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 It is helpful at this point to be more precise

about just how ‘‘independent’’ vo really is to

changes in the Op Amp gain A. Let G be the
gain vo/vi of the Op Amp circuit. Then for the
non-inverting connection:
 Taking the differential, assuming small
changes in A and constant R1 and R2,
 we obtain
 A useful circuit for isolating one electrical
system from another is the voltage follower.
Comparison with Figure 15.4a indicates that
 this circuit is a degenerate case of the non-
inverting connection, in which R1 = 0
 and R2 = ∞. Hence, from Equation 15.9, the
input-output relation for the
 follower is
 The virtual ground constraint can be
interpreted in physical terms by noting that
the output of a circuit with negative feedback
must adjust itself to force to be
nearly zero, because that nearly-zero voltage
is in turn multiplied by 100,000 to become
the output voltage.
 We assume at the outset . because
v+ is zero in this circuit, the appropriate
constraint is
 The device that consists of two input terminals, in
which reference input signal is fed to one terminal
and the actual value of the signal is fed to another
terminal. Then, an output signal is generated at the
output terminal based on the difference between
the two input signals fed to the two input
terminals. This generated output signal is either 0
(low) or 1 (high).
 In electrical and electronics terminology, the device
used for comparing two voltage signals or current
signals that are fed to the two analog input
terminals, thereby producing one binary digital
output signal to indicate the larger input signal is
called as a comparator circuit.
 The two analog input terminals are represented
as V+ (Vin) & V- (Vref) in the above comparator
circuit. The digital output is generated at the
output terminal V0 (Vout). The output signal of
comparator circuit is given by
 If V+ > V- (Vin is greater than Vref), then V0 = 1
If V+ < V- (Vin is less than Vref), then V0 = 0
 Generally, comparators are used in the devices
such as relaxation oscillators, analog to digital
converters (ADCs), and also in the devices that
are used to measure analog signals. The
comparators consist of high-gain differential
amplifiers and we can use an op amp as
comparator circuit.