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Application of Wavelet Synchrosqueezing Transform

For Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

R.Uma Maheswari1,2 R.Umamaheswari1
1.Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai 1. Department of EEE,
2.Department of ECE, Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Velammal Engineering College,
Chennai, India Chennai, India.

Abstract— In Wind turbine condition monitoring systems , the employed to facilitate the synchrosqueezing of Time-
vibration signal analysis is used as the effective tool for fault Frequency representation [1].Closed spaced instantaneous
diagnosis. Gear transmission systems are complex and expensive frequency profiles leads to the interference .To address this
among the drive train components. Faults developed in the issue iterative generalized synchrosqueezing transform is
gearbox will lead to unscheduled down time of wind turbine.
Vibration signals are non stationary in nature and the usual
proposed [2].Synchrosqueezed transform with SVM is
spectral analysis tools are not sufficient for the effective fault proposed as the diagnostic tool for ball bearing faults[3].To
diagnosis. In this paper, A novel joint time- frequency Wavelet reduce the diffusion of curved Instantaneous frequency(IF)
synchrosqueezing transform (WSST) is proposed for the effective profile matching Demodulation transform is proposed [4] .In
intrinsic modes extraction. WSST provides fine Time-Frequency this paper the wavelet synchrosqueezing transform is applied
resolution. To improve the performance of WSST towards noise to vibration signature to extract the intrinsic mode functions
sensitivity, Wavelet Denoising with soft thresholding is employed. effectively.
The efficacy of the proposed methodology is tested with the
NERL GRC Wind Turbine condition monitoring benchmark II. PREPOSED METHOD
datasets. From the simulation results, it has been shown that the
proposed method extracts the intrinsic mode functions with more The vibration signals are preprocessed by using the wavelet
precise time frequency resolution. denoising technique. The wavelet synchrosqueezing transform
(WSST) is applied on the denoised signal.

Keywords — Synchrosqueezing, Joint Time-Frequency

Representation, Wavelet, Non Stationary. A. Wavelet Denoising
The measurement noise is corrupting the vibration and the
transmission system may pass the vibration to the case of the
I. INTRODUCTION machining when it reaches the accelerometer sensor the signal
strength will be very low .To improve the SNR of the signal,
World’s energy deficit inflates. To meet up the increasing
Wavelet denoising technique is employed[5] . The noisy
demand for energy, in recent times the alternate energy is
signal is in the model of
focused that includes the wind energy. Cost of wind energy
x(n ) = y (n ) + σ w (n ) (1)
proportional to the operation and maintenance cost of the wind
turbine. Wind drive train components failure causes Where x(n) is the corrupted signal y(n) is the signal
unscheduled down time which affects the production of wind component , σ is noise power w(n) is the noise. The denoising
energy. Early assessment of components deterioration helps in suppresses the noise and retrieve the signal part y. The
prognostic maintenance. Condition monitoring is the major denoising algorithm based on the inhomogeneous function that
element in predictive maintenance. The operating parameters means the energy are concentrated on the small subset of the
are monitored to indentify the significant changes in the space. All wavelet coefficients are equally contaminated by
operating conditions that may lead to the machinery failures. noise[6].The empirical wavelet coefficient is defined as
Vibration analysis is key component in condition based w i, j= ω i, j + v i, j (2)
maintenance. Accelerometer sensors are mounted at different
locations on the drive train to measure the vibration signal. where v is the white noise , ω is the wavelet transform. The
Vibration signatures reveal the defects at the incipient stages. following steps describes the threshold wavelet denoising
Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) are used in earlier days to process.
analysis the vibration spectrum.FFT algorithms are well suited • The signal is decomposed to obtain the empirical
for the stationary signal analysis. Since wind turbines are non wavelet coefficients.
linear systems the vibration signals obtained from them are • Threshold level is selected and soft thresholding is
non stationary. Instantaneous Frequency profile is recovered
applied on the coefficients. The signal part y(n) is
from the concentrated TFR. Generalized synchrosqueezing is

978-1-5090-0612-0/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE

2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

reconstructed by translating all wavelet coefficients Synchrosqueezing algorithm is described by the following
by an amount 2 log n • σ steps.
n • Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is applied
• Soft threshold non linearity on the multi component amplitude modulated and
ξ t ( z ) = sgn( z )( z − t ) + (3) frequency modulated input signal.
• The instantaneous frequency (IF) profile is extracted
from the CWT output.
B. Wavelet Synchro Squeezing Transform • The regions where the phase of instantaneous
Wavelet synchrosqueezing transform is the time-frequency frequency are constant are squeezed.
representation that used to extract the intrinsic mode functions • The IF frequency is reallocated to the centric
from the multi component AM-FM modulated signal. position of the time-frequency plane. The intrinsic
Synchrosqueezing transform sharpens the time frequency mode functions are well separated in the time-
representation by reallocating to a different concentrated frequency plane.
point. The mathematical modeling for synchrosqueezing Figure 1 explains the proposed methodology.
described in [7] is adapted. For the signal
x(t ) = A cos ωt (4) Vibration Signal Acquisition
where A is the amplitude and ω is the frequency of the by using Accelerometer
signal. The continuous wavelet transform x to ψ is defined as Sensors

in the equation (5).

A 1/ 2
W x ( k , h) = k ψ (kω )e ihω (5) Preprocessing-Wavelet
4π Denoising (Improves SNR)
candidate instantaneous frequency for the signal x is described
in the equation (6)[8] .

ωx (k, h) = −i(Wx (k, h)−1 Wx (k, h) (6) Instantaneous Frequency
Extraction by using Continuous
The information from the time scale plane is mapped in to the Wavelet Transform
time –frequency plane. Point (h,k) is mapped into
(h, ω x (k , h) .The synchrosqueezing transform is explained
as in equation (7). Squeezing in Time Frequency
Tx (ωl , h) = (Δω)−1  Wx (ai , h)ai−3 / 2 (Δa)k
(7) Representation (TFR) Plane.
Constant Phase points
ai : ω(ai , h) −ωl ≤
2 reallocated to some other points
WSST decomposes the signal into the intrinsic mode in TFR
functions(IMF). IMF are simple circular harmonic functions
oscillating around zero .IMF can be defined as [7] Figure 1: Proposed Methodology
I f (t ) = X k (t ) cos(ω k (t )) (8)
where I f (t ) is IMF , X k (t ) is the Amplitude modulated III. EXPERIMENTAL DATA

component and ω k (t ) is the frequency modulated

Vibration data used in this paper, is obtained from NREL
component. Each intrinsic mode function is very slowly Wind Turbine Gearbox Vibration Condition Monitoring
varying sinusoidal harmonic motions. Further the derivative of Benchmarking Datasets. The GRC test Wind turbine is stall
the frequency ω k (t ) is finite. Each IMF should satisfy the
controlled, three bladed upwind turbine with rated power
following conditions. 750KW. National instrument PXI-4472B high speed data
acquisition system. Vibration signals are acquired at 40 KHz
1. Where X k (t ) >0 is the continuously differentiable function
per channel. Eight Accelerometer sensors are mounted at
that means dX k (t )
≠ 0 various places in the wind turbine drive train. Those measure
dt the vibration data .The dataset consists of ten one minute data
2. ω k (t ) is a two times continuously differentiable measured at 50 % rated power and 1800 rpm nominal high
function[9]. speed shaft. The corresponding main shaft speed is 22.09 rpm.
The Experimental setup consists of two gear box with overall
2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

gear ratio 1:81.49.The gear boxes consist of one low speed

planetary stage and two parallel stages [10]. Table I:Signal Properties
Signal Values Raw Vibration
Wavelet denoising suppresses the noise level and retrieves the SNR -10.1395 --5.8780
signal information. Figure (2) illustrates the raw vibration
Peak2rms 4.7401 4.6442
signal measured by accelerometer sensor and the denoised
signal is illustrated in Figure (3).Table I describes the Peak2Peak 35.2558 10.3628
properties of the raw vibration and denoised vibration. The
SNR is improved in the wavelet denoising. Figure (4) shows
the Time Frequency plane of the synchrosqueezing signal. The
mode shapes in the AM-FM modulated components are not
clearly visible in the figure(4). Figure (5) illustrates the AM-
FM modulated components in TFR plane. To extract the mode
shapes the contour plot is drawn .These mode shapes can be
reconstructed by using the inverse wavelet synchrosqueezing.
This is the advantage of the proposed method over the other
time frequency reassignment techniques.

Figure 4 : Synchrosqueezing Waveform

Figure 2: Raw Vibration signal

Figure 5: Intrinsic Mode functions in Time –Frequency Plane.

Three highest energy ridges are extracted from the

synchrosqueezing wavelets. From Figure 6, it is evident that
the three modes of oscillations are isolated in the three ridges.
These from concentrated ridges IMF are extracted by applying
inverse wavelet synchrosqueezing. The extracted IMF are time
domain information which indicates the fault signatures. From
Figure 3: Denoised Vibration signal the simulation results, it is evident that the proposed method
2016 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

extracts the IMF in sharper Time-Frequency plane effectively. proposed WSST technique restrain the time frequency smudge
The proposed WSST improves the frequency resolution by while preserving the good time resolution and fine frequency
keeping fine time resolution. resolution. The proposed method is particularly suited to
enhance the readability of the time –frequency representation
thus it increases the effectiveness of the gear box fault
diagnosis under time varying conditions.

We extend our gratitude to NERL for providing the Wind
Turbine Gearbox Vibration Condition Monitoring
Benchmarking Datasets.
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Figure 6: Highest Energy Ridges
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From the simulation results it has been observed that the