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Demonstration of properties of ratios and proportions.

Demonstration of properties of ratios and proportions.

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Some useful properties of ratio and proportion are invertendo property, alternendo

property, componendo Property, dividendo property, convertendo property,

componendo-dividendo property, addendo property and equivalent ratio property.

These properties are explained below with examples.

that is, if two ratios are equal, then their inverse ratios are also equal.

If a : b :: c : d then b : a :: d : c.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

⟹ =

b d

b d

⟹ a

= c

⟹ b : a :: d : c

Example: 6 : 10 = 9 : 15

Therefore, 10 : 6 = 5 : 3 = 15 : 9

that is, if the second and third term interchange their places, then also the four terms

are in proportion.

If a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

⟹ =

b d

a b c b

⟹ b

· c

= d

· c

a b

⟹ =

c d

⟹ a : c :: b : d

Example: If 3 : 5 = 6 : 10 then 3 : 6 = 1 : 2 = 5 : 10

(c + d) : d.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

⟹ b

= d

a c

Adding 1 to both sides of = , we get

b d

a c

⟹ b

+1= d

+1

a+b c+d

⟹ =

b d

⟹ (a + b) : b = (c + d) : d

Example: 4 : 5 = 8 : 10

Therefore, (4 + 5) : 5 = 9 : 5 = 18 : 10

= (8 + 10) : 10

If a : b :: c : d then (a - b) : b :: (c - d) : d.

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

⟹ b

= d

a c

⟹ -1= -1

b d

a−b c−d

⟹ b

= d

⟹ (a - b) : b :: (c - d) : d

Example: 5 : 4 = 10 : 8

Therefore, (5 - 4) : 4 = 1 : 4 = (10 - 8) : 8

V. Convertendo Property

If a : b :: c : d then a : (a - b) :: c : (c - d).

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

⟹ = ............................... (i)

b d

a c

⟹ b

-1= d

-1

a−b c−d

⟹ = ............................... (ii)

b d

a c

b d

⟹ a−b

= c−d

b d

a c

⟹ =

a−b c−d

⟹ a : (a - b) :: c : (c - d).

If a : b :: c : d then (a + b) : (a - b) :: (c + d) : (c - d).

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

⟹ b

= d

a c a c

⟹ +1= + 1 and -1= -1

b d b d

⟹ b

= d

and b

= d

a+b c+d

b d

⟹ a−b

= c−d

b d

a+b c+d

⟹ a−b

= c−d

⟹ (a + b) : (a - b) :: (c + d) : (c - d).

following.

a c

= ⟹ (a + b) : (a - b) :: (c + d) : (c - d)

b d

Example: 7 : 3 = 14 : 6

(7 + 3) : ( 7 - 3) = 10 : 4 = 5 : 2

Therefore, ( 7 + 3) : ( 7 - 3) = ( 14 + 6) : ( 14 - 6)

Proof:

a:b=c:d=e:f

a c e

Let, b

= d

= f

= k (k ≠ 0).

a+c+e bk + dk + fk k(b+d+f)

Now, = = =k

b+d+f b+d+f b+d+f

a c e a+c+e

Therefore, b

= d

= f

= b+d+f

am + cn + ep

Note: If a : b = c : d = e : f, then the value of each ratio will be where m, n, p

bm + dn + fp

may be non zero number.]

a c e a+c+e+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

In general, b

= d

= f

= ..................... = b+d+f+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 6 8 2+6+8 16 2

As, = = = = =

3 9 12 3 + 9 + 12 24 3

If a : b :: c : d then (a ± c) : (b ± d) : : a: b and (a ± c) : (b ± d) :: c : d

Proof:

a : b :: c : d

a c

Let, b

= d

= k (k ≠ 0).

a±c bk ± dk k(b±d a c

Now, = = =k= = .

b±d b±d b±d b d

Therefore, (a ± c) : (b ± d) : : a: b and (a ± c) : (b ± d) :: c : d.

a c a c a+c a−c

= ⟹ = = =

b d b d b+d b−d

a c a c pa + qc

b

= d

⟹ b

= d

= pb + qd

a c e a c e a+c+e ap + cq + er

= = ⟹ = = = =

b d f b d f b+d+f bp + dq + fr

For example:

a c a c 2a + 3c ab + cd

1. b

= d

= b

= d

= 2b + 3d

= , etc.

b2 + d2

a c e a c e a + 2c + 3e 4a – 3c + 9e

2. = = ⟹ = = = = , etc.

b d f b d f b + 2d + 3f 4b – 3d + 9f

Important Properties of Ratios

Ratio in Lowest Term

Types of Ratios

Comparing Ratios

Arranging Ratios

Dividing into a Given Ratio

Divide a Number into Three Parts in a Given Ratio

Dividing a Quantity into Three Parts in a Given Ratio

Problems on Ratio

Worksheet on Ratio in Lowest Term

Worksheet on Types of Ratios

Worksheet on Comparison on Ratios

Worksheet on Ratio of Two or More Quantities

Worksheet on Dividing a Quantity in a Given Ratio

Word Problems on Ratio

Proportion

Definition of Continued Proportion

Mean and Third Proportional

Word Problems on Proportion

Worksheet on Proportion and Continued Proportion

Worksheet on Mean Proportional

Properties of Ratio and Proportion

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