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Properties of Ratio and Proportion


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Some useful properties of ratio and proportion are invertendo property, alternendo
property, componendo Property, dividendo property, convertendo property,
componendo-dividendo property, addendo property and equivalent ratio property.
These properties are explained below with examples.

I. Invertendo Property: For four numbers a, b, c, d if a : b = c : d, then b : a = d : c;


that is, if two ratios are equal, then their inverse ratios are also equal.

If a : b :: c : d then b : a :: d : c.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
⟹ =
b d

b d
⟹ a
= c

⟹ b : a :: d : c

Example: 6 : 10 = 9 : 15

Therefore, 10 : 6 = 5 : 3 = 15 : 9

II. Alternendo Property: For four numbers a, b, c, d if a : b = c : d, then a : c = b : d;


that is, if the second and third term interchange their places, then also the four terms
are in proportion.

If a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
⟹ =
b d

a b c b
⟹ b
· c
= d
· c

a b
⟹ =
c d

⟹ a : c :: b : d

Example: If 3 : 5 = 6 : 10 then 3 : 6 = 1 : 2 = 5 : 10

III. Componendo Property: For four numbers a, b, c, d if a : b = c : d then (a + b) : b ::


(c + d) : d.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
⟹ b
= d

a c
Adding 1 to both sides of = , we get
b d

a c
⟹ b
+1= d
+1

a+b c+d
⟹ =
b d

⟹ (a + b) : b = (c + d) : d

Example: 4 : 5 = 8 : 10

Therefore, (4 + 5) : 5 = 9 : 5 = 18 : 10

= (8 + 10) : 10

IV: Dividendo Property

If a : b :: c : d then (a - b) : b :: (c - d) : d.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
⟹ b
= d

Subtracting 1 from both sides,


a c
⟹ -1= -1
b d

a−b c−d
⟹ b
= d

⟹ (a - b) : b :: (c - d) : d

Example: 5 : 4 = 10 : 8

Therefore, (5 - 4) : 4 = 1 : 4 = (10 - 8) : 8
V. Convertendo Property

If a : b :: c : d then a : (a - b) :: c : (c - d).

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
⟹ = ............................... (i)
b d

a c
⟹ b
-1= d
-1

a−b c−d
⟹ = ............................... (ii)
b d

Dividing (i) by the corresponding sides of (ii),


a c
b d
⟹ a−b
= c−d
b d

a c
⟹ =
a−b c−d

⟹ a : (a - b) :: c : (c - d).

VI. Componendo-Dividendo Property

If a : b :: c : d then (a + b) : (a - b) :: (c + d) : (c - d).

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
⟹ b
= d

a c a c
⟹ +1= + 1 and -1= -1
b d b d

a+b c+d a−b c−d


⟹ b
= d
and b
= d

Dividing the corresponding sides,


a+b c+d
b d
⟹ a−b
= c−d
b d

a+b c+d
⟹ a−b
= c−d
⟹ (a + b) : (a - b) :: (c + d) : (c - d).

Writing in algebraic expressions, the componendo-dividendo property gives the


following.
a c
= ⟹ (a + b) : (a - b) :: (c + d) : (c - d)
b d

Note: This property is frequently used in simplification.

Example: 7 : 3 = 14 : 6

(7 + 3) : ( 7 - 3) = 10 : 4 = 5 : 2

Again, (14 + 6) : (14 - 6) = 20 : 8 = 5 : 2

Therefore, ( 7 + 3) : ( 7 - 3) = ( 14 + 6) : ( 14 - 6)

VII: Addendo Property:

If a : b = c : d = e : f, value of each ratio is (a + c + e) : (b + d + f)

Proof:

a:b=c:d=e:f
a c e
Let, b
= d
= f
= k (k ≠ 0).

Therefore, a = bk, c = dk, e = fk


a+c+e bk + dk + fk k(b+d+f)
Now, = = =k
b+d+f b+d+f b+d+f

a c e a+c+e
Therefore, b
= d
= f
= b+d+f

That is, a : b = c : d = e : f, value of each ratio is (a + c + e) : (b + d + f)


am + cn + ep
Note: If a : b = c : d = e : f, then the value of each ratio will be where m, n, p
bm + dn + fp
may be non zero number.]

a c e a+c+e+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In general, b
= d
= f
= ..................... = b+d+f+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 6 8 2+6+8 16 2
As, = = = = =
3 9 12 3 + 9 + 12 24 3

VIII: Equivalent ratio property

If a : b :: c : d then (a ± c) : (b ± d) : : a: b and (a ± c) : (b ± d) :: c : d

Proof:

a : b :: c : d
a c
Let, b
= d
= k (k ≠ 0).

Therefore, a = bk, c = dk.


a±c bk ± dk k(b±d a c
Now, = = =k= = .
b±d b±d b±d b d

Therefore, (a ± c) : (b ± d) : : a: b and (a ± c) : (b ± d) :: c : d.

Algebraically, the property gives the following.


a c a c a+c a−c
= ⟹ = = =
b d b d b+d b−d

Similarly, we can prove that


a c a c pa + qc
b
= d
⟹ b
= d
= pb + qd

a c e a c e a+c+e ap + cq + er
= = ⟹ = = = =
b d f b d f b+d+f bp + dq + fr

For example:
a c a c 2a + 3c ab + cd
1. b
= d
= b
= d
= 2b + 3d
= , etc.
b2 + d2

a c e a c e a + 2c + 3e 4a – 3c + 9e
2. = = ⟹ = = = = , etc.
b d f b d f b + 2d + 3f 4b – 3d + 9f

● Ratio and proportion

Basic Concept of Ratios


Important Properties of Ratios
Ratio in Lowest Term
Types of Ratios
Comparing Ratios
Arranging Ratios
Dividing into a Given Ratio
Divide a Number into Three Parts in a Given Ratio
Dividing a Quantity into Three Parts in a Given Ratio
Problems on Ratio
Worksheet on Ratio in Lowest Term
Worksheet on Types of Ratios
Worksheet on Comparison on Ratios
Worksheet on Ratio of Two or More Quantities
Worksheet on Dividing a Quantity in a Given Ratio
Word Problems on Ratio
Proportion
Definition of Continued Proportion
Mean and Third Proportional
Word Problems on Proportion
Worksheet on Proportion and Continued Proportion
Worksheet on Mean Proportional
Properties of Ratio and Proportion