Circuito Analysis Homework and solution.

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Circuito Analysis Homework and solution.

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1

Lesson 1

Review of EE 2000

(Given in Module 00b)

2

Lesson 2

Review of Complex Numbers

3

Lesson 2: Review of Complex Numbers

A Complex Number

Figure: J. Riollano

4

The transformation rules from rectangular to polar form are:

b

R a 2 b 2 , and θ tan - 1 .

a

The angle θ, measured in degrees fall into the range: -1800 < θ < 1800.

z* = a - jb = R- θ.

z·z* = a2 + b2 = R2 = |z|2.

A sketch of the four quadrants of the complex number z are presented below:

5

Figure: J. Riollano

Quadrant 1

b

θ tan - 1 .

a

Quadrant 2

b b

θ tan - 1 180 0 - tan - 1 .

-a a

6

Quadrant 3

-b b

θ tan- 1 -180 0 tan- 1 .

-a a

Quadrant 4

-b b

θ tan - 1 - tan - 1 .

a a

Some examples to verify the rectangular to polar conversion, in particular the location of the angle are next:

1 1+j 1.41450

2 - 1 + j1.73 2.001200

3 - 0.866 - j0.5 1.00-1500

4 0.707 - j0.707 1.00-450

5 j 1.00900

6 -2 2.00±1800

7 1 1.0000

8 - j3 3.00-900

7

Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers

To add or subtract two complex numbers, both must be expressed in the rectangular format. Take the two complex numbers:

z1 = 5 + j4, z2 = - 3 + j2.

Therefore:

z1 · z2 = - 15 + j10 - j12 - 8 = - 23 - j2,

therefore,

z1 · z2 = - 23 - j2.

therefore,

8

z1 · z2 = 23.09184.97 = - 23 - j2.

(Multiply the magnitudes and add the angles).

z1 5 j4 - 3 - j2 - 7 - j22 .

z 2 - 3 j2 - 3 - j2 13

1.776 - 107.65 0

z2 - 3 j2 3.606 146.31 0 13

Suggestions

Go to Appendix B of the textbook to find more about the Complex Numbers. Practice with your calculator how to perform

operations with the complex numbers in both rectangular and polar form.

9

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Review Problem # 7

a) -2 + j b) -2 - 4j c) 1 - 3j

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Review Problem # 8

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Review Problem # 9

z1 = 1 + 2j z2 = 2 - j z3 = -1 + j

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Review Problem # 10

Solve the simultaneous linear systems of equations with complex coefficients by hand. Then use a calculator:

System # 1 System # 2

(j)x = 5 36.870

(2j)x + (2 + 3j)y = 5 00

(5 + 4j)y - 2z = 3j

(4j + 4)x + 8.5y = -2j

x + y - z = 1 1800

Solution: x = 5.36 + 5.02j, y = -0.16 - 5.12j Solution: x = 3 - 4j, y = 0.16 - 1.88j, z = 4.16 - 5.88j

10

Lesson 3

The AC Source

11

Lesson 3: The AC Source

The AC (alternate current) signal can be described as a time-varying sinusoidal function, like:

When A = 1, ω = 1, and ф = 450, the time plot for the sinusoidal function f(t) = cos (t - 450) looks like:

A | T |

function

ф

ω

-A

Source: MATLAB

12

There are three characteristics of this signal (in blue):

1) A (in green) = amplitude of the signal which may be either current or voltage. The amplitude could reach a maximum

or a minimum value. Units are either Amps or Volts.

2) ω = angular frequency in rad/sec. It is inversely proportional to the time it requires for a maximum (or minimum) value

to repeat itself (or complete a cycle), which is called the period T (in magenta) measured in seconds:

T = 2π / ω

If ω = 1, the value of T = 6.28 secs. Another frequency measurement is the direct reciprocal of the time period T, called

f, with units in hertz (Hz). Therefore:

3) ф (in red with ω) = phase either in radians on degrees. It establishes a distinction between using a sine on a cosine

function. For example, if f(t) has a value of ф = 900, then the cosine function peak value (at t = 0) displaces ¼ of a cycle

(900) to the right, leaving that:

To verify the value of (ф / ω), let’s consider the first positive time when the first maximum occurs when:

13

Complex Value Notation

Then,

or,

AF = A e -jф is called a phasor. This term could either be applied to a voltage on a current. Next are some properties useful in

the development of the phaeton method for circuit analysis. The three properties are:

Property 1:

Property 2:

14

Property 3:

d j ωt d j ωt

Re A e Re A e .

dt dt

d

1) A cos ωt - ωA sin ωt

dt

2) Re (jω (A e jωt)) = Re (jωA (cos (ωt) + j sin (ωt))) = Re (- ωA sin (ωt) + jωA cos (ωt)) = - ωA sin (ωt)

The results of both 1) and 2) are the same. Therefore the property has been demonstrated.

The response of a dynamic circuit (RC, RL RLC, and also LC) could be divided in two parts:

Complete Response = Effects of the Source Response + Effects of Initial Conditions Response

It is expected that in the case of an AC signal the Steady State Response is a sinusoidal signal too. The Phasor Method allows

us to do that. Consider this case:

15

Figure: J. Riollano

Vs(t) = Vm cos(ωt - ф), where ф = 0. We will use for convenience iL(t) for the inductor current. The differential equation is:

d

iL(t) R iL(t) 1 Vs (t) .

dt L L

The solution:

2) iL(t)ss = Im cos (ωt - γ)

Solve for the steady state value in the differential equation (after multiplying by L):

d

L iL(t)ss R Re iL(t)ss Re Vs (t) ,

dt

for,

16

iL(t)ss = Im cos (ωt - γ) = Re (Im e -jγ · e -jωt) = Re (IF · e -jωt),

where IF = Im e -jγ, the Current Phasor. Let also the Voltage Source Phasor VF = Vm e -j0. Substitute and solve:

Step 1

d j ωt j ωt j ωt

L Re IF e R Re IF e Re V F e .

dt

j ωt j ωt

L Re jω IF e j ωt R Re IF e

Re V F e .

j ωt j ωt

Re jω LI F e j ωt Re R IF e

Re V F e .

j ωt

Re jω L R IF e j ωt Re V F e

.

(jωL + R) · IF = VF,

17

or,

Vm0 o

IF Im - γ ,

jω L R

where,

Vm ωL

Im , γ tan - 1 .

ωL 2 R 2 R

t

Vm - 1 ωL

τ Amps, t 0. .

iL(t) cos ωt - tan

Ke

ωL R

2 2 R

If iL(0) = 0:

Vm R

0 K.

ωL 2

R

2

ωL

2

R

2

Vm R

K .

ωL 2 R 2

We will only be concerned with the Steady State Response:

18

Vm ωL

iL(t) ss cos ωt - tan - 1 Amps

,

ωL

2

R

2 R

which could be obtained by the Phasor Method. Before doing that we have to discuss the concept of impedance and admittance.

19

Lesson 4

General Definition of Impedance

20

Lesson 4: General Definition of Impedance

Consider a circuit element (resistor, inductor or capacitor) subject to a sinusoidal voltage and current:

Figure: J. Riollano

i(t) = Im cos (ωt - γ) = Re (IF e jωt), where the current phasor is IF = Im -γ.

v(t) = Vm cos (ωt - ф) = Re (VF e jωt), where the voltage phasor is VF = Vm -ф.

The impedance Z is the ratio of the voltage phasor vs. the current phasor:

21

Figure: J. Riollano

Where:

Clearly:

(VF / IF) = ZR = R.

22

Figure: J. Riollano

Where:

v(t) = L (di / dt) = ωL · Im cos (ωt + 900) = Re (VF e jωt), with VF = ωL · Im 00

Clearly:

23

Figure: J. Riollano

Where:

i(t) = C (dv / dt) = ωC · Vm cos (ωt + 900) = Re (IF e jωt), with IF = ωC · Vm 00

Clearly:

24

Summary Table of Impedances and Admittances

Z Y

R R 1/R

L jωL - (j / ωL)

C - (j / ωC) jωC

Figure: J. Riollano

where,

Vm ωL

Im , γ tan - 1 .

ωL 2 R 2 R

25

We will apply an algebraic method to obtain the same solution. It is called the Phasor Method, thru the following steps:

Figure: J. Riollano

Notice that all sources and measurements will be written as phasors, an all elements will be impedances.

Apply circuit rules like KVL or KCL to solve for the current IF. In our case KVL applies:

Solving,

V m0 o Vm ωL

IF - tan - 1 .

jω L R ωL 2 R 2 R

26

The solution (Steady State Response only) is:

Vm ωL

iL(t) ss cos ωt - tan - 1 Amps

.

ωL 2

R 2 R

Consider now applying the Ohm's Law to find the inductor voltage:

Vm ωL ,

V F jω L I F 90 o - tan - 1

ωL 2 R 2 R

or,

V m ωL ωL

.

v(t) ss cos ωt 90 o - tan - 1 Volts

ωL 2

R 2 R

Final Notes:

2) Impedances and admittances should be expressed in rectangular form.

3) All DC circuits laws (KVL, KCL, Ohm's Law) as well as analysis techniques (Mesh-Current & Node-Voltage Analysis, Current

& Voltage Division, Theremin & Norton equivalent circuits) could also be applied in AC circuits.

27

Lesson 5

Series Impedances Connection

28

Lesson 5: Series Impedances Connection

Figure: J. Riollano

where,

X = Reactance (Imaginary Part),

Z = Impedance (Complex Number).

Capacitive reactance or XC = (- 1 / ωC).

29

Rectangular form implies a series connection.

Figure: J. Riollano

Zeq = (4 + j2)Ω.

30

Lesson 6

Parallel Admittances Connection

31

Lesson 6: Parallel Admittances Connection

Figure: J. Riollano

where,

X = Susceptance (Imaginary Part),

Z = Admittance (Complex Number).

Capacitive susceptance or BC = (ωC).

32

Illustrative Example 6a:

Figure: J. Riollano

Now we are going to find the reciprocal expression of Yeq, which is Zeq:

1 1 4 - j2 1 1

Y eq

0.2 - j0.1

.

5 j10 20 4 j2 Z eq

Therefore:

Zeq = (4 + j2)Ω.

33

Figure: J. Riollano

This is the same circuit mentioned before, but now expressed thru impedances. If we calculate the equivalent impedance we

get:

Z eq

5 j10 (4 j2) Ω.

5 j10

This is the same impedance value of the series circuit of Example 6a. Let Rs = 4Ω, Xs = 2Ω, Rp = 5Ω, Xp = 10Ω, then the following

is true:

R s jX s Z eq

R p jX p .

R p jX p

As a conclusion, the following two circuits are equivalent, because they have the same equivalent impedance:

Figure: J. Riollano Figure: J. Riollano

34

Lesson 7

KVL and Voltage Division, KCL and Current Division

35

Lesson 7: KVL and Voltage Division, KCL and Current Division

The same rules of DC circuits apply for AC circuits, but with the additional detail to imaginary numbers. Let’s see the following

examples:

Example 7a

Figure: J. Riollano

- 20 + (4·IF) + (j2·IF) = 0.

Another way to get IF could be by simply dividing the value of the voltage source value between the series impedance. To find

the value of the voltage thru the j2Ω impedance we apply voltage division:

V LF

20 j2 = (8.9463.430) V

4 j2

36

Another way to find VLF would be to apply the Ohm’s Law, multiplying IF to the j2Ω impedance.

Example 7b

Figure: J. Riollano

1 = (4.4726.570) V

VF

1 1

5 10j

Another way to get VF could be by simply dividing the value of the current source value between the parallel admittance. To find

the current thru the j10Ω impedance we apply current division:

ILF

1 5 = (.447-63.430) A

5 j10

Another way to find ILF would be to apply the Ohm’s Law, dividing VF by the j10Ω impedance.

37

Problem Solving Workshop 01 Practice

38

Textbook Reference Sections: Modules 01, 02, 03

Textbook Examples: 9.5 thru 9.7, 9.9 thru 9.12, 9.15, 9.16

39

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2) Find the value of the frequency in radians per second?

3) Find the value of the frequency in hertz?

4) Find the value of the period of the signal in seconds?

5) Find the value of the phase angle in degrees?

6) Find the value of the phase angle in radians?

Resistance R G

Inductance jωL -j/ωL

Capacitance -j/ωC jωC

a) Express the value of the resistance and its units in scientific notation.

b) Express the value of the inductance and its units in scientific notation.

c) Express the value of the capacitance and its units in scientific notation.

d) If the elements are subject to a AC frequency of 5000 radians per second, determine:

The impedance and admittance of the 32mH inductor

The impedance and admittance of the 5μF capacitor

40

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

If VC(t)ss = 20cos(5000t + 75o) V, determine:

b) The reactance of the capacitor

c) The admittance of the capacitor

d) The susceptance of the capacitor

e) The phasor current ICF in polar form

f) The steady state current IC(t)ss

If IL(t)ss = 10cos(10000t + 60o) A, determine:

b) The reactance of the inductor

c) The admittance of the inductor

d) The susceptance of the inductor

e) The phasor voltage VLF in polar form

f) The steady state voltage VL(t)ss

41

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Problem # 5 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

For the circuit:

Determine:

a) Value of the impedance Z as a complex number in rectangular form.

b) Sketch of Z in terms of an equivalent series circuit representation.

c) Value of the reactive element of the series equivalent circuit representation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Problem # 6 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

For the circuit of the previous problem determine:

a) Value of the admittance Y = Z-1 as a complex number in rectangular form.

b) Sketch of Y in terms of an equivalent parallel circuit representation using admittances.

c) Find the value of the impedances in this circuit and compare them with the values of previous problem.

d) Value of the reactive element of the parallel equivalent circuit representation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Problem # 7 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

For the circuit:

If the circuit is subject to an angular frequency ω = 10,000 r/s, follow the steps given in the previous two problems applied this time to the equivalent

circuit impedance seen to the right of terminals a and b.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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