syntax:

{GS Bus}
simplification_keyword
Default Damping = def_damp
from_bus_1, to_bus_1
from_bus_2, to_bus_2
... ...
{End GS Bus}

where simplification_keyword can be either Classical or Infinite bus.

Classical indicates that all detailed generator models (any model that includes rotor
dynamics) in the specified bus ranges should be simplified to the classical model
Infinite bus indicates that all detailed generator models (any model that includes rotor
dynamics) in the specified bus ranges should be simplified to infinite buses
behind transient reactances

The value def_damp is the default damping factor. It applies to classical generator simplification for
those generators who have a damping value of zero in the detailed machine data. The damping value for
these generators is calculated as the product of def_damp and the machine inertia (H). If the Default
Damping line is missing from this data section, a value of 1.0 is assumed for def_damp.

The from_bus_1, to_bus_1, … are the bus ranges within which the generators are to be simplified. If
any to-bus is missing from a bus range, a single bus equal to the from-bus is assumed.

When bus name or equipment name identification option is used, a bus name or generator equipment
name should be used for each bus and only one name is entered on each data record (i.e., no range
specification is allowed).

If simplification_keyword is not specified, the default will be Classical.

Note that when a detailed generator model is simplified to a classical model, the following is assumed:

• The generator MVA base, inertia (H), transient reactance ( X ′d ), and damping (D) are used as the

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parameters of the classical model. The rest of the parameters are ignored.

• All generator controls (exciter, PSS, governor, etc.) are ignored.

10.9 Model Representation (System-Wide) Data Section

The model data section has the following syntax:

{Model}
model_1, modifier_1
model_2, modifier_2
... ...
{End Model}

where model_1, model_2, … are the dynamic model names that should be excluded (depending on the
value of the modifier) from the dynamic model subset for the entire system.

modifier_1, modifer_2, ... control how the model is represented. It may be left blank, in which
case the associated model is excluded, or have one of two values, blocked and unblocked. The
blocked and unblocked values apply only to GE PSLF governor models. Blocked governor models
have the gate integrator upper limit set to its initial value. Unblocked governor models use the actual
limits set in the governor dynamic data. In either case, the value given in dynamic representation data
overrides the value of the baseload flag in PSLF powerflow generator data.

Only the following model names are valid in this data section:

1. Any of the TSAT, PSS/E, and PSLF model names. PSS/E USRMDL model names can also be
included.

2. Special model names:

$UDM all TSAT user-defined models


$LDC all line drop compensation models (PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$EXC all exciter models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$PSS all PSS models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$OEL all OEL models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$UEL all UEL models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$GOV all governor models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$FACTS all FACTS models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$HVDC all HVDC models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$MOTOR all motor models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$LOAD all static nonlinear load models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)
$LDFR all frequency dependence in static load models (TSAT, PSS/E, PSLF, and BPA)

In the above,

• If $HVDC is specified, all HVDC links will be represented by a simplified (load-netted) model.
• If $MOTOR is specified, all motor loads will be represented by the default static load models.
• If $LOAD is specified, all static load models will be represented by the default load models.

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10.10 Model Representation (By Area) Data Section

The model area data section has the following syntax:

{Model Area}
area
model_1, modifier_1
model_2, modifier_2
... ...
{End Model Area}

where area is the area number or name to which the model representation data should apply. This area
number has to be on the first non-comment, non-blank line following the {Model Area} line. The
remaining lines in this section are interpreted in the same fashion as the Model Data Section (see Section
10.9), except that none of the BPA models are included in the interpretation.

This section may appear more than once in the dynamic representation data.

10.11 Model Representation (By Zone) Data Section

The model zone data section has the following syntax:

{Model Zone}
zone
model_1, modifier_1
model_2, modifier_2
... ...
{End Model Zone}

where zone is the zone number or name to which the model representation data should apply. This zone
number has to be on the first non-comment, non-blank line following the {Model Zone} line. The
remaining lines in this section are interpreted in the same fashion as the Model Data Section (see Section
10.9), except that none of the BPA models are included in the interpretation.

This section may appear more than once in the dynamic representation data.

10.12 Model Representation (by Bus) Data Section

The model bus data section has the following syntax:

{Model Bus}
from_bus, to_bus
model_1, modifier_1
model_2, modifier_2
... ...
{End Model Bus}

where from_bus, to_bus specifies the bus range to which the model representation data should apply
(if the to_bus is missing, only the models at the from_bus are included). This bus range has to be on
the first non-comment, non-blank line following the {Model Bus} line. The remaining lines in this
section are interpreted in the same fashion as the Model Data Section (see Section 10.9), except that none
of the BPA models are included in the interpretation.

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When bus name identification option is used, a bus name should be used for each bus and only one name
is entered on each data record (i.e., no range specification is allowed). For obvious reason, the equipment
name identification option is not applicable.

This section may appear more than once in the dynamic representation data.

10.13 Interpretation and Examples

When combining the specifications in all data sections, the final subset of the dynamic models to be
represented for a TSAT scenario is determined using the following rules:

1. First, a dynamically represented (DR) subsystem (in terms of buses) is determined as the union of the
subsystems specified by the Area, Zone, and Bus data sections.

2. If any of the Area, Zone, and Bus data section is missing, it is not considered when determining the
union.

3. If none of the Area, Zone, and Bus data section is specified, the DR subsystem is taken to be the
entire system.

4. The dynamic model set corresponding to the DR subsystem determined above is selected from the
entire dynamic models read from the dynamic data file(s).

5. If any of GS Area, GS Zone, or GS Bus data section is specified, a generator simplification (GS)
subsystem is determined using rules similar to (1)-(3)

6. If there is an intersection between the DR subsystem and the GS subsystem, all generators in the
intersection are simplified according to simplification options specified in the associated GS Area, GS
Zone, and GS Bus data sections.

7. From the dynamic model set determined in Step 6, the models specified in the Model, Model Area,
Model Zone, or Model Bus data sections are removed (or modified) to obtain the final dynamic model
set to be used for the TSAT scenario.

The above process is illustrated in Figure 10-1.

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Entire system
DR subsystem

GS subsystem

Full dynamics are retained All generators in this portion are


in this portion except for represented by the model specified
those models specified in in Generator Simplification data
respective model data
section

Figure 10-1: Interpretation of the dynamic representation data

The following shows a few examples of the dynamic representation data.

Example 1

[TSAT 8.0]

{Area}
Included
10
20
30
{End Area}

{GS Area}
Classical
30
{End GS Area}

This specification indicates that all dynamic models in Areas 10, 20, and 30 will be included in the
simulations, while all dynamics in other areas will be ignored. Further, all generators in Area 30 will be
simplified to classical models.

Example 2
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[TSAT 8.0]

{Model}
ST2CUT
$GOV
{End Model}

This specification indicates that all dynamic models in the system will be included in the simulations,
except for type ST2CUT stabilizer model and all governor models.

Example 3

[TSAT 8.0]

{Area}
Excluded
10
{End Area}

{Zone}
Included
200
{End Zone}

{Bus}
Included
10000, 20000
{End Bus}

{Model}
$GOV
{End Model}

In this example, the subsystem whose dynamics will be included in the TSAT simulations will be

• All areas except for Area 10, and


• Zone 200, and
• Buses from 10000 to 20000

Within the above subsystem, full dynamics will be represented except for all governors.

Example 4

[TSAT 8.0]

{Model Area}
10
HYGOV, Unblocked
$GOV, Blocked
{End Area}

{Model Bus}
10024, 10024
GAST, Unblocked
{End Model Bus}

{Model Bus}

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10023, 10029
$GOV, Blocked
{End Model Bus}

{Model Bus}
10025, 10025
GAST, Unblocked
{End Model Bus}

In this example, the hierarchy of model representation with respect to governor blocking is demonstrated.

• For buses 10023-10029, all governors will be blocked (including HYGOV type models), except at
bus 10025, if it has a GAST type governor model.
• For the remaining buses in area 10, all governors except the HYGOV type will be blocked.
• For buses outside area 10 and outside the bus range 10023-10029, the governor blocking will be
determined by the baseload flag in the PSLF loadflow data.
• The order of sections of the same type is important. Even if bus 10024 has a GAST type governor, it
will blocked, because the governor blocking specified below it.

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11 Monitor Data

TSAT stores the time-domain simulation results in a binary file (TSAT binary result file) for selected
quantities based on the specifications in the monitor data file. These results can then be analyzed for post-
processing. The monitor data specification is compulsory for a TSA analysis and must be included in the
case file. It is important that enough output quantities are requested for a simulation so that no useful
quantities are missed for the post-processing. However, saving too many quantities in the binary result
file not only makes the file unnecessarily large, but also slows down the simulation and the quantity
retrieval from the binary result file in the post-processing stage.

In a TSAT binary result file, each output quantity is stored in a result channel. There are a maximum of
20,000 result channels available to store simulation results. However, the actual number of result channels
available for a specific version of TSAT will be less, depending on

• The number of result channels used by the program to store case-independent information (such as
reference generator angle)

• The dimension of the program (for instance educational version has fewer result channels available)

If the number of output quantities specified in the monitor data is more than the result channels available,
some of the outputs will not be stored in the binary result file. These will be printed in the program
messages.

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11.1 Basic Rules and Structure

The following are the basic rules of a TSAT monitor specification file:

• It is an ASCII text file.

• Most of the contents are case-insensitive except for

 any text descriptions, and


 any system information such as bus names and IDs.

• Any record starting with a slash “/” will be treated as a comment line. Blank records are ignored.

• The first record of a monitor specification file in the free format must be the program identifier:

[TSAT 8.0 Monitor]

where the version number (8.0) may change in different releases. There are no comment lines allowed
before this line. “Monitor” indicates that this is a monitor data file.

• When bus names are used to identify buses, all bus names must be used in place of bus numbers
described in this document. A bus name is a 12-character string enclosed in single quote. When
equipment names are used to identify components, the 32-character equipment names must be used in
place of bus numbers described in this document. Refer to Section 1.2.3 for additional information on
the use of equipment names.

A TSAT monitor specification file has the following general format:

[TSAT 8.0 Monitor]

{Additional Quantities}
... ...
{End Additional Quantities}

{Generator}
... ...
{End Generator}

{Generator State}
... ...
{End Generator State}

{UDM}
... ...
{End UDM}

{SVC}
... ...
{End SVC}

{Motor}
... ...
{End Motor}

{Load}

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... ...
{End Load}

{Bus}
... ...
{End Bus}

{Branch}
... ...
{End Branch}

{DC Converter}
... ...
{End DC Converter}

{DC Control Block}


... ...
{End DC Control Block}

{DC Bus}
... ...
{End DC Bus}

{Interface}
... ...
{End Interface}

{Region}
... ...
{End Region}

In the above, each data section enclosed by a keyword pair (such as the {generator} and {End
Generator}) contains definitions of one type of output quantities (except for the {Additional
Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section). Any non-comment or non-blank
record (except for the first record of the file) outside of these data sections will result in an error message.
If one data section appears more than once, data in all data sections are valid.

The actual quantities stored in a TSAT binary result file are determined as follows:

• For each data section (except for the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section), a pre-defined set of quantities (“basic quantities”) is always available
(see Sections 11.3 to 11.15). For example, if the following is entered in a monitor specification data
file,
{Generator}
generator, 123, ‘1’
{End Generator}

The binary result file will contain, as a minimum, terminal voltage magnitude, active power output,
reactive power output, rotor angle, speed, and field voltage of the generator at bus 123 ID ‘1’.

• If additional quantities other than the basic ones need to be monitored, the {Additional
Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section can be used. For example, if the
following definition data section is entered:
{Additional Quantities}
Generator, field current
{End Additional Quantities}
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then the binary result file will contain, in addition to the basic quantities, field current of all
generators entered in the {Generator}/{End Generator} data section.

11.2 Additional Quantities Data Section

The additional quantities dada section is used to define additional quantities to be monitored, in addition
to the basic quantities available in some of the output quantity definitions. These quantities will only
appear for the sections that follow the additional quantities section. Multiple additional quantities sections
may appear, where subsequent additional quantities sections override previous ones.

The additional quantities data section has the following syntax:

{Additional Quantities}
quantity type, quantity name
... ...
{End Additional Quantities}

where

quantity type type of the quantities to be added:

= generator to add generator quantities


= motor to add motor quantities
= loadto add load quantities
= bus to add bus quantities
= branch to add branch quantities
= noneto specify that no quantities are to be added

Note that the following quantity types do not have additional quantities available; therefore they cannot
appear in the additional quantities data section:

Generator State
UDM
SVC
DC Converter
DC Control Block
DC Bus
Interface
Region

Table 11-1 shows the additional quantities that can be added under each quantity type.

Table 11-1: Additional quantities available


Quantity type Additional Quantities Available Unit
generator Rotor frequency rate Hz per second
Mechanical torque MW
Field current pu
Current real part pu on system MVA base
Current imaginary part pu on system MVA base
Apparent impedance pu on system MVA base
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Stabilizer output pu
motor Terminal current magnitude pu on system MVA base
Mechanical power MW
load Voltage frequency Hz
Current magnitude pu on system MVA base
bus Voltage frequency Hz
Voltage frequency rate Hz per second
Branch Current magnitude pu on system MVA base
Current phase angle Degrees
Apparent impedance pu on system MVA base
none None N/A

Note that the current quantities (and apparent impedance) for generators and motors refer to the terminal
current injected by the device.

Example:

{Additional Quantities}
Generator, mechanical torque
Generator, field current
Load, voltage frequency
Bus, voltage frequency
{End Additional Quantities}

This example specifies that, in addition to the basic quantities, the following quantities will be available
from the monitoring data:

• Generator mechanical torque and field current from all generators monitored in the generator data
section
• Voltage frequency from all loads monitored in the load data section
• Voltage frequency from all buses monitored in the bus data section

11.3 Generator Data Section

The generator data section has the following syntax:

{Generator}
Criteria = criteria_list
generator, bus_number, ID, DISP
... ...
vicinity, bus, N, MVA, DISP
... ...
zone, zone_number, MVA, DISP
... ...
area, area_number, MVA, DISP
... ...
system, MVA, DISP
{End Generator}

where

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criteria_list comma-separated list of the following transient stability criteria for which the
generators will be used (note that if more than one Criteria line is found, the last
one takes effect – the criteria lines are not “union”-ed together:
Damping
Transient Voltage
Transient Frequency
Frequency Rate

or if no criteria should be applied for these generators:

None

The default is to have all transient stability criteria applied.

generator command to specify an individual generator for monitoring


bus_number bus number of the generator whose quantities are to be monitored
ID ID of the generator. It must be enclosed in single quotes
vicinity command to specify a number of generators closest to a bus for monitoring
bus bus number to which the N closest, qualified generators are to be monitored
N number of qualified generators in the vicinity command to be monitored
zone command to specify generators in one zone for monitoring
zone_number zone number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
generators
area command to specify generators in one area for monitoring
area_number area number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
generators
system command to specify that output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
generators in the system
MVA MVA rating threshold to qualify generators for monitoring in the specified
vicinity, zone, area, or system: only those generators with MVA rating equal to
or greater than this threshold will be monitored. Use of this parameter is optional;
if not entered, all generators in the specified vicinity, zone, area, or system are
qualified for monitoring.
DISP Flag to determine whether or not the relative rotor angles of the generators
specified should be displayed in the TSAT progress plot (see Note 7 below for
additional information). Note that this flag applies only to full integration
simulation method.
= 1 : display
= 0 or blank : do not display

Note:

(1) Any of the commands can be repeated as many times as required; all commands are optional.

(2) All data required for one command must be entered on one data record.

(3) Only one generator, zone, or area can be entered, following each generator, zone, or area
command.

(4) The keyword generator in the generator command is optional; however, keywords in all other
commands are mandatory.

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(5) The actual generators to be monitored in the vicinity command are determined from a subsystem
spanning N bus layers from the bus specified. All qualified generators in this subsystem are
monitored. If N is set to 0, only the generators connected at the specified bus are monitored.

(6) If duplicate zone, area, or system command is specified with different MVA parameters, the one
with smallest MVA parameter is used.

(7) If DISP is not specified for any generator in a {Generator} section, the relative rotor angles of all
monitored generators are displayed in TSAT progress plot.

For each generator specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) Generator terminal voltage magnitude (pu)


(2) Generator active power (MW)
(3) Generator reactive power (MVAR)
(4) Generator angle (degree)
(5) Generator speed (Hz)
(6) Generator field voltage (pu) (for classical generator model, this is E′q).

In additional to the above quantities, the following generator quantities can be requested by adding
definitions in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section:

(7) Generator frequency rate (Hz/s)


(8) Generator mechanical torque (MW)
(9) Generator field current (pu) (for classical generator model, this is 0).
(10) Generator terminal current magnitude (pu on system MVA base)
(11) Generator terminal current phase angle (degree)
(12) Generator terminal apparent impedance (real and imaginary parts, pu on system MVA base)
(13) Generator stabilizer output (pu)

Example:

{Generator}
Criteria = Damping, Frequency Rate
generator, 123, ‘1’, 1
234, ‘1’, 1
area, 88
area, 99, 100
{End Generator}

In this example, the following generators will be monitored:

• Generators at 123 ‘1’ and 234 ‘1’


• All generators in area 88
• All generators in area 99 with MVA rating equal to or greater than 100 MVA
• For all these generators, damping and frequency rate transient stability criteria will be applied.
However, transient voltage and transient frequency stability criteria will not be applied.

In addition, only the relative rotor angles of generators at buses 123 ID ‘1’ and 234 ID ‘1’ will be
displayed in TSAT progress plot.

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11.4 Generator State Data Section

The generator state data section has the following syntax:

{Generator State}
bus_number, ID, state, state, ... ...
bus_number, ID, state, state, ... ...
... ...
{End Generator State}

where

bus_number bus number of the generator whose states are to be monitored


ID ID of the generator. It must be enclosed in single quotes
State state number to be monitored

Note:

(1) The user can enter as many states as required for one generator.

(2) All states for one generator must be entered on one data record.

For each generator state specified in this data section, one quantity (state value) is available. There are no
quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities}
data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{Generator State}
123, ‘1’, 1, 3, 5, 7
{End Generator State}

In this example, state # 1, 3, 5, 7 will be monitored for generator at 123 ‘1’.

11.5 UDM Data Section

The UDM data section has the following syntax:

{UDM}
bus_number, ’EXCUDM’, ID, block
... ...
bus_number, ’PSSUDM’, ID, block
... ...
bus_number, ’UELUDM’, ID, block
... ...
bus_number, ’OELUDM’, ID, block
... ...
bus_number, ’GOVUDM’, ID, block
... ...
bus_number, ’SHCUDM’, ID, block
... ...
fro_bus, ’SECUDM’, ID, to_bus, block
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... ...
fro_bus, ’SERUDM’, ID, to_bus, block
... ...
{End UDM}

where

EXCUDM command to define user-defined exciter control block monitoring


PSSUDM command to define user-defined stabilizer control block monitoring
UELUDM command to define user-defined underexcitation limiter control block monitoring
OELUDM command to define user-defined overexcitation limiter control block monitoring
GOVUDM command to define user-defined governor control block monitoring
SHCUDM command to define user-defined shunt compensator control block monitoring
SECUDM command to define user-defined series compensator control block monitoring
SERUDM command to define user-defined series regulator control block monitoring
bus_number bus number of the UD EXC, PSS, UEL, OEL, GOV, or SHC to be monitored
fro_bus from-bus of the UD SEC or SER to be monitored
to_bus to-bus of the UD SEC or SER to be monitored
ID ID of the UDM to be monitored. It must be enclosed in single quotes
block Block name of the UDM block to be monitored in single-quotes

Note:

(1) Any of the commands can be repeated as many times as required.

(2) The user can enter as many control blocks as required, following each command; however all control
blocks for one command must be entered on one data record.

For each UDM control block specified in this data section, one quantity (block output) is available. There
are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{UDM}
123, ‘EXCUDM’, ‘1’, ‘TR’
123, ‘EXCUDM’, ‘1’, ‘KA’
123, ‘EXCUDM’, ‘1’, ‘VF FILT’
{End UDM}

In this example, control blocks named ‘TR’, ‘KA’, and and ‘VF FILT’ are to be monitored for user-
defined exciter model at 123 ‘1’.

11.6 SVC Data Section

The SVC data section has the following syntax:

{SVC}
bus_number, ID
bus_number, ID
... ...
{End SVC}
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where

bus_number bus number of the SVC/saturable reactor to be monitored


ID ID of the SVC/saturable reactor. It must be enclosed in single quotes

For each SVC/saturable reactor specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always
available:

(1) SVC terminal voltage magnitude (pu)


(2) SVC sensing voltage magnitude (pu)
(3) SVC reactive power injection into system (MVAR)

There are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{SVC}
123, ‘1’
{End SVC}

In this example, SVC at 123 ‘1’ will be monitored.

11.7 Motor Data Section

The motor data section has the following syntax:

{Motor}
Criteria = criteria_list
motor, bus_number, ID
... ...
vicinity, bus, N, MW
... ...
zone, zone_number, MW
... ...
area, area_number, MW
... ...
system, MW
{End Motor}

where

criteria_list comma-separated list of the following transient stability criteria for which the
motors will be used (note that if more than one Criteria line is found, the last one
takes effect – the criteria lines are not “union”-ed together):
Transient Voltage

or if no criteria should be applied for these motors:

None

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The default is to have all transient stability criteria applied.

motor command to specify an individual motor for monitoring


bus_number bus number of the motor whose quantities are to be monitored
ID ID of the motor. It must be enclosed in single quotes
vicinity command to specify a number of motors closest to a bus for monitoring
bus bus number to which the N closest, qualified motors are to be monitored
N number of qualified motors in the vicinity command to be monitored
zone command to specify motors in one zone for monitoring
zone_number zone number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
motors
area command to specify motors in one area for monitoring
area_number area number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
motors
system command to specify that output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
motors in the system
MW MW threshold to qualify motors for monitoring in the specified vicinity, zone,
area, or system: only those motors with initial MW loading equal to or greater
than this threshold will be monitored. Use of this parameter is optional; if not
entered, all motors in the specified vicinity, zone, area, or system are qualified
for monitoring.

Note:

(1) Any of the commands can be repeated as many times as required; all commands are optional.

(2) All data required for one command must be entered on one data record.

(3) Only one motor, zone, or area can be entered, following each motor, zone, or area command.

(4) The keyword motor in the motor command is optional; however, keywords in all other commands
are mandatory.

(5) The actual motors to be monitored in the vicinity command are determined from a subsystem
spanning N bus layers from the bus specified. All qualified motors in this subsystem are monitored. If
N is set to 0, only the motors connected at the specified bus are monitored.

(6) If duplicate zone, area, or system command is specified with different MW parameters, the one with
smallest MW parameter is used.

For each motor specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) Motor terminal voltage magnitude (pu)


(2) Motor active power (MW)
(3) Motor reactive power (MVAR)
(4) Motor speed (Hz)

In additional to the above quantities, the following motor quantities can be requested by adding
definitions in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section:

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(5) Motor terminal current magnitude (pu on system MVA base)


(6) Motor mechanical power (MW)

Example:

{Motor}
Criteria = None
motor, 123, ‘1’
234, ‘1’
area, 88, 5.0
{End Motor}

In this example, the following motors will be monitored:

• Motors at 123 ‘1’ and 234 ‘1’


• All motors in area 88 with initial loading equal to or greater than 5.0 MW

Also, no transient voltage checking will be done for the monitored voltages

11.8 Load Data Section

The load data section has the following syntax:

{Load}
Criteria = criteria_list
load, bus_number, ID
... ...
vicinity, bus, N, MW
... ...
zone, zone_number, MW
... ...
area, area_number, MW
... ...
system, MW
{End Load}

where

criteria_list comma-separated list of the following transient stability criteria for which the
loads will be used (note that if more than one Criteria line is found, the last one
takes effect – the criteria lines are not “union”-ed together):
Transient Voltage
Transient Frequency
Frequency Rate

or if no criteria should be applied for these loads:

None

The default is to have all transient stability criteria applied.

load command to specify an individual load for monitoring


bus_number bus number of the load whose quantities are to be monitored

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ID ID the load whose quantities are to be monitored. An asterisk in single-quotes


may be used to match any load ID.
vicinity command to specify a number of loads closest to a bus for monitoring
bus bus number to which the N closest, qualified loads are to be monitored
N number of qualified loads in the vicinity command to be monitored
zone command to specify loads in one zone for monitoring
zone_number zone number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
loads
area command to specify loads in one area for monitoring
area_number area number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
loads
system command to specify that output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
motors in the system
MW MW threshold to qualify loads for monitoring in the specified vicinity, zone,
area, or system: only those loads with initial active power equal to or greater than
this threshold will be monitored. Use of this parameter is optional; if not entered,
all loads in the specified vicinity, zone, area, or system are qualified for
monitoring.

Note:

(1) Any of the commands can be repeated as many times as required; all commands are optional.

(2) All data required for one command must be entered on one data record.

(3) Only one load, zone, or area can be entered, following each load, zone, or area command.

(4) The keyword load in the load command is optional; however, keywords in all other commands are
mandatory.

(5) The actual loads to be monitored in the vicinity command are determined from a subsystem
spanning N bus layers from the bus specified. All qualified loads in this subsystem are monitored. If
N is set to 0, only the loads connected at the specified bus are monitored.

(6) If duplicate zone, area, or system command is specified with different MW parameters, the one with
smallest MW parameter is used.

For each load specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) Load voltage magnitude (pu)


(2) Load active power (MW)
(3) Load reactive power (MVAR)

In additional to the above quantities, the following load quantities can be requested by adding definitions
in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section:

(4) Load bus frequency (Hz)


(5) Load current magnitude (pu on system MVA base)

Example:

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{Load}
Criteria = Transient Frequency
Load, 123, ’A’
234, ’*’
area, 88, ’*’, 5.0
{End Load}

In this example, the following loads will be monitored:

• Loads at bus 123 with ID ‘A’ and all loads at bus 234
• All loads in area 88 with initial active power equal to or greater than 5.0 MW

Also, only transient frequency violations will be checked for these quantities.

11.9 Bus Data Section

The bus data section has the following syntax:

{Bus}
Criteria = criteria_list
bus, bus_number, DISP
... ...
vicinity, bus, N, fro_kV, to_kV, DISP
... ...
zone, zone_number, fro_kV, to_kV, DISP
... ...
area, area_number, fro_kV, to_kV, DISP
... ...
system, fro_kV, to_kV, DISP
{End Bus}

where

criteria_list comma-separated list of the following transient stability criteria for which the
buses will be used (note that if more than one Criteria line is found, the last one
takes effect – the criteria lines are not “union”-ed together):
Transient Voltage
Transient Frequency
Frequency Rate

or if no criteria should be applied for these buses:

None

The default is to have all transient stability criteria applied.

bus command to specify an individual bus for monitoring


bus_number bus number for which output quantities are to be monitored
vicinity command to specify a number of buses closest to a bus for monitoring
bus bus number to which the N closest layers of buses are to be monitored
N number of layers of buses in the layer command to be monitored
zone command to specify buses in one zone for monitoring

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zone_number zone number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
buses
area command to specify buses in one area for monitoring
area_number area number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
buses
system command to specify that output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
buses in the system
fro_kV, to_kV kV range to qualify buses for monitoring in the specified layer, zone, area, or
system: only those buses whose kV rating is within this kV range (inclusive of
lower and upper bound values) will be monitored. Use of these two parameters is
optional; if fro_kV is not entered (in this case, to_kV cannot be entered), all
buses in the specified layer, zone, area, or system are qualified for monitoring,
and if to_kV is not entered, no upper bound should be considered.
DISP Flag to determine whether or not the voltage magnitudes of the buses specified
should be displayed in the TSAT progress plot (see Note 7 below for additional
information). Note that this flag does not apply to transaction analysis with full
integration simulation method.
= 1 : display
= 0 or blank : do not display

Note:

(1) Any of the commands can be repeated as many times as required; all commands are optional.

(2) All data required for one command must be entered on one data record.

(3) Only one bus, zone, or area can be entered, following each bus, zone, or area command.

(4) The keyword bus in the bus command is optional; however, keywords in all other commands are
mandatory.

(5) The actual buses to be monitored in the vicinity command are determined from a subsystem
spanning N bus layers from the bus specified. All qualified buses in this subsystem are monitored. If
N is set to 0, only the specified bus is monitored.

(6) If duplicate zone, area, or system command is specified with different fro_kV and to_kV
parameters, they are all respected.

(7) If DISP is not specified for any bus, the voltage magnitudes of all monitored buses are displayed in
TSAT progress plot.

For each bus specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) Bus voltage magnitude (pu)


(2) Bus voltage angle (degree)

In additional to the above quantities, the following bus quantities can be requested by adding definitions
in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section:

(3) Bus voltage frequency (Hz)

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(4) Bus voltage frequency rate (Hz/s)

Example:

{Bus}
Criteria = Transient Voltage, Transient Frequency
bus, 12345, 1
23456, 1
area, 88
area, 99, 345, 999
{End Bus}

In this example, the following buses will be monitored:

• Buses 12345 and 23456


• All buses in area 88
• All buses in area 99 with kV rating equal to or greater than 345 kV

In addition, only the voltage magnitudes of buses at buses 12345 and 23456 will be displayed in TSAT
progress plot. The transient voltage and transient frequency stability criteria will be applied to these
buses, but the frequency rate criteria will not be.

11.10 Branch Data Section

The branch data section has the following syntax:

{Branch}
Criteria = criteria_list
branch, fr_bus, to_bus, ID
... ...
vicinity, bus, N, fro_kV, to_kV
... ...
zone, zone_number, fro_kV, to_kV
... ...
area, area_number, fro_kV, to_kV
... ...
system, fro_kV, to_kV
{End Branch}

where

criteria_list comma-separated list of the following transient stability criteria for which the
generators will be used (note that if more than one Criteria line is found, the last
one takes effect – the criteria lines are not “union”-ed together):
Relay Margin

or if no criteria should be applied for these branches:

None

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The default is to have all transient stability criteria applied. Note that for
branches, the relay margin can only be checked if the Apparent Impedance
option has been specified in the Additional Quantities section.

branch command to specify an individual branch for monitoring


fr_bus from-bus number of the branch for which output quantities are to be computed
to_bus to-bus number of the branch for which output quantities are to be computed
ID ID of the branch. It must be enclosed in single quotes.
vicinity command to specify a number of branches closest to a bus for monitoring
bus bus number to which the N closest layers of branches are to be monitored
N number of layers of branches in the layer command to be monitored
zone command to specify branches in one zone for monitoring
zone_number zone number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
branches
area command to specify branches in one area for monitoring
area_number area number within which output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
branches
system command to specify that output quantities are to be computed for all qualified
branches in the system
fro_kV, to_kV kV range to qualify branches for monitoring in the specified layer, zone, area, or
system: only those branches which has at least one connecting bus having kV
rating within this kV range (inclusive of lower and upper bound values) will be
monitored. Use of these two parameters is optional; if fro_kV is not entered (in
this case, to_kV cannot be entered), all branches in the specified layer, zone,
area, or system are qualified for monitoring, and if to_kV is not entered, no
upper bound should be considered.

Note:

(1) Any of the commands can be repeated as many times as required; all commands are optional.

(2) All data required for one command must be entered on one data record.

(3) Only one branch, zone, or area can be entered, following each branch, zone, or area command.

(4) The keyword branch in the branch command is optional; however, keywords in all other
commands are mandatory.

(5) The actual branches to be monitored in the vicinity command are determined from a subsystem
spanning N bus layers from the bus specified. All qualified branches in this subsystem are monitored.
If N is set to 0, only the branches connected at the specified bus are monitored.

(6) If duplicate zone, area, or system command is specified with different fro_kV and to_kV
parameters, they are all respected.

(7) The relay margin will only be included in the binary file if the branch apparent impedance is specified
in the additional quantities section. It will be still calculated if it is a specified transient stability
index.

For each branch specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

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(1) Branch active power (MW)


(2) Branch reactive power (MVAR)

In additional to the above quantities, the following branch quantities can be requested by adding
definitions in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional Quantities} data section:

(3) Branch current magnitude (pu on system MVA base)


(4) Branch current phase angle (degree)
(5) Branch apparent impedance (real and imaginary parts in pu on system MVA base)
(6) Zone 1 relay characteristic
(7) Zone 2 relay characteristic

Example:

{Branch}
branch, 12345, 23456, ‘1’
98765, 87654, ‘2’
area, 88
area, 99, 345, 999
{End Branch}

In this example, the following branches will be monitored:

• Branches from 12345 to 23456 ID ‘1’ and from 98765 to 87654 ID ‘2’
• All branches in area 88
• Those branches in area 99, each of which is connected to one or both buses with kV rating equal to or
greater than 345 kV

Note:

(1) The relay margin stability indices will be computed for all monitored branches if the Apparent
Impedance option has been specified in the Additional Quantities section.

(2) Zone 1 and Zone 2 relay characteristics are available only if the Apparent Impedance option has
been specified in the Additional Quantities section and the relay margin stability indices are enabled.

11.11 DC Converter Data Section

The DC converter data section has the following syntax:

{DC Converter}
con_name
... ...
{End DC Converter}

where

con_name DC converter name (a string of 29 characters) to be monitored. It must be


enclosed in single quotes.

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For each DC converter specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) AC voltage (pu)


(2) DC voltage (kV)
(3) DC current (kA)
(4) Alpha (degree)
(5) Gamma (degree)
(6) Active power injection (MW)
(7) Reactive power injection (MVAR)

There are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{DC Converter}
‘REC01 GROUND 11 0. 1’
{End DC Converter}

In this example, DC converter ‘REC01 GROUND 11 0. 1’ is to be monitored.

11.12 DC Control Block Data Section

The DC control block data section has the following syntax:

{DC Control Block}


block_name
... ...
{End DC Control Block}

where

block_name DC control block name (a string of 8 characters) to be monitored. It must be


enclosed in single quotes.

For each DC control block specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always
available:

(1) DC control block output

There are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{DC Control Block}


‘VDCOIL01’
{End DC Control Block}

In this example, DC control block ‘VDCOIL01’ is to be monitored.

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11.13 DC Bus Data Section

The DC bus data section has the following syntax:

{DC Bus}
bus_name
... ...
{End DC Bus}

where

bus_name DC bus name (a string of 8 characters) to be monitored. It must be enclosed in


single quotes.

For each DC bus specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) DC bus voltage (kV)

There are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{DC Bus}
‘REC01 ’
{End DC Bus}

In this example, DC bus ‘REC01 ’ is to be monitored.

11.14 Interface Data Section

The interface data section has the following syntax:

{Interface}
Interface Name = interface_ID
Include Branch = fro_bus, to_bus, ID
Include Branch = fro_bus, to_bus, ID
... ...
{End Interface}

where

interface_ID Interface name. It must be a string of up to 24 characters, enclosed in single


quotes.
fro_bus from-bus number of the branch to be included in the current interface
to_bus to-bus number of the branch to be included in the current interface. A negative
sign indicates the metered end of the circuit
ID ID of the branch. It must be enclosed in single quotes.

Note:

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(1) The user may define as many interfaces as required in this data section, each separated by the ID
command. For each interface, the user can enter as many branches as required.

(2) The data for one branch (from-bus, to-bus, and ID) must be entered on one data record.

For each interface specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(2) Interface active power (MW)


(3) Interface reactive power (MVAR)

There are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{Interface}
Interface Name = ‘Interface 1’
Include Branch = 12345, 23456, ‘1’
Include Branch = 98765, -87654, ‘1’
{End Interface}

In this example, ‘Interface 1’ consists of two branches: 12345-23456 ID ‘1’ and 98765-87654 ID ‘1’. The
interface flow is the summation of the following:

• Flow in branch 12345-23456 ID ‘1’ from 12345 to 23456 at bus 12345


• Flow in branch 98765-87654 ID ‘1’from 98765 to 87654 at bus 87654

11.15 Region Data Section

The region data section has the following syntax:

{Region}
ID = region_ID, DISP
bus, bus_number
... ...
vicinity, bus, N
... ...
zone, zone_number
... ...
area, area_number
... ...
system
{End Region}

where

region_ID Region name. It must be a string of up to 24 characters, enclosed in single quote


bus command to specify an individual bus to be included in the current region
bus_number bus number
vicinity command to specify a number of buses closest to a bus for the current region
bus bus number to which the N closest layers of buses are to be included in the
current region

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N number of layers of buses to be considered in the layer command


zone command to specify a zone to be included in the current region
zone_number zone number
area command to specify an area to be included in the current region
area_number area number
system command to include the entire system in the current region
DISP Flag to determine whether or not the reactive reserve of the region specified
should be displayed in the TSAT progress plot (see Note 7 below for additional
information). Note that this flag applies only to base case analysis with fast-time-
domain simulation method.
= 1 or blank : display
= 0 : do not display

Note:

(1) The user may define as many regions as required in this data section, each separated by the ID
command.

(2) For each region,

• the user can enter as many bus, layer, zone, area, system commands as required
• all commands are optional except for the ID command

(3) The data required for each command must be entered on one data record.

(4) Only one bus, zone, or area can be entered, following each bus, zone, or area command.

(5) The keyword bus in the bus command is optional; however, keywords in all other commands are
mandatory.

(6) The actual region to be monitored in the vicinity command are determined from a subsystem
spanning N bus layers from the bus specified. Quantities computed in this subsystem are monitored.
If N is set to 0, only the specified bus is included in the region.

(7) If DISP is not specified for the Region, the reactive reserve of the region is displayed in TSAT
progress plot in fast-time-domain simulation.

For each region specified in this data section, the following basic quantities are always available:

(1) Region active generation (MW)


(2) Region reactive generation (MVAR)
(3) Region acceleration power (MW)
(4) Region active power reserve (MW)
(5) Region active power reserve (percent)
(6) Region reactive power reserve (MVAR)
(7) Region reactive power reserve (percent)
(8) Region load active power (MW)
(9) Region load reactive power (MVAR)
(10) Region active power export (MW)
(11) Region reactive power export (MVAR)

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(12) Region center of speed (Hz)


(13) Region center of angle (degree)

In the above,

∑H ω
i∈Re gion
i i

• Region center of speed ωc =


∑H
i∈Re gion
i

∑H δ
i∈Re gion
i i

• Region center of angle δ c =


∑H
i∈Re gion
i

There are no quantities that can be added in the {Additional Quantities}/{End Additional
Quantities} data section for this type of output quantities.

Example:

{Region}
ID = ‘Region 1’, 0
area, 88
area, 99
{End Region}

In this example, Region 1 is defined as areas 88 and 99. All regional quantities will be computed for this
region. Furthermore, the reactive reserve will not be displayed in fast-time-domain simulation.

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12 Criteria Data

Criteria data is used to define security criteria to be applied in the post-processing of simulation results by
TSAT. There are two concepts related to the application of security criteria in TSAT:

• Security criteria category. A security criteria category is defined with parameters for security
criteria checks. Each category definition has a time window and can have several criteria checks.
For example a category can contain peak-to-peak angle, transient frequency, transient voltage,
and relay margin violation checks. All the different security checks specified in a category are
examined in same time window.

• Subsystem. A subsystem contains components in a power system (buses, branches, generators,


loads, etc.) that are to be checked against the defined criteria categories.

A criteria data file consists of security criteria category definitions and subsystem definitions.

Note:

• TSAT includes a transient stability criterion that applies to the entire system and that is always
enabled. The parameters of this criterion are specified in the Scenario Parameters section of a
TSAT caes file.

• All security criteria that can be specified in the criteria data file are optional for a TSAT case.
Therefore, the criteria data file is optional in a TSAT case file.

12.1 Criteria Data File format

The following are the basic rules of a TSAT criteria data file:

• It is an ASCII text file.

• Most of the contents are case-insensitive except for

 any text descriptions, and


 any system information such as bus names and IDs.

• Any record starting with a slash “/” will be treated as a comment line. Blank records are ignored.

• The first record of a criteria specification file in the free format must be the program identifier:

[TSAT 10.0 Criteria]

where the version number (10.0) may change in different releases. There are no comment lines
allowed before this line. “Criteria” indicates that this is a criteria data file.

• When bus names are used to identify buses, all bus names must be used in place of bus numbers
described in this document. A bus name is a 12-character string enclosed in single quote. When
equipment names are used to identify components, the 32-character equipment names must be used in
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place of bus numbers described in this document. Refer to Section 1.2.3 for additional information on
the use of equipment names.

A TSAT criteria data file contains the definition of multiple security criteria categories and multiple
subsystems, and it has the following general format:

[TSAT 10.0 Criteria]

{Category}
Name = Category_name_1
Time window = from_time [sec] to-time [sec]
Maximum peak-peak relative angle = angle [degree]
Peak-peak relative angle violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
Maximum closing torque = torque [p.u.]
Closing Torque violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
Damping Calculation Enabled = No | Yes | Yes, Extend
Damping Threshold = threshold [%]
Lower frequency threshold for damping estimate = lower-freq [Hz]
Upper frequency threshold for damping estimate = upper-freq [Hz]
Trim threshold for damping estimate = trim-thresold
Damping Window Length = length [sec]
Damping violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
Transient voltage violation checking = No | Yes
Transient voltage drop threshold = drop-threshold [p.u.]
Transient voltage drop duration = drop-duration [sec]
Transient voltage rise threshold = rise-threshold [p.u.]
Transient voltage rise duration = rise-duration [sec]
Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage = No | Yes
Transient voltage violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
Transient frequency violation checking = No | Yes
Transient frequency drop threshold = drop-threshold [Hz]
Transient frequency drop duration = drop-duration [sec]
Transient frequency rise threshold = rise-threshold [Hz]
Transient frequency rise duration = rise-duration [sec]
Transient frequency violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
Rate of change of frequency violation checking = No |Yes
Minimum rate of change of frequency = rate [Hz/sec]
Rate of change of frequency violation option =
INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
Relay Margin Enabled = No | Yes
Default Zone 1 Reach = reach1 [%]
Default Zone 1 Center Distance = distance1 [%]
Default Zone 2 Reach = reach2 [%]
Default Zone 2 Center Distance = distance2 [%]
Use Impedance Angle As Centerline Angle = No | Yes
Centerline Angle = angle [deg]
Zone 1 Relay Margin Threshold = threshold1 [%]
Zone 2 Relay Margin Threshold = threshold2 [%]
Relay Margin violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE
{End Category}

{Category}
Name = Category_name_2
. . . . . .
{End Category}

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. . . . . .

{Subsystem}
Criteria Categories = name_1, name_2, . . . . . .
Include/Exclude Area = I | J:K
Include/Exclude Zone = I | J:K
Include/Exclude Vicinity = I, J
Include/Exclude Bus = I | J:K
Include/Exclude KV = J:K
Include/Exclude MVA = J:K
Include/Exclude Generator = BUS, ‘ID’
Include/Exclude Branch = BUS1, BUS2, ‘ID’
Exclude Buses With = LOAD | NO LOAD | GEN | NO GEN
Include Monitored Quantity = BUS | GENERATOR | BRANCH
Reference Generator = BUS ‘ID’
{End Subsystem}

{Subsystem}

. . . . . .

{End Subsystem}

[End]

The variables in the above format have the following interpretation:

Name = Category_name_1

This specifies the name of a security criteria category. Category_name_1 is an alphanumeric string
enclosed in single quotes. The Name variable does not have a default value and must be specified. Each
category must have a unique name in a criteria data file. The name of a category must be quoted (in the
Criteria Categories variable) in at least one subsystem definition, or else this category will be
ignored by TSAT.

Time window = from_time [sec] to-time [sec]

This specifies the simulation time window in which the security criteria in this category are checked.
Defaults: from_time = 0.0 seconds, to-time = 99999.0 seconds.

Maximum peak-peak relative angle = angle [degree]

This specifies the peak-to-peak angle threshold. A value above this threshold indicates a criterion
violation. Default = 90 degrees.

Peak-peak relative angle violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

This specifies the action TSAT should take if the peak-to-peak angle criterion is violated. Three options
are available:

• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

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Default = INSECURE.

Maximum closing torque = torque [p.u.]

This specifies the closing torque threshold when a branch is added or reconnected. A value above this
threshold indicates a criterion violation. Default = 0.5 pu.

Closing Torque violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

This specifies the action TSAT should take if the closing torque criterion is violated. Three options are
available:

• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

Default = INSECURE.

Damping Calculation Enabled = No | Yes | Yes, Extend

This specifies application of damping criterion. When the Yes, Extend option is chosen, the simulation
is extended by the time window length used for the damping calculation if the damping index calculated
violates the set threshold. Default = No.

Damping Threshold = threshold [%]

This specifies the damping threshold. A value below this threshold indicates a criterion violation. Default
= 3.0 %.

Lower frequency threshold for damping estimate = lower-freq [Hz]

This specifies the minimum frequency of modes for which damping is calculated. Default = 0.2 Hz.

Upper frequency threshold for damping estimate = upper-freq [Hz]

This specifies the maximum frequency of modes for which damping is calculated. Default = 2.0 Hz.

Trim threshold for damping estimate = trim-thresold

This specifies the trim threshold for the Prony algorithm when identifying modes from simulation results.
Any modes with amplitude smaller than this threshold are ignored. Default = 5.0 degrees.

Damping Window Length = length [sec]

This specifies the time window for which the Prony algorithm is applied to identify modes for damping
index calculation. Default = 5.0 seconds.

Damping violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

This specifies the action TSAT should take if the damping criterion is violated. Three options are
available:
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• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

Default = INSECURE.

Transient voltage violation checking = No | Yes

This specifies application of transient voltage criterion. Default = No.

Transient voltage drop threshold = drop-threshold [p.u.]

This specifies the voltage drop threshold below which the timer starts recording the duration of transient
voltage drop. The default unit is pu, but it is possible to specify a threshold relative to the prefault voltage;
see the Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage variable.
Default = 0.80 pu.

Transient voltage drop duration = drop-duration [sec]

This specifies the transient voltage drop duration threshold. A value above this threshold indicates a
criterion violation. Default = 0.33 seconds.

Transient voltage rise threshold = rise-threshold [p.u.]

This specifies the voltage rise threshold above which the timer starts recording the duration of transient
voltage rise. The default unit is pu, but it is possible to specify a threshold relative to the prefault voltage;
see the Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage variable.
Default = 2.0 pu.

Transient voltage rise duration = rise-duration [sec]

This specifies the transient voltage rise duration threshold. A value above this threshold indicates a
criterion violation. Default = 10.0 seconds.

Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage = No | Yes

This specifies how to interpret the transient voltage drop and rise thresholds defined for the following two
variables:

• Transient voltage drop threshold


• Transient voltage rise threshold

If this variable is set to Yes, the transient voltage drop and rise thresholds will be interpreted as the
fraction of the prefault voltage. For example, if 0.8 is specified for the transient voltage drop threshold, it
will mean 80% of the prefault voltage. Default = No.

Transient voltage violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

This specifies the action TSAT should take if the transient voltage criterion is violated. Three options are
available:

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• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

Default = INSECURE.

Transient frequency violation checking = No | Yes

This specifies application of transient frequency criterion. Default = No.

Transient frequency drop threshold = drop-threshold [Hz]

This specifies the frequency drop threshold below which the timer starts recording the duration of
transient frequency drop. Default = 59.0 Hz.

Transient frequency drop duration = drop-duration [sec]

This specifies the transient frequency drop duration threshold. A value above this threshold indicates a
criterion violation. Default = 1.0 seconds.

Transient frequency rise threshold = rise-threshold [Hz]

This specifies the frequency rise threshold above which the timer starts recording the duration of transient
frequency rise. Default = 61.0 Hz.

Transient frequency rise duration = rise-duration [sec]

This specifies the transient frequency rise duration threshold. A value above this threshold indicates a
criterion violation. Default = 1.0 seconds.

Transient frequency violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

This specifies the action TSAT should take if the transient frequency criterion is violated. Three options
are available:

• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

Default = INSECURE.

Rate of change of frequency violation checking = No |Yes

This specifies application of rate of change of frequency criterion. Default = No.

Minimum rate of change of frequency = rate [Hz/sec]

This specifies the rate of change of frequency threshold. A value below this threshold indicates a criterion
violation. Default = -3.0 Hz/second.

Rate of change of frequency violation option =


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INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

This specifies the action TSAT should take if the rate of change of frequency criterion is violated. Three
options are available:

• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

Default = INSECURE.

Relay Margin Enabled = No | Yes

This specifies application of relay margin criterion. Default = No.

Default Zone 1 Reach = reach1 [%]

This specifies the reach of zone 1 setting as percentage of the total branch impedance. Default = 80.0 %.

Default Zone 1 Center Distance = distance1 [%]

This specifies the center distance of zone 1 setting. Default = 40.0 %.

Default Zone 2 Reach = reach2 [%]

This specifies the reach of zone 1 setting as percentage of the total branch impedance. Default = 120.0 %.

Default Zone 2 Center Distance = distance2 [%]

This specifies the center distance of zone 1 setting. Default = 60.0 %.

Use Impedance Angle As Centerline Angle = No | Yes

This specifies to use the branch impedance angle as the centerline angle for zone 1 and zone 2 settings.
Default = Yes.

Centerline Angle = angle [deg]

This specifies the centerline angle if different from the branch impedance angle (i.e., if Use Impedance
Angle As Centerline Angle is set to No). Default = 75.0 degrees.

Zone 1 Relay Margin Threshold = threshold1 [%]

This specifies the zone 1 relay margin threshold. A value below this threshold indicates a criterion
violation. Default = 0.0 %.

Zone 2 Relay Margin Threshold = threshold2 [%]

This specifies the zone 2 relay margin threshold. A value below this threshold indicates a criterion
violation. Default = 0.0 %.

Relay Margin violation option = INSECURE | WARNONLY | TERMINATE

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This specifies the action TSAT should take if the relay margin criterion is violated. Three options are
available:

• INSECURE: TSAT will mark the simulation as inscure


• WARNONLY: TSAT will issue a warning message
• TERMINATE: TSAT will terminate the simulation once the violation is detected

Default = INSECURE.

Criteria Categories = name_1, name_2, . . . . . .

This specifies the criteria categories that should be checked for the defined subsystem. Name_1, name_2,
etc. are the category names enclosed in single quotes. There must be at least one category name defined
for a subsystem, or else the subsystem is ignored by TSAT. There is no limit on the number of category
names that can be specified for a subsystem.

Include/Exclude Area = I | J:K

This specifies the powerflow areas to be included or excluded in the subsystem. For each variable, either
one area (I) or an area range (J:K) can be specified. I, J, K must all be integers. No default is assumed
for this variable.

Include/Exclude Zone = I | J:K

This specifies the powerflow zones to be included or excluded in the subsystem. For each variable, either
one zone (I) or a zone range (J:K) can be specified. I, J, K must all be integers. No default is assumed
for this variable.

Include/Exclude Vicinity = I, J

This specifies a powerflow region to be included or excluded in the subsystem. This region is centered at
a bus (I) and extends to L bus layers from I. I and J must be integers. No default is assumed for this
variable.

Include/Exclude Bus = I | J:K

This specifies the powerflow buses to be included or excluded in the subsystem. For each variable, either
one bus (I) or a bus range (J:K) can be specified. I, J, K must all be integers. No default is assumed for
this variable.

Include/Exclude KV = J:K

This specifies a set of buses with rated voltage from J to K kV, to be included or excluded in the
subsystem. J and K are real numbers. No default is assumed for this variable.

Include/Exclude MVA = J:K

This specifies a set of generators with rated MVA from J to K MVA, to be included or excluded in the
subsystem. J and K are real numbers. No default is assumed for this variable.

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Include/Exclude Generator = BUS, ‘ID’

This specifies a generator at BUS with ‘ID’ to be included or excluded in the subsystem. No default is
assumed for this variable.

Include/Exclude Branch = BUS1, BUS2, ‘ID’

This specifies a branch (transmission line or transformer) from BUS1 to BUS2 with ‘ID’ to be included or
excluded in the subsystem. No default is assumed for this variable.

Exclude Buses With = LOAD | NO LOAD | GEN | NO GEN

This specifies the selected bus type to be excluded in the subsystem:

• LOAD: load buses


• NO LOAD: non-load buses
• GEN: generator buses
• NO GEN: non-generator buses

No default is assumed for this variable.

Include Monitored Quantity = BUS | GENERATOR | BRANCH

This specifies the selected type of monitored quantities in TSAT monitor data to be included in the
subsystem:

• BUS: monitored buses


• GENERATOR: monitored generators
• BRANCH: monitored branches

No default is assumed for this variable.

Reference Generator = BUS ‘ID’

This specifies a reference generator at BUS with ‘ID’ to be used in the peak-to-peak sangle index
calculation. If not provided, the reference generator selected by TSAT will be used.

General remarks

All variable definitions in the category and subsystem data sections should appear once only. If a variable
is defined more than once, the last definition is used. The exception: if multiple definitions are entered for
the following variables, all definitions are combined:

• Include/Exclude Area
• Include/Exclude Zone
• Include/Exclude Vicinity
• Include/Exclude Bus
• Include/Exclude KV
• Include/Exclude MVA
• Include/Exclude Generator

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• Include/Exclude Branch
• Exclude Buses With
• Include Monitored Quantity

12.2 Applications to Contingencies

By default, all categories are checked for all contingencies simulated, provided that the categories are
associated with a valid subsystem. The exception is for the closing torque criteria check which is done
only for contingencies that contain the following switching commends:

• Add line
• Add pi line
• Add transformer
• Reconnect line
• Reconnect sectional line

It is possible to check only selected categories for a contingency. To do so, add the Apply Criteria
Category command in the contingency. Example:

Description Contingency A
Apply Criteria Category ;’N-1’
Apply Criteria Category ;’Category 1’
….
Nomore

In this example, simulation results from Contingency A will be checked for Categories ‘N-1’ and
’Category 1’ only.

12.3 Migration of Scenario Parameters to Criteria Data File

Prior to TSAT version 11, security criteria parameters are included in the Scenario Parameters section in
TSAT case file. These parameters are migrated to criteria data file from TSAT version 11 according to
the following rules.

• The transient stability parameters stay in the Scenario Parameters section and the transient
stability criterion is always applied to the entire system for all contingencies.

• If damping, transient voltage, transient frequency, or relay margin criteria are specified in the
Scenario Parameters section, and no criteria data file is specified for the case, a new criteria data
file will be created and included in the TSAT case file, with the parameters of these criteria
converted. Conversion notes:

 A Category named ‘DEFAULT’ with the corresponding parameters is added to the new
criteria file.

 A subsystem is added for this category that includes monitored quantities of GENERATOR,
BUS, and BRANCH.

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 If specific generators are selected for damping check, a separate category/subsystem for this
criterion is created. The category name is ‘DAMPING’. The subsystem includes the specified
generators.

 For off-line mode analysis, you must provide a filename to save the new criteria data, or the
case file will not be opened.

 If the case runs in on-line (Auto) mode, a temporary criteria data file will be used to save the
migrated data.

 For cases with multiple scenarios, a comparison of the criteria in the scenarios should be
undertaken to ensure that only a minimum number of criteria files are created. If the
parameters in a subsequent scenario are the same as the base scenario, then the criteria file is
considered to be inherited. If the parameters are the same as a previous subsequent scenario,
then the same file name should be used for both scenarios.

The steps above should provide backwards compatibility with TSAT case files and on-line
applications.

• If a criteria data file is specified in a TSAT case, and damping, transient voltage, transient
frequency, relay margin parameters also appear in the Scenario Parameters section, then a
warning message will be given that the associated parameters in the Scenario Parameters section
are ignored.

12.4 Example

The following shows an example of criteria data file. In this example, four categorries are defined:

• Category 'V Dip Cat B - Load instant': security is violated if voltages of any buses in
the specified subsystem go instantaneously below 75% of the prefault value.

• Category 'V dip Cat B - Non Load': security is violated if voltages of any buses in the
specified subsystem go instantaneously below 70% of the prefault value.

• Category 'V dip Cat B Load 20cyc': security is violated if voltages of any buses in the
specified subsystem go below 80% of the prefault value for more than 0.33 seconds (20 cycles).

• Category 'F dip Load': security is violated if frequencies of any buses in the specified
subsystem go below 59.6 Hz for more than 0.1 seconds.

These categories are checked for the following subsystems:

• Non-load buses in the entire system: all four categories are checked.

• Load buses in the entire system: only category 'V dip Cat B - Non Load' is checked.

[TSAT 10.0 Criteria]

{Category}

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Name = 'V Dip Cat B - Load instant'


Transient voltage drop threshold = 0.750000
Transient voltage drop duration = 0.000000
Transient voltage violation checking = Yes
Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage = Yes
{End Category}

{Category}
Name = 'V dip Cat B - Non Load'
Transient voltage drop threshold = 0.700000
Transient voltage drop duration = 0.000000
Transient voltage violation checking = Yes
Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage = Yes
{End Category}

{Category}
Name = 'V dip Cat B Load 20cyc'
Transient voltage drop threshold = 0.80000
Transient voltage drop duration = 0.330000
Transient voltage violation checking = Yes
Transient voltage checking as percentage of prefault voltage = Yes
{End Category}

{Category}
Name = 'F dip Load'
Transient frequency drop threshold = 59.6
Transient frequency drop duration = 0.100000
Transient frequency violation checking = Yes
{End Category}

{Subsystem}
Criteria Categories = 'V Dip Cat B - Load instant', 'V dip Cat B Load 20cyc',
'F dip Load'
Include KV = 0.0:999.0
Exclude Buses With = NO LOAD
{End Subsystem}

{Subsystem}
Criteria Categories = 'V dip Cat B - Non Load'
Include KV = 0.0:999.0
Exclude Buses With = LOAD
{End Subsystem}

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13 Contingency Data

13.1 Basic Concepts

This section describes the data format required to specify contingencies for time domain simulations.

Switching event set (contingency)

A switching event set (also referred to as a contingency) is a sequence of switching commands which
form a complete specification to be used in one simulation. There are three compulsory commands in a
contingency:

• The Description command: This must be the first command in a contingency.


• The Simulation command: This must be the second command in a contingency.
• The Nomore command: This must be the last command in a contingency.

Therefore, any contingency should have the following structure.

Description SWITCHING DESCRIPTION


Simulation for XX SECONDS
... ...
(detailed switching events)
... ...
Nomore

Detailed description and usage of all commands are given in Section 13.2. If no more switching events
are provided, the above three commands constitute the simplest contingency for a simulation: a no-fault
simulation will be performed for XX seconds using default simulation options. When using the
contingency data editor in TSAT to prepare contingency data, the Nomore (and the End) command is
actually not shown in the command editing window; it is automatically added to the contingency data.

It is possible to use a contingency template in TSAT that includes special code to apply same type of
contingencies in a defined subsystem. Section 13.3 describes the use of this feature.

Contingency data file

A contingency data file can contain multiple contingencies. Although there is no limit as to the maximum
number of contingencies that can be processed in one scenario, a practical limit is around 10,000 above
which it may not be convenient to analyze the results. Figure 13-1 shows the structure of a contingency
data file. The following rules apply:

• An End command is required after the last contingency to terminate the entire contingency data.

• Each contingency is independent of the others in the same data file. Therefore, no particular
sequence of the contingencies is required. Exception: if the Dependency command is used in a
contingency, the contingency must be entered after the contingencies it depends on; refer to the
descriptions of the Dependency command for more details.

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• The contingencies are processed sequentially. The simulation results associated with each
contingency are stored, in the same sequence, in the binary result file.

• Within each contingency, there can be only one fault specified on line at any given time, using one
of the following commands: Three phase fault on line, One phase to ground fault on line, Two
phase to ground fault on line.

Description CONTINGENCY #1
Simulation for 10.0 SECONDS
... ...
(Details of the switching events for contingency #1)
... ...
Nomore
Description CONTINGENCY #2
Simulation for 5.0 SECONDS
... ...
(Details of the switching events for contingency #2)
... ...
Nomore
... ...
(More contingencies)
... ...
Nomore
End

Figure 13-1: A sample of a contingency data file

Switching command syntax

The following rules apply to the switching commands:

• The contingency titles (in the Description command) must be unique for all contingencies provided
in a TSAT case, even if contingencies are contained in different data files. If multiple contingencies
have the same title, only one of them will be used.

• All switching command keywords are case-insensitive.

• All text in a switching command must be contained in 119 columns of one data record.

• A slash (/) anywhere in a data record indicates the start of comments. You should particularly be
cautious to avoid using slash when preparing contingency title. For example, two contingencies
with the following Description command are considered to have the same title and thus only one of
them wil be actually used in simulation:

Description Loss of 500/230 transformer - 1


Description Loss of 500/230 transformer - 2

• When a system component is required in a command, such as a bus or a generator, all three
component identification methods can be used: bus number, bus name, or equipment name. Some

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rules shall be followed (particularly when using equipment name identification method). Refer to
Section 1.2 for details.

13.2 Switching Command References

There are 81 switching commands in TSAT. These commands can be categorized into the following six
groups:

• Fault application and removal


• Network operation
• Generator and other dynamic device operation
• Load operation
• Simulation control
• Other

Table 13-1 summarizes the commands under each category. Following this table, the detailed descriptions
of all commands are given in the alphabetical order.

Table 13-1: Summary of switching commands


Command Category Command
Fault application and removal Three phase fault at bus
Three phase fault on line
One phase to ground fault at bus
One phase to ground fault on line
Two phase to ground fault at bus
Two phase to ground fault on line
Clear Three Phase Fault
Clear three phase fault on line at near end
Clear three phase fault on line at far end
Clear one phase to ground fault
Clear one phase to ground fault on line at near end
Clear one phase to ground fault on line at far end
Clear two phase to ground fault
Clear two phase to ground fault on line at near end
Clear two phase to ground fault on line at far end
Network operation Add admittance
Add impedance
Remove admittance
Remove impedance
Outage bus
Add line
Add pi line
Add transformer
Modify line
Modify pi line
Modify transformer
Modify sectional line

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Table 13-1: Summary of switching commands


Command Category Command
Remove line
Remove three winding transformer
Remove sectional line
Reconnect line
Reconnect sectional line
Tap line
Flash capacitor gap
Reinsert capacitor gap
Open pole
Open two pole
Reconnect pole
Disconnect shunt
Generator and other dynamic Disconnect generator
device operation Reduce generation
Reduce generator mechanical torque
Change field voltage
Change AVR reference
Change governor reference
Remove stabilizer
Reconnect stabilizer
Add transient excitation booster
Apply brake resistance
Remove brake resistance
Change wind speed
Ramp wind power
Load operation Shed load
Restore load
Ramp load
Start induction motor
Disconnect induction motor
Restart induction motor
Change synchronous motor mechanical power
Change induction motor torque
Simulation control / comments
Description
Simulation
Application
At time
After
Integration
Dependency
Plot
Report
Step size
Step range
Snapshot
Usesnap
Nomore

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Table 13-1: Summary of switching commands


Command Category Command
End
Other Dispatch
Change UDM block
Change DC block
Block converter
Apply criteria

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/ comments

Command Syntax:

/ comments

Usage:

A slash “/” in the first column of a record in a contingency data file starts a comment record. Comment
records will be ignored when the contingency data are processed. Comment records may appear at any
places in a contingency.

Parameter:

comments is a text string up to 80 characters.

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Add admittance

Command Syntax:

Add admittance at bus ;bus G B [PU | MVA]

Usage:

The Add admittance command is used to add an admittance at a bus. This command can be used as many
times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name.


G+jB is the admittance to be added at the bus in either per unit (PU) or MVA. The default unit is per
unit. For B in either per unit or MVA, B>0 indicates a capacitive susceptance.

Example:

Add admittance at bus ;12345 0.0 10.0 PU

Notes:

(1) When the unit of the admittance is in MVA, it refers to the MW and MVAR power that the
admittance will absorb at the rated bus voltage (i.e. 1.0 per unit). Therefore, adding a (10.0, 10.0)
MVA admittance is the same as adding a (0.1, 0.1) PU admittance.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Add impedance

Command Syntax:

Add impedance at bus ;bus R X [PU | MVA]

Usage:

The Add impedance command is used to add an impedance at a bus. This command can be used as many
times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name.


R+jX is the impedance to be added at the bus in either per unit (PU) or MVA. The default unit is per unit.
For X in per unit, X<0 indicates a capacitive reactance; for X in MVA, X>0 indicates a capacitive
reactance.

Example:

Add impedance at bus ;12345 0.0 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When the unit of the impedance is in MVA, it refers to the MW and MVAR power that the
impedance will absorb at the rated bus voltage (i.e. 1.0 per unit). Therefore, adding a (10.0, −10.0)
MVA impedance is the same as adding a (5.0, 5.0) PU impedance.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Add line

Command Syntax:

Add line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID R X B

Usage:

The Add line command is used to add a line in the system. There should not exist a line (including normal
line, π line, sectional line, transformer, and zero impedance line) in the system between the from_bus and
to_bus with circuit_ID. However, there can be a line between these buses with a different circuit ID.
from_bus or to_bus may not exist in the pre-fault powerflow, in which case they must be created by the
Tap line command prior to using this command.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line to be added.
R+jX is the resistance and reactance of the line in per unit.
B is the total line charge in per unit.

If |R+jX| is greater than the zero-impedance line tolerance, a normal line will be added; if |R+jX| is less
than the zero-impedance line tolerance, a zero impedance line will be added.

Example:

Add line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.001 0.01 0.2

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) This command can be used to add a line from an existing bus to a bus that is not in the powerflow.
This may be useful in simulating some special switching sequences. Refer to the Add pi line
command for an example of a similar application.

(3) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(4) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

(5) If equipment name is used to identify system component, the line added will have a new line name:

‘ADDLINE #nladd’

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where nladd is the number of added lines (including pi lines) in the contingency, formatted as (I5).
For example, the first added line will be given the name ‘ADDLINE # 1’.

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Add pi line

Command Syntax:

Add pi line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID R X GF BF GT BT

Usage:

The Add pi line command is used to add a π line. There should not exist a line (including normal line, π
line, sectional line, transformer, and zero impedance line) in the system between the from_bus and to_bus
with circuit_ID. However, there can be a line between these buses with a different circuit ID. from_bus or
to_bus may not exist in the pre-fault powerflow, in which case they must be created by the Tap line
command prior to using this command.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the π line to be added.
R+jX is the series impedance of the π line in per unit.
GF+jBF is the shunt admittance of the π line at from_bus in per unit.
GT+jBT is the shunt admittance of the π line at to_bus in per unit.

|R+jX| must be greater than the zero-impedance line tolerance.

Example:

Add pi line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.001 0.01 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.3

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) This command can be used to add a pi line from an existing bus to a bus that is not in the powetrflow.
This may be useful in simulating some special switching sequences. For example, the following
example shows one way to apply a one-phase-to-ground fault at 85% of the line from 1234 to 5678
without adding a new bus in the powerflow. In the example, the parameter of the line is assumed to
be: R=0.0476, X=0.1053, B/2=0.0049, and the fault admittance G=1.47966, B=-7.10576. Bus 99999
is a new bus added to the system.

Open line ;1234 ;5678 ;1


Add pi line ;1234 ;99999 ;1 0.04046 0.08424 0.0 0.0049 0.0 0.0
Add pi line ;99999 ;5678 ;1 0.00714 0.02106 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0049
Add admittance at bus ;99999 1.47966 -7.10576

(3) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

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(4) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

(5) If equipment name is used to identify system component, the pi line added will have a new line name:

‘ADDLINE #nladd’

where nladd is the number of added pi lines (including normal lines) in the contingency, formatted as
(I5). For example, the first added pi line will be given the name ‘ADDLINE # 1’.

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Add transformer

Command Syntax:

Add transformer ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID R X ONR PHS

Usage:

The Add transformer command is used to add a two-winding transformer in the system (three-winding
transformer cannot be added). There should not exist a line (including normal line, π line, sectional line,
transformer, and zero impedance line) in the system between the from_bus and to_bus with circuit_ID.
However, there can be a line between these buses with a different circuit ID. from_bus or to_bus may not
exist in the pre-fault powerflow, in which case they must be created by the Tap line command prior to
using this command.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name. This bus is the tapped side.
to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the transformer to be added
R+jX is the resistance and reactance of the transformer in per unit.
ONR is the turns ratio of the transformer.
PHS is the phase shift angle of the transformer in degrees.

|R+jX| must be greater than the zero-impedance line tolerance.

Example:

Add transformer ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.0 0.1 1.05 0.0

Notes:

(1) The transformer specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) This command can be used to add a transformer from an existing bus to a bus that is not in the
powerflow. This may be useful in simulating some special switching sequences. Refer to the Add pi
line command for an example of a similar application.

(3) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(4) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

(5) If equipment name is used to identify system component, the transformer added will have a new
transformer name:

‘ADDXFMR #ntadd’

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where ntadd is the number of added transformers in the contingency, formatted as (I5). For example,
the first added transformer will be given the name ‘ADDXFMR # 1’.

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Add transient excitation booster

Command Syntax:

Add transient excitation booster ;bus ;generator_ID

Usage:

The Add transient excitation booster command is used to activate the transient excitation booster in the
excitation system of a generator. It is assumed that the transient excitation booster data are provided for
the generator in the dynamic data set. This command can only be used for dynamic data in the old TSAT
format (version 5.1 or earlier).

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.

Example:

Add transient excitation booster ;123 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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After

Command Syntax:

After time [SECONDS | CYCLES]

Usage:

The After command is used to specify a time point during the simulation, at which a set of switching
events happen. All switching events following an After command, but before the next After, At time, or
Nomore command, are assumed to happen at the time specified in this command.

There can be a maximum of 200 After commands in a contingency. The first After time command must be
entered after the Simulation command.

Parameter:

time is the time at which the switching events happen. The unit of time is either SECONDS or CYCLES,
with default being SECONDS. time must be a positive real number.

Example:

At time 1.0 SECONDS


Three phase fault at bus ;123
After 4.0 CYCLES
Clear three phase fault
Remove line ;123 ;456 ;2

In this example, a three-phase fault is applied to bus 123 at 1.0 second. This fault is cleared after 4 cycles
followed by the tripping of line 123-456 ID ‘2’ at the same time.

Notes:

(1) If an After command is used to specify the first set of switching events in a contingency, it is the same
as an “At time time [SECONDS | CYCLES]” command. Further, if the At time commands before an
After command all have negative switching_time, the After command is the same as an “At time time
[SECONDS | CYCLES]” command.

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Application

Command Syntax:

Application application_flag

Usage:

The Application command is used to specify the application of a contingency. Only one Application
command is interpreted for each contingency. If more than one command is found, the first one will be
used and the rest ignored. This must be entered in a contingency after the Simulation command and before
the first At time command.

Parameter:

application_flag the keyword specifying the application of the contingency:


= all the contingency will be applied in both basecase and transaction analysis
= basecase the contingency will be applied only in basecase analysis
= transaction the contingency will be applied only in transaction analysis
= none the contingency will not be applied in any analysis (i.e., the contingency
is ignored)

Example:

Application bascase

In this example, the contingency will only be applied in basecase analysis. When performing transaction
analysis, it will be ignored.

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Apply brake resistance

Command Syntax:

Apply brake resistance at bus ;bus R [PU | MW]

Usage:

The Apply brake resistance command is used to apply a brake resistance at a bus. This command can be
used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name.


R is the brake resistance to be added at the bus in either per unit (PU) or MW (R>0). The default unit is
per unit.

Example:

Apply brake resistance at bus ;12345 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When the unit of the brake resistance is in MW, it refers to the MW power that the resistance will
absorb at the rated bus voltage (i.e. 1.0 per unit).

(2) When specifying the bus, either bus number or bus name is accepted. However, when this command
is displayed in the switching editing window and when the contingency data are exported to a file, the
use of bus number or name depends on the selection of bus identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Apply criteria

Command Syntax:

Apply criteria ;category_name

Usage:

The Apply criteria command is used to restrict the criteria categories to be applied for a given
contingency. This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

category_name is the name of a criteria category that should be checked for the contingency. It should be
enclosed in single-quotes.

Example:

Apply criteria ;'V Dip Cat B - Load instant'

Notes:

(1) If no “Apply criteria” command appears in a contingency, then all criteria categories are checked for
the contingency.

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At time

Command Syntax:

At time switching_time [SECONDS | CYCLES]

Usage:

The At time command is used to specify a time point during the simulation, at which a set of switching
events happen. All switching events following an At time command, but before the next, After, At time, or
Nomore command, are assumed to happen at the switching_time specified in this command.

There can be a maximum of 200 At time commands in a contingency. The first At time command must be
entered after the Simulation command.

A special use of the At time command is to apply pre-simulation powerflow modifications (circuit outages
using the Remove line command and powerflow dispatches using the Dispatch command) before the
simulation starts. TSAT will simply apply the specified modifications to the network and solve the
powerflow. The solved powerflow is then used in the simulation. When performing the powerflow
solution, the powerflow solution parameter file provided in the Powerflow data section will be used. If no
solution parameter file is entered in the Powerflow data section, the program default parameters are used
in the powerflow solution.

Parameter:

switching_time is the time at which the switching events happen. The unit of time is either SECONDS or
CYCLES, with default being SECONDS.

switching_time is a real number and it must be less than simulation_time specified in the Simulation
command. If switching_time is negative (any negative value), the switching events following it are to be
applied at the pre-simulation.

If more than one At time command is present in a contingency, subsequent At time commands must
contain increasing times.

Example:

(contingency header)
At time -1.0 SECONDS
Remove line ;123 ;456 ;1
At time 0.0 SECONDS
Three phase fault at bus ;123
At time 4.0 CYCLES
Clear three phase fault
Remove line ;123 ;456 ;2
Nomore

In this example, the line 123-456 ID ‘1’ is tripped in the base powerflow before the simulation and the
powerflow is solved. The simulation then starts with the post-contingency powerflow, in which a three-
phase fault is applied to bus 123 at 0.0 seconds. This fault is cleared after 4 cycles followed by the
tripping of line 123-456 ID ‘2’ at the same time.

Notes:
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(1) If the first At time command with a non-negative switching_time in a contingency has a positive
switching_time, it is assumed that there is no fault in the system from 0.0 to that switching_time.

(2) If there are multiple At time commands with different negative switching_time values, all switching
events following them are applied together in the pre-simulation powerflow modifications and
solution.

(3) If an At time command has a negative switching_time value, only the Remove line, Remove three
winding transformer, and Dispatch command can follow. Any other switching commands (except for
the next At time or Nomore command) will be ignored.

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Block Converter

Command Syntax:

Block converter ;converter_name

Usage:

The Block converter command is used to block a DC converter. It is assumed that the DC converter to be
blocked exists and is appropriately modelled in the simulation.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

Converter_name is the converter name (a 29-character string). No quote is required.

Example:

Block converter ;REC01 GROUND 2220 0. 1

Notes:

(1) The semicolons before the converter name is required as the delimiter.

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Change AVR reference

Command Syntax:

Change AVR reference ;bus ;generator_ID CHANGE [PU]

Usage:

The Change AVR reference command is used to change the AVR reference setting in the excitation
system of a generator. It is assumed that an exciter model exists for the generator.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.
CHANGE is the change in AVR reference value in per unit (PU).

CHANGE must be a real number, either positive or negative.

Example:

Change AVR reference ;123 ;1 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Change DC block

Command Syntax:

Change DC block ;block_name VALUE [SET]

Usage:

The Change DC block command is used to change the output value of a SETUP, VALUE type (initial
value) block in HVDC model.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

block_name is the SETUP, VALUE block name in the HVDC model. This is an 8-character text string
without quote.

VALUE is the desired change to the SETUP, VALUE block output. If the optional flag SET is specified,
the output of the block is set to the VALUE; if the optional flag SET is not specified, VALUE is added to
the output of the block.

Example:

The following example adds a 0.1 step to the SETUP, VALUE block PDCDES output:

Change DC block ;PDCDES 0.1

Notes:

(1) The semicolon before the block name is required as the delimiter.

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Change field voltage

Command Syntax:

Change field voltage ;bus ;generator_ID CHANGE [PU]

Usage:

The Change field voltage command is used to change the field voltage of a generator. The generator must
be represented by either a detailed model without an exciter (in which case this command emulates the
manual excitation control mode), or a classical model (in which case the generator internal voltage is
changed by the specified value).

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.
CHANGE is the change of the field voltage (for a generator with detailed model) or the internal voltage
(for a generator with classical model) in per unit (PU).

CHANGE must be a real number, either positive or negative.

Example:

Change field voltage ;123 ;1 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Change governor reference

Command Syntax:

Change governor reference ;bus ;generator_ID CHANGE [PU]

Usage:

The Change governor reference command is used to change the governor reference setting of a generator.
It is assumed that a governor model exists for the generator.

Applying this command effectively changes the steady-state active power generation of the generator.
This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.
CHANGE is the change to the governor reference value in per unit (PU) on system common MVA base
(for user-defined governor, the per unit is based on the turbine MW base).

CHANGE must be a real number, either positive or negative.

Example:

Change governor reference ;123 ;1 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Change induction motor torque

Command Syntax:

Change induction motor torque ;bus ;motor_ID CHANGE [PU | MW ]

Usage:

The Change induction motor torque command is used to change the load torque applied on the shaft of an
induction motor. The motor to which this command is applied must have a constant torque load
characteristic (LOAD=3); see Section 5.2.3 for details.

This command can be used as many times as required for the same or different induction motors in a
contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the induction motor bus number or name.


motor_ID is the induction motor ID.
CHANGE is the change of the load torque in PU (default) on motor MVA base or MW.

CHANGE must be a real number, either positive or negative.

Example:

Change induction motor torque ;123 ;1 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and induction motor ID are required as the delimiters.

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Change synchronous motor mechanical power

Command Syntax:

Change synchronous motor mechanical power ;bus ;generator_ID CHANGE [PU]

Usage:

The Change synchronous motor mechanical power command is used to change the mechanical power of
a synchronous motor.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the synchronous motor bus number or name.


generator_ID is the synchronous motor ID.
CHANGE is the change of the mechanical power in per unit (PU) on system common MVA base.

CHANGE must be a real number, either positive or negative.

Example:

Change synchronous motor mechanical power ;123 ;1 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and synchronous motor ID are required as the
delimiters.

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Change UDM block

Command Syntax:

Change UDM block ;udmtype ;blockname ;bus1 ;bus2 ;ID VALUE [SET]

Usage:

The Change UDM block command is used to change the output value of an IVL (initial value) block in
the specified user-defined model (UDM).

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

udmtype is the UDM type. It can be any of EXCUDM, PSSUDM, UELUDM, OELUDM, GOVUDM,
SHCUDM, WTGUDM, SECUDM, SERVMR, SERPAR

blockname is the IVL block name in the specified UDM. It must be a text string of 8 characters without
quotes. An error occurs if this block cannot be found in the specified UDM, or if the block with this name
is not an IVL block.

bus1 is the bus number or name where this UDM belongs.

bus2 is the second bus number or name (for two port devices such as SECUDM) where this UDM
belongs. For single-port device, leave a blank for bus2.

ID is the device ID.

VALUE is the desired change to the IVL block output. If the optional flag SET is specified, the output of
the IVL block is set to the VALUE; if the optional flag SET is not specified, VALUE is added to the output
of the IVL block.

Example:

The following example adds a 0.1 step to the IVL block IVLBLOCK output for the user-defined exciter at
bus 123 ID 1:

Change UDM block ;EXCUDM ;IVLBLOCK ;123 ; ;1 0.1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before parameters are required as the delimiters.

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Change wind speed

Command Syntax:

Change wind speed ;bus ;ID delta

Usage:

The Change wind speed command is used to apply a step change to the wind speed of a wind turbine
generator, which uses the WCP block to calculate its mechanical power.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the wind generator bus number or name.


ID is the wind generator ID.
Delta is the change in meters per second of the wind speed

Delta must be a real number, either positive or negative.

Example:

Change wind speed ;123 ;1 -2.0

This would decrease the wind speed by 2.0 meters per second for the wind turbine generator at bus 123
with ID ‘1’.

Notes:

(1) All wind turbine models using the DFM block implicitly include a WCP block, so this command will
work for these models as well.

(2) See DSAToolsTM User-Defined Model Manual for the descriptions on WCP block and for the
relationship between wind speed and mechanical power.

(3) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(4) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Clear one phase to ground fault

Command Syntax:

Clear one phase to ground fault

Usage:

The Clear one phase to ground fault command is used to clear a one-phase-to-ground fault either at a bus
or on a line. When clearing a fault on a line, the line is not removed. If the line is to be removed, use the
Open line command following this command.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear one phase to ground fault

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Clear one phase to ground fault on line at far end

Command Syntax:

Clear one phase to ground fault on line at far end

Usage:

The Clear one phase to ground fault on line at far end command is used to open all three phases at the far
end of the line on which a one-phase-to-ground fault has been applied using the One phase to ground
fault on line command. The far end is the end of the line connected to the to_bus as specified in the One
phase to ground fault on line command.

If this command is applied before the Clear one phase to ground fault on line at near end command, the
fault is still on the line. If this command is applied after the Clear one phase to ground fault on line at
near end command, the fault is removed.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear one phase to ground fault one line at far end

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Clear one phase to ground fault on line at near end

Command Syntax:

Clear one phase to ground fault on line at near end

Usage:

The Clear one phase to ground fault on line at near end command is used to open all three phases at the
near end of the line on which a one-phase-to-ground fault has been applied using the One phase to ground
fault on line command. The near end is the end of the line connected to the from_bus as specified in the
One phase to ground fault on line command.

If this command is applied before the Clear one phase to ground fault on line at far end command, the
fault is still on the line. If this command is applied after the Clear one phase to ground fault on line at far
end command, the fault is removed.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear one phase to ground fault on line at near end

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Clear three phase fault on line at far end

Command Syntax:

Clear three phase fault on line at far end

Usage:

The Clear three phase fault on line at far end command is used to open the far end of the line on which a
three phase fault has been applied using the Three phase fault on line command. The far end is the end of
the line connected to the to_bus as specified in the Three phase fault on line command. It is assumed that
a three phase fault on line has been applied before this command.

Applying this command will not change the fault status on the line. The fault can only be cleared by using
the Clear three phase fault command. However, if both this command and the Clear three phase fault on
line at near end have been applied, the fault will be isolated and thus effectively cleared from the system.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear three phase fault on line at far end

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Clear three phase fault on line at near end

Command Syntax:

Clear three phase fault on line at near end

Usage:

The Clear three phase fault on line at near end command is used to open the near end of the line on
which a three phase fault has been applied using the Three phase fault on line command. The near end is
the end of the line connected to the from_bus as specified in the Three phase fault on line command. It is
assumed that a three phase fault on line has been applied before this command.

Applying this command will not change the fault status on the line. The fault can only be cleared by using
the Clear three phase fault command. However, if both this command and the Clear three phase fault on
line at far end have been applied, the fault will be isolated and thus effectively cleared from the system.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear three phase fault on line at near end

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Clear two phase to ground fault

Command Syntax:

Clear two phase to ground fault

Usage:

The Clear two phase to ground fault command is used to clear a two-phase-to-ground fault either at a bus
or on a line. When clearing a fault on a line, the line is not removed. If the line is to be removed, use the
Open line command following this command.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear two phase to ground fault

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Clear two phase to ground fault on line at far end

Command Syntax:

Clear two phase to ground fault on line at far end

Usage:

The Clear two phase to ground fault on line at far end command is used to open all three phases at the far
end of the line on which a two-phase-to-ground fault has been applied using the Two phase to ground
fault on line command. The far end is the end of the line connected to the to_bus as specified in the Two
phase to ground fault on line command.

If this command is applied before the Clear two phase to ground fault on line at near end command, the
fault is still on the line. If this command is applied after the Clear two phase to ground fault on line at
near end command, the fault is removed.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear two phase to ground fault one line at far end

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Clear two phase to ground fault on line at near end

Command Syntax:

Clear two phase to ground fault on line at near end

Usage:

The Clear two phase to ground fault on line at near end command is used to open all three phases at the
near end of the line on which a two-phase-to-ground fault has been applied using the Two phase to
ground fault on line command. The near end is the end of the line connected to the from_bus as specified
in the Two phase to ground fault on line command.

If this command is applied before the Clear Two phase to ground fault on line at far end command, the
fault is still on the line. If this command is applied after the Clear two phase to ground fault on line at far
end command, the fault is removed.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Clear two phase to ground fault on line at near end

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Dependency

Command Syntax:

Dependency [previous] dependency_flag

Usage:

The Dependency command is used to provide a means of specifying optional contingencies, depending on
the security status of the system. The Dependency command must be specified after the Simulation
command but before the first At time command. Only one Dependency command is interpreted for each
contingency. If more than one command is found, the first one will be used and the rest ignored. There
can be as many dependent contingencies specified for a scenario as required, provided that there is at least
one independent contingency that must be executed for the scenario.

The security status of the system can be defined in one of two possible ways:

• Running system security status: this refers to the security status of the system after considering all
contingencies before the dependent contingency. The system is secure if all such contingencies are
secure and the system is insecure if at least one such contingency is insecure.

• Previous contingency security status: this refers to the security status of the system for the
contingency executed right before the dependent contingency.

When more than one security index is specified for a scenario (for instance, transient stability index and
damping index), an insecure status is assigned if any of the specified security criteria is violated.

Parameter:

previous the optional keyword specifying the dependency scope. If this keyword is not specified,
the execution of the contingency depends on the running system security status. If this
keyword is specified, the execution of the contingency depends on the previous
contingency security status.
dependency_flag the keyword specifying the dependency flag:
= secure the contingency will be executed only if the security status of the system
is secure
= insecure the contingency will be executed only if the security status of the system
is insecure

Example:

The following contingency data contains four contingencies (ctg #1 and ctg #4 are independent
contingencies, and ctg #2 and ctg #3 are dependent ones):

Description ctg #1
Simulation 10 sec
… …
Nomore
Description ctg #2
Simulation 10 sec
Dependency insecure
… …
Nomore
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Description ctg #3
Simulation 10 sec
Dependency previous insecure
… …
Nomore
Description ctg #4
Simulation 10 sec
… …
Nomore
End

When the scenario is run, the following possibilities exist:

• In any situation, ctg #1 and #4 are always simulated

• If ctg #1 is secure, ctg #2 will not be simulated. In this case, ctg #3 will not be simulated as well.

• If ctg #1 is insecure, ctg #2 will be simulated. In this case, ctg #3 will simulated only if ctg #2
turns out to be insecure.

Notes:

(1) The Dependency command is ignored in the following situations:

• If pre-simulation switching events are specified in the contingency (refer to the At time command
for the definition and usage of pre-simulation switching events).

• If the scenario is run for transaction analysis.

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Description

Command Syntax:

Description contingency_description

Usage:

The Description command is used to specify a title for a contingency. The contingency title is displayed
at various places in the TSAT interface, and is also written to the binary result file for the identification of
the contingency.

Only one Description command is expected in a contingency. If more than one command is found, the
first one will be used and the rest ignored. If multiple contingencies are specified for one computation
scenario, the title for each individual contingency must be unique; otherwise, contingencies with duplicate
titles are ignored.

Parameter:

contingency_description is a text string containing the contingency title, up to 80 characters.

Notes:

(1) The Description command is a compulsory command in a contingency.

(2) The Description command must be entered as the first command (except for comment records) in a
contingency.

(3) When editing a contingency, the contingency title is displayed in the Description dialogue.

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Disconnect generator

Command Syntax:

Disconnect generator ;bus ;generator_ID

Usage:

The Disconnect generator command is used to manually trip a generator or an SVC that interfaces with a
generator in powerflow. Generators can also be automatically tripped under certain system conditions by
using relay models. Refer to Section 9 for details on applications of relay models.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator (or SVC) bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator (or SVC) ID.

Example:

Disconnect generator ;123 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Disconnect induction motor

Command Syntax:

Disconnect induction motor ;bus ;motor_ID

Usage:

The Disconnect induction motor command is used to manually trip an induction motor. The tripped motor
may be restarted later by using the Restart induction motor command. An induction motor may also be
tripped by using the undervoltage tripping relay built in the motor model. Refer to Section 5.2.4 for
details on the induction motor undervoltage tripping relay model.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the induction motor bus number or name.


motor_ID is the induction motor ID.

Example:

Disconnect induction motor ;12345 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and induction motor ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Disconnect shunt

Command Syntax:

This command has three formats:

Disconnect all shunt ;bus


Disconnect fixed shunt ;bus
Disconnect switched shunt ;bus

Usage:

The three Disconnect shunt commands are used to manually trip all or part of the shunts at a bus. Shunts
can also be automatically tripped under certain system conditions by using relay models. Refer to
Section 9 for details on applications of relay models.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the shunt bus number or name.

Example:

Disconnect all shunt ;123

or
Disconnect fixed shunt ;123

or
Disconnect switched shunt ;123

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name are required as the delimiters.

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Dispatch

Command Syntax:

Dispatch transfer_file

Usage:

The Dispatch command is used to modify the powerflow at the pre-simulation condition. The
modifications are defined in transfer_file which has the same format as the transfer data used in
transaction analysis (refer to Section 14.1.3 for details). This command must be entered as a pre-
simulation switching event (e.g., after the At time command with a negative time; refer to the At time
command for details). When a dispatch is provided for a contingency, TSAT will apply the dispatch to the
base powerflow and solve the modified powerflow. After that, the simulation will start from the modified
powerflow.

This command can be used only once in a contingency. If more than one command is entered, the last one
is actually used.

Parameter:

transfer_file is the transfer file that defines the dispatches to be applied to the base powerflow.

Example:

At Time –1.0 Second


Dispatch my_tran.trf

In this example, TSAT will apply the dispatches defined in my_tran.trf to modify the base powerflow
before simulation starts.

Notes:

(1) It is allowed that other pre-simulation switching events (i.e., circuit outages) be applied together with
this command. When pre-simulation circuit outages are specified, they are applied before the
powerflow dispatch is applied.

(2) In addition to complicated system condition dispatches with power transfer changes across major
transmission paths, transfer file can also be used to define simpler powerflow modifications, such as

• Generator outage
• Load scaling

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End

Command Syntax:

End

Usage:

The End command is used to terminate a contingency data file. Any records after this command will be
ignored.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Notes:

(1) It is recommended to always terminate a contingency data file with the End command. If, however,
this command is not specified in a contingency data file, the end of the file will terminate the
contingency data.

(2) When editing a contingency, the End command is not displayed. It is however written to the file
when the contingency data are saved.

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Flash capacitor gap

Command Syntax:

Flash capacitor gap ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID ;section_ID

Usage:

The Flash capacitor gap command is used to flash (short-circuit) a capacitor gap section on a sectional
line. The capacitor gap section should satisfy the following conditions:

• The series reactance must be negative (capacitive)


• There is no series resistance
• There is no shunt admittance

In addition, the impedance of the entire line after the flashing should still be greater than the zero-
impedance line tolerance. This command cannot be used on a non-sectional line. It can be used as many
times as required in a contingency.

After a capacitor is short-circuited, it can be put back to service using the Reinsert capacitor gap
command.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.
section_ID is the section ID of the capacitor gap.

Example:

Flash capacitor gap ;12345 ;67890 ;1 ;1

Notes:

(1) The sectional line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names, circuit ID, and section ID are required as the
delimiters.

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Integration

Command Syntax:

Integration integration_method

Usage:

The Integration command is used to select a numerical integration method to perform the simulation. The
integration method can be changed during the simulation by using this command after an At time
command.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

integration_method may take one of the following values:

TRAP - Trapezoidal method


RK4 - Fourth order Runge-Kutta method

If the Integration command is not specified in a contingency, the default integration method is the fourth
order Runge-Kutta method method (RK4).

Example:

Integration RK4

Notes:

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TSAT Model Manual

One phase to ground fault at bus

Command Syntax:

One phase to ground fault at bus ;bus R0 X0 R2 X2

or

One phase to ground fault at bus ;bus *

Usage:

The One phase to ground fault at bus command is used to apply a one-phase-to-ground fault at a bus. It is
optional to specify the zero and negative sequence impedances for calculation of the fault impedance. If
these impedances are not provided, it is assumed that the sequence network data of the system has been
read and the fault impedance will be calculated automatically. Refer to Section 14 for requirements on
sequence network data.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency, provided that at any time, there
can be only one such fault existing in the system.

When applying this command, there should not be other fault at the bus, such as three phase fault and
two-phase-to-ground fault.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name where the fault is applied.


R0+jX0 is the zero sequence impedance at the fault bus in per unit.
R2+jX2 is the negative sequence impedance at the fault bus in per unit.
* indicates that the fault impedance is to be calculated automatically.

|R0+jX0| and |R2+jX2| cannot be equal to zero simultaneously.

Example:

One phase to ground fault at bus ;12345 0.03 0.3 0.01 0.1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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One phase to ground fault on line

Command Syntax:

One phase to ground fault on line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID D

Usage:

The One phase to ground fault on line command is used to apply a one-phase-to-ground fault on a line.
This command can be applied to normal lines and π lines, but not for zero-impedance lines, sectional
lines, and transformers. The fault can be cleared by the Clear one phase to ground fault command or
Clear one phase to ground fault at near/far end command pair (after both of them are applied). After the
fault clearing using these commands, it is possible to reconnect the line later using the Reconnect line
command. It is further possible to clear the fault by opening the faulty phase of the line, using the Open
pole command. The faulty phase can be reconnected by the Reconnect pole command.

When this command is applied, the sequence network data must be provided and TSAT automatically
computes the fault impedance from the sequence network data. Refer to Section 14 for requirements on
sequence network data.

The fault location can be anywhere on the line, controlled by the parameter D.

Only one unbalanced fault can be applied at any given time in a contingency, but if an unbalanced fault is
cleared, another can be applied at a different location.

Note that it is not allowed to clear the faulty phase at two ends of the line with different times.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.
D is the distance of the fault location on the line from the from_bus in percent (0≤D<100).

If D is not specified, the default is 0.

Example:

One phase to ground fault one line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.5

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Clear three phase fault

Command Syntax:

Clear three phase fault

Usage:

The Clear three phase fault command is used to clear a three phase fault at a bus applied using the Three
phase fault command. It is assumed that such a three phase fault has been applied before this command.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Notes:

(1) This command replaces the old Nofault command.

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Nomore

Command Syntax:

Nomore

Usage:

The Nomore command is used to terminate a contingency.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Notes:

(1) The Nomore command is a compulsory command in a contingency.

(2) When editing a contingency, the Nomore command is not displayed in the switching command
window. It is however written to the file when the contingency data are saved.

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TSAT Model Manual

Modify line

Command Syntax:

Modify line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID NR NX NB

Usage:

The Modify line command is used to modify a line in the system. The line must exist in the pre-fault
powerflow case and must not be tripped. This command can only modify a normal line. Use Modify pi
line, Modify transformer, or Modify sectional line command to modify a π line, a transformer, or a
sectional line, respectively.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line to be modified.
NR+jNX is the resistance and reactance of the modified line in per unit.
NB is the total charge of the modified line in per unit.

|NR+jNX| must be greater than the zero-impedance line tolerance.

Example:

Modify line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.001 0.01 0.2

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Modify pi line

Command Syntax:

Modify pi line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID NR NX NGF NBF NGT NBT

Usage:

The Modify pi line command is used to modify a π line in the system. The π line must exist in the pre-
fault powerflow case and must not be tripped. This command can only modify a π line. Use Modify line,
Modify transformer, or Modify sectional line command to modify a normal line, a transformer, or a
sectional line, respectively.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the π line to be modified.
NR+jNX is the series impedance of the modified π line in per unit.
NGF+jNBF is the shunt admittance of the modified π line at from_bus in per unit.
NGT+jNBT is the shunt admittance of the modified π line at to_bus in per unit.

|NR+jNX| must be greater than the zero-impedance line tolerance.

Example:

Modify pi line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.001 0.01 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.3

Notes:

(1) The pi line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Modify transformer

Command Syntax:

Modify transformer ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID NR NX NONR NPHS

Usage:

The Modify transformer command is used to modify a two-winding transformer in the system (3-winding
transformer cannot be modified). The transformer must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case and must not
be tripped. This command can only modify a transformer. Use Modify line, Modify pi line, or Modify
sectional line command to modify a normal line, a π line, or a sectional line, respectively.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the transformer to be modified.
NR+jNX is the resistance and reactance of the modified transformer in per unit.
NONR is the turns ratio of the modified transformer.
NPHS is the phase shift angle of the modified transformer in degrees.

|NR+jNX| must be greater than the zero-impedance line tolerance.

Example:

Modify transformer ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.0 0.1 1.05 0.0

Notes:

(1) The transformer specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Modify sectional line

Command Syntax:

Modify sectional line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID ;section_ID R X B B_from B_to

Usage:

The Modify sectional line command is used to modify the parameters of one section in a sectional line.
The sectional line with the specific section ID must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case and must not be
tripped. This command can only modify a sectional line. Use Modify line, Modify pi line, or Modify
transformer command to modify a normal line, a π line, or a transformer, respectively.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the sectional line to be modified.
sectiont_ID is the section ID of the sectional line to be modified.
R+jX is the resistance and reactance of the section in per unit.
B is the total line charge of the section in per unit.
B_from is the shunt susceptance of the section at from_bus in per unit.
B_to is the shunt susceptance of the section at to_bus in per unit.

Example:

Modify sectional line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 ;1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0

Notes:

(1) The sectional line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Open pole

Command Syntax:

Open pole ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID

Usage:

The Open pole command is used to open one phase of an existing line in the system. The line must exist
in the pre-fault powerflow case, and can be a normal line, or a π line, but not a sectional line, or a
transformer. This command cannot be applied to a line which is added to the system by an Add line
command.

When this command is applied, the same phase on both ends of the line is opened simultaneously. There
may or may not be a fault on the line, but if there is a fault, the following is assumed:

• The fault must be a one-phase-to-ground fault on line where all three phases at both ends of the
line are connected to the network. An error would result if a three-phase fault, a two-phase-to-
ground fault, or a one-phase-to-ground fault at a bus has been applied. An error would also result
if either end of the line has been cleared in three phases with the Clear one phase to ground fault
on line at near/far end commands.

• The faulty phase is to be opened.

• The fault is not cleared (i.e., if the Reconnect pole command is applied, the fault is still on the
circuit). To remove the fault, apply the Clear one phase to ground fault command.

When this command is applied, the sequence network data must be provided and TSAT automatically
computes the fault impedance from the sequence network data. Refer to Section 14 for requirements on
sequence network data.

Only one unbalanced fault can be applied at any given time in a contingency, but if an unbalanced fault is
cleared, another can be applied at a different location.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.

Example:

Open pole ;12345 ;67890 ;1

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are

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exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Open two pole

Command Syntax:

Open two pole ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID

Usage:

The Open two pole command is used to open two phases of an existing line in the system. The line must
exist in the pre-fault powerflow case, and can be a normal line, or a π line, but not a sectional line, or a
transformer. This command cannot be applied to a line which is added to the system by an Add line
command.

When this command is applied, the same two phases on both ends of the line are opened simultaneously.
There may or may not be a fault on the line, but if there is a fault, the following is assumed:

• The fault must be a two-phase-to-ground fault on line where all three phases at both ends of the
line are connected to the network. An error would result if a three-phase fault, a one-phase-to-
ground fault, or a two-phase-to-ground fault at a bus has been applied. An error would also result
if either end of the line has been cleared in three phases with the Clear two phase to ground fault
on line at near/far end commands.

• The faulty phases are to be opened.

• The fault is not cleared (i.e., if the Reconnect pole command is applied, the fault is still on the
circuit). To remove the fault, apply the Clear two phase to ground fault command.

When this command is applied, the sequence network data must be provided and TSAT automatically
computes the fault impedance from the sequence network data. Refer to Section 14 for requirements on
sequence network data.

Only one unbalanced fault can be applied at any given time in a contingency, but if an unbalanced fault is
cleared, another can be applied at a different location.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.

Example:

Open two pole ;12345 ;67890 ;1

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are

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exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Outage bus

Command Syntax:

Outage bus ;bus

Usage:

The Outage bus command is used to outage a bus. After a bus is outaged, all of the connections linking
the bus with the rest of the system are opened. All active sources directly connected at the bus (such as
generators) are also disconnected.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name to be outaged.

Example:

Outage bus ;12345

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Plot

Command Syntax:

Plot every plot_step [STEPS]

Usage:

The Plot command is used to control the frequency at which the simulation results are saved into the
binary result file. This frequency is defined as the number of integration steps; for example, to plot every
5 steps means to save the simulation results at the end of every 5 integration steps.

This command can be used as many times as required anywhere in a contingency.

Parameter:

plot_step is the number of integration steps that defines the saving frequency. The default for plot_step is
1. plot_step must be a positive integer.

Example:

Plot every 5 STEPS

Notes:

(1) If the integration step size is changed during the simulation, the saving frequency also needs to be
adjusted if a consistent time-axis resolution for the simulation results in the binary result file is to be
maintained.

(2) Saving the simulation results at too many time points not only produces a large binary result file, but
also causes slow retrieval when performing output analysis functions. A practical up-limit is about
1000 data points for each output quantity, although the program can handle data arrays of much larger
sizes.

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TSAT Model Manual

Ramp Load

Command Syntax:

Ramp Load ;from ;to ;itype rate_p rate_q tlen [MVA] [PROPORTIONAL]

Usage:

The Ramp Load command is used to alter the real and reactive load components of a set of buses, zones,
or areas over a period of time.

Parameter:

from is the from-number or name.


to is the to-number or name.
itype indicates what "from" and "to" represent:
1 = areas
2 = zones
3 = buses
rate_p is the rate for the real power change in percent (or MVA when the MVA flag is present).
rate_q is the rate for the reactive power change in percent (or MVA when the MVA flag is present).
tlen is the length of time.

Restrictions:

When the load power change is in percent, it always uses the load in the base powerflow as the
refererence. Refer to the example below for example.

The PROPORTIONAL flag only has meaning when the MVA flag is present.

If the powerflow is name-based, the buses, zones, and areas must be identified by name. If the powerflow
is number-based, the buses, zones, and areas must be identified by number.

Example:

The following example ramps up load in Zone 2 and 3 by 2.5% within 1 second, and 10 second late
restore the load to the original level.

At time 2.0 seconds


Ramp Load ;2 ;3 ;2 2.5 0 1.0
At time 13.0 seconds
Ramp Load ;2 ;3 ;2 -2.5 0 1.0

Notes:

(1) The PROPORTIONAL flag indicates that if the one of the power change rates is zero, then the
nonzero rate will be used for both power change rates.

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TSAT Model Manual

Ramp Wind Power

Command Syntax:

Ramp wind power ;Itype ;From ;To %P Time

Usage:

The Ramp wind power command is used to ramp mechanical power input (for types 1, 2, 3 standard wind
generator models and user-defined wind generator models with type 0-7 PQW end block), or active power
input (for types 4 standard wind generator models and user-defined wind generator models with type 8-9
PQW end block) of wind generators. It does not apply to machines that are initially absorbing power
(motors). Total power will not be ramped below 0 or above a maximum which depends on wind generator
type:

• For type 1, 2 standard wind generator models: 95% of MVA base


• For type 3 standard wind generator models: 100% of PBASE
• For type 4 standard wind generator models: 100% of MVA base
• For user-defined wind generator models with type 0-5 PQW end block: 95% of MVA base
• For user-defined wind generator models with type 6 PQW end block: 100% of Prate
• For user-defined wind generator models with type 7 PQW end block: 100% Prate if power-slip curve
is specified; 95% MVA base otherwise
• For user-defined wind generator models with type 8-9 PQW end block: 100% MVA base

Since many wind turbine models have pitch control to maintain a desired power output, a change in
mechanical power input during the ramp may not result in a proportional change in electric power output.

Parameter:

itype indicates what "from" and "to" represent:


1 = areas
2 = zones
3 = buses
from is the from-number or name.
to is the to-number or name.
%P is the total percent power change during the ramp in terms of MVA base of wind generator
Time is the length of the time in seconds

Example:

The follwing example specifies that all wind generators in zone 4 and 5 wll have their inputs ramped
down by 2% of their MVA bases in 5 seconds:

Ramp wind power ;2 ;4 ;5 -2.0 5.0

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TSAT Model Manual

Reconnect line

Command Syntax:

Reconnect line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID

Usage:

The Reconnect line command is used to reconnect a line tripped either manually or automatically (by
relays). This command can also be used to reconnect a line that is out-of-service in the powerflow. The
line must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case. The line can be a normal line, a π line, a sectional line, or
a transformer (excluding 3-winding transformer).

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line to be reconnected.

Example:

Reconnect line ;12345 ;67890 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Reconnect pole

Command Syntax:

Reconnect pole

Usage:

The Reconnect pole command is used to reconnect the phase(s) of the line that is opened by the Open
pole or Open two pole commands.

If there is a one-phase-to-ground fault on the line which has not been cleared, the fault is still on after the
pole reconnection.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

No parameter is required for this command.

Example:

Reconnect pole

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Reconnect sectional line

Command Syntax:

Reconnect sectional line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID ;section_ID

Usage:

The Reconnect sectional line command is used to reconnect a section in a sectional line tripped by the
Remove sectional line command. The line must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the sectional line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the sectional line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the sectional line.
section_ID is the section ID of the section to be reconnected.

Example:

Reconnect sectional line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Reconnect stabilizer

Command Syntax:

Reconnect stabilizer ;bus ;generator_ID

Usage:

The Reconnect stabilizer command is used to reconnect the stabilizer model, which is disconnected by
using the Remove stabilizer command, to the associated generator. It is assumed that the stabilizer model
has been disconnected.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.

Example:

Reconnect stabilizer ;123 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Reduce generation

Command Syntax:

Reduce generation ;bus ;generator_ID FACT [PERCENT | MW]

Usage:

The Reduce generation command is used to trip part of the generation at a generator. This usually applies
to the case where generators at one plant are represented by one equivalent generator model, and some of
the generators are to be tripped in the simulation. As a result, the MVA base of the generator is changed
and the associated generator parameters are adjusted.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency. It can be applied to a generator
only once.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.
FACT specifies the part of the generation to be tripped, in either PERCENT or MW with the default being
PERCENT.

FACT must be a positive real number. It cannot exceed 95% of the pre-fault generation of the generator.

Example:

Reduce generation ;123 ;1 25.0 PERCENT

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Reduce generator mechanical torque

Command Syntax:

Reduce generator mechanical torque ;bus ;generator_ID FACT [PERCENT]

Usage:

The Reduce generator mechanical torque command is used to provide fault damping to a generator. This
command must be used after any of the following faults has been applied but has not yet been cleared:

• Three phase fault at a bus (Three phase fault command)


• One-phase-to-ground fault (One phase to ground fault command)
• Two-phase-to-ground fault (Two phase to ground fault command)

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.
FACT specifies the reduction of generator mechanical torque in PERCENT with respect to the pre-fault
active power of the generator.

FACT must be a positive real number less than 95.0.

Example:

Reduce generator mechanical torque ;123 ;1 25.0 PERCENT

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Reinsert capacitor gap

Command Syntax:

Reinsert capacitor gap ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID ;section_ID

Usage:

The Reinsert capacitor gap command is used to reinsert a flashed capacitor gap section in a sectional line.
The capacitor gap section should satisfy the following conditions:

• The series reactance must be negative (capacitive)


• There is no series resistance
• There is no shunt admittance

In addition, the impedance of the entire line after the flashing should still be greater than the zero-
impedance line tolerance. It is assumed that the capacitor gap has been flashed before this command, by
using the Flash capacitor gap command. This command cannot be used on a non-sectional line. It can be
used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.
section_ID is the section ID of the capacitor gap.

Example:

Reinsert capacitor gap ;12345 ;67890 ;1 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names, circuit ID, and section ID are required as the
delimiters.

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TSAT Model Manual

Remove admittance

Command Syntax:

Remove admittance at bus ;bus G B [PU | MVA]

Usage:

The Remove admittance command is used to remove an admittance at a bus. If the admittance to be
removed is more than what is available at the bus, a shunt will be added to compensate the balance.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name.


G+jB is the admittance to be removed at the bus in either per unit (PU) or MVA. The default unit is per
unit. For B in either per unit or MVA, B>0 indicates a capacitive susceptance.

Example:

Remove admittance at bus ;12345 0.0 10.0 PU

Notes:

(1) When the unit of the admittance is in MVA, it refers to the MW and MVAR power that the
admittance will absorb at the rated bus voltage (i.e. 1.0 per unit). Therefore, removing a (10.0, 10.0)
MVA admittance is the same as removing a (0.1, 0.1) PU admittance.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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TSAT Model Manual

Remove brake resistance

Command Syntax:

Remove brake resistance at bus ;bus R [PU | MW]

Usage:

The Remove brake resistance command is used to remove a brake resistance at a bus. If the resistance to
be removed is more than what is available at the bus, a shunt will be added to compensate the balance.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name.


R is the brake resistance to be removed at the bus in either per unit (PU) or MW (R>0). The default unit is
per unit.

Example:

Remove brake resistance at bus ;12345 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When the unit of the brake resistance is in MW, it refers to the MW power that the resistance will
absorb at the rated bus voltage (i.e. 1.0 per unit).

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Remove impedance

Command Syntax:

Remove impedance at bus ;bus R X [PU | MVA]

Usage:

The Remove impedance command is used to remove an impedance at a bus. If the impedance to be
removed is more than what is available at the bus, a shunt will be added to compensate the balance.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name.


R+jX is the impedance to be removed at the bus in either per unit (PU) or MVA. The default unit is per
unit. For X in per unit, X<0 indicates a capacitive reactance; for X in MVA, X>0 indicates a capacitive
reactance.

Example:

Remove impedance at bus ;12345 0.0 0.1 PU

Notes:

(1) When the unit of the impedance is in MVA, it refers to the MW and MVAR power that the
impedance will absorb at the rated bus voltage (i.e. 1.0 per unit). Therefore, removing a (10.0, −10.0)
MVA impedance is the same as removing a (5.0, 5.0) PU impedance.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Remove line

Command Syntax:

Remove line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID

Usage:

The Remove line command is used to trip an existing line, or all existing lines between two buses, in the
system. The line to be removed must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case, and can be a normal line, a π
line, a sectional line, or a transformer (except for a three-winding transformer which must be
disconnected by the Remove three winding transformer command). This command cannot remove a line
which is added to the system by an Add line command in the same contingency and also cannot remove a
line on which a Three phase fault on line command is applied.

Lines can also be automatically tripped under certain system conditions by using relay models. Refer to
Section 9 for details on applications of relay models.

This command can be used as many times as necessary in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line to be removed. To specify all lines between the two buses, either
use * as the circuit ID or ignore the ; circuit_ID argument altogether.

Example:

Remove line ;12345 ;67890 ;1

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Remove sectional line

Command Syntax:

Remove sectional line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID ;section_ID

Usage:

The Remove section line command is used to trip one section of a sectional line. The sectional line with
the specific section ID must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case. After the section specified in the
command is tripped, the rest of the sections in the sectional line are still in service.

This command can be used as many times as necessary in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the sectional line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the sectional line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the sectional line.
section_ID is the section ID of the sectional line to be tripped.

Example:

Remove sectional line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 ;1

Notes:

(1) The sectional line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Remove stabilizer

Command Syntax:

Remove stabilizer ;bus ;generator_ID

Usage:

The Remove stabilizer command is used to remove the stabilizer model from a generator. It is assumed
that a stabilizer model exists for the generator. The removed stabilizer can be put back in service again by
using the Reconnect Stabilizer command.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the generator bus number or name.


generator_ID is the generator ID.

Example:

Remove stabilizer ;123 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and generator ID are required as the delimiters.

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Remove three winding transformer

Command Syntax:

Remove three winding transformer ;primary_bus ;secondary_bus ;tertiary_bus ;ID

Usage:

The Remove three winding transformer command is used to trip an existing three-winding transformer in
the system. The transformer to be removed must exist in the pre-fault powerflow case. Once a three-
winding transformer is tripped, it cannot be reconnected.

This command can be used as many times as necessary in a contingency.

Parameter:

primary_bus is the primary bus number or name of the transformer.


secondary_bus is the secondary bus number or name of the transformer.
tertiary_bus is the tertiary bus number or name of the transformer.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the transformer to be tripped.

Example:

Remove three winding transformer ;12345 ;67890 ;54321 ;1

Notes:

(1) The transformer specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) Currently, new three-winding transformers cannot be added to the system and parameters of three-
winding transformers cannot be modified.

(3) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(4) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Report

Command Syntax:

Report every report_step [STEPS]

Usage:

The Report command is used to control the frequency at which the simulation progress is reported in the
Progress window of the TSAT message dialog. This frequency is defined as the number of integration
steps; for example, to report every 5 steps means to display the simulation results at the end of every
5 integration steps.

This command can be used for as many times as required anywhere in a contingency.

Parameter:

report_step is the number of integration steps as the displaying frequency. The default for report_step is
1. report_step must be a positive integer.

Example:

Report every 5 STEPS

Notes:

(1) If the integration step size is changed during the simulation, the displaying frequency also needs to be
adjusted if a consistent time-axis resolution for displaying the simulation results is to be maintained.

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Restart induction motor

Command Syntax:

Restart induction motor ;bus ;motor_ID

Usage:

The Restart induction motor command is used to restart an induction motor. The motor must be tripped
by using the Disconnect induction motor command. An induction motor that is tripped by its
undervoltage tripping relay cannot be restarted again.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the induction motor bus number or name.


motor_ID is the induction motor ID.

Example:

Restart induction motor ;12345 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and induction motor ID are required as the delimiters.

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Restore load

Command Syntax:

Restore load ;bus ;ID SHUNT PP PQ [PERCENT]

Usage:

The Restore load command is used to restore the load shed in the Shed load command. This command
cannot be used to increase the load, i.e., the maximum load that can be restored at a bus is the sum of the
load at this bus shed by all previous Shed load commands. It is possible, however, to restore only part of
the load shed at a bus. The same restrictions apply for restoring a bus shunt admittance when SHUNT is
non-zero.

If there is induction motor load at the load bus (whether separately modelled or as part of a composite
load model), and part of the induction motor load is shed (i.e., the Include induction motor in load
shedding option is set to Yes in the TSAT case), a proportional portion of the induction motor load at the
bus is also restored.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

Bus load bus number or name.


ID load ID as defined in powerflow. To specify all load at the bus, either use * as the load ID or
ignore the ;ID argument altogether.
SHUNT amount of the shunt at the load bus to be restored in percent with respect to PP.
PP active load to be restored in percent.
PQ reactive load to be restored in percent.

PP and PQ must be positive real numbers, subject to the maximal restoration percentage as mentioned
above.

If a non-zero SHUNT is specified, the percentage of the shunt to shed is calculated as

SHUNTxPP
100

Example:

Restore load ;12345 ;* 40 50.0 60.0 PERCENT

In this example, 20% of the shunt at bus 12345 will be restored.

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

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(2) The semicolon before the bus number/name and ID is required as the delimiter.

(3) The amount of load to be restored is always calculated at the system condition when this command is
executed. The following table illustrates a load shedding/restoring sequence applied to a load of 125
MW with constant power model.

Type Amount (%) Load to be shed/restored (MW) Load remaining (MW)


1 Shed 20 25 100
2 Shed 20 20 80
3 Restore 20 16 96
4 Restore 20 19.2 115.2
5 Restore 20 9.8* 125 (pre-fault load)
* The load is restored up to the pre-fault value

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Shed load

Command Syntax:

Shed load ;bus ;ID SHUNT PP PQ [PERCENT]

Usage:

The Shed load command is used to perform manual load shedding. Loads can also be automatically shed
under certain system conditions by using relay models. Refer to Section 9 for details on applications of
relay models.

This command can also be used to increase the load. See the Parameter section below for explanation.

If there is induction motor load at the load bus (whether separately modelled or as part of a composite
load model), and if the Include induction motor in load shedding option is set to Yes in the TSAT case, a
proportional portion of the induction motor load at the bus is shed (or increased).

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

Bus load bus number or name.


ID load ID as defined in powerflow. To specify all load at the bus, either use * as the load ID or
ignore the ;ID argument altogether.
SHUNT amount of the shunt at the load bus to be shed in percent with respect to PP.
PP active load to be shed in percent.
PQ reactive load to be shed in percent.

PP and PQ must be real numbers not greater than 100 percent. If PP or PQ is greater than zero, active or
reactive load will be shed. If PP or PQ is less than zero, active or reactive load will be increased by the
percentage equal to the absolute value of PP or PQ, respectively.

If a non-zero SHUNT is specified, the percentage of the shunt to shed is calculated as

SHUNTxPP
100

Example:

Shed load ;12345 ;* 40 50.0 60.0 PERCENT

In this example, 20% of the shunt at bus 12345 will be shed.

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

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(2) The semicolon before the bus number/name and ID is required as the delimiter.

(3) When a load shedding command is executed at time T during a simulation, the actual load to be shed
is calculated with the system condition at time T. However, in the load shedding summary table at the
end of the simulation, the amount of load being shed is listed with respect to their pre-fault value (at
time T=0).

(4) If successive load shedding commands are applied to the same load during a simulation, the load to
be shed is always based on the system condition at the time of shedding. The following table
illustrates a load shedding sequence applied to a load of 125 MW with constant power model.

Load shedding # Amount (%) Load to be shed (MW) Load remaining (MW)
1 20 25 100
2 20 20 80

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TSAT Model Manual

Simulation

Command Syntax:

Simulation for simulation_time [SECONDS | CYCLES]

Usage:

The Simulation command is used to set the length of the simulation. It must be entered before the first At
time command.

Only one Simulation command is expected in one contingency. If more than one command is found, the
first one will be used and the rest ignored.

Parameter:

simulation_time is the length of the simulation to be performed, in either SECONDS or CYCLES. The
default unit is SECONDS.

Example:

Simulation for 10.0 SECONDS

Notes:

(1) The Simulation command is a compulsory command in a contingency.

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Snapshot

Command Syntax:

Snapshot continue_simulation save_snapshot_file snapshot_filename

Usage:

The Snapshot command is used to save an intermediate state of the system (a snapshot) during a
simulation. After a smapshot is saved, simulation(s) can start from it instead of staring from time=0.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

continue_simulation specifies if the simulation of the current contingency will continue after taking
the snapshot. It can be either CONTINUE or STOP. No default is allowed.

save_snapshot_file specifies if a permanent snapshot file will be saved after finishing the
simulations for the current contingency set. It can be either PERM or TEMP. No default is allowed. If
option TEMP is selected, the snapshot file will be deleted after the simulation of the current contingency
set is finished.

snapshot_filename is the name of the snapshot file. The extension of this file will be .tsn. No default
is allowed.

Example:

Snapshot CONTINUE TEMP SS

This command requests a permanent snapshot to be created and saved as SS.tsn. After the snapshot is
created, the simulation will continue till all contingencies are processed.

Notes:

(1) If save_snapshot_file is set to PERM, a snapshot file will be saved, and it can be opened in the
TSAT main menu, refer to TSAT User Manual for details.

(2) If save_snapshot_file is set to TEMP, the snapshot can only be used by following contingencies
in the same contingency file.

(3) No other switching action is allowed at the same time as a Snapshot command.

(4) When performing a transaction analysis, the Snapshot command is ignored.

(5) When performing a critical clearance time (CCT) calculation, the Snapshot command is ignored.

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Start induction motor

Command Syntax:

Start induction motor ;bus ;motor_ID

Usage:

The Start induction motor command is used to start an induction motor from standstill. It is assumed that
the motor data are already included in the dynamic data set in an appropriate format for induction motor
starting.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

bus is the induction motor bus number or name.


motor_ID is the induction motor ID.

Example:

Start induction motor ;12345 ;1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus number/name and induction motor ID are required as the delimiters.

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Step range

Command Syntax:

Step range h_min h_max [SECONDS | CYCLES]

Usage:

The Step range command is used to set the allowable range for automatic integration step size
adjustments. This command must be specified before the first At time command.

Parameter:

h_min is the minimum integration step size


h_max is the maximum integration step size

h_max must be greater than or equal to h_min


h_min ≥ 0.001 seconds
h_max ≤ 0.1 seconds

Example:

Step range 0.004 0.05 SECONDS

Notes:

(1) The initial integration step size is specified in the Step size command.

(2) If no Step range command is specified for a contingency, no automatic adjustment of the integration
step size is made.

(3) If the step size specified in the Step size command is outside the range specified in the Step range
command, the integration step size will only be adjusted in the direction that brings it within the
specified step range, as necessary; i.e., if the step size is 0.01 seconds and the step range is (0.02,
0.05) seconds, the step size will only be increased, as necessary, until the step size is within the step
range.

(4) Step size adjustment starts after the last At time command (i.e., when all switching events are
processed).

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Step size

Command Syntax:

Step size step_size [SECONDS | CYCLES]

Usage:

The Step size command is used to set the integration step size in the simulation. The step size set in this
command is effective until the next step size command.

Parameter:

step_size is the integration step size in either SECONDS or CYCLES, with default being SECONDS.
step_size must be a positive real number. The default step size is 0.5 cycles.

Example:

Step size 0.01 SECONDS

Notes:

(1) The step size specified in this command is used as the base to calculate the actual step size used in the
simulation. The actual step size is the closest real number to the specified step size in order to obtain
an integer number of integration steps between two consecutive switching times. Therefore, the actual
step size is often sightly different from the specified step size.

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Tap line

Command Syntax:

Tap line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID ;new_bus D

Usage:

The Tap line command is used to add a new bus anywhere on an existing line in the system. The line
must exist in the powerflow and it cannot be one added using the Add line command. The line can be
normal line or π line, but cannot be sectional line, transformer, or zero impedance line. The tapped bus
number must be a new number not used by any bus in the powerflow.

After the line is tapped, the original line from from_bus to to_bus with ID does not exist in the system
anymore. Instead, two new lines are created, one from from_bus to new_bus with circuit_ID and the other
from new_bus to to_bus with circuit_ID. The parameters of the new lines are determined from the
parameters of the original line and the distance factor D.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.
new_bus is the number or name of the new bus to be created.
D is the distance of the new bus location on the line from the from_bus in percent (0≤D≤100).

Example:

AT 0.1 Seconds
Tap Line ;12345 ;67890 ;2 ;88888 80.0
AT time 0.2 Seconds
Three Phase Fault At Bus ;88888
At Time 0.25 Seconds
Remove Line ;88888 ;67890 ;1
AT Time 0.3 Seconds
Remove Line ;12345 ;88888;1
Clear three phase fault

In the above example, a new bus (88888) is created at 80% of the line from 12345 to 67890 ID 2. A three-
phase fault is then applied at the new bus (88888). To clear the fault, line 88888-67890-2 is tripped in
0.05 seconds and line 12345-88888-2 is tripped in 0.1 seconds.

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.
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(3) If equipment name is used to identify system component, a new node name should be entered for
new_bus. This new name can be used for the remainder of the contingency wherever a node name is
required. After the line is tapped, two new branch names are added to replace the existing branch
name (with name ‘existing_branch_name’):

• ‘NEAR existing_branch_name’: this name represents the segment attached to the from-side of
the untapped branch.

• ‘FAR existing_branch_name’: this name represents the segment attached to the to-side of the
untapped branch.

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TSAT Model Manual

Three phase fault at bus

Command Syntax:

Three phase fault at bus ;bus

Usage:

The Three phase fault at bus command is used to apply a three phase fault at a bus. This command can be
used only once in a contingency. If more such faults are required, use the Add impedance command as an
alternative.

When applying this command, there should not be other fault at the bus, such as one-phase-to-ground
fault and two-phase-to-ground fault.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name where the fault is applied.

Example:

Three phase fault at bus ;12345

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Three phase fault on line

Command Syntax:

Three phase fault on line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID D

Usage:

The Three phase fault on line command is used to apply a three phase fault on a line. This command can
be used only once in a contingency for normal lines and π lines, but not for zero-impedance lines,
sectional lines, and transformers. The fault can only be cleared by the Clear three phase line fault at near
end and Clear three phase line fault at far end commands, or the Clear three phase fault command which
clears the fault and trips the faulty line. After the fault clearing, it is possible to reconnect the line later
using the Reconnect line command.

The fault location can be anywhere on the line, controlled by the parameter D.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.
D is the distance of the fault location on the line from the from_bus in percent (0≤D≤100).

If D is not specified, the default is 0.

Example:

Three phase fault on line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 50.0

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolons before the bus numbers/names and circuit ID are required as the delimiters.

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Two phase to ground fault at bus

Command Syntax:

Two phase to ground fault at bus ;bus R0 X0 R2 X2

or

Two phase to ground fault at bus ;bus *

Usage:

The Two phase to ground fault at bus command is used to apply a two-phase-to-ground fault at a bus. It is
optional to specify the zero and negative sequence impedances for calculation of the fault impedance. If
these impedances are not provided, it is assumed that the sequence network data of the system has been
read and the fault impedance will be calculated automatically. Refer to Section 14 for requirements on
sequence network data.

This command can be used as many times as required in a contingency, provided that at any time, there
can be only one such fault existing in the system.

When applying this command, there should not be other fault at the bus, such as three phase fault and
one-phase-to-ground fault.

Parameter:

bus is the bus number or name where the fault is applied.


R0+jX0 is the zero sequence impedance at the fault bus in per unit.
R2+jX2 is the negative sequence impedance at the fault bus in per unit.
* indicates that the fault impedance is to be calculated automatically.

|R0+jX0| and |R2+jX2| cannot be equal to zero simultaneously.

Example:

Two phase to ground fault at bus ;12345 0.03 0.3 0.01 0.1

Notes:

(1) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(2) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Two phase to ground fault on line

Command Syntax:

Two phase to ground fault on line ;from_bus ;to_bus ;circuit_ID D

Usage:

The Two phase to ground fault on line command is used to apply a two-phase-to-ground fault on a line.
This command can be applied to normal lines and π lines, but not for zero-impedance lines, sectional
lines, and transformers. The fault can be cleared by the Clear two phase to ground fault command. After
the fault clearing using this command, it is possible to reconnect the line later using the Reconnect line
command. It is further possible to clear the fault by opening the faulty phases of the line, using the Open
two pole command. The faulty phases can be reconnected by the Reconnect pole command.

When this command is applied, the sequence network data must be provided and TSAT automatically
computes the fault impedance from the sequence network data. Refer to Section 14 for requirements on
sequence network data.

The fault location can be anywhere on the line, controlled by the parameter D.

Only one unbalanced fault can be applied at any given time in a contingency, but if an unbalanced fault is
cleared, another can be applied at a different location.

Parameter:

from_bus is the from-bus number or name of the line.


to_bus is the to-bus number or name of the line.
circuit_ID is the circuit ID of the line.
D is the distance of the fault location on the line from the from_bus in percent (0≤D<100).

If D is not specified, the default is 0.

Example:

Two phase to ground fault one line ;12345 ;67890 ;1 0.5

Notes:

(1) The line specified in this command cannot be connected to an infinite bus.

(2) When specifying a bus, either the bus number or the bus name is accepted. However, when this
command is displayed in the contingency data editing window and when the contingency data are
exported to a file, the use of the bus number or name depends on the selection of the bus
identification method.

(3) The semicolon before the bus number/name is required as the delimiter.

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Usesnap

Command Syntax:

Usesnap snapshot_filename

Usage:

The Usesnap command is used to open a snapshot. The simulation of the contingency will continue at this
snapshot instead of starting from time=0.

Only one Usesnap command can be used in one contingency. If more than one command is found, the last
one will be used and the rest ignored.

Parameter:

snapshot_filename is the name of the snapshot file (without file extension). The file extension is
assumed to be .tsn. No default is allowed

Example:

Usesnap SS

Notes:

(1) Usesnap command can only open a snapshot which is created by a Snapshot command in a previous
contingency whith parameter save_snapshot_file=TEMP in the same contingency file. In other
words, the Usesnap command cannot open a permanent snapshot.

(2) The simulation length of the contingency must be sufficiently long so that the simulation will be
ended after the time when the snapshot is created (TSNAP).

(3) In a contingency that contains a Usesnap command, any switching command prior to TSNAP will be
ignored.

(4) The simulation results between time=0 and TSNAP will be the same as those from the contingency in
which the snapshot is created.

(5) The integration method and step size can be changed, but they will only take effect after TSNAP.

(6) When performing a transaction analysis, the Usesnap command is ignored.

(7) When performing a critical clearance time (CCT) calculation, the Usesnap command is ignored.

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13.3 Contingency Template

When preparing TSAT contingency data, it is possible to use template to specify multiple contingencies
of the same type. This section describes the use of contingency template. An example of contingency
template is shown in Section 13.4.

Note that contingency template is not supported in contingency data editor in TSAT Case Wizard. You
must prepare this with a text editor. Once the data is prepared and included in the TSAT case file as the
contingency data, TSAT will take it and create individual regular contingencies according to the rules
specified. The simulations will then be performed for all such regular contingencies. Another note for
using contingency template: the Case Wizard cannot be used in TSAT if contingency template is included
in the contingency data. This implies:

• You cannot use Case Wizard to browse and select a contingency data file that includes a
contingency template. You must edit the TSAT case file using a text editor to include the
contingency data.

• You cannot use Case Wizard to work on any other data if the case includes a contingency
template.

The command structure of a contingency template is the same as regular contingencies. The difference is
that special code can be inserted in a contingency template. Such code is interpreted by TSAT at run time
and converted to actual executable switching commands when creating regular contingencies. Any
regular switching commands in Table 13-1 can be included in a contingency template and they will
simply be repeated in all regular contingencies created.

The following types of code are available in a contingency template:

• Event code
• Subsystem definition code
• Contingency title code

13.3.1 Event Code

Event code is used to specify events (or contingency types) to be applied in contingencies. The general
syntax of an Event code is as follows:

Multiple ;event_code ;clear_time ;from_range ;to_range ;pct ;other_time

In the above, Multiple is the keyword for an Event code. The parameters in an Event code are shown
and explained in Table 13-2.

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Table 13-2: Event code table


Event
Event_code Clear_time From_range To_range pct Other_time
Description
Three-phase 3PHBUS Fault From kV To kV N/A N/A
fault at bus