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A
PROJECT REPORT
ON

“Approaching Thermal Analysis of Pulse-jet Engine”

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

By
Simranjit Kaur
(GU-2015-0168)
Rajesh Kumar
(GU-2015-0166)
Amit K. Chauhan
(GU-2015-0150)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


Mr. Prabhjeet Singh
Assistant Professor
Department of Aerospace Engineering

Faulty of Engineering , Design and Automation(FEDA)


GNA University
Shri Hargobindgarh, Phagwara
(2018)
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DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATES

We, Rajesh Kumar , Amit Kumar Chauhan & Simranjit Kaur hereby declare that the project report
entitled " Approaching Thermal Analysis of Pulsejet Engine", Under the Guidance of Mr. Prabhjeet
Singh, Mr. Harikrishna Chavhan is submitted in the fullfilment of the requirements for the MAJOR
PROJECT. This is a bonafide work carried out by us and the results embodied in this project report have
not been reproduced/copied from any source. The results embodied in this project report have not been
submitted to any other university or institution for the reward of any other degree or diploma.

Date:
Place:

Aerospace Engineering Department


GNA University
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am highly grateful to the Faculty of Engineering, Design and Automation of


GNA UNIVERSITY,SHRI HARGOBINDGARH,PHAGWARA(PB.) for providing this opportunity to
carry the final project in six months on Pulse-jet . I would like to express my gratitude to other faculty
members of our stream Mr.Prabhjeet Singh and to the Mr. Harikrishna Chavhan for providing academic
inputs, guidance & encouragement throughout in the completion of this project.
I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thank to Incharge of our Faculty Mr. Vikrant Sharma,
without whose permission, wise counsel and able guidance, it would have not been possible to complete
the project in this manner. The help rendered by MR. HARIKRISHNA CHAVHAN, Supervisor for
experimentation is greatly acknowledged.
Finally, I express my indebtedness to all who have directly or indirectly contributed to the successful
completion of my half industrial training.

Simranjit Kaur (GU-2015-0168)


Rajesh Kumar (GU-2015-0166)
Amit K. Chauhan (GU-2015-0150)

This is to certify that the above statement made by me is correct to the best of my knowledge.
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ABSTRACT

The objective of this research is to understand the Thrust force parameters and thermodynamic
characteristics of conve ntional pulse jet engine. The geometrical parameters and performance aspects of the
engine were studied including different different models like simple valve less, with turbulator and with
C-D nozzle. Calculations were made on geometrical parameters for a design of a pulse jet engine in ANSYS
(Fluent). In this research we made three Catia V5 Models of pulse jet engine and then done the analysis
with different different flow properties and thermodynamic properties.
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CONTENTS

Chapter No. Topics Page No.

List of Figures 6
List of Tables 7

1 Introduction to Pulsejet Engine 8


1.1 History 8
1.2 How does a valveless engine work 8

1.3 Advantage 10
1.4 Disadvantage 10
1.5 Limitations 11

1.6 Kadenacy effect 11


1.7 objective 11
2 Design of Pulse-jet engine 12
3 Material selection and properties 14
4 Meshing and Software Analysis 16
5 Results and Discussions 21
Conclusion 31
References 32
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List of Figures

Figure No. Topic Page No.


1 1.1 Simple balloon 9

1.2 U-shaped Valveless pulse-jet 9

2 2.1 Pulsejet Plan 12


2.2 Pulsejet Engine 12
2.3 Pulsejet Engine in Action 13

4 4.1 Simple Valveless pulsejet multi-view 16

4.2 Drafting of Simple Valveless Pulsejet Engine 17

4.3 Meshing for simple valveless pulsejet. 17

4.4 C-D Nozzle Pulse-jet Engine 18

4.5 Drafting of C-D Nozzle Pulse-jet Engine 18

4.6 Pulse-jet engine with turbulator 19

4.7 Drafting of Turbulator Pulse-jet Engine 20

5 5.1 Simple Valveless pulsejet- Velocity Front view 21

5.2 Simple Valveless pulsejet- Velocity back view 21

5.3 Mass flow rate Vs. Temperature 22

5.4 Mass flow rate Vs. Thrust 22

5.5 Mass flow rate Vs. Pressure 23

5.6 Pressure Vs.Thrust 23

5.7 Static Pressure Contours 24

5.8 Velocity Contours 24

5.9 Mass flow rate Vs. Temperature 25

5.1 Mass flow rate Vs. Thrust 25

5.11 Mass flow rate Vs. Pressure 26

5.12 Pressure Vs.Thrust 26

5.13 Contours of Pressure 27

5.14 Velocity Magnitude Front View 27

5.15 Velocity Magnitude Back View 27

5.16 Mass flow rate Vs. Temperature 28


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5.17 Mass flow rate Vs. Thrust 28

5.18 Mass flow rate Vs. Pressure 29

5.19 Pressure Vs.Thrust 29

5.2 Comparison of Simple and Turbulator Pulse-Jet Engine 29

5.21 C-D Nozzle Pulse-Jet Engine 30

List of Tables

Table No. Topic Page No.


Variation of Thrust and Mass flow rate w.r.t inlet temperature and
5.1 22
pressure for Simple Valveless Pulse-Jet Engine
Variation of Thrust and Mass flow rate w.r.t inlet temperature and
5.2 24
pressure for C-D Nozzle Pulse-Jet Engine
Variation of Thrust and Mass flow rate w.r.t inlet temperature and
5.3 28
pressure for Pulse-Jet with Turbulator
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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO PULSEJET ENGINE

1.1 History

The pulsejet is one of the simplest propulsion devices requiring no turbo-machinery, or moving parts in
some cases. The pulse jet was originally conceived in the early 1900s and developed into a successful
propulsion system by the Germans in WWII for the V-1 ‘buzz bomb’. Their simple structure and light
weight make them an ideal thrust-generation device, but their thermodynamic efficiency is low compared to
gas turbine engines due to the lack of mechanical compression, which results in low peak pressure. Due to
this low efficiency, the pulsejet received little attention after the late 1950s. However, pulsejets with no
moving parts may be advantageous for building smaller propulsion devices. The thermodynamic efficiency
of conventional engine (such as gas turbines and both SI and CI engine), decreases non-linearly with
decreasing characteristic engine length scale. Also, small scale engines with moving parts are more prone to
breakdown due to fatigue of the moving components. Pulse-jets, especially valveless pulse-jets, are
attractive as candidates for miniaturization due to their extremely simple design.

Why do we need pulse-jet engines? We have operational jet engines, big and small and they run longer and
more efficient that any pulse-jet engine. That’s true, but you can’t build a lightweight jet engine that’s
deliver 3-10 kg thrust easily. But with a pulse-jet, you can. So what do we use them for? Small engines are
mainly used to give thrust to model aircraft's.

1.2 How Does Valveless Pulse-jet Work?


When the fuel-air mixture combust in the chamber, the process generates a great amount of hot gas very
quickly. This happens so fast that it resembles an explosion. The immediate, explosive rise in internal
pressure first compresses the gas inside and then pushes it forcefully out of the chamber. Two powerful
spurts of hot expanding gas are created – a big one that blows through the tailpipe and a smaller one
blowing through the intake. Leaving the engine, the two jets exert a pulse of thrust – they push the engine in
the opposite direction. As the gas expands and the combustion chamber empties, the pressure inside the
engine drops. Due to inertia of the moving gas, this drop continues for some time even after the pressure
falls back to atmospheric. The expansion stops only when the momentum of the gas pulse is completely
spent. At that point, there is a partial vacuum inside the engine. The process now reverses itself. The outside
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(atmospheric) pressure is now higher than the pressure inside the engine and fresh air starts rushing into the
ends of the two ports.

Fig 1.1 Simple balloon


At the intake side, it quickly passes through the short tube, enters the chamber and mixes with fuel. The
tailpipe, however, is rather longer, so that the incoming air does not even get as far as the chamber before
the engine is refilled and the pressure peaks. One of the prime reasons for the extra length of the tailpipe is
to retain enough of the hot exhaust gas within the engine at the moment the suction starts. This gas is
greatly rarified by the expansion, but the outside pressure will push it back and increase its density again.
Back in the chamber, this remnant of previous combustion mixes vigorously with the fresh fuel/air mixture
that enters from the other side. The heat of the chamber and the free radicals in the retained gas will cause
ignition and the process will repeat itself. The spark plug shown on the picture is needed only at start-up.
Once the engine fires, the retained hot gas provides self-ignition and the spark plug becomes unnecessary.
Indeed, if spark ignition is left on, it can interfere with the normal functioning of the engine.
You may wonder about the sharp transition from the intake tract into the chamber. It is necessary to
generate strong turbulence in the incoming air, so that it mixes with injected fuel properly. A gentler,

Fig no.: 1.2 U-shaped Valveless pulse-jet


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1.3 Advantages of Pulse Jet Engine:


A key advantage of the pulse-jet engine, to which no other mechanical thrust device compares, lies in its
simplicity. Though the physical fundamentals of operation may be far from simple, the pulse-jet's
construction especially that of the valve less design, is exquisitely unsophisticated. This fact alone places
the pulse-jet as a forerunner in the innovative field of miniature propulsion. Pulse-jets have begun to receive
renewed interest as a possible source of miniature and/or micro propulsion. However, a basis for powered
thrust should not be considered its only application. The valve less pulse jet could be an excellent source for
micro-heating. Past investments have been made toward the use of conventional-sized pulse-jets in central
heating systems. Cost is significantly reduced by the simplistic nature of valve less pulse-jet construction.

The pulse-jet engine has a peculiar property of pulsating combustion, it can be self-compressing. In the
pulse-jet, the fuel-air mixture does not burn steadily, at a constant pressure, as it does in the other jet
engines. It burns intermittently, in a quick succession of explosive pulses. In each pulse, the gaseous
products of combustion are generated too fast to escape from the combustor at once. This raises the pressure
inside the combustor steeply, which increases combustion efficiency.
The pulse jet is the only jet engine combustor that shows a net pressure gain between the intake and the
exhaust. All the others have to have their highest pressure created at the intake end of the chamber. From
that station on, the pressure falls off. Such a decreasing pressure serves to prevent the hot gas generated in
the combustor from forcing its way out through the intake. This way, the gas moves only towards the
exhaust nozzle in which pressure is converted to speed.
The great intake pressure is usually provided by some kind of compressor, which is a complex and
expensive bit of machinery and consumes a great amount of power. Much of the energy generated in the
turbojet engine goes to drive a compressor and only the remainder provides thrust.
The pulsejet is different; the exhaust pressure is higher than the intake pressure. There is pressure gain
across the combustor, rather than loss. Moreover, the pulsejet does it without wasting the power generated
by combustion. This is very important. About 5% gain in combustion pressure achieved by this method
which improves overall efficiency.

1.4 DISADVANTAGES OF VALVELESS PULSEJET:


 A big problem is that the gain in efficiency offered by pulsating combustion is not at all easy to
utilize for propulsion.
 Unsteadiness generates loss.
 Pulsations are dangerous for the brittle axial turbine blades.
 For the same engine bulk, you get less thrust than with the competing jet engines.
 The pulsations produce horrible noise and mad vibration.
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1.5 Limitations of Pulse jet Engine:


A big problem is that the gain in efficiency offered by pulsating combustion is not at all easy to utilize for
propulsion. Paradoxically, the central problem here is the same as the Source of the benefit namely,
pulsation. The very means of increasing combustion efficiency makes it difficult to take advantage of the
result.
The real potential for the pulsejet has always been in its use as the combustor for a turbine engine, rather
than as an engine in itself. Its ability to generate pressure gain is greatly multiplied in a high pressure.
environment. Compared to the more usual constant-pressure combustor, it can either give the same power
with much smaller mechanical loss and lower fuel consumption, or much greater power
for the same amount of fuel.
Unfortunately, a turbine demands steady flows to function efficiently. Unsteadiness generates loss. Also,
pulsations are dangerous for the brittle axial turbine blades. Radial turbines are tougher in that respect, but
they are less efficient, especially so with intermittent flow. They are mostly used to exploit waste heat, as in
a turbocharger, rather than as prime movers. Researchers have toyed with converting pulsations into a
steady flow, but most methods proved inefficient.

1.6 Kadenacy Effect:


In the explanation of the working cycle, the inertia drives the expanding gas out until the pressure in the
chamber falls some way below atmospheric. The opposite thing happens in the next part of the cycle, when
the outside air pushes its way in to fill the vacuum. The combined momentum of the gases rushing in
through the two opposed ports causes the chamber briefly to be pressurized slightly above atmospheric.
There is thus an oscillation of pressure in the engine caused by inertia. The pressure swings from way above
atmospheric to partial vacuum and back again, in damped oscillation . This is called the Kadenacy Effect.

1.7 Objectives of this Project:


Pulse jet engines have recently been recognized as promising propulsion technology that offers advantage
in thermodynamic cycle efficiency, hardware, simplicity and operation scalability. The potential for
self-aspiration operation is highly attractive for the perspective of efficiency and operation.
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CHAPTER 2

The Design of Pulsejet Engine

Thanks to Don Laird who made a drawing according to a factory-built example in 1993 and Kenneth Moller,
who published the plans on his website at the end of the 1990s, a Chinese manufactured engine has become
a popular design among amateur engine builders.

Fig 2.1 Pulsejet Plan


Though legend says that it was designed in Europe, there is little evidence to support the story. In the 1950s
and early 60s, it was produced by CS of Shanghai, until very recently a notable manufacturer of
conventional 2-stroke piston engines for model aircraft. The company no longer exists – or at least does not
manufacture model engines anymore. Two models were available on the US market – the SJP-1 (22” long,
rated at 2.6 lbs static thrust) and SJP-2 (34” long, rated at 5.1 lbs static thrust). Both were designed to use
liquid fuel (regular car gasoline). Today, most run on propane, but that is a later, amateur development.
The engine is back in production, after a fashion. You can order stainless steel parts from Conception GLC
Inc., a Canadian company run by pulsejet enthusiasts and involved in several interesting engine designs.
The picture above shows the engine put together from their parts kit.

Fig 2.2 Pulsejet Engine


It is a very interesting and very controversial engine. Unlike the Logan, the intake port (which also serves as
the auxiliary exhaust) branches out from the chamber very close to the exhaust proper. Instead of fresh
mixture entering the chamber on one side and hot gas on the other, they enter virtually from the same side,
in streams that impinge on each other at an angle of approximately 45 degrees. Some designers have been
quite taken by the layout, sometimes to extremes. The mid- 1960s effort of a Frenchman, Rene Malroux, on
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the next picture is a case in point. I have no data on its performance, but it would have to be extraordinary to
justify the forbidding bulk. On a more reasonable level, Larry Cottrill of Iowa, a tireless inventor of
practical designs accessible to the amateur, has developed his Focused wave Engine (FWE) as a slightly
simpler to build and entirely vice less kind of ‘Chinese’. The picture shows an example built by Eric Beck
roaring away on the snowy background. One of its notable features is a very short length by valveless
pulsejet standards – just 26 in. Opinions on the effectiveness of the Chinese engine vary. Some builders
have found it a waste of time. One builder I know, who built his example after a few successful Lockwood
engines, described the output of his ‘Chinese’ as “a hamster blowing through a straw”. It has to be noted,
however, that his version had a straight, constant section tailpipe and did not have flared lips either on the
intake or the tailpipe ends. Both details would tend to reduce performance.

Fig 2.3 Pulsejet in Action


Other people say the Chinese produces an adequate amount of thrust for its size and mass. One expert even
claims it is one of the best designs around. It is possible that the poor-performing engines were built to
wrong proportions, however. That would account for the unusual discrepancy among the performance
accounts.
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CHAPTER 3

Material selection and properties

There are many different kinds of metals out of which the metals with there melting points is obtained,
these selection of the material should be based on according to the required result & accuracy for which it
to be designed and cost or the value also fetch a vital role. in general, mild steel is opted for the
construction of pulse jet engines .due to ease weld & wide verities & ability Mild steel are also termed as
carbon steel which is having a high melting point of 1410 deg C (2570 deg F).However, medium carbon
steel, high carbon steel have the melting temperature that ranges from 1425-1540 deg C (2600-2800 deg F).
The low carbon mixtures say (0.05-0.15%) in mild steel do not have a more effect on the melting point of
cast iron, which is 1538 centigrade. considering as well as Looking at the Iron-Carbon phase diagram
which shows that the decreased from this melting temperature will be only a few some of the degrees. At
higher mixtures of carbon (2-4%), as in casst iron, the melting temperature is gradually reduced. This alloy
starts melting at 1154 centigrade, and is completely liquid metal at this level by 1200-1400 centigrade
which depends on carbon content mixtures, Then the melting temperature of steel depends on the type of
steel which are chosen in designing. Carbon steel has a melting point of 1425 degrees C to 1540 degrees C
which is quite high than the usual steelthe use of the electric arc welding as for stitching before the TIG
welding in the welding-section. The current was around 140. Depending on type of metal and thickness of
material..
First the easy parts were joined in order to get an over view of the engine .and later tolerance parts were
joined .

From Drafting , Designing, Construction , Testing Drafting and Designing As an old saying engineers
construct the world .you live with what you design. So the drafting process of our was with the held of auto
cad software .which is a worlds widely used drafting software. used by the designers and engineers of
present day .so we have made a 2d model & 3d too. And have used various tools of auto cad such as
material selection, rendering, realistic, lights ground shadows & volume, area calculator in order to make
our design near to a pratical model . first the subject is drawn in 2-D and then it is made to 3-D .
computation increases as you go deep into the meshing in auto cad to make surface texture better . 3-D
MODEL OF A VALVE LESS PULSE JET ENGINE

Construction and Fabrication


Next step to move was with the construction of prototype. So, we have selected the material for prototype
as jess iron with gauge 18 which was easy to work with then we rolled the sheet according to our geometry.
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then we moved with the part of soldering and assembling of all the parts. & finally it was put to test. With
positive results of its working as desired.

A prototype of a valve less pulse jet engine at an initial level. Advanatages and Disadvantages of the Pulse
Jet Engines.
Advanatages of the Pulse Jet Engines
 Extreme simplicity
 Low cost of construction
 Extreme efficient combustion & very less fuel is used
 Medium to largest engines can bur almost any flammable material.
However it possess some of the drawbacks as :
 Its noise level is very high
 It has high radiant heat levels
 Smallest engines only successful with extremely fast burning fuels
 The engine thrust can be increased by redesigning the nozzle section, also different composite
materials could be tried to construct the engine which would reduce the weight to the thrust ratio.

PJ15 pulsejet engines have been designed and constructed in order to provide Power and reliability, Light
weight, Ease of assembly and maintenance, a choice of fuel systems, extended reed valve life, throttle able
(injected version only). These engines are the result of a comprehensive development program that has
produced a number of innovative new designs.These simple, effective, light-weight engines can be put to
many different uses including Powering model airplanes, boats, cars, etc.Basically an enhanced Schmidt
tube design, these engines have an enlarged combustion zone, straight tailpipe and divergent tail cone.

We worked on CATIA V5 to design the product. As per the requirement we had worked on three different
products by undertaking many variables as a input like temperature and pressure.
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CHAPTER 4

Meshing and Software Analysis

We had worked on Catia V5 software to generate the models


Case 1: Simple Valveless Pulse-Jet Engine.
Mark a circle of diameter 68mm on X-Y plane and pad it with length of 550mm .Take a another circle of 2
mm diameter on Y-Z plane and pad it 4mm.
Our product is ready. Save it.
Then go to Ansys workbench. Import the geometry there. Start doing meshing over that. After that go to
simulation part. In Models, there take the pre-mixed combustion , and viscous as standard k-epsilon. In
materials, take methane and oxygen along with air ,fluid and solid.
In boundary conditions , change the inlet and methane-inlet from velocity inlet to pressure inlet. Then, take
the reference values from methane and take the temperature as 900K. In solution initialization, just
consider the Standard Initialization and compute it from methane-inlet. Last step is run calculation .Give
iterations of 1000 and compute it. Next to plot the graphs and find the thrust and mass flow rate in that.

Fig 4.1 Simple Valveless pulsejet- catia v5 multi- view


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Fig 4.2 Drafting of Simple Valveless Pulsejet Engine

Fig 4.3 Meshing for simple valveless pulsejet.

Case 2: Convergent-Divergent Pulsejet-Engine


Our product is ready. Save it.Then go to Ansys workbench. Import the geometry there. Start doing meshing
over that. After that go to simulation part. In Models, there take the pre-mixed combustion , and viscous as
standard k-epsilon.
In materials, take methane and oxygen along with air ,fluid and solid. In boundary conditions , change the
inlet and methane-inlet from velocity inlet to pressure inlet.
Then, take the reference values from methane and take the temperature as 900K. In solution initialization,
just consider the Standard Initialization and compute it from methane-inlet. Last step is run
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calculation .Give iterations of 1000 and compute it. Next to plot the graphs and find the thrust and mass
flow rate in that.

Fig 4.4 C-D Nozzle Pulse-jet Engine

Fig 4.5 Drafting of C-D Nozzle Pulse-jet Engine


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Case 3: Pulse-jet with Turbulator


Mark a circle of diameter 68mm on X-Y plane and pad it with length of 554mm . Take a another circle of 2
mm diameter on Y-Z plane and pad it 4mm. To create a helix . Make a dot at a distance of 33mm and then
gave a command of helix from wireframe module. Then gave rib command of pitch 10mm and height
550mm. Our product is ready. Save it.
Then go to Ansys workbench. Import the geometry there. Start doing meshing over that. After that go to
simulation part. In Models, there take the pre-mixed combustion , and viscous as standard k-epsilon. In
materials, take methane and oxygen along with air ,fluid and solid. In boundary conditions , change the
inlet and methane-inlet from velocity inlet to pressure inlet.
Then, take the reference values from methane and take the temperature as 900K. In solution initialization,
just consider the Standard Initialization and compute it from methane-inlet. Last step is run
calculation .Give iterations of 1000 and compute it. Next to plot the graphs and find the thrust and mass
flow rate in that.

Fig 4.6 Pulse-jet engine with turbulator


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Fig 4.7 Drafting of Turbulator Pulse-jet Engine


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CHAPTER 5

Results and Discussions

To get our final results we had worked on Ansys workbench to analyse our models. As a whole we are
having three models and respectively we changed our input values of temperature and pressure .Then after
getting the final results , we just plotted a graphs of Mass Flow rate vs.Temperature, Mass Flow rate vs.
Pressure ,Mass Flow rate vs. Thrust and Thrust vs. Pressure.
Case 1: Simple Pulse-jet Engine:

Fig 5.1 Simple Valveless pulsejet- Velocity Front view Vectors

Fig 5.2 Simple Valveless pulsejet- Velocity back view Vectors


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Table 5.1 Variation of Thrust and Mass flow rate w.r.t inlet temperature and pressure

Mass flow
Inlet Temperature Inlet Pressure Thrust
rate
900 101325 12.321256 1.7292981
1200 101325 12.319366 1.7292481
1400 120000 15.019373 1.8851146
1600 150000 19.210823 2.107596
1800 200000 26.078553 2.4358069

Graphs representation

Fig 5.3 Mass flow rate Vs. Temperature

Fig 5.4 Mass flow rate Vs. Thrust


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The mass flow rate is very less as compared to all the other parameters which is an
advantage of the engine. As we increase the temperature the thrust and mass flow rate
increases .Temperature variation can not make much changes as the pressure variation do.

Fig 5.5 Mass flow rate Vs. Pressure

If we do comparison for the of mass flow rate with pressure , then a small variation in
pressure make a large change in mass flow rate.

Fig5.6 Pressure Vs.Thrust


If we compared the pressure vs thrust then the results are not too much satisfied as we can
see in the graph the thrust force is very less with respect to the pressure at the outlet of the
engine.This graph indicating the pressure vs. Thrust graph which compares the input with that of output.
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Case 2: Convergent -Divergent Pulse-jet Engine

Fig 5.7 Static Pressure Contours

Fig 5.8 Velocity Contours

Table 5.2 Variation of Inlet temperature ,pressure w.r.t thrust and mass flow rate

Inlet Temperature Inlet Pressure Thrust Mass Flow Rate

900 101325 100.3936 1.045947435

1200 101325 100.3936 1.145947435

1400 120000 118.60755 1.50054692


1600 150000 149.38187 1.50561259

1800 200000 202.3493 1.664151463


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Graphs Represntation

Fig 5.9 Mass flow rate Vs. Temperature

Comparative to the previous model here mass flow rate is reduced with the same variation of temperature.
This shows that the losses are very less in this model, which is a great advanatage in this case.

Fig 5.10 Mass flow rate Vs. Thrust


n this case the results are very satisfying as compared to thrust force with other cases. The
net force is very with respect to mass flow rate . Due to C-D nozzle the kinetic energy is
increased at the outlet so we get higher thrust .
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Fig 5.11 Mass flow rate Vs. Pressure


Also the pressure is very less at the outlet of the nozzle and the velocity is very high of
exhaust gases. As we increase the pressure , the mass flow rate changes are very less
increased.

Fig 5.12 Pressure Vs.Thrust


This graph indicating the pressure vs. Thrust graph which compares the input with that of output.
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Case 3: Pulse-jet Engine with Turbulator

Fig 5.13 Contours of Pressure

Fig 5.14 Velocity Magnitude Front View

Fig 5.15 Velocity Magnitude Back View


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Table 5.3 Variation of Inlet temperature ,pressure w.r.t thrust and mass flow rate
Mass flow Rate Temperature Pressure Thrust
1.8264054 900 101325 15.048067
1.8263526 1200 101325 15.049287
1.9848062 1400 120000 18.189215
2.2210342 1600 150000 23.272193
2.3583135 1800 200000 26.25341

Graphs Representation

Fig 5.16 Mass flow rate Vs. Temperature

Here with the increase in Temperature , the mass flow rate in more than that we get in above two cases.
This shows that with the use of turbulator the losses are more. This is a big problem which gave more
thrust then that of simple valve-less pulse-jet but large losses.

Fig 5.17 Mass flow rate Vs. Thrust


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This case consist of the turbulator . We introduce the turbulator to analyize the turbulence created in the
pulsejet and the impact is that the thrust force is decreased to somewhat extent as compared with the mass
flow rate and the velocity is also gets reduced .

Fig 5.18 Mass flow rate Vs. Pressure


The mass flow rate is increased as we increase the inlet pressure. This helps to compare all the three
models that which model is providing the greater thrust and less losses.

Fig 5.19 Pressure Vs.Thrust


This graph indicating the pressure vs. Thrust graph which compares the input with that of output.

Fig 5.20 Comparison of Simple and Turbulator Pulse-Jet Engine


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In the above graph , We had discussed the variation of the mass flow rate with respect to Thrust in two
different cases i.e Simple Valveless-Pulse-jet Engine and Turbulator Pulse-jet Engine.
These two cases resembles each other in values.

Fig 5.21 C-D Nozzle Pulse-Jet Engine

In this graph , this is totally different from the simple valveless and turbulator pulse-jet engine. In this the
thrust we get is very much higher and the mass flow rate is less as compared to above two cases.
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Conclusion

After analyzing all the results with different catia models we find that the net thrust force is maximum in
the C-D nozzle model and the mass flow rate is very low which is more efficient than the other two
models simple valve less and with the turbulator. Also by changing the flow parameters we find various
amazing results of flow properties of pulsejet.
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REFERENCES
1.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsejet
2.http://www.academia.edu/29666122/Pulsejet_Final_Report
3.https://www.scribd.com/document/262058065/Pulsejet-Project
4.https://www.scribd.com/doc/90217249/Design-Construction-Analysis-of-a-Pulsejet-Engine
5.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284511823_Computational_Approach_in_Sizing_of_Pulsejet
_Engine

6.https://www.researchgate.net/.../324600603_Design_of_Compound_Pulse_-_Jet_Engine