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Module 01: Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis, Part 1

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Lesson 1
Review of EE 2000
(Given in Module 00b)

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Lesson 2
Review of Complex Numbers

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Lesson 2: Review of Complex Numbers

A Complex Number

A complex number can be expressed in two formats:

 Format 1: Rectangular Form

z = a + jb, where a = real part, and b = imaginary part.

 Format 2: Polar Form

z = Rθ, where R = magnitude, and θ = phase in degrees.

Polar and Rectangular Transformation

A sketch that relates the rectangular and polar format follows:

Figure: J. Riollano

The transformation rules from polar to rectangular form are:

a = R cos θ, and b = R sin θ.

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The transformation rules from rectangular to polar form are:

b
R  a 2  b 2 , and θ  tan - 1 .
a

The angle θ, measured in degrees fall into the range: -1800 < θ < 1800.

Complex Conjugate and Euler Identities

The complex conjugate of z is:

z* = a - jb = R- θ.

Some of its properties involve:

z·z* = a2 + b2 = R2 = |z|2.

Some of the Euler Identities are:

cos θ = (z + z*) / 2, sin θ = (z - z*) / j2.

The Four Quadrants

A sketch of the four quadrants of the complex number z are presented below:

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Figure: J. Riollano

Some rules involving the polar form angle location are:

Quadrant 1

b
θ  tan - 1 .
a

Quadrant 2

 b  b
θ  tan - 1   180 0 - tan - 1  .
-a a

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Quadrant 3

-b b
θ  tan- 1   -180 0  tan- 1 .
-a a

Quadrant 4

 -b b
θ  tan - 1   - tan - 1 .
 a  a

Rectangular to Polar Format Transformation Examples

Some examples to verify the rectangular to polar conversion, in particular the location of the angle are next:

Case Rectangular Form Polar Form


1 1+j 1.41450
2 - 1 + j1.73 2.001200
3 - 0.866 - j0.5 1.00-1500
4 0.707 - j0.707 1.00-450
5 j 1.00900
6 -2 2.00±1800
7 1 1.0000
8 - j3 3.00-900

All are left to be verified.

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Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers

To add or subtract two complex numbers, both must be expressed in the rectangular format. Take the two complex numbers:

z1 = 5 + j4, z2 = - 3 + j2.

Therefore:

z1 + z2 = 2 = j6, and z1 - z2 = 8 + j2.

Multiplication of Complex Numbers

1) Using Rectangular Form

For z1 = 5 + j4, z2 = - 3 + j2,

z1 · z2 = (5)(- 3) + (5)(j2) + (j4)(- 3) + (j4)(j2),


z1 · z2 = - 15 + j10 - j12 - 8 = - 23 - j2,

therefore,

z1 · z2 = - 23 - j2.

2) Using Polar Form

For z1 = 5 + j4 = 6.40338.660, z2 = - 3 + j2 = 3.606146.310

therefore,

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z1 · z2 = 23.09184.97 = - 23 - j2.
(Multiply the magnitudes and add the angles).

Division of Complex Numbers

1) Using Rectangular Form

For z1 = 5 + j4, z2 = - 3 + j2,

z1 5  j4 - 3 - j2 - 7 - j22 .
  
z 2 - 3  j2 - 3 - j2 13

2) Using Polar Form

For z1 = 5 + j4 = 6.40338.660, z2 = - 3 + j2 = 3.606146.310

z1 5  j4 6.403  38.66 0 - 7 - j22


   1.776  - 107.65 0 
z2 - 3  j2 3.606 146.31 0 13

(Divide the magnitudes and subtract the angles).

Suggestions

Go to Appendix B of the textbook to find more about the Complex Numbers. Practice with your calculator how to perform
operations with the complex numbers in both rectangular and polar form.

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Review Problem # 7

Convert the following numbers to polar form with angles in degrees:

a) -2 + j b) -2 - 4j c) 1 - 3j

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Review Problem # 8

Convert the following numbers to rectangular form:

a) 4  270 b) 2  -1200 c) 5  1800

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Review Problem # 9

Using the following complex numbers in rectangular form:

z1 = 1 + 2j z2 = 2 - j z3 = -1 + j

Evaluate the expressions for:

a) z1 + (z2/z3) b) (z1 z2*)/z3 c) (z1 - z3*)/z2

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Review Problem # 10

Solve the simultaneous linear systems of equations with complex coefficients by hand. Then use a calculator:

System # 1 System # 2
(j)x = 5  36.870
(2j)x + (2 + 3j)y = 5  00
(5 + 4j)y - 2z = 3j
(4j + 4)x + 8.5y = -2j
x + y - z = 1  1800
Solution: x = 5.36 + 5.02j, y = -0.16 - 5.12j Solution: x = 3 - 4j, y = 0.16 - 1.88j, z = 4.16 - 5.88j

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Lesson 3
The AC Source

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Lesson 3: The AC Source

The AC (alternate current) signal can be described as a time-varying sinusoidal function, like:

f(t) = A cos (ωt - ф).

When A = 1, ω = 1, and ф = 450, the time plot for the sinusoidal function f(t) = cos (t - 450) looks like:

A | T |
function

ф
ω

-A

Source: MATLAB

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There are three characteristics of this signal (in blue):

1) A (in green) = amplitude of the signal which may be either current or voltage. The amplitude could reach a maximum
or a minimum value. Units are either Amps or Volts.

2) ω = angular frequency in rad/sec. It is inversely proportional to the time it requires for a maximum (or minimum) value
to repeat itself (or complete a cycle), which is called the period T (in magenta) measured in seconds:

T = 2π / ω

If ω = 1, the value of T = 6.28 secs. Another frequency measurement is the direct reciprocal of the time period T, called
f, with units in hertz (Hz). Therefore:

f = ω / 2π, and f = (1 / T).

3) ф (in red with ω) = phase either in radians on degrees. It establishes a distinction between using a sine on a cosine
function. For example, if f(t) has a value of ф = 900, then the cosine function peak value (at t = 0) displaces ¼ of a cycle
(900) to the right, leaving that:

cos (ωt - 900) = sin (ωt).

To verify the value of (ф / ω), let’s consider the first positive time when the first maximum occurs when:

cos (ωt - ф) = 1, or when ωt - ф = 0. If ф is (π / 4) radians, then (ф / ω) = 1.57 secs.

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Complex Value Notation

Notice that if z = a + jb (j = √-1), then then this is true:

Re(z) = a, and Im(z) = b.

Therefore if z = e jф = cos (ф) + j sin (ф):

Re(e jф) = cos (ф), and Im(e jф) = sin(Ω).

Then,

A cos (ωt - ф) = Re (A e j(ωt - ф)),

or,

Re (A e -jф · e -jωt) = Re (AF · e -jωt).

AF = A e -jф is called a phasor. This term could either be applied to a voltage on a current. Next are some properties useful in
the development of the phaeton method for circuit analysis. The three properties are:

Property 1:

If K is a real value, then K · Re (e -jωt) = Re (K · e -jωt).

Property 2:

Re (A1 · e jф1) + Re (A2 · e jф2) = Re (A1 · e jф1 + A2 · e jф2).

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Property 3:

d  j ωt    d  j ωt  
 Re  A e    Re   A e  .
dt     dt  

To demonstrate the last one say:

d
1) A cos ωt   - ωA sin ωt 
dt
2) Re (jω (A e jωt)) = Re (jωA (cos (ωt) + j sin (ωt))) = Re (- ωA sin (ωt) + jωA cos (ωt)) = - ωA sin (ωt)

The results of both 1) and 2) are the same. Therefore the property has been demonstrated.

The AC Circuit Response

The response of a dynamic circuit (RC, RL RLC, and also LC) could be divided in two parts:

Complete Response = Effects of the Source Response + Effects of Initial Conditions Response

There is a second way to show the solution:

Complete Response = Transient Response + Steady State Response

It is expected that in the case of an AC signal the Steady State Response is a sinusoidal signal too. The Phasor Method allows
us to do that. Consider this case:

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Figure: J. Riollano

Vs(t) = Vm cos(ωt - ф), where ф = 0. We will use for convenience iL(t) for the inductor current. The differential equation is:

d
 iL(t)   R   iL(t)   1   Vs (t) .
dt L L

The solution:

iL(t) = iL(t)t + iL(t)ss,

is formed by two parts:

1) iL(t)t = K e - (t /т), where т = (L / R)


2) iL(t)ss = Im cos (ωt - γ)

Solve for the steady state value in the differential equation (after multiplying by L):

d
L  iL(t)ss   R  Re  iL(t)ss   Re  Vs (t) ,
dt

for,

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iL(t)ss = Im cos (ωt - γ) = Re (Im e -jγ · e -jωt) = Re (IF · e -jωt),

where IF = Im e -jγ, the Current Phasor. Let also the Voltage Source Phasor VF = Vm e -j0. Substitute and solve:

Step 1

d   j ωt    j ωt   j ωt 
L  Re  IF e    R  Re  IF e   Re  V F e .
dt       

Step 2 (After Applying Property # 3)

j ωt  j ωt
L  Re  jω IF e j ωt   R  Re  IF e
  
  Re  V F e .
     

Step 3 (After Applying Property # 1)

j ωt  j ωt
Re  jω LI F e j ωt   Re  R IF e
  
  Re  V F e .
     

Step 4 (After Applying Property # 2)

j ωt 
Re   jω L  R   IF e j ωt   Re  V F e

.
   

From this the result come:

(jωL + R) · IF = VF,

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or,

Vm0 o
IF   Im  - γ ,
jω L  R

where,

Vm  ωL 
Im  , γ  tan - 1  .
ωL 2  R 2  R 

The complete solution becomes:

 t
 
Vm  - 1  ωL  
  τ  Amps, t  0. .
iL(t)  cos  ωt - tan 
     Ke

ωL   R 
2 2   R 

If iL(0) = 0:

Vm R
0   K.
ωL 2
 R 
2
ωL 
2
 R 
2

Vm  R
K .
ωL 2  R 2
We will only be concerned with the Steady State Response:

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Vm   ωL  
iL(t) ss  cos  ωt - tan - 1    Amps

,
ωL 
2
 R 
2   R 

which could be obtained by the Phasor Method. Before doing that we have to discuss the concept of impedance and admittance.

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Lesson 4
General Definition of Impedance

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Lesson 4: General Definition of Impedance

Consider a circuit element (resistor, inductor or capacitor) subject to a sinusoidal voltage and current:

Figure: J. Riollano

The current is described as:

i(t) = Im cos (ωt - γ) = Re (IF e jωt), where the current phasor is IF = Im -γ.

The voltage is described as:

v(t) = Vm cos (ωt - ф) = Re (VF e jωt), where the voltage phasor is VF = Vm -ф.

The impedance Z is the ratio of the voltage phasor vs. the current phasor:

Z = (VF / IF), in Ohms (Ω).

The Resistive Impedance

Consider the circuit element:

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Figure: J. Riollano

Where:

v(t) = Vm cos (ωt) = Re (VF e jωt), with VF = Vm00,

i(t) = (Vm / R) cos (ωt) = Re (IF e jωt), with IF = (Vm / R)00.

Clearly:

(VF / IF) = ZR = R.

The Inductive Impedance

Consider the circuit element:

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Figure: J. Riollano

Where:

i(t) = Im cos (ωt) = Re (IF e jωt), with IF = Im00

v(t) = L (di / dt) = ωL · Im cos (ωt + 900) = Re (VF e jωt), with VF = ωL · Im 00

Clearly:

(VF / IF) = ωL900 = ZL = jωL.

The Capacitive Impedance

Consider the circuit element:

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Figure: J. Riollano

Where:

v(t) = Vm cos (ωt) = Re (VF e jωt), with VF = Vm00

i(t) = C (dv / dt) = ωC · Vm cos (ωt + 900) = Re (IF e jωt), with IF = ωC · Vm 00

Clearly:

(VF / IF) = (1 / ωC)- 900 = ZC = - (j / ωC).

Admittance: General Definition

The Admittance Y is the reciprocal value of the impedance:

Y = (IF / VF) = (1 / Z), in Siemens (S).

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Summary Table of Impedances and Admittances

Z Y
R R 1/R
L jωL - (j / ωL)
C - (j / ωC) jωC

The Phasor Method

For the RL circuit described before:

Figure: J. Riollano

the Steady State Response was:

iL(t)ss = Im cos (ωt - γ),

where,

Vm  ωL 
Im  , γ  tan - 1 .
ωL 2  R 2  R 

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We will apply an algebraic method to obtain the same solution. It is called the Phasor Method, thru the following steps:

Step 1: Transform the Circuit

The new circuit becomes:

Figure: J. Riollano

Notice that all sources and measurements will be written as phasors, an all elements will be impedances.

Step #2: Circuit Analysis

Apply circuit rules like KVL or KCL to solve for the current IF. In our case KVL applies:

KVL: - (Vm  00) + IF· R + IF · (jωL) = 0.

Solving,

V m0 o Vm  ωL 
IF    - tan - 1  .
jω L  R ωL 2  R 2  R 

Step # 3: Solution in the Time Domain

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The solution (Steady State Response only) is:

Vm   ωL  
iL(t) ss  cos  ωt - tan - 1    Amps

.
ωL  2
 R  2   R 

Consider now applying the Ohm's Law to find the inductor voltage:

Vm  ωL   ,
V F   jω L   I F    90 o - tan - 1 
ωL 2  R 2   R 

or,

V m ωL    ωL  
.
v(t) ss  cos  ωt  90 o - tan - 1    Volts

ωL  2
 R  2   R 

Final Notes:

1) Voltages and currents should be expressed in polar form.


2) Impedances and admittances should be expressed in rectangular form.
3) All DC circuits laws (KVL, KCL, Ohm's Law) as well as analysis techniques (Mesh-Current & Node-Voltage Analysis, Current
& Voltage Division, Theremin & Norton equivalent circuits) could also be applied in AC circuits.

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Lesson 5
Series Impedances Connection

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Lesson 5: Series Impedances Connection

For the circuit with two elements connected in series:

Figure: J. Riollano

The impedance is given by the expression:

Z = R + jX, with physical units on Ohms (Ω),

where,

R= Resistance (Real Part),


X = Reactance (Imaginary Part),
Z = Impedance (Complex Number).

The reactance can be separated in two:

Inductive reactance or XL = ωL,


Capacitive reactance or XC = (- 1 / ωC).

Note: ZL = jXL, ZC = jXC.

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Rectangular form implies a series connection.

Illustrative Example 5a:

Consider the circuit:

Figure: J. Riollano

Zeq = (4 + j2)Ω.

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Lesson 6
Parallel Admittances Connection

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Lesson 6: Parallel Admittances Connection

For the circuit with two elements connected in parallel:

Figure: J. Riollano

The admittance is given by the expression:

Y = G + jB, with physical units on Siemens (S),

where,

G= Conductance (Real Part),


X = Susceptance (Imaginary Part),
Z = Admittance (Complex Number).

The susceptance can be separated in two:

Inductive susceptance or BL = (- 1 / ωL),


Capacitive susceptance or BC = (ωC).

Note: YL = jBL, YC = jBC.

Rectangular form implies a parallel.

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Illustrative Example 6a:

Consider the circuit:

Figure: J. Riollano

Yeq = (0.2 - j0.1)S.

Now we are going to find the reciprocal expression of Yeq, which is Zeq:

1 1   4 - j2   1  1
Y eq    
 0.2 - j0.1     
 
 .
 5 j10   20   4  j2  Z eq

Therefore:

Zeq = (4 + j2)Ω.

Now consider the circuit:

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Figure: J. Riollano

This is the same circuit mentioned before, but now expressed thru impedances. If we calculate the equivalent impedance we
get:

Z eq 
5  j10   (4  j2) Ω.
5  j10

This is the same impedance value of the series circuit of Example 6a. Let Rs = 4Ω, Xs = 2Ω, Rp = 5Ω, Xp = 10Ω, then the following
is true:

R s  jX s  Z eq 
R p  jX p  .
R p  jX p

As a conclusion, the following two circuits are equivalent, because they have the same equivalent impedance:

Circuit 1: Series Impedance Connection Circuit 2: Parallel Impedance Connection


Figure: J. Riollano Figure: J. Riollano

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Lesson 7
KVL and Voltage Division, KCL and Current Division

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Lesson 7: KVL and Voltage Division, KCL and Current Division

The same rules of DC circuits apply for AC circuits, but with the additional detail to imaginary numbers. Let’s see the following
examples:

Example 7a

Consider the series circuit subject to a voltage source Vs = (20  00) V:

Figure: J. Riollano

To find the current IF, apply KVL:

- 20 + (4·IF) + (j2·IF) = 0.

This gives us:

IF = [20 / (4 + j2)] = (4.47-26.570) A.

Another way to get IF could be by simply dividing the value of the voltage source value between the series impedance. To find
the value of the voltage thru the j2Ω impedance we apply voltage division:

V LF 
20  j2  = (8.9463.430) V
4  j2

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Another way to find VLF would be to apply the Ohm’s Law, multiplying IF to the j2Ω impedance.

Example 7b

Consider the series circuit subject to a current source Is = (1  00) A:

Figure: J. Riollano

To find the voltage VF, apply KCL:

- 1 + (VF / 5) + (VF / j10) = 0.

1 = (4.4726.570) V
VF 
1 1 
  
 5 10j 

Another way to get VF could be by simply dividing the value of the current source value between the parallel admittance. To find
the current thru the j10Ω impedance we apply current division:

ILF 
1  5  = (.447-63.430) A
5  j10

Another way to find ILF would be to apply the Ohm’s Law, dividing VF by the j10Ω impedance.
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Problem Solving Workshop 01 Practice

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Textbook Reference Sections: Modules 01, 02, 03

Textbook Sections: 9.2 thru 9.9, 9.12

Textbook Examples: 9.5 thru 9.7, 9.9 thru 9.12, 9.15, 9.16

Assessment Problems: 9.1 thru 9.8, 9.10 thru 9.13

Problems: Class instructor may assign some in class.

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Problem # 1 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

Consider the sinusoidal (AC) voltage signal:

v(t) = 750 cos (5000t +30o) V

1) Find the value maximum amplitude of the voltage signal?


2) Find the value of the frequency in radians per second?
3) Find the value of the frequency in hertz?
4) Find the value of the period of the signal in seconds?
5) Find the value of the phase angle in degrees?
6) Find the value of the phase angle in radians?

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For the following 4 problems, consider the table:

Element Impedance Z(jω) in Ohms Admitance Y(jω) in Siemens


Resistance R G
Inductance jωL -j/ωL
Capacitance -j/ωC jωC

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Problem # 2 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

Consider the following elements:

a) 90Ω resistor b) 32mH inductor c) 5μF capacitor

a) Express the value of the resistance and its units in scientific notation.
b) Express the value of the inductance and its units in scientific notation.
c) Express the value of the capacitance and its units in scientific notation.
d) If the elements are subject to a AC frequency of 5000 radians per second, determine:

The impedance and admittance of the 90Ω resistor


The impedance and admittance of the 32mH inductor
The impedance and admittance of the 5μF capacitor

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Problem # 3 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

For the circuit element:


If VC(t)ss = 20cos(5000t + 75o) V, determine:

a) The impedance of the capacitor


b) The reactance of the capacitor
c) The admittance of the capacitor
d) The susceptance of the capacitor
e) The phasor current ICF in polar form
f) The steady state current IC(t)ss

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Problem # 4 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)

For the circuit element:


If IL(t)ss = 10cos(10000t + 60o) A, determine:

a) The impedance of the inductor


b) The reactance of the inductor
c) The admittance of the inductor
d) The susceptance of the inductor
e) The phasor voltage VLF in polar form
f) The steady state voltage VL(t)ss

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Problem # 5 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)
For the circuit:

Determine:
a) Value of the impedance Z as a complex number in rectangular form.
b) Sketch of Z in terms of an equivalent series circuit representation.
c) Value of the reactive element of the series equivalent circuit representation.
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Problem # 6 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)
For the circuit of the previous problem determine:
a) Value of the admittance Y = Z-1 as a complex number in rectangular form.
b) Sketch of Y in terms of an equivalent parallel circuit representation using admittances.
c) Find the value of the impedances in this circuit and compare them with the values of previous problem.
d) Value of the reactive element of the parallel equivalent circuit representation.
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Problem # 7 (Problem Solving Workshop 01)
For the circuit:

If the circuit is subject to an angular frequency ω = 10,000 r/s, follow the steps given in the previous two problems applied this time to the equivalent
circuit impedance seen to the right of terminals a and b.
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