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2001 Report

Gas Turbine Users’ Association

GTUA Annual Meeting

14 May 2001
Banff, Alberta, Canada

The information contained in this report is both proprietary and confidential

to Solar Turbines Incorporated. It is intended solely for the use of GTUA
attendees and is not intended for further dissemination.

Solar Turbines Incorporated

9330 Sky Park Court
San Diego, CA 92123-5398 U.S.A.

Caterpillar is a registered trademark of Caterpillar Inc.

Solar, Titan, Mars, Taurus, Mercury, Centaur, Saturn, Turbotronic and
SoLoNOx are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Specifications subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
ã2001 Solar Turbines Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

The following is an explanation of the system Solar by a version designation, such as Centaur 40S -
Turbines adopted for identifying the models within 4700. The last digit of this number will typically be
â â
our product families of Saturn , Centaur , a 1 or 2, denoting single- or two-shaft gas turbine.
â New models that are uniquely different from
Mercury™, Taurus™, Mars , and Titan™ gas
turbines. For each model, the product family name Solar’s current product families will be given a new
is followed by a model number that indicates the family name and model number. Uprates or
current configuration, such as Saturn 20. A suffix modifications to existing product families will
following the family name and model number desig- maintain their family name and model number. The
nation, such as Centaur 50S, denotes whether the current product family names and ratings are given
product is a low speed power turbine (L), marine in Tables 1 and 2.
(M), or SoLoNOx™ (S) configuration. To further The uprate options available for Solar's two-
shaft and single-shaft gas turbines are listed in
identify a particular model’s build configuration, the
Tables 3 and 4 respectively.
family name, model number and suffix are followed

Table 1. Current Production Models for Compressor Set, Mechanical-Drive and Marine Applications

Product Mechanical Rating Efficiency, % SoLoNOx
kW hp
Saturn 20 1185 1590 24.5 N/A
Centaur 40 3500 4700 27.9 Yes
Centaur 50 4570 6130 30.0 Yes
Centaur 50L* 4680 6275 31.0 Yes
Taurus 60 5740 7700 32.0 Yes
Taurus 60M 5170 6935 32.0 N/A
Taurus 70 7690 10,310 34.8 Yes
Mars 90 9860 13,220 33.3 Yes
Mars 100 11 190 15,000 34.0 Yes
Titan 130 14 540 19,500 35.7 Yes

* Centaur 50 with two-stage power turbine

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Table 2. Current Production Models for Generator Set Applications

Product Electrical Rating, kWe* SoLoNOx

Saturn 20 1210 N/A
Centaur 40 3515 Yes
Centaur 50 4600 Yes
Mercury 50 4200 Yes
Taurus 60 5500 Yes
Taurus 70 7520 Yes
Mars 90** 9450 Yes
Mars 100** 10 690 Yes
Titan 130 14 000 Yes

* Output at generator terminals

** Two-shaft gas turbines

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Table 3. Uprate Options for Compressor Set and Mechanical-Drive Applications

Model Configuration Nominal Power, hp

Incoming Uprated Incoming Uprated
Saturn 10 10-1202 10-1302 1200 1340
10-1402 1340 1450
20-1602 1450 1590
10-1302 10-1402 1340 1450
20-1602 1450 1590
10-1402 20-1602 1450 1590
Centaur 40 40-4002 40-4502 3950 4500
40-4702 4390 4680
40L-5302 4700 5240
40-4502 40-4702 4390 4500
40L-5302 4700 5240
40-4702 40L-5302 4700 5105
Centaur 50 50-5502 50-5702 5450 5680
50-6102 5680 6130
50L-5902 5680 6150
50-5702 50-5802 5680 5815
50L-5902 5680 6150
50-5802 50L-5902 5815 6275
Taurus 60 60-6202 60-6502 6200 6500
60-7002 6500 6960
60-7302 6960 7150
60-6502 60-7002 6500 6960
60-7302 6960 7150
60-7002 60-7302 6960 7150
60-7302 60-7802 7150 7700
Taurus 70 70-8900 70-9702 8900 9700
70-10302 8900 10,310
70-9500 70-9702 9500 9700
70-10302 9500 10,310
70-9700 70-10302 9700 10,310
Mars 90 90-10000 90-13202 10,000 13,220
100-15000 10,000 15,000
90-12000 90-13202 12,600 13,220
100-15000 12,600 15,000
90-13000 100-15000 13,220 15,000
Mars 100 100-14000 100-15000 14,100 15,000
Titan 130 130-18002 130-19502 18,000 19,500

* Two-shaft gas turbines

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Table 4. Uprate Options for Generator Set Applications

Model Configuration Nominal Power, kWe**

Incoming Uprated Incoming Uprated
Saturn 10 10-1201 10-1301 800 950
10-1401 950 1040
Saturn 20 20-1501 20-1601 1140 1210
Centaur 40 40-4001 40-4501 2880 3130
40-4701 3130 3515
40-4501 40-4701 3130 3515
Centaur 50 50-5501 50-5701 3880 4140
50-5901 4140 4345
50-5701 50-5901 4140 4345
50-5901 50-6201 4345 4600
Taurus 60 60-6201 60-6501 4370 4550
60-7001 4550 4950
60-7801 4950 5500
60-6501 60-7001 4550 4950
60-7801 4950 5500
60-7001 60-7801 4950 5500
Taurus 70 70-9701 70-10301 7150 7520
Mars 90* 90-10000 90-13202 10,000 13,220
100-15000 10,000 15,000
90-12000 90-13202 12,600 13,220
100-15000 12,600 15,000
90-13000 100-15000 13,220 15,000
Mars 100* 100-14000 100-15000 14,100 15,000
Titan 130 130-18001 130-19501 12,832 13,505

* Two-shaft gas turbines

** Output at generator terminals


Please contact: Solar’s Office nearest you or:

Solar Turbines Incorporated

Customer Services
9330 Sky Park Court
San Diego, California 92123-5398 U.S.A.
Telephone: [+1] 858-694-1661
Facsimile: [+1] 858-694-6996

(Please refer to the list of Solar’s Customer Services offices.)

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Section Page

Preface .......................................................................................................................................................... i
Message to the GTUA .............................................................................................................................. ix

General Questions to Solar

G-1 Experience and Training of FSRs........................................................................................1
G-2 Compression and Surge System Controls ..........................................................................6
G-3 Software Quality and Change Control ...............................................................................10
G-4 New Software Developments ............................................................................................13
G-5 Improvements in TBO .......................................................................................................18
G-6 Removal of Backup Post Lube ..........................................................................................23
G-7 Retrofit / Upgrade Configuration Control ...........................................................................25
G-8 Pancake Valve Experience................................................................................................27
G-9 Titan and Mercury Experience...........................................................................................30
G-10 New Developments ...........................................................................................................35

Mars Question
M-1 Current Mars Experience...................................................................................................39

Saturn Questions
S-1 Current Saturn Experience ................................................................................................42
S-2 Carbon Seal Developments...............................................................................................43
S-3 Plans for Saturn Product Line............................................................................................44

General Question to All Manufacturers

GA-1 Plans for Internet Technology............................................................................................45

Reference Material .......................................................................................................... A-1
Acronyms......................................................................................................................... A-3
Solar’s Customer Services Offices.................................................................................. A-5

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Figure Page

General Questions to Solar

1 Field Operations Organization.......................................................................................................2
2 Asset Management Services.........................................................................................................3
3 Response Center ..........................................................................................................................4
4 Customer Support Activity Form ...................................................................................................5
5 Customer Satisfaction Survey ......................................................................................................5
6 Anti-Surge Control Screen ............................................................................................................7
7 Anti-Surge Control Lines ...............................................................................................................8
8 Typical Anti-Surge Control Recycle Loop......................................................................................8
9 Recommended Valve Arrangement ..............................................................................................9
10 Solar's Family of Scalable Products ............................................................................................14
11 TT4000 Lite Touch Screen..........................................................................................................14
12 Connectivity of Solar's Products..................................................................................................15
13 Rack-Mounted Logix 5550 ..........................................................................................................15
14 DIN Rail-Mounted Logix 5434 .....................................................................................................16
15 Combination Generator Control Module......................................................................................16
16 Ladder and Function Block Programming...................................................................................17
17 Typical Risk Profile......................................................................................................................19
18 Goodman Diagram for First-Stage Disk ......................................................................................22
19 Valve Assembly...........................................................................................................................27
20 Valve Components ......................................................................................................................27
21 Cross Section of Two Valve Assembly........................................................................................28
22 Two Drain Valve Assembly .........................................................................................................28
23 Titan 130 Two-Shaft Gas Turbine ...............................................................................................31
24 Cutaway of the Mercury 50 Engine .............................................................................................32
25 Engine Cross Section Showing Airflow .......................................................................................33
26 Test Hours through 2000.............................................................................................................33
27 Mercury 50 Development Test Cell and Harbor Drive Facility ....................................................34
28 Taurus 70 Two-Shaft Gas Turbine..............................................................................................35
29 Taurus 70 Single-Shaft Gas Turbine...........................................................................................35
30 Taurus 60 Two-Shaft Gas Turbine..............................................................................................36
31 Taurus 60 Single-Shaft Gas Turbine...........................................................................................36
32 Taurus 60 Mobile Power Unit ......................................................................................................37

Mars Question
33 Typical Mars Gas Turbine Cutaway ............................................................................................40

Saturn Questions
34 Saturn Two-Shaft Engine ............................................................................................................42
35 Saturn Single-Shaft Engine .........................................................................................................42

General Question to All Manufacturers

36 Solar's Updated Web Site ...........................................................................................................45

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Table Page

1 Current Production Models for Compressor Set, Mechanical-Drive and Marine Applications ....... i
2 Current Production Models for Generator Set Applications .......................................................... ii
3 Uprate Options for Compressor Set and Mechanical-Drive Applications..................................... iii
4 Uprate Options for Generator Set Applications ............................................................................ iv

General Questions to Solar

5 Disk Life Extension......................................................................................................................20
6 Bearing Lining Characteristics.....................................................................................................23
7 Pancake Valve Part Numbers .....................................................................................................29
8 Titan 130 Experience ..................................................................................................................30
9 ATS Program Goals ....................................................................................................................32
10 Test Summary – Short-Term Tests.............................................................................................34
11 Taurus 60-7800 Performance .....................................................................................................37

Saturn Questions
12 Comparison of Carbon Seals and Labyrinth Seals .....................................................................43

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Message to the GTUA

Solar is pleased to be invited to participate in the 46th Gas Turbine Users’
Association Conference in Banff, Alberta, Canada. We believe the GTUA
provides an excellent opportunity to address issues of concern to users of
Solar’s turbomachinery and to keep our customers informed of the latest
advancements in product development and service support capability.
We would like to thank this year’s conference host, TransCanada
PipeLines Limited, for sponsoring the 2001 meeting.
Since the business environment is rapidly changing for many of our
users, we are committed to evolve to meet those changes. For your
informational needs, for example, we issued a number of new or revised
Service Bulletins since last year’s GTUA conference and provided more
options in communicating with Solar via our web site at
We endeavored to answer all the GTUA 2001 questions asked of
Solar in an open and candid manner and trust they will meet your
expectations. For your convenience, this CD-ROM contains an Appendix
of any source material referenced in the answers, as well as other
supplemental material.
Solar Turbines is committed to continually improve the quality of its
products and services. We appreciate this opportunity and place a great
deal of importance on our participation in the GTUA conference because
it allows us to gain a better understanding of the issues that are important
to our users. Our primary objective in this effort is to remain worthy of
your continued support.

Dave Esbeck
Vice President
Customer Services

General Questions
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Authors: B. Perretti and B. Eldridge

General Question
Number 1
Users are concerned about the experience and training of some field service
reps especially with regards to their ability to deal with both the mechanical
and instrument/electrical aspects of packages. Please clarify:
• Meaning of Solar Skill Levels (experience and training)
of FSR’s (including Solar, ESI and SAMS)
• Clarify responsibilities of Solar, ESI and SAMS
• Process for resolving customer dissatisfaction with FSR’s
• Relation of FSR’s to RFE’s
• Expectations and processing of FSR reports on visits.

Solar’s Field Service Representatives (FSRs) are Our service support philosophy is to provide sys-
well versed in the system design of compression tems personnel to maintain Solar’s turbomachinery
and power generation equipment, as well as offskid and balance of plant equipment. Currently, our Field
ancillary and balance of plant subsystems. They are Operations Group employs 226 FSRs, 26 RFEs,
supported by Regional Field Engineers (RFEs) 408 ESI technicians, and 146 SAMS technicians.
strategically located in Solar's Field offices, design Solar’s support teams are located in six regions
engineers, and a Response Center in the Customer around the world to meet our diverse user base.
Services Support Center, which is tasked with These regions are divided into 18 service districts.
closed-loop case management for Field problems FSRs in a given region report to a District Manager
and related issues. and are supported by Regional Field Engineers
FSRs have four job classifications focused on (RFEs) in the analysis and resolution of complex
turbomachinery. Energy Services International equipment issues (Figure 1).
Limited (ESI) and Solar Asset Management Serv-
ices (SAMS) technicians provide support for turbo- Field Personnel Skill Levels
machinery, as well as a wide range of plant equip-
ment. FSRs are skilled technicians trained to diagnose,
FSRs are responsible for supporting Solar’s maintain, and repair turbomachinery equipment and
gas turbines worldwide, while ESI and SAMS tech- provide support for Solar’s fleet of more than
nicians support turbomachinery operation and 11,000 gas turbines worldwide. ESI and SAMS
maintenance services, which can require balance of technicians provide the turbomachinery operation
plant equipment. and maintenance services, which may include
Solar’s local District Service Manager should balance of plant equipment.
be contacted to resolve any dissatisfaction with an Solar’s Field personnel have the following job
FSR in the Field. classification codes:
FSRs are supported by RFEs with sophisti-
cated technical analysis of turbomachinery, driven • FSR Level I – Entry level technicians who
equipment and related subsystems. are usually recruited from Solar’s test cells
As a report of their site visit, FSRs are ex- and technical schools or who have previous
pected to complete a Customer Support Activity industrial gas turbine experience. They gen-
(CSA) form. erally provide maintenance services and
support senior level FSRs during start-ups.

1 General 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Regional Service Manager

Oversees All Customer Services
Activities throughout
Regional Field Offices

District Service Manager

Manages Customer
Services Operations in
Local Geographic Area

Regional Field Engineers Field Service Representatives

Tasked to Provide Expert Skilled Technicians to Diagnose,
Engineering for Comprehensive Maintain, and Repair Your
Support of Your Solar Package Turbomachinery Application

Figure 1. Field Operations Organization

• FSR Level II – Intermediate level technicians training, and an introduction to Solar’s Response
who usually have been with Solar for five or Center. Seven days are devoted to Field safety,
more years. They generally provide the same including lockout / tagout, work place hazards,
FSR Level I service and support, as well as confined space entry, emergency, high voltage
call out assistance and product problem safety and hearing conservation. Two weeks are
resolution services. devoted to the fundamentals of turbomachinery and
subsystem operations and maintenance and control
• FSR Levels III and IV – Advanced level system logic.
technicians who usually have been with Solar
for 10 or more years. They provide system
Advanced Training. Later during the first year,
commissioning and start-up, as well as ad-
these FSRs receive an additional eight weeks of
vanced troubleshooting.
training in HRD and advanced turbomachinery
course content. HRD training includes problem
FSRs are sent to user sites based on the job
solving, influencing skills, user sensitivity, and
skills they have to provide for the required services,
technical report writing. Since control systems are
not on their classification code.
becoming more complex and integrated into the
balance of plant, considerable time and effort are
Field Personnel Training spent on programmable logic controller (PLC)
Solar’s FSR, ESI and SAMS technicians receive fundamentals and system troubleshooting, both in
continuous training through classroom courses and the lab and on simulators. Safety is integrated into
on-the-job training. In the first quarter of 2001, Solar the program at all levels.
implemented a newly developed training program Other advanced training courses are available
for all Field Operations personnel that includes on Solar’s microprocessor-based Turbotronic con-
basic technical and safety training, as well as hu- trol system and gas compressor and power gen-
man resources development (HRD) skills. eration principles and applications. These courses
are normally held at our San Diego, California, and
Basic Training. All new hire FSR, ESI and SAMS Mabank, Texas, training locations.
technicians receive a four-week training program at
Solar’s headquarters in San Diego, California. This Continuing Development. Continuing develop-
program consists of a core curriculum on under- ment training is available to increase and expand
standing Solar’s global user base, products and the skill levels of our representatives and techni-
internal business processes, which includes the cians. Technical training covers such topics as
completion of Customer Support Activity reports, microprocessor controls, surge control, vibration,
Department of Transportation (DOT) testing and analytical troubleshooting, borescoping, and fire

2 General 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

and gas detection, while HRD training covers such

topics as effective teaming, project management,
and goal setting. Again, safety is a prime focus in
these programs.

Responsibilities of Field Personnel

A growing and important aspect of Solar’s Field
Operations involves Energy Services International
Limited, Solar’s subsidiary administered in Dublin,
Ireland, and Solar’s Asset Management Services,
headquartered in San Diego. ESI operates in
Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia, while
SAMS operates in North and South America. Their
charter is to provide operation and maintenance
services to our users. With these two organizations,
Solar is able to operate complete facilities, provid-
ing plant optimization and cost reduction. In addi-
tion, Solar provides personnel to operate various
plants, including cogeneration and combined-cycle
power plants, offshore oil production platforms, and
gas pipeline compressor stations (Figure 2).
ESI and SAMS technicians require the same
level of turbomachinery expertise as FSRs. They
also require knowledge of a wide range of balance
of plant equipment, as covered in various types of
asset management services contracts:

• Full Service Asset Management Services

– Consist of turbomachinery and balance of
plant operations and maintenance services,
including after-market products, services,
and parts. Full Service agreements provide 01G1-2B
the highest level of service and the most
valuable plant performance guarantees.
• Maintenance Management – Consist of 01G1-2C

equipment maintenance and repair. Asset

Management Services supplies the person-
nel necessary to develop and implement a
long-term preventive and predictive mainte-
nance program, manage parts inventory, co-
ordinate with outside contractors when nec-
essary, perform normal daily maintenance,
and conduct major maintenance.

Full-Time Maintenance – A full-time main-

tenance staff is provided at the customer’s
site. These personnel supplement the user’s
work force and enhance the skill levels as Figure 2. Asset Management Services
• Technical Services – Consist of providing chinery on-the-job training and formal class-
an operations and maintenance consultant room training, turbomachinery maintenance
on a full-time basis at the user’s facilities. labor, and major maintenance scheduling
• Technical Education Services and Train- and tracking. Further training is site / facility
ing – Involve plant management and assis- specific and focused on operation and main-
tance with staff selection, providing turboma- tenance.

3 General 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Resolving Dissatisfaction with FSR age upgrades and in-situ refurbishments, including
control system upgrades. FSRs also provide Field
The process for resolving customer dissatisfaction repair of major turbine components, such as com-
with FSRs regarding an issue in the Field is to bustors and power turbines.
immediately contact the local District Service Man-
ager. Should a user have further issues, the Re-
gional Manager should be contacted. (Please refer FSR Report Processing
to the list of Solar’s Customer Services offices, Solar’s process for Field office reporting is for the
which includes addresses and telephone and fax FSR to complete a CSA form (Figure 4) upon
numbers.) completion of work done at a user’s site. This
information is provided to Solar’s local Field office
Relationship of Field Personnel and San Diego for Field issue resolution and in-
voicing. The CSA requires a user’s signature upon
RFEs are responsible for supporting the needs of
completion of the work required. A copy is left with
the FSRs, by providing sophisticated technical
the user upon the FSRs departure from the site.
analysis of, and advanced troubleshooting tech-
The remaining CSA copies are submitted to Solar’s
niques for, turbomachinery, driven equipment, and
local Field office for processing. A copy is reviewed
related subsystems. They also conduct both ana-
by the District Service Manager and filed for future
lytical and more practical hands-on training for the
reference. Copies are then sent to San Diego for
FSRs. The RFEs have access to Solar’s Response
database input and invoicing, as well as issue
Center, which identifies Field issues on a “case”
identification and resolution.
basis (Figure 3). The Response Center, in turn,
Solar’s manual CSA process is being replaced
supports the local FSR with real-time information
with a fully integrated, computerized “Field Service
from Solar’s integrated databases. Finally, the
Management” program that will allow the District
resolution for a case is fed back to Solar’s Design
office to schedule the correct level of FSR to the
Engineering and Manufacturing engineers so that
site quickly and efficiently. With electronic access to
the underlying problem is eliminated in future gen-
the equipment bill of material, package configura-
eration designs.
tion, and service call documentation, the FSR will
FSRs are responsible for commissioning and
be able to review previous repairs, providing added
start-up of turbomachinery packages and systems;
efficiency in problem resolution, identify and order
call out services are provided on a 24 / 7 (24 hours
parts on line, and review Solar’s current inventory
a day, 7 days a week) basis, supported by our
position. All data will be shared in a common data-
District offices located in 37 strategic areas in 20
base, integrating Design Engineering, Manufactur-
countries; advanced troubleshooting; in-Field re-
ing and Response Center with the Field. These
pairs on centrifugal compressors and pumps, pack-
enhancements will provide the best value of inte-
grated services for the diverse service requirements
of our users.

Customer Satisfaction Survey

Solar conducts an annual customer satisfaction
survey to measure our performance in relationship
to customer needs and expectations. Figure 5 plots
relative customer importance versus our perform-
ance based on the survey. Our customers have
rated seven Field Service areas of high importance.
Over the past 10 years, Solar has remained con-
sistent in these surveys and continues to see a
positive trend.
We appreciate the feedback we receive from
the GTUA regarding our performance, along with all
Figure 3. Response Center of our customers who participated in these surveys.

4 General 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001


Figure 4. Customer Support Activity Form



1. Assistance with Field Problems

2. Knows Customer's Needs
3. Evening/Weekend Assistance
4. Field Service
5. Holiday Assistance
6. Mechanical Expertise
7. Electrical Expertise




Figure 5. Customer Satisfaction Survey

5 General 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: B. Armstrong

General Question
Number 2
Please report to users on Solar’s work on compression system controls
(including surge control) especially:
• Report on internal Solar Focus Group
• Development of algorithms and selection of operating schemes
• Progress on engineering all system components.
• Plans to form strategic partnerships
• Skills of engineers and FSR’s to set up, support and trouble-
shoot control schemes.

ANSWER pressors, including process control, load sharing,

anti-surge control, and surge margin optimization.
Over the past three years, Solar has enhanced its These options are integrated into the main package
anti-surge control design and has added an option programmable logic controller (PLC) based control
to allow similar units to load share without supervi- system to provide close coupling and precise con-
sory control. trol. Apart from the necessary package instrumen-
Solar's internal focus group recommended tation, no additional controls hardware is required.
improvements in documentation and Field person- Data are available to other supervisory monitoring
nel training. systems via a serial communication link.
Solar is now modelling compressor perform-
ance on head-versus-flow rather than on the differ-
ential pressures of the compressor and the flow
Report on Internal Solar Focus Group
meter. Solar created a focus group to review how balance
We have developed component source specifi- of plant control, including anti-surge control, is
cations and component arrangement recommenda- handled and how it can be improved. It examined
tions for new and existing installations. the process from the proposal phase through com-
We are also working toward forming strategic missioning and subsequent Field service. The
partnerships with compression control system group concluded that while significant improve-
suppliers. ments have been made in recent years in the de-
Solar has developed improved documentation sign of the underlying software and hardware used
and training to enhance the control system skill for anti-surge control, changes were required to
levels of its Field Service Representatives (FSRs). improve the documentation being sent to the Field
and the training of Field Service personnel. Key
BACKGROUND aspects discussed were:
Solar’s level of expertise in the area of compressor
control has expanded considerably over the past 10
Design. Solar’s compressor controls provide im-
portant advantages to the user. Process (or per-
years, as its installed base has grown. Significant
formance) and anti-surge control are available for
improvements have been made and Solar is com-
both single units and multiple units operating in
mitted to providing superior products and services.
series and/or parallel. Control is integrated into the
Solar continues to develop and improve both the
main PLC and, thus, does not require separate
underlying products and the processes for applying
hardware, minimizing the amount of space required
them to projects involving its compression system
for the total control system. The integrated control
(1) eliminates potential interface problems between
Solar provides a number of options for the
separate controllers and the main turbine compres-
control and management of turbine driven com-

6 General 2
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

sor control system and (2) simplifies connections to performance so that it can anticipate when a surge
package and field instrumentation. event is about to occur. It then takes corrective
The recently developed unit-based load-sharing action, typically by opening the anti-surge recycle
feature permits load sharing and surge margin valve, to move the compressor operating point
optimization between like units without the need for away from surge. Solar’s original control system
a separate external controller. used a relationship of pressure differential across
the compressor (DP) versus pressure differential
Organization. A Balance of Plant group was cre- across the flow meter (dp) plate to model surge.
ated in 1999 within the Controls Development This was basically an electronic model of a pneu-
department to provide increased focus on com- matic control system. Also, the earlier anti-surge
pressor control. This group includes engineers with system used a straight-line approximation of this
hands-on design and commissioning experience in relationship, which meant it was accurate over only
compressor control. The objective of the group is to a narrow operating range. Two years ago, Solar
provide overall direction for compressor control and switched to a head-versus-flow relationship and a
to support design engineers and Field Service third-order polynomial equation to model compres-
personnel on more complex projects. sor performance. In addition, instead of using actual
head and actual flow, the new system uses reduced
Documentation. A Balance of Plant Functional head and reduced flow, values of head and flow
Specification was introduced as a required drawing that are mathematically reduced to remove com-
on compressor packages. This document, devel- mon factors. The result is a system that is largely
oped in conjunction with the user, defines the spe- independent of the specific gravity of the process
cific controls philosophy and logic applicable to gas and provides much greater accuracy and re-
each project and details all inputs and outputs (I/O) sponsiveness.
related to the balance of plant equipment. Figure 6 shows a typical anti-surge control
screen from Solar’s control system. The cursor
Training. Additional training and increased support indicates the operating point of the compressor.
are required for Solar’s FSRs, who are the key user From left to right, the three sloped lines are the
interface during commissioning and subsequent surge line, the control line, and the deadband line,
equipment service and authorized site changes. respectively. For convenience these are shown as
straight lines, which represent tangents to the
actual curved performance lines at the operating
Future Development. Solar’s future plans call for
conditions, as indicated in Figure 7. As the operat-
the increased use of “onskid” controls. The key
ing point moves, the slope of these tangential lines
components of the system, including the processor
will change.
and I/O modules, are mounted on the package
skid. Connection to the control room is via serial
communication links instead of multi-conductor
cabling, with a significant reduction in cost and
physical bulk. Considerable development work has
been devoted to reducing the size of the controls so
that they can be mounted onskid. The integrated
nature of Solar’s compressor controls makes them
fully compatible with the onskid concept.
Solar provides one point of responsibility for the
control system, reducing the possibility of disputes
if performance or operating problems arise. In
addition, the system uses an open architecture that
offers flexibility to users for service options.

Development of Algorithms and

Selection of Operating Schemes
The objective of the anti-surge control system is to
prevent the compressor from ever reaching the 01G2-1

point of surge. To achieve this, the control system

uses a mathematical model of the compressor Figure 6. Anti-Surge Control Screen

7 General 2
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Control installation of any one element can compromise the

Surge Deadband overall performance or make the system inopera-
tive. Solar’s experience indicates that Field prob-
lems are sometimes attributable to hardware.

Accurate signals from instrumentation and fast

acting valves are critical, since fast response is an
essential part of any anti-surge system. Figure 8
shows a simplified schematic diagram of a typical
compressor with an anti-surge recycle loop.
Solar has developed stringent source specifi-
cations for valves, positioners, transmitters and
other components and continues to work with key
industry suppliers to help improve individual com-
ponents. The current recommended valve ar-
rangement is shown in Figure 9 for a globe valve
and includes an electropneumatic positioner, a
position transmitter, a three-way solenoid valve,
01G2-2 needle and check valves, an exhaust booster, and
a regulated air supply. This set-up, in conjunction
Figure 7. Anti-Surge Control Lines with the latest software, has been proven to provide
a high level of response and control.
The exhaust booster, for example, was devel-
Progress on Engineering All oped by a supplier based on recommendations
System Components from Solar’s engineers. When a large rapid change
in the position of the anti-surge valve is required, it
An anti-surge control system requires the success- will vent instrument air in a controlled manner. The
ful combination of piping layout, hardware such as booster has proved superior to standard quick
valves and positioners, and the necessary elec- exhaust devices in its ability to prevent valve over-
tronic software-based control. Improper selection or shoot.






SOLENOID 4 - 20 mA
24 VDC



Figure 8. Typical Anti-Surge Control Recycle Loop

8 General 2
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

NEEDLE VALVE & purchase order. This includes better pre-order

CHECK VALVE definition and more accurate costing through earlier
BOOSTER 24 VDC involvement of the third party, as well as a more
THREE-WAY standardized approach to engineering the interface
SOLENOID between the other equipment and Solar’s controls.

Skills of Engineers and FSRs to Set Up, Sup-

port and Troubleshoot Control Schemes
Solar has a network of Field Service offices around
the world. The key individuals involved in the com-
missioning and service of packages, including the
tuning of the compressor controls, are the FSRs.
4 - 20 mA
They are supported on more difficult technical
Limit Switch Closed
ELECTRO- Limit Switch Open issues by the Regional Field Engineers (RFEs) and,
PNEUMATIC when required, by factory process control engineers
from the Balance of Plant group. Solar recognizes
that the level of training and expertise of the FSRs
AIR SUPPLY varies and this has affected the successful installa-
tion of some projects. The following areas have
PRESSURE been addressed to improve this situation:

01G2-4 Documentation. The Balance of Plant Functional

Specification has greatly improved the definition
process so that the software and hardware configu-
Figure 9. Recommended Valve Arrangement ration shipped to the site accurately reflects user
requirements. A manual on anti-surge and process
control for centrifugal compressor applications has
Solar does recognize that in some situations it been written to help Solar’s personnel and user
is not practical to change hardware already installed personnel better understand how these controls are
in the Field. In these cases, Solar's engineers work implemented. The relevant sections of the Opera-
with the user and modify the software to optimize tion and Maintenance Instructions (OMI) manuals
the performance of the existing hardware. have been updated to reflect the latest information.

Possible Strategic Partnerships Training. The compressor controls course spon-

Discussions have been held with other suppliers of sored by Solar’s Technical Training department has
anti-surge control systems to explore possible been updated to cover the latest information. This
cooperative efforts. At this time, however, no deci- course is available to user personnel and Solar’s
sion has been made to form a strategic partnership. employees. Both formal and informal training ses-
Steps have been taken to improve the process for sions are being held with FSRs and RFEs to raise
including third-party anti-surge systems on Solar’s the overall level of expertise within the company.

9 General 2
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: S. McLoughlin

General Question
Number 3
Users are concerned about quality control and change control of software.
Please address the following issues for new and existing software:

• Verification that software is correct prior to shipment

• Control and verification of FSR changes
• FSR training/guidelines/authority levels for changes and tuning.
• Procedures used for tuning
• Documentation of site changes (both for user and vendor)

ANSWER and verification of software changes made by

Solar’s FSRs or Regional Field Engineers (RFEs).
Over the past five years, Solar has developed new As skilled technicians trained to diagnose, maintain,
tools, processes, and measurements that focus on and repair user equipment, Solar’s FSRs are em-
improving software quality and control. Current powered to make the software modifications
development activities include functional block needed for the user’s turbomachinery to operate
programming, remote monitoring / tuning, and within normal parameters per Solar's specifications.
certified modular software. Solar recognizes that more complete docu-
Solar has developed check programs to verify mentation, instructions and training courses for
that the control system software is correct prior to tuning procedures are required. Although general
shipment. tuning procedures have been documented, some of
Our software verification process is designed to the existing procedures are currently being updated
capture, validate and document control system and new procedures are being developed.
changes made by our Field personnel.
Solar's Field Service Representatives (FSRs)
receive solid technical support, as well as hands-on
Verification of Software prior to Shipment
control system troubleshooting and Turbotronic To improve the reliability and quality of its control
simulator training. software, Solar has created many internal software
Our general tuning procedures include docu- check programs (tools). These programs help
mentation, instrumentation and static loop checks, minimize the communication errors, ladder errors
along with dynamic tuning where possible. and display errors, which may be introduced after
Site changes to the control system software are completion of dynamic test, on initial “as-shipped”
documented in a "history" file as confirmed by and on official “as-installed” releases. They perform
Solar's Release Group in San Diego. most of the checks and balances of the data be-
tween the programmable logic controller (PLC)
BACKGROUND program and the display computer files, making the
Design Engineer more efficient in producing quality
Solar continuously strives to strengthen the proc- software. One program, for example, was created
esses and tools involved in software quality and to transfer the PLC symbols and address com-
control. The current software release process ments from the PLC program to the display com-
ensures that all “as-tested” or “field-returned” soft- puter files, so there is exact correlation between the
ware is captured, verified and used in generating ladder diagram and displayed messages. This
the “as-shipped,” “as-installed,” or “post commis- program provides valuable feedback during the
sioning” software releases. This process involves design process, reporting exceptions that need to
ISO 9000 procedures governing the documentation be corrected.

10 General 3
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

To ensure proper verification of the software • “Standard” (composite) software modules are
during the release process, Solar uses a process to validated by an independent review of the
validate that the project software is functioning code and a test in the Systems Engineering
properly before any official release. Checking the facility control console, a test using simula-
as-shipped release software (Rev_A0) consists of tion equipment, or a test project console and
the following main steps: package.

1. Initial Check – Confirm visually that all needed • After-market and new “project” (custom)
drawing files are present, that the directory software are tested using simulation equip-
structure is correct, and that the history file is ment. Additional verification for new project
properly documented. software and after-market refurbishment
project software occurs during a dynamic test
2. Create Disks / Load Software conducted in a production test cell with the
a. Use Diskmaker Tool to verify that pointers project skid and control console in accor-
are correct and needed files are present. dance with Solar’s ISO 9000 procedures.
b. Load PLC software files into PLC to assure Post Commissioning. To promote consistent
there are no faults. handling of post-commissioning software modifica-
c. Load display software files into display tions, Solar developed an improved process for
computer to check for warnings or errors. commissioned software control and verification.
If display loads correctly, check menu se- This process is intended to ensure that software
lections and communication between PLC quality is not compromised and that the latest site
and display. software is archived for future use.
At the conclusion of a post commissioning up-
3. Diagnose Problems – If display software does
date, the FSR or RFE sends a copy to San Diego of
not load correctly, diagnose problem. Then no-
the “as-found” and “as-left” software installed in the
tify Design Engineer to make corrections and
user’s control system. An updated description of the
repeat testing with revised software.
changes between these two sets of software is also
4. Release – Archive software, notify all appropri- returned to the San Diego Release Group via elec-
ate individuals, and update release log. tronic mail, the Commissioning Engineer, or the
Customer Services Project Manager. The Controls
Control and Verification of Changes Group in San Diego reviews those software
changes made by Solar’s FSRs or RFEs only. User
In conjunction with the software release process
changes are not reviewed and, thus, Solar does
and software quality checks, Solar has uses a
not assume any liability resulting from changes
software verification process. Software is developed
made by personnel not authorized by Solar. Soft-
for new or after-market projects by modifying “com-
ware changes should be made through Solar’s
posite” software in an existing standard database.
appropriate Field Service office to ensure the safety
The project software is customized and developed
and performance of the engine / package are not
on a personal computer to create the “initial re-
lease.” During testing of that release, required
changes are incorporated via “updates” or “inter-
mediate releases.” After test, the “as-tested” soft- Field Service Representative Training,
ware is captured and used to generate the “as- Guidelines and Authority
shipped” release. During commissioning of the Solar’s FSRs represent a well-trained, motivated
equipment, the Design Engineer may issue “other” and talented work force dedicated to resolving user
releases to be sent to the Field to resolve any user site software issues. They are empowered to
site issues. When commissioning is complete, the change the control software to ensure that the
Field-returned software is captured and sent back turbomachinery operates within normal safety and
to San Diego to generate the “as-installed” release. performance parameters per Solar's specifications.
Prior to any official release, the Design Engineer For technical support, they interact with the RFEs,
reviews all software differences and clarifies any Design Engineers or Customer Services Response
issues with the FSR or RFE. Center. The FSRs also attend an intensive one-
Solar’s internal software verification, prior to week controls system programming course, which
any “as-shipped” software release, involves the offers hands-on troubleshooting through the use of

11 General 3
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

a control system simulator. The FSR is given a one-

• Static loop check
day refresher course on troubleshooting theory,
then allowed four days to actually troubleshoot the • Dynamic tuning
control system for problems applicable to both
compressors and generators. Additionally, the FSR Documentation of Site Changes
has the opportunity to reinforce programming skills
by going on-line with a Turbotronic simulator. This All changes to software, including the initial internal
PLC trainer is designed to demonstrate logic in- release, must be noted in the “history” file that
structions and turbine control principles. Upon forms part of the overall software file structure. This
successful completion of the course, the FSR has file resides in the drawing software folder and has
learned all the necessary procedures for making the filename "xxxxx.his" where "xxxxx" is the five-
Field changes to the control system hardware and digit Sales Order (or Project Definition) number.
software. This file allows anyone working on the software to
view what prior revisions were made and why. To
ensure proper documentation of site changes,
Procedures Used for Tuning Solar’s San Diego based Release Group adheres
Solar is developing more complete documentation, to a strict procedure. The Release Group confirms
instructions and training courses for closed-loop that Field-returned software contains an updated
tuning procedures. Our internal software verification history file. If no changes were made to the soft-
processes in dynamic test complete a majority of ware, then the history file must state: “no modifica-
the pre-tuning requirements for specific applica- tions.” The Release Group archives the Field soft-
tions, such as fuel, guide vane, bleed valve, and ware and notifies the Commissioning Engineer or
SoLoNOx control. These processes ensure that Customer Services Project Manager, Design Engi-
Solar delivers a high quality software product to its neer and Engineering Group Leader that the re-
users that requires only fine tuning at the user’s turned software has been archived and is ready for
site. Systems such as surge, import / export, proc- the review and release process. If the history file is
ess, and boiler control are statically tested rather missing or not updated, the Release Group notifies
than dynamically tested. the Commissioning Group for new projects or
Presently, some existing tuning procedures are Customer Services Project Management for after-
being updated, while new specific control loop market projects, and the appropriate District Man-
tuning procedures are being developed. Solar’s ager, that the software has been rejected.
general tuning procedures involve:

• Loop functional documentation review

• Instrumentation and actuator check

12 General 3
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: E. Corzine

General Question
Number 4
Describe new software developments.

ANSWER TT4000 is a scalable system that has the ca-

pability for enhanced data logging, report genera-
Solar is committed to maintaining a leadership tion, remote communications, and event notification
position in gas turbine control and monitoring. To of remote personnel. This design provides an ex-
maintain this position, Solar continuously reviews cellent foundation for future growth and extension
technology advancements, user requirements, and of the product.
industry trends in hardware and software. This
information enables Solar to develop controls solu- Scalable Family of Products
tions that address the complex requirements of gas
turbine control and monitoring. The first offering in Solar’s scalable family of display
products (Figure 10) is TT4000. TT4000 is a “full
BACKGROUND scale “ HMI that replaces our older TT2000 DOS-
based HMI. It is a Windows NT / 2000 based sys-
Solar’s current software development is divided into tem offered in a range of hardware configurations
two areas: human machine interface (HMI) and from desktop to industrial rack-mounted solutions.
programmable logic controller (PLC). Solar TT4000 is capable of collecting large amounts of
launched a cross-functional team to review the historical data. Typically, a TT4000 project is con-
current HMI and PLC standard, internal and exter- figured to collect from four to five gigabytes of data.
nal user requirements, and industry trends. This Additionally, TT4000 has advanced alarming capa-
team then established the objectives and require- bilities, including the ability to send a fax, page, or
ments for the next generation HMI and PLC prod- E-mail based on alarm condition. Other key fea-
ucts. tures of TT4000 include on-line help, real-time
trending of tag information, and an off-line historical
Human Machine Interface data analysis application.
The design objective for Solar's new HMI standard, TT4000 Lite is Solar’s next offering in the scal-
TT4000, is to provide users with information to able family of display products. TT4000 Lite is an
improve their equipment operation. The basis of onskid Class I, Div. 2 display system with a NEMA
TT4000 is an open architecture that adheres to 4X rating. Offered as a Panelview replacement,
industry standards, including the following: TT4000 Lite provides access to the last 5000
events and a limited subset of the full-scale TT4000
• Operating System – Windows NT / 2000 historical data-logging configuration. The primary
interface is a 10.4-inch touch screen (Figure 11). To
• Display Viewer – Active X meet temperature and vibration requirements, the
• Database – ODBC standard hard drive is replaced by a solid-state hard
(Open DataBase Connectivity) drive.
TT4000 Brick is a new product under devel-
• Scripting – VBA opment that has no user interface. It is a small
(Visual Basic for Applications) stand-alone (“brick”) computer capable of offering
• Communication Technology – OPC process data using HTML and XML Internet tech-
(OLE for Process Control) nologies. TT4000 Brick will provide a centralized
“view” into the process for those systems that may
not contain other display technology entry points
like TT4000 or TT4000 Lite systems.

13 General 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

• TT2000
• Real-Time
TT4000 Lite
• Historical Display
• PanelView
• Trending
• Real-Time
TT4000 Brick • Predictive
• Simple Screens
• Real-Time • Windows NT / 2000
• Historical Data
• Small Historical
• Embedded Windows
• No Hard Drive
• No Display
• Windows CE

Under Development



Figure 10. Solar's Family of Scalable Products

1. The first communication path is to the onskid

controllers. This onskid or offskid communica-
tions path can be either DF1 serial, ControlNet
Version 1.5, Ethernet or combination.
2. The second communication path is to the
user's local area Ethernet network. This path
enables the user to monitor process data. Ad-
ditionally, network printers can be used for
TT4000 screen prints and reports.
3. The third communication path is intended for
remote connectivity either via serial, modem or
other global communications equipment. This
communication path allows remote connectivity
to view, retrieve and archive process data.

The combination of state-of-the-art hardware

and software technologies enables the TT4000 to
be applied across a wide range of projects. The
same TT4000 application can be used for single
units or multiple units, for onskid or offskid, or highly
Figure 11. TT4000 Lite Touch Screen complex station control systems. The communica-
tions structure of TT4000 enables information to be
available when and where it is needed.
Connectivity. Solar’s scalable family of display
products share the same three communication
paths (Figure 12):

14 General 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Controller A Controller D
Controller C

Controller B

Data Data
Solar Intranet

Radio Tower Work Station
Work Station
Internal Modem
Control Console Telephone Line Modem Pool
Web Server


Line IBM Compatible Laser Printer
Customer Equipment


Figure 12. Connectivity of Solar's Products

Programmable Logic Controller

The design objective of the new PLC control system
is to provide a modular subsystem-based software
and hardware solution. Using industry standard,
leading edge hardware and software technology,
there will be long-term stability and supplier support
for the new design. IEC 61131-3 compliant pro-
gramming software is used to create pre-certified
software modules. This solution provides a design
that enables fast project execution, reduces project
errors, increases overall integrity, and ensures long-
term viability of the new PLC control system.
New hardware development is based on the
Allen-Bradley Logix family of processors and Con- 01G4-4

trolNet 1.5. The Logix family offers a range of prod-

ucts based on the same processor architecture. Figure 13. Rack-Mounted Logix 5550
This solution enables software to be written in one
programming environment, RS Logix 5000. The
software created with RS Logix 5000 can then be (Figure 15) combines the line synchronizer module
used to program both the rack-mounted Logix 5550 (LSM), the generator voltage regulator, and the
(Figure 13) and the DIN rail-mounted Logix 5434 generator protective functions in one module and is
(Figure 14). This promotes application flexibility. connected to the Logix Controller on ControlNet.
All new hardware development incorporates The CGCM communicates both configuration
ControlNet 1.5 for communications. For example, information and data to and from the Logix Con-
the combination generator control module (CGCM) troller via ControlNet.

15 General 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

The programming environment for the PLC is

Windows NT / 2000. This provides a common
operating system for both the HMI and PLC. Multi-
ple programming methods are incorporated. Ladder
and Function Block Programming (Figure 16) are
currently supported. Sequential Function Chart
Programming is currently in development.
The new PLC system consists of functionally
based subsystem modules, such as start, lube, and
fuel systems. These software modules are pre-
tested and certified. Automation tools are then used
to select the appropriate certified modules and
generate the application software based on project
requirements. The completed application is then
processed through an automated test suite to
ensure overall system integrity. These new proc-
esses and procedures reduce the possibilities of
01G4-5 errors introduced each time a project is generated.
Figure 14. DIN Rail-Mounted Logix 5434


Figure 15. Combination Generator

Control Module

16 General 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001



Figure 16. Ladder and Function Block Programming

17 General 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: D. Manteuffel

General Question
Number 5
Please provide update on development in time between overhaul (TBO)
management, life assessment and changes to improve TBO. This ques-
tion applies to engine and accessories. Also, address any changes in
time limited components that may permit users to defer TBO.

ANSWER ability of a failure based on analysis of engine

performance data plus the economic consequences
In its response to the GTUA in 1998, Solar stated of engine failure, including the cost of deferred
that the recommended overhaul interval is 30,000 production due to the incremental downtime asso-
hours for all of Solar's engines in continuous duty ciated with an unplanned engine change out.
service. This recognizes that our installed fleet of To simply extend the service life period by only
more than 11,000 gas turbine packages worldwide extending the operating period will result in the
is exposed to a wide range of environmental, operator taking on additional risk, as shown in the
maintenance and service conditions that are largely "typical profile" in Figure 17. Solar’s interest is in
beyond our control. Solar, however, supports user exploring methodologies that shift the entire curve
efforts to increase TBO, without sacrificing reliability to the right, as shown in the "enhanced profile" in
and durability, via robust maintenance practices, Figure 17, thereby allowing increased operating
along with monitoring of fluid (air, fuel, water, and periods without operators having to take on addi-
oil) quality and operating profile. In fact, a growing tional risks.
number of Solar's turbine users are gaining experi- The question then becomes one of accurate
ence in operating equipment beyond the recom- and timely assessment of the life of the engine and
mended time between overhauls (TBO). key accessories all along the operating curve, and
becomes more critical as the operating hours in-
BACKGROUND crease. Assessment of engine life is a function of
Solar shared its life determination methodologies the ability to gather accurate engine condition data
with the GTUA in 1998. (Please refer to GTUA in a timely manner, to interpret that data accurately
1998 General Question to Solar Number 1.) In our and to use that interpretation to predict future en-
continuing efforts to extend time between over- gine performance. Hardware, software and com-
hauls, Solar’s philosophy is to continuously evaluate munications advances have all contributed to the
and eliminate reasons that may cause an engine to improvements in this life assessment decision.
be removed from service when it might be other- Solar is monitoring these new technologies and
wise running acceptably. We are focusing on the adapting them to improve both the interpretation
continuous enhancement of product durability, process, as well as the data gathering process.
utilizing removal-for-cause strategies, and improv- (Please refer to GTUA 2001 General Question
ing on-line data gathering and analysis techniques. Number 4). Wireless and other communications
technology advancements have made remote
Life Assessment Decision monitoring highly desirable, so engineering exper-
tise can be centralized and leveraged to cover
TBO management is essentially a risk management multiple sites of rotating equipment. Improved data
decision based on an analysis of engine condition. retrieval and display programs have improved the
The decision to remove a high-time engine from ability to reduce the data and to correlate events.
service is evaluated in terms of the trade-off be- None of this, however, is very beneficial if the in-
tween (1) the desire to continue running until the formation cannot be used to accurately predict the
next scheduled maintenance shutdown that would ability of the engine to run until, or beyond, the next
allow for a planned change out and (2) the prob- scheduled maintenance shutdown.

18 General 5
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Figure 17. Typical Risk Profile

Life assessment decisions are generally based more critical ones that are indicative of in-service
on the deterioration of a measured parameter condition of the lubricating oil are Total Acid Num-
trended over time, with the knowledge of the base- ber (TAN), Rotary Bomb Oxidation Test (RBOT),
line. Occasionally, an event will occur where a Foaming, and Air Release.
discrete event will precipitate a life assessment For reciprocating engines, it is normal for wear
decision. Trend data gathered while the engine is metals to gradually increase over time. A sharp
running should be, whenever feasible, supple- increase in the rate of accumulation in the lube oil
mented with information gathered from borescope would signal a potential problem. Wear metals in
inspections and a lube oil sampling program. The gas turbines with hydrodynamic bearings, however,
objective is a decision point where an engine is typically reach an equilibrium level very quickly,
removed from service for a defined cause rather then remain constant in the absence of unusual
than simply on a time schedule. wear.
Monitoring other engine parameters, such as
Removal for Cause vibrations, temperatures of oil drains, and the T5
spread, are normally used to identify an engine
TBO management by users should include a com- problem. Vibration monitoring can be particularly
prehensive maintenance program to help ensure challenging. To ensure consistent vibration meas-
that the equipment is removed for major repair or urements, the same points and equipment should
overhaul for a verified reason. (Please refer to be used for data acquisition. In analyzing vibration
Solar’s paper “Increasing Turbine Life through data, absolute vibration limits should be considered,
Improved Maintenance Procedures,” TTS104.) as well as trends to determine the operating condi-
Lube oil analysis and vibration measurements are tion of the package. This trending capability can be
critical components of this type of program. an integral part of the microprocessor-based turbine
Lube oil analysis is an excellent maintenance control and monitoring system.
procedure to help determine the condition of the Care must be exercised to differentiate a prob-
engine. Spectrochemical oil analysis is used to lem with a package component or a faulty sensing
detect changes in the condition of the oil as oper- device from a true problem with the engine. Some
ating hours increase. Solar’s engineering specifica- engines removed from service and sent in for
tion ES 9-224, contains guidelines and limits for the overhaul, due to suspected vibration problems,
measurements of oil characteristics. (Please refer were found to have vibration levels well within
to Solar's paper "Lube Oils for the Industrial Gas specification limits when the engines were tested
Turbine," TTS106.) Of these various properties, the prior to overhaul. The actual problems ranged from

19 General 5
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

improper equipment alignment, coupling wear or Life Limited Components

imbalance, coupling lubrication or grease, and worn
trunnion mounts, to imbalance or vibration prob- One consideration that is clearly identified as life
lems in the turbine’s driven equipment. limiting to a running engine is the expiration of
creep life of turbine disks. As a part of our continu-
ing effort to better understand the boundaries in
Environmental Considerations TBO management, Solar has re-evaluated the
One of the most powerful ways to improve durability creep life limits on these disks.
and reliability and to extend TBO is to carefully This activity required our Engineering staff to
control the quality of the air, fuel, lubrication oil and re-evaluate our design assumptions, which included
wash water. Poor performance of the air inlet sys- validating our temperature understanding, using our
tem can lead to compressor fouling, which results latest finite element analysis tools to calculate the
in reduced performance and salt deposits especially disk stresses, and incorporate our latest under-
in a marine atmosphere. standing of the disk material properties, both stress
Fuel quality can also have a profound impact rupture and creep. This analysis provided a better
on an engine’s durability and reliability. Salt con- picture of the theoretical design life. These results
tamination is a significant concern with liquid fuel, were then compared with results of our Field expe-
which also frequently contains some amount of rience and a review was made of any Field failures
sulfur, leading to hot corrosion. This type of con- that may identify potential life-limiting concerns. A
tamination can be managed with proper fuel han- material test program of high-time disks was also
dling and filtration techniques. Liquids entrained in conducted to help validate our calculated lives.
gaseous fuels have always been problematic, and The result of this activity established the ability
the increased focus on dry low emissions combus- to extend the service lives of several turbine disks
tion systems has only heightened this concern. with no compromise in product integrity (Table 5).
Liquids can cause hot streaks or localized burning The somewhat conservative position to extend the
on hot section components, which greatly reduce lives an increment of 30,000 hours (or one typical
turbine life. overhaul period) has been taken. As these disks
The quality of engine wash water is a mainte- near this new life limit, the process will be done
nance item that frequently receives little attention, again. This approach provides the opportunity to
but can have a profound impact on engine life. The continually test the design assumptions and extend
presence of sodium or potassium in the wash water the life in a safe and responsible manner.
or an incomplete rinse, which can leave salt depos- All engine accessories, such as pumps, valves,
its in the turbine section of the engine, can lead to sensors and controls, have been selected to per-
hot corrosion. The presence of particulates or an form satisfactorily for at least 30,000 hours before
incomplete rinse cycle can introduce this contami- maintenance or replacement is needed. Some
nation into the variable vane bushings, causing items, such as electric motor bearings, filters,
them to partially freeze during future run cycles. certain pumps, and other components require
The actuation of the vanes during subsequent start maintenance at intervals less than 30,000 hours. In
/ stop cycles tends to bend the vane arms, which these cases, the Operation and Maintenance In-
then mis-positions the vanes. High cycle fatigue struction (OMI) manual should identify the required
failure of one of the turbine compressor blades is actions. Solar, as a result of this question from the
an occasional serious consequence of mis- GTUA, is doing a review to ensure that all items
positioned variable guide vanes. needing regular maintenance are identified in the
OMI manual.

Table 5. Disk Life Extension

Turbine Disk Material V57 Inconel 718

Operating Life, hours Before Current Before Current
Saturn 20 100,000 130,000 150,000 150,000
Centaur 40 100,000 130,000 120,000 150,000
Centaur 50 100,000 130,000 120,000 120,000
Taurus 60 100,000 130,000 120,000 120,000

20 General 5
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Solar recognizes that, on a limited number of Taurus 70 Gas Turbine. The Taurus 70 compres-
projects, some components, such as pumps, were sor is a growth derivative of the Centaur 40 com-
supplied that did not meet the 30,000-hour life and pressor. In order to increase the airflow for the
were not identified in the OMI manual as such. Taurus 70, two stages were added to the front of
Solar is taking corrective action to ensure that this the compressor.
will not reoccur. At the 1999 GTUA meeting in Dubai, fatigue
cracking of the third-stage compressor blade was
Durability Enhancements discussed. (Please refer to GTUA 1999 Taurus
Some examples of our focus on continuous en- Question Number 1.) Due to the critical nature of
hancement of product durability involve the Taurus the issue, Solar has continued to investigate the
60, Taurus 70 and Centaur 40 gas turbines. Mars blade design.
The engineering analysis showed the blade at-
gas turbine durability enhancements are discussed
tachment to have a relatively high stress level in the
in GTUA 2001 Mars Question Number 1.
dovetail and that the maximum alternating stress,
due to blade vibrations, was superimposed over this
Taurus 60 Gas Turbine. Over the past few years, high stress location. The subsequent redesign effort
the Taurus 60 gas turbine has received several created a more massive attachment, which decou-
durability enhancements in conjunction with a pled the location of the maximum static stress and
series of thermal uprates. The non-cooled second- the maximum dynamic stress.
stage turbine blade has typically been a life-limited The benefit of the redesign effort on fatigue life
component, although not to the extent of impacting is clearly illustrated in the Goodman diagram shown
30,000+ hours of operation. Raising the firing tem- in Figure 18. The original design using material in
perature from 1010 to 1046°C (1850 to 1885°F), the 621°C (1150°F) age condition failed to meet our
however, required a material change from IN 738 basic design goal for alternating stress capability.
LC to MAR M 247. This increase in alloy capability
Decreasing the aging temperature to 552°C
provides a life similar to that of the original Taurus
(1025°F) increased the material endurance limit,
60 engine. Our current uprate activity to raise the
and consequently the blade's capability, to above
firing temperature to 1066°C (1950°F) will include a
the alternating stress capability goal. In the redes-
change in blade material to the single-crystal alloy
igned blade, the lower mean stress and the im-
CMSX-3. This alloy selection will actually provide
proved material properties combine to provide a
greater blade life and assure the ability to provide a
substantially improved alternating stress capability.
minimum of two overhaul cycles.
As an added benefit of the redesign effort, the
The Taurus 60 second-stage nozzle has also
airfoil was slightly retapered to better position the
received a material upgrade from the cobalt alloy
airfoil’s resonant frequency with respect to the third
FS-414 to the nickel-based alloy MAR M 247. The
and fourth engine orders. This is believed to make
new alloy provides superior creep resistance and
a more robust blade design and totally eliminate the
enhanced precious metal coating performance.
potential for fatigue failures. The new blade has
Remanufacturing of the FS-414 nozzles requires a
been in full production since December 2000 for all
hot forming operation to re-establish the position of
new and overhauled engines.
the inner shroud with respect to the outer shroud.
The improved strength of the new alloy will elimi-
nate the need for this operation and improve the Centaur 40 Gas Turbine. The Centaur 40 engine
remanufacturability of the part. The alloy is also has been in production for many years and has
received several uprates to meet user require-
suitable for the 1066°C (1950°F) turbine rotor inlet
ments. The uprate from the -4500 to the -4700
temperature (TRIT) uprate. Additional component
configuration has shown an increasing difficulty in
cooling will also be utilized. Through a combination
meeting specification performance in the -4700
of the nozzle creep and the positional tolerance of
configuration, requiring specialized build techniques
the second-stage diaphragm with respect to the
to achieve acceptable performance. An engineering
second-stage rotor, a potential for interference
study was conducted; the results of which showed
existed. A design study was undertaken and the
the turbine nozzle case to be non-uniformly cooled.
outcome was to define a more optimally positioned
This, in turn, caused the nozzle case to become out
diaphragm. Since this change was put into produc-
of round, which negatively impacted the ability to
tion, rotor lock-ups due to the second-stage dia-
control tip clearances and to perform to specifica-
phragm have been eliminated.
tion. The design effort resulted in the cooling circuit

21 General 5
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Taurus 70

17-4 PH (1150°F)

17-4 PH (1025°F)

Current Design

Improvement due to Redesign

of Blade Attachment

Design Goal Improvement due to

Material Properties
Original Design



Figure 18. Goodman Diagram for First-Stage Disk

being optimized to more uniformly cool the nozzle These product durability enhancements, along
case. This allowed for a more optimal setting of the with continuing efforts to assess engine and acces-
turbine blade clearance. The optimized engines sory life and to promote optimal maintenance prac-
have shown less engine-to-engine variation in tices, should help users make critical decisions
performance and much less difficulty in engines regarding removal for cause versus schedule.
meeting specification requirements.

22 General 5
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Authors: C. Brown and G.Vavrek

General Question
Number 6
What is Solar doing to remove the need for backup post lube
on Centaur 50, Taurus, Mars, Titan and future developments?

ANSWER Trade-Offs between Babbitt and

Backup post lube is required on all Centaur 50,
Bronze Bearings
Taurus 60, Taurus 70, Mars 90, Mars 100, and Table 6 shows that tin bronze is superior in three of
Titan 130 gas turbine products to prevent five categories. Solar’s main turbine shaft bearings,
overheating of the tilting-pad babbitt material. At however, are very lightly loaded. Static loading
this time, Solar does not have any immediate plans rarely exceeds 689 kPa (100 psi) and dynamic
to change the bearing material to eliminate the pressures rarely exceed 2758 kPa (400 psi). Thus,
backup post lube requirement. the superior load capacity and fatigue strength of tin
bronze provide no practical advantages. For Solar,
BACKGROUND the choice between bearing lining materials comes
down to the conformability of the tin babbitt versus
Solar has spent a great deal of effort analyzing the higher operating temperature limits of the tin
bearing failure mechanisms and weighing the trade- bronze.
offs between bronze and babbitt material bearings. Conformability protects the shaft (journal) when
Bronze bearings usually do not require post lube, particulate oil contamination is present. This
while babbitt material bearings do require post lube. provides life-cycle cost benefits during service and
Post lube oil circulation is required to cool the at overhaul, since the turbine shaft may not require
engine after operation. The backup post lube any repair or only minor repair before being
system provides this cooling in the event of a failure returned to service.
of the post lube (primary) system. Solar’s post lube The higher operating temperature limits of tin
and backup post lube systems are either battery bronze allow the bearings to survive post-lube
powered or pneumatically powered. interruption. This eliminates the need for back-up
In the late 1980’s, Solar decided that durability post lube, with its added costs to install and
was paramount to meeting user needs for maintain.
continuous operation and chose babbitt material Based on 40 years of gas turbine experience in
bearings. Our Field experience shows that these mostly continuous duty applications, Solar has
bearings have excellent durability, even during chosen the tin babbitt material bearing to optimize
times when the oil may be contaminated. the durability of its Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Taurus

Table 6. Bearing Lining Characteristics

Characteristic Tin Babbitt Tin Bronze

Conformability and Embeddability Excellent Poor
Operating Temperature Limit 150°C (300°F) 260+°C (500+°F)
Load Capacity 550-10 340 kPa (80-1500 psi) 27 575+ kPa (4000+ psi)
Fatigue Strength Poor Excellent
Corrosion Resistance Excellent Very Good

23 General 6
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

70, Mars and Titan 130 gas turbine products. offered as an option only, and that post lube may
Backup post lube, however, is required on these still be required with the bronze bearing option.
products to prevent overheating of the tilting-pad
babbitt material. Service Bulletin References

Development of Bronze Bearings The following Service Bulletins provide more

information about back-up post lube system
As part of a long-term study, bronze bearings have improvements and maintenance:
been installed in a Mars in-house development
engine in the No. 3 bearing location. Solar will then • SB 5.9/103
evaluate the viability of using bronze bearings. The • SB 6.5/107
qualification process will include a field evaluation
effort and economic justification before the bronze • SB 6.5/108
bearing is released into production. Presently, our
• SB 6.5/109
best estimate is that the bronze bearing will not
replace the standard babbitt bearing; but will be • SB 6.6/102

24 General 6
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Authors: T. Clayton and D. Phaneuf

General Question
Number 7
Explain process for controlling the configuration of retrofits
and upgrades (especially controls but also mechanical)

ANSWER quent modifications that we are aware of. The

original package "As Built" bill of material is re-
Controlling the configuration of retrofits and up- trieved from our configuration database by ref-
grades has been a multi-step process. Depending erencing the original project definition (PD)
on the project, it may involve documenting user number. Subsequent retrofits and modifications
requirements, developing bills of material, filing are retrieved by referencing the sales order
service reports, updating the configuration data- (S.O.) number of those jobs.
base, archiving controls software changes, provid-
ing kit instructions, and revising drawings and 4. Any requests for additional information and/or,
manuals. Solar expects our Enterprise Resource depending on the complexity of the project, a
Planning (ERP) initiative to enhance this process site survey, are communicated to Solar’s local
through the development of automated Service Bills Field office, which then clarifies the issues with
of Materials and updated Service Parts Lists. the user. Project definition is finalized through
these clarification discussions and communica-
BACKGROUND tions with the user, which is an iterative proc-
ess. It is directed through the local Field office
Current Process to ensure that local concerns and installation
Solar handles major configuration modifications, issues are addressed. At this point, the intent is
such as retrofits and upgrades, on a project basis. to identify any configuration differences be-
The change process is essentially the same for tween the configuration data that Solar is using
mechanical, electrical, and controls changes and, in and any local knowledge or modifications that
general, proceeds as follows: (Please refer to may impact or inhibit the installation of the ret-
GTUA 2001 General Question Number 3 for details rofit kit or upgrade under discussion.
specific to software configuration control.) 5. The changes in project scope that result from
the user’s review of Solar’s proposal are either
1. Initially, the user contacts Solar’s local Field appended to the proposal or the proposal is re-
Service office to communicate specific needs, vised to reflect these changes
such as a desire to increase power. Dialog at
6. At an internal project coordination meeting, the
the local level is critical to ensure Solar’s thor-
purchase order and proposal are reviewed in
ough understanding of the requirement.
detail with the departments responsible for
2. User requirements are formalized by Solar’s hardware and software deliverables, in order to
local contact, via a Field inquiry form that is obtain design commitments and to confirm de-
sent to a Project Manager in San Diego. When livery estimates. An internal sales order docu-
a project involves only a control system retrofit, ment is generated that details the scope of
an applications check sheet (ACS) is used and supply and the delivery schedule, and a sales
the request goes directly into the Controls En- order number is assigned. The project sched-
gineering organization. ule is loaded into the Project Scheduling Sys-
3. The San Diego support organization accesses tem to track completion dates and design re-
Solar’s configuration records, which include an views.

“As Built” bill of materials, “As Installed” draw- 7. The detailed bill of material for retrofits and
ings and software revisions, and any subse- upgrades is reviewed as the design progresses

25 General 7
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2001

to make certain that all parts selected are of the of the equipment and availability of documenta-
current standard and are supportable through tion.
the Service Parts organization. Solar’s Design
Change Request (DCR) process enables Future Developments
cross-functional engineering departments to
review the intended duty of parts / components Solar records and retains the Manufacturing bills of
that require modification or update. material for the original equipment under the origi-
nal project definition number. The material and
8. A copy of the sales order is sent to Solar’s configurations for subsequent modifications are
Response Center administrator for updating the recorded under their own project definition or sales
user equipment configuration database. order. In the past, updating these was a multi-step,
9. Many retrofit and upgrade kits include instruc- manual process. Our continuing effort is to auto-
tions that are formatted to be retained by the mate the process wherever possible so that the
user as an addendum to their Operation and original bill of material may be updated effectively to
Maintenance Instruction (OMI) manual. provide the user with an “active” bill of material that
accurately reflects the current configuration for the
10. If a controls logic change is required, the re- operating equipment.
vised software is provided through Solar’s local Solar is in the early phases of implementing an
office, which retains a copy. ERP initiative to significantly increase the function-
11. If Solar's Field Service Representatives (FSR) ality of the current process. With this business tool,
participate in the installation associated with the we expect to:
retrofit or upgrade, a Customer Support Activity
(CSA) report is completed to detail the work • Retain the final Manufacturing bill of material
and to document the configuration change. and then be able to “filter” it to produce a
Copies of this documentation are retained by Service, or Support, bill of material.
the user and the local Field office.
• Modify the Service bill of material, which will
12. If applicable, a copy of the “As Installed” soft- detail the major systems and maintenance
ware will be returned to Solar for archiving. items, when configuration changes do occur.
Copies are retained both in the local Field office
• Allow easy update of the Service bill of mate-
and in San Diego.
rial by the San Diego-based engineering
13. Drawings will be marked up to reflect the “As functions, or by the FSR via their reporting
Installed” configuration. Copies are retained at mechanism following completion of modifica-
the user’s site, in Solar's local Field office and tion work in the Field.
in San Diego. If revised drawings are part of the
project scope, the "As Installed" drawings will • Provide faster updating of the service parts
be returned to San Diego to be reissued. Up- lists for user equipment to facilitate the or-
dating the OMI manual depends on the vintage dering and provisioning of parts.

26 General 7
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Authors: S. Navidi and T. Lazet

General Question
Number 8
Advise current experience with resolving “pancake valve” problems.
What is being done to ensure new pancake valves fit on older packages.

ANSWER exhaust collector areas during engine non-

operation conditions.
Solar has made several material and process The valve consists of two symmetrical cast
improvements to the pancake valve to resolve air housings that are bolted together. As part of the
leakage, sealing and closing problems. Our retrofit valve assembly, one housing has a threaded port to
kit addresses the form, fit and function issues allow installation of an external connection, while
associated with installing the new valves on older the other housing has a preinstalled fitting, which
packages. functions as the valve seat, and the other external
connection fitting. A spring lever holds a nitrided
BACKGROUND steel ball that functions as the valve shutoff compo-
The “pancake valve” is so called due to its unique nent. When unpressurized, the lever holds the ball
shape (Figure 19). It is a specially designed drain off the sealing fitting and the valve stays in an open
valve whose purpose is to facilitate the drainage of position (Figure 20), allowing for drainage.
liquids, such as water or unburned liquid fuel, that During the start cycle as engine compressor
have accumulated in the gas turbine combustor and discharge pressure rises, the airflow through the
valve increases, causing sufficient pressure differ-
ential across the ball / lever assembly to force the
ball to seat on the machined fitting (Figure 20).
When the ball is seated, the pressure inside the
valve rises and maintains the ball securely on the
machined seat.
The pre-installed machined fitting in the hous-
ing is critical to the proper functioning of the valve,
since this is the valve sealing surface.

01G8-1 01G8-2

Figure 19. Valve Assembly Figure 20. Valve Components

27 General 8
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Two drain valves are combined to properly seal

the exhaust collector and the combustor during
engine operation. The two drain valves are required
due to the significantly different pressures that exist
during engine operation between the high-pressure
combustor and the low-pressure exhaust collector.
The upper valve is used to drain the exhaust col-
lector, while the lower valve is used to drain both
the exhaust collector and the combustor (Figures
21 and 22).





Figure 22. Two Drain Valve Assembly

the sealing ball material was changed to a corro-

sion-resistant nitrided tool steel. These changes to
the aluminum body valve for the Saturn 10 through
Taurus 70 packages were announced in Service
Bulletin 8.12/102 in June of 1995. Finally, the pack-
age tubing used to connect the valves in the pack-
TO age was increased in size from 3/8 in. to 1/2 in. to
PACKAGE improve valve closing functionality.
DRAIN 01G8-3 Solar also previously changed the package
tube fittings from 37½ degree flare to Swagelok
compression fittings. Consequently, the retrofit kit,
Figure 21. Cross Section of Two Valve Assembly which incorrectly recommended that the 37½ de-
(from retrofit kit 176968) gree flare sealing fitting be removed and replaced
with a Swagelok fitting, resulted in excessive valve
leakage. The retrofit kit has since been revised and
Improvements a label added to the valve body warning against
rotation of the sealing fitting. Service Bulletin
Over the past several years, Solar has made sev- 8.12/102 has also been reissued.
eral improvements to the drain valves and how they
are installed. First, an asbestos gasket was re-
placed with a non-asbestos gasket. Then, the
number of bolts used to hold the two housings Since the machined sealing fitting is the valve seat,
together was increased from 6 to 12 to eliminate an it is critical that the fitting not be loosened or re
air leakage problem at the housing split line. Also, moved, because the sealing ball surface of the

28 General 8
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

fitting is cold formed for tight shutoff. Tampering Interchangeability

with this fitting causes improper functioning of the
valve and results in excessive air leakage. Anytime The aforementioned changes made to the new
it is necessary to install or remove a drain valve, it aluminum body valve do not affect interchangeabil-
is important to use a wrench to hold this fitting so ity, with the exception that the increase in the num-
that it does not rotate relative to the valve housing. ber of mounting bolts may interfere with the valve
It is also important that the valves be installed with mounting bracket. The retrofit kit addresses re-
the tube connections in the vertical position to working the bracket to accept the increased number
prevent the collection of liquids in the valve housing. of bolts. Table 7 gives the old and new part num-
bers for Solar's pancake valves.

Table 7. Pancake Valve Part Numbers

Solar's Part Number

Engine Model Valve Body Material*
Old New
Saturn 10 and Saturn 20 901086C91 or
Centaur 40 and Centaur 50 1020281-100 Aluminum
Taurus 60 and Taurus 70 190786-100
Mars 90 and Mars 100
117901-100 117901-103 Stainless Steel
Titan 130
* The aluminum and stainless steel valves are not interchangeable.

29 General 8
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Authors: G. Rocha and J. McClain

General Question
Number 9
Please update users on Titan and Mercury experience and failure mechanisms.

ANSWER Table 8. Titan 130 Experience (as of April 2001)

The Titan 130 industrial gas turbine was introduced Units Sold 42
in 1998 and has gained Field experience in me-
Product Applications:
chanical-drive, compressor-set and electrical power
generation applications. Product durability has been Compressor Set / Mechanical-Drive 19
demonstrated with successful completion of an Generator Set / Power Generation 23
extended Field evaluation program at a commercial Units in Service 10
installation. Three minor product quality issues,
involving the SoLoNOx gas fuel injectors, Stage 2 Total Fleet Hours +55,000
diaphragm, and Stage 2 turbine blade damper, High-Time Installed Hours +15,000
were identified and addressed.
The Mercury 50 industrial gas turbine is cur-
rently in full-scale development and Field service turbine was thoroughly inspected and placed into
evaluation. More than 7000 hours of operation have normal commercial service with mutual agreement
been accumulated to date. Only two significant between Solar and the user. Based on early Field
issues have been noted with this new engine. First, operating experience, minor design improvements
the compressor first bend mode is in the operating to the gas turbine, package systems and controls
range. Although this does not result in a failure, it systems have been implemented to optimize prod-
does require significant effort to trim balance the uct performance, durability and reliability.
engine. Second, several welds in the recuperator The Titan 130 gas turbine design is an aerody-
are overstressed. As a result, recuperator air leaks namic scale up of the existing Taurus 70 product.
can occur after only a relatively few hours of opera- The engine features a modified Mars air compres-
tion. Efforts are currently under way to correct both
sor and turbine section components directly scaled
of these issues prior to commercial release.
up from the Taurus 70. The two-shaft engine is
nominally rated at 14 540 kW (19,500 hp) with a
BACKGROUND simple-cycle thermal efficiency of more than 35% at
Titan 130 Gas Turbine Experience ISO operating conditions (Figure 23). The single-
shaft model is rated at 14 000 kWe and 34.4%
More than 40 two-shaft and single-shaft Titan gas efficiency at the generator terminals. Both models
turbines have been sold as of April 2001. These are available with two combustor options: a dry,
units have accumulated more than 55,000 hours of low-pollutant emissions combustion system featur-
operation, with the high-time installation exceeding ing Solar’s proven SoLoNOx technology or a diffu-
15,000 hours (Table 8). The first Titan 130 me- sion-flame type combustor adapted from Solar's
chanical-drive package was installed at a gas proven Mars gas turbine. (Please refer to GTUA
compressor station and operated by the user under 2001 Mars Question Number 1.)
typical pipeline gas transmission service conditions.
The unit was inspected and monitored throughout Titan 130 Gas Turbine Failure Mechanisms
the evaluation period by Solar's Engineering and
Field Service personnel to record operating condi- Factory testing, Field evaluation testing, and initial
tion and assess product durability. At the conclusion operating experience validated the design limits and
of the planned 8000-hour evaluation period, the gas areas for improving product durability.

30 General 9
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

fi lations, all current Field units feature case bleed

SoLoNOx combustion systems.

Stage 2 Diaphragm. Inspection of the above en-

gine, which was returned for repair, revealed a
circumferential fracture in the web region of the
Stage 2 diaphragm. The static component sepa-
rates the Stage 1 and Stage 2 turbine disks and is
held in position by the Stage 2 nozzle segments.
The component was manufactured from a high-
strength nickel-based alloy via a ring-rolled forging
process. Based on finite element analysis results,
mechanical loads are relatively low. Metallurgical
evaluations confirmed adequate material properties
in the tangential orientation, but sub-optimum mate-
rial properties in the radial direction. Test-bar data
Figure 23. Titan 130 Two-Shaft Gas Turbine from radial specimens confirmed low stress-rupture
properties and notch-sensitivity characteristics. If
the failure mechanism is due to the notch-sensitivity
Design improvements and manufacturing proc- of the material, time-to-fracture and crack propaga-
ess optimization were implemented as the new gas tion rates cannot be accurately predicted. A mate-
turbine transitioned from introductory to full- rial change to a similar alloy had previously been
production status. Early Field experience led to implemented to provide improved properties in both
modifications in three areas that enhanced the tangential and radial orientations with a ring-rolled
durability and functionality of the Titan 130 gas forging process. Only initial production units are
turbine. affected and continuous operation is considered a
low risk.
SoLoNOx Gas Fuel Injectors. During a routine
inspection of a two-shaft gas turbine at a pipeline Stage 2 Turbine Blade Damper. Minor foreign
compressor station, Solar's Field Service personnel object damage (FOD) was discovered at the Stage
detected over-temperature of the lean, premix 2 turbine blade of a two-shaft gas turbine. The
SoLoNOx injector tips. The unit accumulated ap- engine accumulated approximately 3100 hours of
proximately 4000 hours of operation and was oper- operation and was operating in satisfactory condi-
ating in satisfactory condition just prior to the in- tion prior to the detected failure. Disassembly in-
spection. Root-cause evaluations determined that spection confirmed one Stage 2 turbine blade
improper control of the variable air management damper component failed, causing minor damage
system (VAMS) at full-load conditions resulted in to a few turbine blade tips. Failure analysis was
increased injector tip metal temperatures. A control initiated to determine the root cause of the blade
logic revision for cold-ambient effects had not been damper failure. Metallurgical and manufacturing
implemented. Damaged injectors were replaced inspection data did not uncover any material de-
and the unit continued normal operations. After a fects or manufacturing anomalies in the failed and
scheduled engine exchange, the engine was later non-failed dampers. Quality records and first article
returned to the factory for repair of metal spray qualification reports indicate all casting quality
damage to the combustor liner and first turbine requirements were compliant. Fractured surface
stage components. Although the VAM system inspection indicated a stress-rupture failure mecha-
proved effective for emissions control across most nism. Analytical stress results, however, are well-
of the expected operating range, bleed assist was below mechanical property limits and do not sup-
still required at low output loads to meet carbon port a stress-rupture failure mode. Inspection of
monoxide (CO) emission levels. A product design non-failed dampers did not reveal any surface
improvement was implemented to remove VAMS defects or cracks. Dimensional inspections on
from the SoLoNOx combustion system and simplify blade and damper assembly interface surfaces
the overall Titan gas turbine. Except for two instal- revealed no discrepancies.

31 General 9
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Experience stood. One of the key design requirements for the
Mercury 50 engine was to optimize the modularity
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a of the design. Since hot section components,
program for advanced turbine systems (ATS) to particularly combustion liners, are the highest
serve industrial power generation markets. The maintenance items in the engine, the engine was
objective of the cooperative agreements granted arranged to allow for the easiest replacement of
under the program was to join the DOE with in- these components. It was determined that the
dustry in research and development, leading to optimal layout of the engine would position the
commercial offerings in the private sector. The compressor behind the turbine. This would simplify
ATS program was envisioned to provide a power the recuperator interface and reduce the size of
plant with ultra-high efficiency, environmental the package. This novel engine layout was one of
superiority, and cost competitiveness. Solar’s the most significant innovations of the Mercury 50
Mercury 50 engine (Figure 24) was the result of engine definition. Shaft dynamics, combustor size,
this program. cost, and overall package dimensions were all
The Mercury 50 evolved into a 4.2-MWe recu- factored into the engine arrangement decision.
perated-cycle, single-shaft turbine with 38% effi- This unique arrangement also allowed for the
ciency (versus baseline of 28.2%) at the terminals smallest engine / package footprint (Figure 25).
on a 15°C (59°F) day at sea level. This engine met
all the ATS program goals (Table 9).
In-House Test Results. Throughout testing of the
A significant effort was spent over the first
Mercury development engines, a great deal of
several months of the contract in refining the
data was obtained. Some of the data are still under
concept for the Mercury 50. During this period,
evaluation. Much of the data has verified the de-
engine cycle studies played a major role in deter-
sign calculations and was used to make success-
mining the progress of the engine layout. Each
ful design improvements. The development test
contributor to overall thermal efficiency was ex-
cell is configured to do a wide range of tests effi-
amined in detail so that the sensitivity and relation-
ciently and has a staff that is knowledgeable with
ship of each aero-thermal and mechanical design
the engine hardware, the engine’s operating char-
parameter to the efficiency goal was fully under-
acteristics, and the instrumentation necessary to
acquire critical data.
To date, nearly 3000 hours of in-house testing
have been completed on three development en-
gines (Figure 26). In addition, more than 4000
hours of Field evaluation testing have been com-
pleted on the two high-time Field units.
Solar performed a total of six short-term de-
velopment tests in our development test cell using
two development engines. The objective tests
ranged from thermal paint tests to blade dynamic
tests (Table 10). In addition to these short-term
tests, Solar performed an extended endurance test
at our Harbor Drive facility (Figure 27). A complete
Mercury package was installed and connected to
the local grid. This unit provided the majority of
01G9-2 electrical power required at the Harbor Drive facil-
ity throughout most of 2000. More than 2500 hours
Figure 24. Cutaway of the Mercury 50 Engine of operation have been accumulated on this unit.

Table 9. ATS Program Goals

Program Criteria ATS Program Goal Mercury Target Demonstrated in Test

% Efficiency Improvement +15 (vs 28.2) +35 (vs 28.2) +29 (vs 28.2)
(vs Baseline) at bus bar = 32.4% = 38.0% = 36.3%
Cost of Power, % -10 -15 -13
NOx, ppmv <9 <9 <9
Availability, % 97 97 TBD

32 General 9
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Figure 25. Engine Cross Section Showing Airflow

Field Service Evaluation. In addition to these in-

8000 house tests, five evaluation sites have accumulated
7000 Mercury 50 Test Program more than 4000 operating hours:
Hours on Test

1. WMC Phosphate processing plant in

5000 Queensland, Australia
4000 2. Municipal utility in Rochelle, Illinois, U.S.A.
3000 2576
2072 2030 3. University in Clemson, South Carolina, U.S.A.
2000 (Recently installed)
1000 297 4. Rural utility in Lamar, Colorado, U.S.A.
0 (Being installed
S/N 001 S/N 002 S/N 004 WMC Rochelle
5. Hospital outside Paris, France.
Test Engine 01G9-4
(Being installed)

Figure 26. Test Hours through 2000

33 General 9
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Table 10. Test Summary – Short-Term Tests

Engine S/N – Build Test Hours Objective

ESN 1-1 91 Engine Operability
ESN 2-1 135 Engine Performance
ESN 1-2 2 Turbine Thermal Paint Test
ESN 2-2 159 Engine Performance
ESN 1-3 3 Blade Dynamics – Rotating Instrumentation
ESN 2-3 3 Turbine Performance

Early engine experience identified three areas

for improvement:

Rotordynamics. As a result of engine testing in

1999, the compressor first bend vibratory mode
was found to be in the operating range. The fre-
quency of this mode was coincident with 90%
operating speed. Although the engine could pass
through the mode and operate normally, the vibra-
tion levels while passing through the mode were
quite high. This was determined to be unacceptable
for large volume production. Therefore, the center
section of the engine was redesigned to move the
vibratory mode above the operating range. The
rotor system was shortened by 152 mm (6 in.), the
01G9-5a center frame was replaced with a much stiffer
exhaust diffuser, and the compressor rotor was
stiffened. As a result, the compressor first bend
mode has been shifted to approximately 120%
operating speed. Hardware is currently being pro-
cured to test this revised configuration.

Recuperator. Endurance testing during 1999 and

2000 also identified a shortcoming in the design of
the recuperator. The recuperator is a complex
structure and accurately predicting stress levels
within it is difficult. Testing revealed that the stress
in several of the welds exceeded allowable levels.
For the revised configuration, the alloy of selected
components has been changed from 347SS to
Haynes 230. This will more than double the allow-
able stress in the critical welds.

Performance. In addition, several modifications

were incorporated into the design to increase en-
gine performance. Three hundred cells were added
to the recuperator, end wall film cooling was added
to the Stage 1 turbine nozzle, and compressor
Stages 1 and 2 were re-redesigned. It is anticipated
Figure 27. Mercury 50 Development Test Cell these modifications will allow the engine to meet the
and Harbor Drive Facility Mercury target performance given in Table 9.

34 General 9
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: R. Eimers

General Question
Number 10
Does Solar have any new developments of interest to users?

New developments at Solar include uprates of the
Taurus 70 and Taurus 60 gas turbines, a new
Taurus 60 mobile power unit, and advancements in
combustion system technology.

Taurus 70 Gas Turbine
The Taurus 70 was introduced in a hot-end drive,
two-shaft configuration (Figure 28) in 1995 and in a
cold-end drive, single-shaft configuration (Figure
29) for generator applications in 1999. The air
compressor section of the engine consists of a 01G10-2

modified Taurus 60 compressor with an additional

stage on the front to increase airflow and an addi- Figure 29. Taurus 70 Single-Shaft Gas Turbine
tional stage on the back to raise pressure ratio. The
combustor and turbine sections were new, but
adopted Mars gas turbine technology: the initial drive version and 7200 kWe for the generator set.
firing temperature and pressure ratio were the With the use of advanced aerodynamics and heat
same as the Mars gas turbine. At the initial produc- transfer technologies, 34% thermal efficiency was
tion firing temperature of 1120°C (2050°F), the achieved. The durability of the Taurus 70 has been
rating was 7230 kW (9700 hp) for the mechanical- excellent, with the initial Field evaluation engine
actually achieving 41,000 hours before being re-
turned for overhaul. To date, a total of 124 engines
have been sold, with a total of more than one mil-
lion fleet operating hours.
As mentioned in GTUA 2001 General Question
Number 9 relative to our Titan 130 experience, the
Titan 130 is an aerodynamic scale up of the Taurus
70 gas turbine. With the use of today’s parametric
design and analytical tools, it is possible to modify
and uprate the two engines with essentially parallel
development efforts. Hence, the cold-end drive,
single-shaft versions of these engines for generator
applications were introduced within six months of
each other and the recent increase in firing tem-
perature to 1150°C (2100°F) that was applied to the
Titan 130 engine is also being applied to the Taurus
70 engine.
The increase in firing temperature will result in
a 6.2% increase in shaft power to 7690 kW (10,310
Figure 28. Taurus 70 Two-Shaft Gas Turbine hp) for mechanical-drive applications and a rating of

35 General 10
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

7520 kWe for generator applications. Thermal

efficiency at the shaft increases to 34.8%, while
efficiency at the generator terminals increases to
33.8%. For exhaust heat recovery applications, the
exhaust temperature increases by 14°C (26°F) to
485°C (906°F).
The design changes for the Taurus 70 to ac-
commodate the increase in firing temperature are
basically the same as the design changes we made
to the Titan 130 engine. The primary change is to
the Stage 1 and 2 turbine blade material with the
incorporation of single-crystal alloys and a redesign
of the SoLoNOx combustor / injector system. There
were also some minor changes to optimize the 01G10-4
secondary cooling flows and effectiveness.
The low emissions SoLoNOx version of the en-
gine for both mechanical-drive and generator appli- Figure 31. Taurus 60 Single-Shaft Gas Turbine
cations has been in production since July 2000. The
conventional combustion version is currently under-
going qualification testing and will be available for first and second-stage nozzles is being incorpo-
production shipments in November 2001. rated to allow an increase in firing temperature from
1029 to 1065°C (1885 to 1950°F), with no degrada-
Taurus 60 Gas Turbine tion in durability. Design of forward and aft rim seals
on the Stage 1 turbine disk is also being modified,
Since its introduction in 1989, the Taurus 60 gas as well as a new Stage 2 nozzle casting and
turbine (Figures 30 and 31) has been the fastest changes to the compressor aft hub material. Ther-
growing population of any industrial gas turbine in mal efficiency will change from 30.3 to 30.4% in the
the world. The 1000 unit was shipped the first single-shaft configuration, while the two-shaft con-
quarter of 2001 and the installed units have accu- figuration will remain at its current level. Exhaust
mulated more than 20 million operating hours. The temperatures will increase from 485 to 510°C (905
current rating of the single-shaft, cold-end drive to 950°F) for the single-shaft and from 490 to
version is 5200 kWe, with plans in progress to 510°C (914 to 950°F) for the two-shaft configuration
upgrade the performance to 5500 kWe. An im- (Table 11).
provement in the material for the first and second- The first performance testing is scheduled for
stage blades and revised cooling systems for the May 2001 and the first production shipments for the
single-shaft, cold-end drive version for generator
applications is scheduled for June 2001. The first
production package for the two-shaft, hot-end drive
version is scheduled for October 2001.
The development of the SoLoNOx combustor
with the new augmented backside cooling (ABC)
liner for the Taurus 60 is scheduled for an engine
test in July 2001. In October 2001, Solar plans to
ship the first production packages for both the cold-
end and hot-end drives, gas only. In March 2002,
the first dual fuel engines are scheduled to be
All of these component upgrades will be retro-
fittable to existing Taurus 60 gas turbine packages
at overhaul.

Mobile Power Unit. The Taurus 60 gas turbine

generator package is now being packaged as a
mobile power unit to produce reliable, low-cost,
onsite peaking power to optimize service for sea-
Figure 30. Taurus 60 Two-Shaft Gas Turbine sonal or cyclical loads (Figure 32).

36 General 10
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Table 11. Taurus 60-7800 ISO Performance – 15°C (59°F), Sea Level

Performance Current Uprate

• Turbine Rotor Inlet Temperature 1029°C (1885°F) 1065°C (1950°F)
• Output Power 5200 kWe 5500 kWe
• Terminal Efficiency at Terminals 30.3% 30.4%
• Exhaust Temperature 485°C (905°F) 510°C (950°F)
• Turbine Rotor Inlet Temperature 1090°C (1995°F) 1065°C (1950°F)
• Output Power 5330 kW (7150 hp) 5740 kW (7700 hp)
• Thermal Efficiency 32.0% 32.0%
• Exhaust Temperature 490°C (914°F) 510°C (950°F)

Combustion System Developments

In 1992, Solar introduced the first industrial gas
turbines employing a lean-premixed combustion
system for emissions control. Since then, Solar has
placed more than 730 SoLoNOx gas turbines into
service. These turbines are routinely meeting emis-
sions limits as strict as 25 ppmv NOx and 50 ppmv
CO (15% O2) on natural gas. Other gas turbine
manufacturers have followed suit and, at this time,
nearly every manufacturer has introduced a dry low
emissions (DLE) gas turbine product line based on
lean-premixed combustion.
Advantages of lean-premixed combustion in-
clude the concept’s proven potential for low NOx
emissions, a similarity in physical arrangement to
Figure 32. Taurus 60 Mobile Power Unit conventional combustion system hardware, and
Solar’s extensive lean-premixed technology base
developed through earlier research work.
Introduced in November 2000, the Taurus 60 For more details on Solar’s combustion system
mobile power unit is a trailer-mounted system that developments, please refer to the technical paper
is highway transportable and easy to install and "Developments in SoLoNOx Low Emission Sys-
relocate, making it ideal for rental fleets and utility tems," TPSoLoNOx.
equipment pools. The compact footprint minimizes
the space requirements at substations or commer- Advanced Combustor Technologies
cial / industrial facilities. It comes standard with low
emissions, state-of-the-art, SoLoNOx dry low NOx In response to the trend toward more stringent
combustion system technology, making it environ- emissions regulations, gas turbine manufacturers
mentally friendly and easy to permit. are assessing their current lean-premixed systems
The unit is dispatchable to be on line in six to establish viable combustion system enhance-
minutes from cold start. A dual fuel combustion ments. The areas that exhibit the greatest potential
system provides the flexibility of operating on either for technology developments include:
natural gas or diesel fuel. It features a range of
control system options for remote operation and • Control of combustor pressure oscillations
SCADA integration, as well as KVAR control for • Control system development
excellent reactive power capability. The unit is
offered with a wide range of product support pro- • More robust dual fuel capability
grams, ancillary support systems, site preparation, • Advanced combustor liner technologies
set-up, and commissioning.

37 General 10
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Combustor Pressure Oscillations. The introduc- Currently, more than 100 dual fuel engines have
tion of lean-premixed combustion systems for gas been sold and the high-time unit has more than
turbines has raised manufacturer awareness of the 45,000 operating hours. Dual fuel injectors are
consequences of large combustor pressure oscilla- available for retrofit into existing gas-only turbine
tions. Simply put, lean flames have a greater ten- engines.
dency to cause pressure oscillations, which can The need for dual fuel injectors to have gas
lead to engine damage. It is recognized that the and liquid fuel main passages, gas and liquid fuel
reduced stability of a lean-premixed flame contrib- pilot passages, and a pilot air passage makes these
utes to combustor oscillations. injectors very complex. Blockage of liquid fuel ports
One of the keys to the long-term resolution of or the degradation of liquid fuel injection patterns
this problem is design optimization of the fuel in- due to coking is a major concern in the dual fuel
jector premixing section. Improved fuel injector SoLoNOx design and is the primary focus of our
configurations have now been developed. Pressure near-term development efforts.
oscillations are low at all points within the operating
envelope and do not require high levels of pilot fuel. Advanced Combustor Liners. The development
These new fuel injector designs are now being of an advanced combustion liner with more effec-
incorporated into production machines and have tive cooling technologies will provide a two-fold
provided additional margin against the NOx guar- benefit in terms of emissions. First, CO emissions
antee level of 25 ppmv. will be reduced due to the improved ability to control
reaction quenching. Second, the lower CO levels
Control Systems. The SoLoNOx gas turbine con- will allow combustor reoptimization to a lower flame
trol system is identical to the conventional gas tur- temperature. This will produce lower NOx levels,
bine control system at start-up and low-load opera- along with lower CO concentrations.
tion, but differs when the gas turbine operates in the A enabling technology being advanced is the
low emissions mode (above approximately 30 to augmented backside cooled (ABC) liner. Backside-
50% of the rated load). The control system for cooled liners forego cooling air injection completely.
SoLoNOx engines modulates the variable geometry Instead, combustor wall temperatures are con-
systems to keep the combustion primary zone trolled solely through convective cooling by a high
temperature within a specified range. Accurate velocity airstream on the cold side of the liner. In
control of the primary zone temperature is critical to most instances, the high heat flux from the flame
controlling NOx and CO emissions. Future operat- requires augmenting of the backside convective
ing objectives will require advanced control algo- process to keep liner wall temperatures from be-
rithms and closed-loop control systems with electric coming excessive. Turbulators in the form of trip
actuation of variable pilot and main fuel control strips, fins, and pins act to increase the cooling flow
valves to more accurately maintain the engine turbulence at the liner wall and augment the heat
primary zone temperature (Tpz). removal process. An additional degree of liner
protection can be achieved through the application
Dual Fuel Capability. Dual fuel capabilities can of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) on the hot sides
improve equipment availability during periods of of the liner walls. Development test results with this
primary fuel curtailment and potentially offer the technology are very encouraging, with significant
ability to arrange a more user-favorable price reductions in emissions and uniform combustor wall
structure for the primary fuel. The first dual fuel temperatures. Field testing of a production configu-
SoLoNOx combustion system in the Centaur 50 ration is under way and several additional units will
gas turbine was commissioned in November 1994. be commissioned in the near future.

38 General 10
Mars Question
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: C. Brown

Mars Question
Number 1
What is current experience with T14000 and T15000
and what failure mechanisms have been seen?

ANSWER was replaced. (Please refer to GTUA 2000 Mars

Question Number 4 and Service Bulletin 8.8/112.)
As of March 2001, there are 405 Mars 14000 and
Mars 15000 gas turbine packages throughout the
world, with approximately 4.6 million total operating Dual Fuel Injector Fouling. Mars 100 dual fuel
hours. Past issues have been addressed in previ- units experienced fouling of the injector gas fuel
ous GTUA reports and/or Service Bulletins. Current passages. Liquid fuel was found to migrate into the
issues are discussed herein with the implementa- gas side and clog (coke) the passageway. A purge
tion plan in progress. kit using turbine compressor discharge pressure
(PCD) air was developed and implemented to
remedy this situation. The purge kit was retrofitted
into Field units and introduced into new production
Mars 100 Gas Turbine units in June 1999. (Please refer to GTUA 2000
Mars Question Number 1 and Service Bulletin
The Mars 100 product line (Figure 33) consists of
the 14000 model (introduced in 1989) and the
15000 model (introduced in 1995). The 15000
differs from the 14000 in that compressor airflow is PCD Purge System. Two units retrofitted with the
increased by opening up the flow path at the first- new PCD purge kit experienced failures. In both
and second-stage compressor blades. The Mars cases, severe Stage 1 nozzle damage was evident,
100 is an uprate of the Mars 90 product line, which consistent with burning in the turbine cooling flow
consists of the 12000 model and the 13000 model. circuit. Based on our investigation, improper or
The uprate included the following: incomplete implementation of the purge system
logic is believed to be the cause of these failures.
• Firing temperature increased from 1055
to 1120°C (1935 to 2050°F) turbine rotor Starter Clutch Durability. The Mars starter clutch
inlet temperature (TRIT). began having durability problems in late 1997. This
sprag-type clutch underwent two redesigns and was
• Stage 1 blade material changed from Mar recently upgraded with the introduction of a new
M 247 Equiax to CMSX-4. spline-type clutch. (Please refer to GTUA 2000
• Stage 2 blade material changed from Mars Question Number 5 and GTUA 1999 Mars
IN 792 to CMSX-3. Question Number 6.) This new clutch reduces
stress levels and eliminates starter motor rotation
• Cooling flow modifications introduced after starter dropout. Clutches with the new design,
into Stage 2 nozzle. introduced into production engines in the first quar-
ter 2001, are available if users wish to upgrade their
Past Issues Addressed Previously at GTUA existing clutch. (Please refer to Service Bulletin
2.0/102 and Service Bulletin 2.0/103.)
Combustor Liner Panel Distortion. Mars 100
conventional combustion units in operation with P/N Bearing Failures. The Mars product line featured
198834 injectors exhibited distortion of the com- tri-metal radial bearings. When these bearings are
bustor liner cooling panels due to overheating of the exposed to high temperatures over an extended
liner. This was resolved by introducing the P/N period of time, they become susceptible to corro-
301380 “cutback” injector. In some cases, the liner sion. After an extensive development effort, the tri-

39 Mars 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Figure 33. Typical Mars Gas Turbine Cutaway

metal bearing was replaced with the bi-metal bear- 5.9/103, 6.5/107, 6.5/108, 6.5/109, and 6.6/102
ing design, in addition to other improvements. announced improvements to the post shutdown
(Please refer to GTUA 2000 Mars Question Num- lubrication system, re-emphasizing to users the
ber 3 and GTUA 1999 Mars Question Number 3.) need for proper post lubrication and maintenance of
The bi-metal bearing has not suffered a corrosion the subsystems associated with providing this
failure in the Mars product line to date. Approxi- lubrication.
mately two- thirds of the nearly 750 Mars 100 and Compressor Blade Failures. Since 1989, one
Mars 90 engines in the fleet have the latest bearing Stage 8 and six Stage 14 cast compressor blades
configuration. have failed in high-cycle fatigue. The problem,
whose root cause was improper grinding of the
Interruption of Post Shutdown Bearing Lubrica- dovetail, has been corrected in manufacturing for
tion Failures. The radial bearings in the Mars both new production and overhauled units.
engine must go through a post shutdown lubrication
cycle. If this cycle is interrupted for more than 20 Variable Stator Vane Lockup. Several Stage 3
minutes, bearing damage will likely occur, most and Stage 4 forged compressor blades failed in
notably to the No. 2 and No. 3 bearings and espe- high-cycle fatigue. The root cause of the failure was
cially if a restart is attempted before the bearings attributed to external contamination of the inlet
have had a chance to cooldown. Service Bulletins guide vane (IGV) mechanism, preventing proper

40 Mars 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

guide vane operation and causing amplified aero- Number 7. The SoLoNOx process, which uses a
dynamic blade excitation. (Please refer to Service lean premix of fuel and air, must maintain a balance
Bulletin 8.6/107.) between emissions control and combustor pressure
oscillations or combustor rumble. Oscillations
Current Issues and/or rumble have been reported at some Mars
gas turbine installations where operation over a
SoLoNOx Engines and Part-Load Operation. wide range of ambient temperatures at varying
Three issues have been associated with some loads is necessary. Information on combustion
Mars SoLoNOx units run primarily at part load and instability characterized by combustor oscillations
particularly at low ambient temperatures: and rumble, together with the description of a kit for
monitoring oscillations is described in Service
1. Case bleed duct hose failures Bulletin 5.4/116.
2. Combustor liner cracking Combustor oscillations were resolved by the
new SoLoNox injector P/N 300457. The injector fuel
3. Combustion instability
spokes were moved 3/8 of an inch downstream,
fully attenuating the 360-Hz oscillations. The techni-
First, the single 4-in. diameter bleed hose be-
cal details of this effort are found in ASME paper
tween the combustor case and the exhaust collec-
number 99-GT-052.
tor was developed to replace the injector bleed
In conjunction with the P/N 300457 injectors
manifolds on SoLoNOx units. The design and
described above, a variable pilot fuel system was
implementation of the hose was accelerated to incorporated to maintain part-load emissions com-
provide an immediate remedy to the injector bleed pliance and increase rumble margin. In very general
hose failures, which had potential safety implica- terms, smaller percent pilot is required at or near
tions. The engineering qualification process, which full load to meet NOx compliance, and percent pilot
was delayed until after the hoses were installed in is increased at lower load ranges to provide com-
the Field, found the hoses to be subject to high- bustor stability without compromising emissions.
cycle fatigue failure. Subsequently, the 4-in. di- The variable pilot system uses a new wide
ameter hoses are being replaced with a 6-in. di- range fuel control valve. The entire system is now
ameter hose. Since March 2000, approximately 40 standard on all new production packages and is
units have received the larger hose and no prob- recommended for Field units. A Service Bulletin
lems have been reported. The 6-in. diameter hose describing the availability of the wide range fuel
kit can be ordered through Service Bulletin control system is forthcoming.
Second, testing conducted in Solar’s develop-
ment test facilities in San Diego found that changing
Collapsed Oil Drain in Engines with a Scav-
the extraction of bleed airflow from the injectors to enged Bearing Lubrication System. An oil drain
a port on the combustor case caused a disturbance tube collapsed in a Mars 100 standard combustion
in the combustor liner cooling flow. It was deter- dual fuel unit on the test stand. The engine was
mined that during part-load operation, a vortex is designed with a scavenged bearing lubrication
set up in the region between the bleed port and the system for operation on an oil and gas production
combustor liner. This vortex is strong enough to tanker (FPSO). The drain collapsed because stiff-
draw combustion air back through combustor liner ening tubes were not installed in the drain pas-
cooling holes in the liner. This uneven temperature sageway as specified on the engineering drawings.
distribution caused some liners to crack down- Oil backed up into the compressor diffuser housing
stream of the disturbance. A baffle was designed and turbine nozzle case areas. The insulation
and is available as a Field retrofit. A Service Bulletin surrounding the No. 2 bearing housing became
to announce this retrofit will be issued shortly. soaked with oil and caught fire. This problem was
Third, operation of Mars SoLoNOx engines at successfully corrected. Also, a retrofit kit is being
part load may cause combustor instability. This developed to repair the 13 known units in the Field
subject was reported in GTUA 1999 Mars Question with this particular scavenged bearing lubrication
Number 4 and GTUA 1997 Mars Question system design.

41 Mars 1
Saturn Questions
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: J. Frailich

Saturn Question
Number 1
What is the current experience with T1600 and what failure mechanisms have been seen?

ANSWER • Increased life span of the first- and second-

stage blades through a material change from
The operating performance of the Saturn 1601 and
Mar-M-421 to Mar-M-247 DS and Mar-M-247
1602 gas turbine packages has been very positive.
Equiax, respectively, along with the addition
Only eight units, representing 6.1% of the total
of corrosion-resistant platinum aluminide
installed population, were returned due to a failure
• Improved rotordynamics through the incorpo-
BACKGROUND ration of the No. 3 tilt-pad bearing in single-
shaft engines and the No. 4 and No. 5 ramp
Solar’s extensive experience with previous Saturn bearings of the power turbine in two-shaft
gas turbine models (Figures 34 and 35) has suc- engines.
cessfully been applied to the Saturn 1600 product
line. This has resulted in a robust and reliable
power plant that has logged more than 2.7 million
hours in the field without major technical difficulties.
Since their inception in 1995, out of 131 units,
which have been deployed to areas around the
world covering nearly all environmental conditions,
seven units were returned for their scheduled in-
spection and repair to Solar’s overhaul facilities
after 30,000 hours of operation. Eight units experi-
enced the following failure mechanisms:
• Three units – Compressor rotor
forward cone spline damage
• Three units – Carbon seal damage 01S1-1

• One unit – High vibration levels Figure 34. Saturn Two-Shaft Engine
• One unit – High emissions

Of these four reasons for engine removal, only

the damaged spline required design modification.
This involved engineering an improved fit to prevent
excessive wear between the forward cone and the
gearbox hub coupling interface.

Product Improvements
The product was also upgraded in two significant
areas, which were prompted by ongoing product
improvement: 01S1-2

Figure 35. Saturn Single-Shaft Engine

42 Saturn 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: J. Frailich

Saturn Question
Number 2
What developments are underway to improve carbon seals throughout Saturn range.

ANSWER No. 2 and No. 3 bearing areas would not be a cost-

effective solution for Saturn gas turbine users.
No developments are under way to improve carbon
seals in Saturn gas turbine models.
Economic Considerations
BACKGROUND Switching to labyrinth seals would require a major
redesign of the compressor aft hub and the No. 2
The Saturn gas turbine has had a successful track and No. 3 bearing housings. It would also have a
record for 40 years operating in a wide variety of major impact at overhaul due to the higher repair
applications. The only option for improving the costs involved.
carbon seals used in the Saturn product line is to
replace them with labyrinth seals. Based on an
Mechanical Considerations
analysis of economic and mechanical considera-
tions, modifications to the sealing systems in the Table 12 compares the two types of seals.

Table 12. Comparison of Carbon Seals and Labyrinth Seals

Type of Seal Favorable Considerations Unfavorable Considerations

Carbon 1. Carbon self-lubricating capability 1. Require precise location with
Seals allows dry running at extreme respect to sealing surface.
(Contact operating conditions. 2. Must keep surface flatness and
Type) 2. Double sealing capability in surface finish within close tolerances.
axial and radial directions. 3. Life is dependent on mechanical
3. Leakage ranges from zero loads acting on carbon elements.
to minimum amounts.
4. Floating capability of carbon
elements allows for shaft-
displacement compensation.
5. Compact construction simplifies
installation where space is limited
and replacement when damaged.
Labyrinth 1. Cause no frictional losses. 1. Leakage is dependent on
Seals 2. Require no axial adjustment. seal-to-shaft clearance.
(Non- 2. Require a high degree of rotor
3. Life is dependent on degree of
Contacting concentricity to achieve minimum
rotor operational instabilities.
Type) to no rubbing.
3. For incidental rubbing, a soft
surface must be provided.
4. Manufacturing requires complex
processes and so does their repair.

43 Saturn 2
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: C. Aylwin

Saturn Question
Number 3
Please confirm that there are no plans for phase out of Saturn. Advise
plans for upgrades to Saturn including on skid controls and SoLoNOx.
Advise any developments of a successor in the 1 MW class.

ANSWER shaft 1210 kWe rating for generator sets. There are
no plans for further power upgrades at this time or
Solar does not have any plans to phase out the for the incorporation of a dry low emissions (DLE)
Saturn gas turbine, to upgrade the Saturn gas combustion system. New production units are
turbine for SoLoNOx combustion system, or to available with onskid controls.
develop a successor for the Saturn gas turbine. The Solar’s Package Refurbishment facility in
Saturn gas turbine, however, is now available with Mabank, Texas, offers a wide range of package
onskid controls. and control upgrades for the Saturn product, in-
• Onskid PLC controls with remote
Since its introduction in 1960, the Saturn industrial communications options
gas turbine has been an industry leader in the
1000-kW (1500-hp) class with its rugged durability • Fuel, start and lubrication systems
and 4800 units installed throughout the world. • Increased power output
The current plans for the Saturn turbine are fo- • Compressor restages
cused on refinement of the package features at its
two-shaft 1185-kW (1590-hp) rating for compressor • Package enclosure with fire systems
sets and mechanical-drive packages and its single- • Water injection for emissions control

44 Saturn 3
General All Question
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Author: S. Sedgewick

General Question to All Manufacturers

Number 1
Advise Solar’s plans for Internet technology to support users.

ANSWER that addresses the continually changing user needs

throughout a project’s life cycle; from design, con-
Solar recently launched an updated website. Sev- struction, and operation to refurbishment or de-
eral releases are planned for this site, which under- commissioning. The result of this team’s work is a
scores our commitment to make the information strategy that utilizes personalized, interactive, web-
you need as accessible to you as possible. We based technology to optimize the value, speed,
invite you to visit us and encourage you to register accuracy, and efficiency of user interactions.
at: Using world-class, state-of-the-art content
management software, Solar launched the new site
BACKGROUND (Figure 36) in April 2001. Based on priorities con-
In 2000, Solar put together a diverse, cross- veyed by Solar's customers, this release included
functional team to design an e-business strategy general information about Solar Turbines, our

Figure 36. Solar's Updated Web Site

45 All 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

products and services, as well as applications of Solar’s objective is to enhance customer per-
our products. Users are encouraged to register sonalization for their specific site, making the cus-
since that will provide a more personalized web tomer's experience more comfortable, pertinent and
experience. As Solar continues to expand our web efficient. Solar is also developing additional func-
site and enhance the site's functionalities, some of tionality through targeted applications designed to
the features to be made available through a series empower and inform our customer' regarding plan-
of web site releases include: ning and procurement processes. Understanding
that each customer's relationship and interface with
• Detailed product brochures Solar is unique, by design the site will focus on
complementing our existing support and communi-
• Technical training course information cation channels through this information technology
and scheduling pathway.
• Service Bulletins Solar has dedicated a team of people actively
engaged in growing our web site to address the
• Technical papers breadth of our customers' needs. Leveraging the
• Customer-specific as-shipped photographs openness and goodwill throughout our end-user
constituency, we aspire to work closely with our
• Case studies customers to refine and enrich their experience with
• Customer-specific Operation and Solar's web site.
Maintenance Instruction manuals

46 All 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Source material referenced in Solar's GTUA 2001 Report are provided in this section.

Number Title Reference

Prior GTUA Answers

M-7 GTUA 1997 Mars Question Number 7...................................................................................M-1
GS-1 GTUA 1998 General Question to Solar Number 1.................................................................G-5
T70-1 GTUA 1999 Taurus Question Number 1 ...............................................................................G-5
M-3 GTUA 1999 Mars Question Number 3...................................................................................M-1
M-4 GTUA 1999 Mars Question Number 4...................................................................................M-1
M-6 GTUA 1999 Mars Question Number 6....................................................................... M-5 (2000)
M-1 GTUA 2000 Mars Question Number 1...................................................................................M-1
M-3 GTUA 2000 Mars Question Number 3...................................................................................M-1
M-4 GTUA 2000 Mars Question Number 4...................................................................................M-1
M-5 GTUA 2000 Mars Question Number 5...................................................................................M-1

Technical Papers
ASME 99-GT-052 Passive Control of Combustion Instability in Lean Premixed Combustors ...............M-1
TPSoLoNOx Developments in SoLoNOx Low Emission Systems...............................................G-10
TTS104 Increasing Turbine Life through Improved Maintenance Procedures ......... GS-1 (1998)
TTS106 Lube Oils for the Industrial Gas Turbine ...................................................................G-5

Service Bulletins
2.0/102A Mars Overrunning (Sprag) Clutch)............................................................................. M-6 (1999)
2.0/103 Starter Clutch Improvement ...................................................................................................M-1

3.3/106A Fuel Migration ............................................................................................................ M-1 (2000)

5.4/116 Mars SoLoNOx Combustor Oscillations and Combustor Rumble .........................................M-1
5.9/103A Battery Charger Adjustments ..................................................................................... M-3 (1999)
M-3 (2000)

A-1 Appendix
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

Service Bulletins, Contd

6.0/123A Changes in Lube Oil Pressure and Temperature to Increase Lube Oil Life .............. M-3 (1999)
6.5/107 Post Lube Requirements after Engine Shutdown ...................................................... M-3 (1999)
M-3 (2000)
6.5/108B Backup Post Lubrication Control System Enhancements.......................................... M-3 (1999)
M-3 (2000)
6.5/109A Periodic Battery Maintenance and Testing of Backup Lube System ......................... M-3 (1999)
M-3 (2000)
6.6/102 Mars Pneumatic Backup Lube Oil Pump Replacement.........................................................G-6
8.6/107 Variable Stator Vane Lockup .................................................................................................M-1
8.8/108B Fuel Injector Bleed Hose Failures and Case Bleed Duct Failures .........................................M-1
8.8/112 Mars 100 Standard Combustion Combustor Liner / Injector Durability..................................M-1
8.12/102A Combustor/Exhaust Collector Drain Valve.............................................................................G-8

Engineering Specification
ES 9-98E Fuel, Air, and Water (or Steam) for Solar Gas Turbine Engines............................... M-7 (1997)
M-4 (1999)

A-2 Appendix
Author: K. Kubarych/A. Criqui
Presenter: A. Criqui

General Question to Solar

Number 1
What is the time between overhauls for all Solar engines - Saturn, Centaur,
Taurus and Mars? We would like this answered for different loads and are
start-ups cycles part of the equation?

(At the GTUA session on June 15, 1998, Solar showed actual data on early
engine returns, expressed as an annual percent of the operating fleet of similar
engines. Returns for extraneous causes, such as mentioned herein, were not
included. These data are not included in this book for competitive reasons.)

The recommended overhaul interval for all Solar As a general rule, corrosion and high cycle
engines is 30,000 hours. Actual experience varies fatigue are the primary concerns of the cold
widely and the following sections explain the factors sections of the engine such as the compressor. The
involved. This recommendation not to exceed hot section has life limitations from creep/stress
30,000 hours between overhauls applies to all rupture, high and low cycle fatigue, high
engines rated for continuous duty service temperature oxidation, and hot corrosion. Life of oil
irrespective of the actual load profile. Solar does not film journal and thrust bearings is theoretically
apply a penalty for start cycles except where unlimited, but, practically, may wear or suffer
multiple starts per day are routine, as in marine corrosion effects due to degraded oil.
propulsion service.
Corrosion of the compressor section has historically
Solar has developed life determination been a significant life-limiting factor. However, with
methodologies over the past 35 years that are the use of more corrosion-resistant materials, such
intended to assure designs that provide long and as 17-4 PH stainless steel and Alloy 718, and the
reliable service lives. The goal of any design life development of compressor coatings, such as the
methodology is to adequately account for any widely used SermeTel inorganic aluminum coatings
potential failure and wear-out mechanisms. In most and better inlet air filtration, compressor corrosion
cases, a balance between component design life is much less of a problem in today's gas turbines.
and cost must be made. The design of a complex The primary design consideration for compressor
machine, such as a gas turbine, requires extensive durability is the avoidance of fatigue failures.
analysis and testing. Unlike flight propulsion Careful design analysis is required to accurately
engines, industrial gas turbines do not experience understand the natural frequencies of each airfoil,
a "typical" duty cycle. One engine may be in a both rotating and stationary. The analytical
base-load power generation application, another in capability available to today s design engineer has
a low power gas compression application, and a significantly improved with the implementation of
third in intermediate or standby service. These computer modeling and finite element analysis
require the gas turbine designer to resort to the (FEA). Sophisticated computer modeling can
worst-case scenarios while developing the design. accurately predict the airfoil natural frequencies,
Solar has traditionally based its design life on allowing rapid optimization of the airfoil geometry so
continuous duty at maximum power or $T5 topped# as to avoid any known sources of excitation. The
conditions. The fundamental life-limiting results are typically shown on a Campbell diagram
considerations typically are creep and stress (Figure GS1-1). Because knowledge of excitation
rupture, high and low cycle fatigue, corrosion, high sources is incomplete and the fact that white noise
temperature oxidation, and wear. Each one of these is always present, accurate fatigue properties of the
material degradation mechanisms must be airfoil materials are required and used in an
accounted for in a successful design. analysis to assess the airfoil durability under a

Figure GS1-1. Campbell Diagram and Computer-Generated Mode Shapes

forced excitation. The design goal is to have temperature air heats the airfoil and, with today's
adequate dynamic capability to withstand firing temperatures, the airfoil, if not cooled, would
reasonable levels of broad band excitation. only have a life of a few hours. By passing
compressor discharge air through the hollow airfoil,
TURBINE SECTION the metal temperature is reduced. A balance must
be struck between the amount of cooling air used
Stress Rupture Considerations
and the airfoil wall thickness. The greater the
The hot section of a gas turbine represents the
amount of air used, the cooler the airfoil metal will
most challenging section of the engine in terms of
be, however, this comes at a loss to the
assessing life. Many components are expected to
thermodynamic cycle efficiency. Likewise, the
operate for long periods of time at high
thicker the airfoil wall, the lower the stress and the
temperatures and at high stresses. It is the clear
longer the life. However, a thicker wall is more
challenge of a gas turbine design effort to
difficult to cool and requires more cooling air.
accurately establish the temperature the materials
Typically, a Solar gas turbine air-cooled blade
must withstand and create a geometry that
design goal will be based on a 60,000-hour life so
develops stresses at a level that yields adequate
as to allow for two overhaul periods. The blade
life. The life can be set by either using creep or
airfoil stresses and temperatures will then be
stress rupture criteria depending upon the quality
optimized to achieve this life goal.
and availability of the materials data. Due to the
The design methodology typically employs
greater abundance of stress rupture data, these
stress rupture data in the form of a Larson-Miller
data are the most commonly used criteria.
parameter plot and must be developed by material
For example, an air-cooled Stage 1 turbine
testing at conditions similar to those expected in the
blade is the collaborative effort among an
engine (Figure GS1-3). The Larson-Miller
aerodynamicist, a heat transfer engineer, and a
parameter combines temperature and time into one
structural design engineer (Figure GS1-2). The
variable and, when plotted against stress, provides
airfoil shape is optimized to extract an optimal
a means to rapidly optimize blade life.
amount of work from the gas path air. This high

Figure GS1-3. Creep/Stress Rupture
Material Testing

Environmental Considerations
In the design of high temperature components, the
effects of high temperature oxidation must also be
considered. Oxidation rates for a particular material
must be measured experimentally in a laboratory.
Then, through a knowledge of the gas turbine
component temperature, an assessment of life can
be made. Because it is nearly impossible to
reproduce in the laboratory the exact conditions a
Figure GS1-2. Cooled Turbine Blade gas turbine component will see, a certain amount of
Design Generation empirical judgment is also required. Hot corrosion

is another life-limiting concern and is most
commonly associated with the effects of fuel
contaminated with sodium and sulfur, although air
contaminated with sodium and potassium can lead
to severe corrosion attack. The sodium and sulfur
combine in the combustor to form sodium sulfate,
which can precipitate as a liquid salt on hot section
component surfaces. This molten salt tends to flux
away the native protective oxide on the superalloy
surface, leaving it essentially unprotected and
vulnerable to additional oxidation. Rapid material
wastage rates can result from these cooperative
actions and will significantly reduce component life.

Fatigue Considerations
Turbine blades experience forced vibration due to
perturbations in the gas stream. Most significant are
integral excitations caused by wakes coming off
upstream components, such as struts, injectors and
nozzles. The blockages or disturbances to the
steady gas stream superimpose multiple excitations
per revolution or engine order (EO) excitations.
These frequencies or integral order excitations are
carefully avoided by tuning the airfoil s natural
frequencies to avoid resonance within the operating
In addition to forced vibration of integral
sources, random vibration is experienced as the
perturbations in pressure fields mix out in the gas
stream. The response due to the low level, random
forcing functions is damped out through the
combination of mechanical damping systems and
designing to robust fatigue margins.
Component testing is carried out to verify
natural frequencies and fatigue resistance. Solar s
frequency response test facility incorporates laser
holography and shaker table vibration testing to
ensure durable operation (Figure GS1-4). Figure GS1-4. Natural Mode Frequency Testing

area is subjected to significant thermal transient
A critical design element in a gas turbine is the disk. conditions caused by start/stop cycles. The
Compressor disks are not significantly influenced by resulting thermally induced strains can give rise to
temperature, making their design fairly LCF cracking. The interaction between stress
straightforward and typically very long lived rupture and LCF in this region is very complex and
(~250,000 hours). On the other hand, turbine disk not well behaved. Therefore, Solar uses a
design is very much affected by temperature and conservative approach of designing for low stresses
requires careful evaluation of stress rupture and low and eliminating fatigue as a concern in areas that
cycle fatigue (LCF). Typically, the entire volume of are life limited by stress rupture. Working with
the disk must meet the stress rupture life criterion, materials engineers, a careful choice of disk
which is generally set at ~100,000 hours. This materials is made in order to assure the proper
becomes a bit challenging in the vicinity of the blade performance in this region. A critical safety
attachment slots due to the stress concentrations consideration is the design margin in the hub region
arising from the fir-tree configuration. This same

of a turbine disk. The disk must be protected from as relatively heavy, low stress castings and have no
overspeed conditions. The design philosophy impact on the TBO of an engine. Corrosion and
utilized at Solar is to set section stresses such that thermal fatigue cracking can and do cause distress
the strongest blade will separate before the to housings and casings on occasion, although this
weakest disk post will fail and that the disk burst distress is rarely the primary cause for an engine
speed is higher than the blade shed speed. This overhaul. However, the damage does increase the
assures a blade shed will occur prior to a disk burst. complexity of the overhaul and repair activities and
The hub of a turbine disk is also susceptible to LCF is, therefore, an issue of concern to the design
damage and consequent failure. LCF loading is community. Solar makes extensive use of coatings
strongly influenced by start/stop thermal transients. to inhibit corrosive attack, and advanced thermal
A detailed thermal analysis is performed to modeling is being employed to minimize cracking.
accurately predict the thermal strains and their Advanced repair techniques are being developed
locations. Typically, the high stress locations are in and deployed to extend the useful life of these
the vicinity of a center bore or through bolt holes components. A recent example is with the Mars
(Figure GS1-5). Solar designs for 5000 start/stop turbine nozzle case. A small portion of the forward
cycles or greater than once per day for 100,000 end of the nozzle case is subjected to high
hours. This limit is set through a combination of temperatures and suffers oxidation damage to the
material properties and imposed stresses, including extent that, once out of service, the part cannot go
consideration for fatigue crack growth rates. The back into service. A repair has been developed,
useful life of a turbine disk is highly dependent upon fully qualified, and is currently in production that
the quality of the disk material, and careful removes the damaged forward portion and a new
nondestructive inspections are employed during forging is electron-beam (E-B) welded to the
component manufacturing. remaining aft portion. The E-B weld is located in a
low stress area. After welding, the part is machined
STATIC COMPONENTS to regain the original design intent and recoated to
the same requirements as a new component
Housings and casings are typically industrial style, (Figure GS1-6). Development and field testing have
rugged and long lived. They are generally designed indicated the repaired part to be the equal of a new

Figure GS1-6. Fully Re-machined Nozzle

Figure GS1-5. Turbine Disk Stress Distribution Support Case

TRIBOLOGY through stringent control of the gas temperature
during the start cycle to eliminate any unacceptable
Wear can occur wherever adjacent components high temperature conditions that would lead to
experience relative motion. Clearly, an area subject accelerated life consumption. Solar routinely utilizes
to wear is the bearing. Solar uses fluid-film bearings a hot restart during shop testing to expose the
that are proven to be durable and capable of engine to the worst-case thermal transient prior to
providing long-life service, provided the fluid film measuring the guarantee performance point. This
remains intact. Solar strives to provide bearings and assures the user that the engine has experienced
lubrication systems capable of meeting the service the most adverse condition due to thermal
requirements. Seals represent another potential transients while still meeting the guaranteed
area subject to wear. Care during the design is performance and that further loss of performance
taken to select the most appropriate materials and due to thermal transients will be minimal.
establish the most effective dimensional tolerances Start/stop cycles do lead to LCF life
to minimize contact, yet provide adequate sealing. consumption, which affects primarily the turbine
Solar conducts extensive development testing to disks. First-stage turbine nozzle trailing edges are
identify optimum seal configurations and material also prone to thermal/mechanical fatigue, which
pair combinations (Figure GS1-7). presents neither a performance nor a durability
liability during the standard overhaul period. This
type of cracking does, however, affect component
reuse and remanufacturability and is, therefore, the
subject of continuing development work to enhance
crack resistance through improved cooling and/or
the use of thermal barrier coatings.
The results of Solar s marine turbine program
directly support the success of our design
philosophy. The leading experience with high
start/stop applications is in the Taurus 60 Marine
program where our high time engine has
experienced service lives of more than 9000 hours
and greater than 2300 start/stop cycles, with no
reported loss in performance as measured by
vessel speed. This very demanding service is giving
the Taurus 60M gas turbine a tough test, and the
results are showing that the turbine design is
meeting the challenge.

Figure GS1-7. Solar s Seal Test Facility Diagnostics

Designed into every Solar gas turbine package are
diagnostic capabilities that help provide early
warning of potential problems. Adequate lubrication
Solar has taken the position during all of its is essential in achieving intended bearing lives;
programs that the gas turbine operating life is therefore, oil temperatures and pressures are
separate and independent from its cyclic life and continuously regulated and monitored to assure
claims no start cycle debit in operating life. The their proper functioning. Direct measurement of
operating life and time between overhauls are bearing pad temperatures is available in several
determined by the design life considerations, with models and this, too, provides an indication of the
particular concern for wear out mechanisms that bearing condition. In an effort to protect the engine
lead to performance degradation. Solar s approach from serious damage due to a bearing failure,
to turbine design utilizes analysis and testing to vibration monitoring devices are provided on all
account for the transient conditions associated with Solar engines and packages. These include case-
start/stop cycles. The allowance for start/stop mounted velocity probes, proven useful on the older
cycles is designed into Solar s products, not added Saturn and Centaur 40 gas turbine models, and
on. The impact of starts on life is further reduced direct reading proximity probes on all newer engine

Solar believes that there is a better way to estimate
the remaining life of a gas turbine than time
between overhauls (TBO) or mean time between
failures (MTBF). This is because a turbine is
normally overhauled at prescribed intervals and,
thus, does not operate in the wear out zone of the
failure curve.
Figure GS1-8 is a general failure rate-versus-
time curve, often called the $bathtub# curve. It
applies to most devices, even to human life. There
are three distinct zones. The first is the infant or
start-up failures region. This is followed by a period
of roughly constant failure rate, attributed to random
causes. The third region, where the curve slope Figure GS1-9. Mean Time between Failures or
begins increasing, is the wear out failure area. This Time between Overhauls
three-region curve can be constructed for anything
that has a finite service life. Each region can be
treated mathematically, such as by using Weibull virtue of factory testing. Then, by overhauling at the
analysis, to quantify behavior. For a device that is recommended interval, the engine is kept out of the
operated until it fails, such as a light bulb, the MTBF wear out failure zone and should operate for
is the point where half of the original population of several overhauls until the time limit of some
similar light bulbs has failed (Figure GS1-9). component is approached and the engine is retired.
However, most gas turbines are overhauled at An example would be the turbine disks as
regular intervals to restore performance. While a discussed above.
few users do run their engines to destruction, this is The true risk is then that of random failures up
seldom wise from an economic viewpoint. With to the next scheduled overhaul. With proper care
modern turbines, with their cooled blades and and maintenance, the concern should be not with
nozzles and other expensive components, the mean time between failures, but with the failure rate
economics almost always favor periodic overhaul in the middle zone where virtually all operation
rather than running until a failure occurs. Other takes place. This middle risk zone of random
factors here are the high costs of consequential failures is, of course, a major focus for Solar s
failures and of unplanned production outages. technical and support functions as we deploy tools
Referring to Figure GS1-10, the user of a gas such as pareto analyses and root cause-and-effect
turbine obtains protection against infant failures by analysis to minimize failures.

Figure GS1-8. General Failure Rate-vs-Time Curve Figure GS1-10. Risk Assessment

Of course, the operating environment plays a role ency. (Please see the paper $Increasing Turbine
too. Figure GS1-11 shows, in a relative way, the Life through Improved Maintenance Procedures,#
effects of certain variables on turbine life. If the TTS 104 in the appendix of this book for more on
middle line is for typical service, the lower line this.)
represents an engine in part-load operation, at low Users frequently ask to see actual failure data
ambient temperatures, and with excellent air, fuel for each engine model. To be meaningful, this
and water quality, along with the best level of information must be such that the user can rely on
maintenance. Engines such as these are it for planning, budgeting and comparison of
sometimes returned for their first overhaul with competing products. Engines are returned for many
more than 80,000 hours. The upper line represents reasons other than for failures chargeable to the
full load, high ambient temperatures, poor air, fuel manufacturer. These range from elective uprates to
and water, and substandard maintenance. It is not high time (scheduled) overhauls to failures due to
possible to put numbers on these factors, but they unpredictable events such as lightning strikes. If
certainly do affect life as well as operating effici- returns for all reasons were included, then the
results would be distorted and not useful for
At the GTUA session on June 15, 1998, Solar
showed actual data on early engine returns,
expressed as an annual percent of the operating
fleet of similar engines. Returns for extraneous
causes, such as mentioned above, were not
included. Significantly, the return rate is
independent of time in service, supporting the fact
that the engines do not enter the $wear-out# zone,
but remain in the middle zone of the curve where
$random# causes predominate.

We believe that life estimation for a properly

maintained gas turbine is different than for a
consumable device, that rate of failure is the most
meaningful concept, and that validity is achieved by
Figure GS1-11. Gas Turbine Failure Rates: including all engines that are returned for reasons
Environmental Effects chargeable to the manufacturer.


Author: M. Kelly





(Since the Taurus 70 compressor is derived from the Centaur 40 compressor
with the addition of two forward stages, the 0 and 00 stages, Solar refers to a
blade in the third row, or “third stage blade,” as a first-stage compressor blade.)

Solar has development activities under way to
design an injector that avoids oscillations over a
broad range of pilot fuel levels. Development
testing of SoLoNOx injectors is an ongoing task,
and the latest improvements will be made avail-
able as they move into production.
We also modified the first-stage (third-row)
compressor blades to substantially improve the
fatigue endurance limit. The new blades are
being used on all current Taurus 70 production
gas turbines and are available for replacement at
overhaul or in the field.


Solar’s approach to oscillation control is to (1)
carefully optimize injector design so that pressure
pulsation’s caused by the combustion heat
release process are minimized and (2) add pilot
fuel to stabilize the primary zone fuel-to-air ratio.
In the Taurus 70 gas turbine, oscillations are
avoided at low levels (below 2%) of pilot fuel
addition and at high levels (above 8%) of pilot
fuel addition. The mid-ranges of pilot fuel flow do
tend to excite oscillations and are to be avoided.
A few packages, through a miscommunica-
tion that has since been corrected, had the pilot
fuel set up to run in the range where oscillations
are promoted, which resulted in fatigue damage
to the combustor liner and surrounding sheet
metal structure. The typical type of liner damage
experienced is shown in Figure 33. In those
cases where the mid-range flows were used, the
pilot fuel levels were adjusted to a non-oscillating Figure 33. Failed Combustor Liner

43 Taurus 70-1

condition and the problem has not reoccurred. origin. Fatigue failures are random and probabil-
When operating at low pilot fuel flow levels, the istic, particularly when considering the fact that
gas turbine’s ability to handle large load tran- two Taurus 70 gas turbines have accumulated in
sients can be problematic and careful tuning of excess of 23,000 failure-free operating hours.
the control system is required. Nevertheless, to add even greater design
Field operation of Solar’s SoLoNOx systems margin to the Taurus 70 compressor blade,
has shown that fuel quality, especially fuel-borne modifications were made to the blade profile to
condensed liquids, is also a major contributor to increase the blade’s first fundamental bend mode
combustor oscillations. (Refer to Engineering and to the heat treatment of the 17-4 PH material,
Specification ES 9-98 and Service Bulletin which provided a substantial improvement in the
3.5/102 provided in the Appendix of this report.) fatigue endurance limit. All current Taurus 70
This form of contamination has been identified as production gas turbines use the new blades. All
a potential source of Taurus 70 gas turbine field other Taurus 70 gas turbines will be upgraded
issues. To resolve this, the affected user was with the new blades at their next scheduled over-
requested to install coalescing filters and provide haul or may be replaced in the field, which is fa-
a minimum of 6C (10F) fuel superheat to cilitated by the horizontally split compressor case,
remove the liquids from the gas. At another user at the appropriate service opportunity.
site, improved fuel handling techniques has
apparently not totally eliminated the oscillation
condition, although it is not as yet known why.
Consequently, a set of prototype development
injectors was installed at this site to enable a field
evaluation of a new injector design. These
injectors are less prone to cause oscillations, but
are not optimized for emissions. The injectors are
operating oscillation free, giving confidence that
the development work is progressing in a positive

!   "

Four Taurus 70 gas turbines had first-stage
(third-row) compressor (Figure 34) blade failures,
which resulted in significant collateral damage to
the gas turbine. An analysis by Solar’s Engineer-
ing department identified a high stress condition
in the blade root consistent with the fatigue crack Figure 34. Taurus 70 Compressor Rotor

Taurus 70-1 44

Author: R. Morgan





 $"  bearing health care program to identify engines at

risk of bearing problems. To date, customers have
As reported to the GTUA for the past few years, been contacted and more than 20% of the engines
several changes have been made to the Mars in operation, which were identified as high risk
bearing system. These changes, shown in Figure engines, have been assessed. Based on the results
40, have resulted in a more robust bearing system of the assessment, control software improvements
with significantly improved bearing durability. (Refer have been incorporated and monitoring programs
also to Service Bulletin 6.0/123 provided in the have been established to track bearing condition.
Appendix of this report.) To date, the results of this Where appropriate, engine changeouts or repairs
program have been extremely successful. No were conducted in advance of an engine failure.
problems have been encountered as a result of the More than 30% of the more than 600 Mars engine
design modifications, and there have been no new fleet now has the latest bearing configuration.
bearing failures related to increased bearing Bearing failures encountered over the past year
clearance due to corrosion. have consisted of either bearings of the old design
In the last year, the Mars engine fleet accu- or problems with the postlube system after an
mulated a significant number of operating hours engine shutdown. With regard to the latter, Solar
with the new bearing system. As discussed in last would like to stress the requirement to maintain oil
year’s presentation, Solar proactively initiated a flow in the lubrication system for four hours
after an engine shutdown. This is required to
prevent the bearings from exceeding the allowable
temperature range during thermal soakback. Failure
to meet this requirement can result in severe
damage to the No. 2 and No. 3 bearings. Solar has
published four Service Bulletins (provided in the
Appendix of this report) on this subject:


These Service Bulletins define the postlube re-

quirements and configuration and control en-
hancements that will significantly improve the
robustness of the postlube system. We encourage
you to review them in detail and contact your Solar
Figure 40. Improvements to the No. 2 representative to discuss implementation of these
and No. 3 Bearing Areas enhancements where appropriate.

49 Mars 3

Authors: R. Steele, D. Rawlins and R. Morgan

    #  &+

% The Mars effusion-cooled combustor liner

(Figure 41) has successfully progressed through
The new effusion-cooled liner is slightly more rigorous in-house development tests and more
susceptible to combustor rumble at part-load/low than 20,000 hours of field evaluation. It was re-
ambient operating conditions than the original leased into production as the standard combustor
louver-cooled combustor liner due to leaner op- liner for new Mars 100S gas turbines in May 1999.
eration of the combustor primary zone. This issue The same fuel injector configuration is used with the
has been successfully overcome and demonstrated effusion-cooled liner as with the original louver-
on gas turbines operating over a wide range of cooled combustor liner.
ambient conditions by increasing the part-load pilot Solar utilizes the term “rumble” to characterize
fuel flow. Solar is developing a continuously low frequency pressure fluctuations (20 to 60 Hz)
variable pilot fuel control system, which will allow within the combustor that are associated with the
the emissions to be optimized throughout the gas SoLoNOx system operating too closely to the lean
turbine load range, while providing adequate margin extinction limit, the point where the flame is
against combustor rumble. Solar expects to have extinguished within the combustion system. Solar’s
this variable pilot system available later this year. experience has shown that the potential for a
With proper gas turbine setup and clean fuel, SoLoNOx gas turbine to enter into a “rumble” mode
rumble has not been an issue for SoLoNOx gas of operation is usually caused by either insufficient

Solar continues to develop advanced combustor
liner cooling concepts to reduce the amount of
cooling air required to maintain acceptable liner
metal wall temperatures. This reduction in the level
of required cooling air provides three major

1. It allows for additional air to be used in di-

lution trimming of the hot gases entering
the turbine hot section for improved

2. It allows leaner operation of the combustor

primary zone for lower NOx emissions.

3. It reduces thermal quenching of the com-

bustion reactions along the liner walls, re-
sulting in lower CO emissions. Figure 41. Effusion-Cooled Combustor Liner

Mars 4 50

pilot fuel, low flame temperature caused by Currently, Mars gas turbine packages use a
incorrect parameters in the gas turbine control logic, fixed continuous pilot arrangement (pilot No. 2) with
or blockage of the gas distribution spokes within the fixed No. 1 and No. 3 pilots for start-up and
fuel injector caused from fuel that does not meet the transient conditions. A variable continuous pilot
cleanliness requirements in Solar’s Engineering arrangement with a range of 1-to-10% pilot fuel,
Specification 9-98 (provided in the Appendix of this which combines the No. 2 and No. 3 pilot functions,
report). is being developed. This is similar to the current
A different potential form of acoustic pressure SoLoNOx pilot system used on the Centaur gas
fluctuations within a SoLoNOx combustion system turbine. A wide range pilot system that consolidates
is referred to as “combustion-induced pressure all gas fuel pilot functions into one valve is also
oscillations.” These oscillations are at a higher being developed.
frequency (200 to 500 Hz) than “rumble” and are Sustained operation in a “rumble” or “com-
the result of an aerothermal/acoustic coupling bustor oscillation” mode can significantly com-
between the fuel injector and the combustor liner promise reaching the full durability potential of the
volume. Solar controls these oscillations through SoLoNOx system and should be avoided. With
careful design of the fuel injector geometry or proper set-up and maintenance, the SoLoNOx
through use of pilot fuel to stabilize the flame. The system has demonstrated the ability to meet and
effusion-cooled combustor liner volume is similar to exceed the product durability targets.
the original louvered design and, thus, has no
significant effect on combustor oscillations.

51 Mars 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA’99

Author: D. Bergen

Mars Question
Number 6
Explain experience and any issues around electro-hydraulic starts and sprag

ANSWER attributed to quality and/or process problems at the

clutch supplier.
Since the introduction of the Mars gas turbine in Solar replaced the sprag clutch supplier in
1977, Solar has had good experience overall with January 1998. The sprag clutch assembly from the
the sprag clutch system used with all Mars start new supplier does not experience the “roll over”
systems. In the fall of 1997, however, some of failures experienced with the sprag clutch assembly
these systems began experiencing problems with from the previous supplier. The new assembly has
the sprag clutch. The problems primarily centered a higher torque capacity, however, and is prone to
on improper operation of the sprag clutch itself, not overrun the starter after starter dropout, which
allowing proper disengagement of the starter from causes clutch bearing wear problems not seen with
the gas producer above starter dropout speeds. A the original clutch. The clutch continues to rotate,
successful reconfiguration that gives acceptable even though it is disengaged, due to the viscous
performance results was introduced and is available drag between the rotating and stationary
for field replacement. Solar also embarked on a components. This condition is visually observable
product improvement program working together and is usually associated with direct ac start
with several qualified clutch suppliers and systems. Pneumatic starters may overrun, but this
anticipates production implementation of an even is not considered a problem since the starter is
more durable clutch system in early 2000. continuously lubricated and rated for higher speeds.
The ac hydraulic starter will not overrun due to
BACKGROUND hydraulic lock-up designed into the system.
To deal with the vibration issue, a new clutch
Solar currently uses one sprag-type clutch con-
configuration (Figure 43) was designed that
figuration for all Mars start systems, including ac
provides acceptable performance and is an
hydraulic, direct ac, and pneumatic configurations.
improvement over the previous configuration in
The purpose of the sprag clutch is to lock the
several ways. (Refer to Service Bulletin 2.0/102
starter to the turbine during starting and to fully and
provided in the Appendix of this report.) The sprag
auto-matically disengage the starter from the
lift-off speeds have been reduced from the 7500-to-
turbine after accelerating the turbine beyond starter
9500 rpm range to the 4000-to-6200 rpm range.
dropout speed.
The sprag clutch assemblies are now 100% tested
In late 1997, Solar became aware of quality
and inspected prior to use, which reduces the
issues relating to the sprag clutch system used on
possibility of the clutch not completely disengaging
the Mars gas turbine. These problems generally
above starter dropout speeds. Also, a 100-lb spring
surfaced during production test and commissioning,
preload has been incorporated into the clutch
where the sprag clutches would move past center
bearing assembly to ensure proper loading and
(“roll-over”) and permanently lock the starter to the
location of the ball bearings in the raceway of the
gas producer, causing the starter to remain
angular contact bearings to reduce the risk of
engaged up to full gas producer speed. The primary
bearing wear. This configuration does experience
cause of the failures was isolated to the sprag
some minor bearing wear, but the wear does not
assembly. Although the defect in the sprag
pose a significant life problem. Solar is continuing to
assembly was never fully isolated, it has been

55 Mars 6
GTUA’99 Solar Turbines Incorporated

evaluate this configuration and to work with the new

supplier on quality and process issues to develop a
more durable sprag clutch system early in the year

Figure 43. Improved Sprag Clutch Assembly

Mars 6 56
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2000

Author: T. Batakis

Mars Question
Number 1
Provide details of developments to overcome dual fuel nozzle plugging.

ANSWER the gas fuel passages during liquid fuel operation,

thus preventing the recirculating airflow from
The Mars dual fuel conventional (non-SoLoNOx) occurring.
combustion engine has experienced several recent This purge system draws high-pressure air
and somewhat related fuel system issues of varying from the combustor case, through two special high-
severity. These have all been resolved with temperature-rated ball valves in series, and into a
hardware and software modifications to the engine special port on the gas fuel manifold, using 1.0-in.
and its control system. All of the modifications are diameter tubing. The airflow rate is controlled by a
retrofittable and are being implemented in field, metering orifice and is designed to safely overcome
overhaul, and production engines. the pressure variations within the combustor using
a minimal purge flow rate.
BACKGROUND The two ball valves provide a safety check
against leakage from the gas manifold to the engine
The three issues involved with Mars dual fuel
case. The space between the two valves is vented
conventional combustion engines are:
to atmosphere through a small orifice and the
pressure in the space is monitored. This allows the
1. Gas fuel passage fouling
valves to be cycled individually and the pressure
2. Fuel injector fouling and erosion response to be interpreted to assure that the valves
are functioning properly. This pressure signal is
3. Ignition failure on liquid starts
also used to detect a valve leak during gas fuel
These issues will be addressed in Service Bulletin
3.3/106, the latest version of which is provided in Retrofit kits have been designed and imple-
the Appendix to this report. mented in many of the Mars dual fuel engines. The
early kits take the purge air from a special ring
installed at the engine bleed valve connection. Later
Gas Fuel Passage Fouling
kits will use the production configuration, which
Gas fuel passage fouling is due to “liquid fuel mi- takes the purge air from a combustor case
gration.” This refers to the propensity for liquid fuel borescope port.
to enter the gas fuel passages of the fuel injector, A sophisticated software program is required to
during liquid fuel operation, where it solidifies to operate the purge system. This includes system
obstruct the gas fuel flow during subsequent gas monitoring, to assure proper function, and safety
fuel operation. logic, to prevent engine damage in the event of a
Liquid fuel is carried into the gas fuel injector system failure. A thorough failure mode and effects
passages, from the tip of the injector, by a small re- analysis (FMEA) was conducted to identify all
circulating airflow in the gas fuel delivery system, possible failure scenarios and determine the best
which is generated by small pressure differentials control response for each case.
within the combustor. Our experience to date indicates that the gas
The solution to this problem is the incorporation manifold purge system works as intended to
of a gas manifold purge system (Figure 20) that eliminate the issue of gas fuel passage fouling due
uses high-pressure engine air to continuously purge to liquid fuel migration.

25 Mars 1
GTUA2000 Solar Turbines Incorporated

Figure 20. Gas Manifold Purge System

Fuel Injector Fouling and Erosion promotes hot corrosion of the fuel injector face
shroud. Reports from the problem engine sites
Several users of Mars dual fuel conventional show that the damaged injectors were in the lower
combustion engines reported severe fuel injector engine positions, while the upper injectors were
fouling of the swirler air passages and erosion of undamaged.
the face shroud, after operating on liquid fuel. In
The effectiveness of the liquid fuel purge de-
some cases, the cause of this problem was found
pends on the duration of the purge timer and the
to be inadequate purging of the liquid fuel manifold
engine condition when the liquid fuel supply is
(Figure 21) after liquid fuel operation.
terminated. Upon shutdown from full load on liquid
Liquid fuel is purged from the fuel injectors,
fuel, the purge starts with full engine pressure,
supply manifold, and connecting tubes whenever
which decays as the engine decelerates. Upon
the liquid fuel is turned off. The purge system uses
shutdown from idle, the purge starts with lower
high-pressure engine air to force residual fuel back
engine pressure and decays as the engine decel-
through the manifold inlet port and then into a drain.
erates. After a fuel transfer from liquid fuel to gas
A control timer limits the purge duration.
fuel, the purge has full engine pressure available for
Fuel that is not purged from the fuel system will
the duration of the purge. After a failed start on
settle in the bottom of the manifold and flow into the
liquid, the purge has only engine crank speed
combustor case through the lower injectors. This
pressure for purging.
fuel cokes up the hot fuel injector heads and

Mars 1 26
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2000

Water condensation in the air-assist manifold

occurs when hot pressurized engine air, which is
driven by small pressure differentials within the
combustor, recirculates through the cool air
manifold. This air is quenched on the manifold wall,
precipitating into moisture that then collects in the
bottom of the manifold. Engine sites with high
ambient humidity are more likely to encounter this
problem than other sites.
Field experiments indicate that activating the
engine air-assist during the pre-start engine crank
can clear the water in the torch. This purges the
water from the torch air passages prior to the first
ignition attempt. Work is continuing to verify the
effectiveness of this change under all operating
conditions and to modify the control logic

Figure 21. Liquid Fuel Manifold

Field tests have revealed that the standard

Mars purge timer may have been set for a duration
that was too short to adequately purge the liquid
fuel system under all operating conditions. Recent
test results suggest a purge time of 90 seconds is
adequate for normal engine operating conditions.
Implementation of this purge timer setting is
credited with the elimination of the fuel injector
fouling and erosion described above. Work is
continuing to define the optimal purge duration for
each engine operating condition.
It is also important to keep the drains clear and
to avoid any backpressure in the system.

Ignition Failure on Liquid Starts

Some Mars dual fuel conventional combustion
system engines have experienced ignition failures
due to water condensation in the air-assist mani-
fold. This water collects in the manifold and flows
into the torch ignitor (Figure 22) through the torch
air-assist port and hampers torch ignition on liquid
fuel due to degraded fuel atomization. Typically, the
second start attempt is successful, since the water
is purged from the system during the first start
attempt. Thus, this is more of a nuisance than a Figure 22. Dual Fuel Torch Ignitor
critical issue.

27 Mars 1
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2000

Author: R. Morgan

Mars Question
Number 3
Provide general update on bearing modifications and recent experience.

ANSWER The Mars engine fleet has continued to accu-

mulate operating hours with the new bearing
As reported to the GTUA for the past few years, system since the system’s incorporation in 1997. All
several modifications have been made to the Mars production, overhaul or retrofit engines have used
bearing system. These improvements have resulted the new bearing system. At this time, more than
in a more robust bearing system with significantly 50% of the nearly 700 Mars engine fleet has the
improved bearing durability. latest bearing configuration.
Bearing failures have declined even further
BACKGROUND since last year’s report to the GTUA. Similar to the
experience upon which we reported last year, all of
As presented to the GTUA last year, modifications
the failures in the past year consisted of either
to the Mars bearing system (Figure 23) have been
bearings of the old design or bearings that were
extremely successful. No problems have been
damaged due to an interruption of the post-lube
reported as a result of the design modifications, and
system after an engine shutdown.
there have been no reported bearing failures
With regard to the latter, Solar would like to
related to increased bearing clearance due to
stress the requirement to maintain oil flow in the
corrosion. This year, we can report that this
lubrication system for four hours after an
success has continued.

Figure 23. Improvements to the No. 2 and No. 3 Bearing Areas

31 Mars 3
GTUA2000 Solar Turbines Incorporated

engine shutdown. This is required to prevent the  SB6.5/108

bearings from exceeding the allowable temperature
range during thermal soakback. Failure to meet this  SB6.5/109
requirement can result in severe damage to the No.
2 and No. 3 bearings. Solar has published four These bulletins define the post-lube require-
Service Bulletins (provided in the Appendix to this ments and configuration and control enhancements
report) on this subject: that significantly improve the reliability of the post-
lube system. We encourage you to review them in
 SB5.9/103 detail and contact your Solar Field Service
Representative to discuss implementation of these
 SB6.5/107 enhancements where appropriate.

Mars 3 32
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2000

Author: T. Batakis

Mars Question
Number 4
Provide update on problems associated with effusion cooled injectors.

ANSWER Problem Description

In late 1998, a generic durability problem with the With the 198834 fuel injector (Figure 24), the Mars
Mars 100 conventional (non-SoLoNOx) combustion 100 conventional combustion system performed
engine was identified. An intensive effort was exceptionally well, except the combustor liner life
launched to investigate the issue and provide a was limited by thermal degradation of the primary
solution, which resulted in a modified fuel injector zone outer wall and did not meet the 30,000-hour
design. The modified fuel injectors can be retrofitted design objective. The durability problem originated
in fielded engines with minimal impact on customer with an excessive local heat flux to the liner, at the
operations. Production and overhaul engines have point where the fuel injector swirl-cone impinged on
incorporated the modified injector design since mid- the outer wall. This high heat flux produced high
1999. In addition, a modified combustor liner design liner temperatures and high thermal stresses in the
is being developed to enhance liner durability, but wall-cooling louver at this location (Figure 25). The
is not required to achieve the combustion system cooling louver gradually distorted until it touched the
design life target with the modified fuel injectors. No outer wall and closed the film-cooling gap. Deprived
performance penalties are incurred with either the of film cooling air, the liner downstream of the
fuel injector or liner design modifications. closed cooling strip overheated and burned

The two major components of the combustion
system are the combustor liner and the fuel injector.
These two components function together to mix and
burn the fuel and air and deliver hot gas to the
turbine with a prescribed temperature profile.
Proper distribution of fuel and air within the liner is
critical in achieving the performance objectives of
the combustion system. These objectives include
controlled emissions limits, high combustion
efficiency, adequate flame stability, and limited liner
metal temperatures to satisfy the system life
In late 1996, the Mars 100 conventional com-
bustion fuel injector was changed from P/N 173470
(gas fuel) and P/N 198337 (dual fuel) to P/N
198834. This change was made to incorporate an
effusion-cooled face shroud on the injector tip,
reducing tip metal temperatures and eliminating
premature thermal erosion of the injector tip. Figure 24. Previous Fuel Injector

33 Mars 4
GTUA2000 Solar Turbines Incorporated

Figure 25. Liner Durability Problem

through. Additional overheating occurred just Problem Solution

upstream of the damaged film-cooling strip due to
the same high heat flux, eventually causing burn- The fuel injector modifications reduce the cone
through in this location as well. Such damage angle of the fuel injector air swirler to move the
typically occurred in up to 21 liner locations corre- impingement point of the fuel/air mixture further
sponding with the location of each of the 21 fuel downstream on the outer liner wall. This dilutes the
injectors. fuel/air mixture and reduces the heat flux at the wall
Rig and engine tests of this combustion system impingement location. The P/N 301380 modified
revealed excessively high local metal temperatures fuel injector (Figure 26) alone provides an adequate
in the outer liner at the same location where solution to the liner durability problem. That is, liner
damage was observed in the field. Thermal/stress design life is achieved with the modified injector
analyses of the outer liner under the measured without requiring a liner change. The modified fuel
operating conditions verified the observed injectors can be retrofitted onsite and will ensure
mechanical behavior of the liner and supported the acceptable combustor liner life, even for liners that
operating problem described above. Consequently, may have previously suffered minor thermal
fuel injector modifications were developed to reduce degradation arising from operation with the P/N
the peak local heat flux to the outer wall. 198834 fuel injectors.

Mars 4 34
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2000

liner damage in fielded engines to assist in

determining whether or not the liner should be
replaced when the modified fuel injectors are in-
stalled. A liner with limited damage can be safely
operated until the next scheduled overhaul, pro-
vided the modified fuel injectors are installed to
arrest the durability problem.

Additional Enhancements
To further enhance performance of the combustion
system, modifications to the combustor liner were
investigated. The liner modifications consist of
shortening the film cooling panels to increase the
Figure 26. Modified Fuel Injector overall film cooling effectiveness in the primary
zone, shortening the cooling strip overhang to
increase its stiffness, and redistributing the cooling
Engine and rig qualification tests were con- air to provide more air to the high heat flux area.
ducted to validate the modified fuel injector design. The combustor liner design change currently in
This design has been incorporated in production process is intended to offer an additional im-
and overhaul engine configurations and is available provement in liner durability, but again is not re-
for field retrofit. quired to achieve the system design life with the
Rig tests were also conducted to determine the modified fuel injectors. Modifications to the com-
level of combustor liner damage that can be bustor liner will be incorporated in production and
tolerated with the modified fuel injectors. From this overhaul engines upon completion of development
testing, criteria have been established to assess and design qualification testing.

35 Mars 4
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA2000

Author: D. Baker

Mars Question
Number 5
Provide an update on current experience and development of sprag clutch.

ANSWER rather than through the high stress cam surfaces of

the sprag design. In addition, the new design will
As part of the continuing effort to improve product not cause the starter to rotate after starter drop-out.
reliability and durability, Solar has assessed several When the turbine speed exceeds the starter speed
start clutch options and has begun qualifying a new on acceleration, the spline assembly automatically
start clutch assembly. The qualification should be and completely disengages the turbine from the
completed by the third quarter of this year. starter motor. A comparison of the current and
replacement clutch systems is shown in Figure 27.
BACKGROUND Solar anticipates releasing this new clutch
Solar updated the GTUA last year on our progress system into production, and to the field for retrofit
with sprag clutches. (Please refer to GTUA’99 purposes, in the third quarter of this year. The
"Mars Question Number 6" provided in the replacement clutch system will be field retrofittable
Appendix to this report.) In the year since, Solar has for current Mars configurations.
evaluated a number of start clutches and has As indicated in our response last year, over-
selected a new start clutch assembly that running of the previously furnished pneumatic
incorporates a spline clutch system. Changing to a starter designed by Solar is not considered a
spline clutch is expected to significantly improve the problem, since the starter is oil lubricated and rated
reliability of the Mars start clutch system. Starting for the higher speeds.
torque is transmitted through low-stressed splines

37 Mars 5
GTUA2000 Solar Turbines Incorporated

Figure 27. Comparison of Current Sprag Clutch Assembly and New Spline Clutch Assembly

Mars 5 38
Developments in SoLoNOx
Low Emissions Systems



Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc.

Solar, Centaur , Taurus, Mars, Titan, and SoLoNOx are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Specifications subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
Copyright © 2000 by Solar Turbines Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Developments in SoLoNOx
Low Emissions Systems
K.O. Smith, Ph.D.
D.C. Rawlins, Ph.D.
Combustion Engineering


In 1992, Solar introduced the first industrial gas SoLoNOx employs lean-premixed combustion to re-
turbines employing a lean-premixed combustion sys- duce NOx emissions. Lean-premixed combustion re-
tem for emissions control. Since then, Solar has duces the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to NOx
placed more than 680 SoLoNOx™ gas turbines into by reducing the combustor flame temperature. Since
service. These turbines are routinely meeting emis- NOx formation rates are strongly dependent on flame
sions limits as strict as 25 ppmv NOx and 50 ppmv CO temperature, lowering flame temperature (by lean
(15% O2) on natural gas. Other gas turbine manu- operation) is an extremely effective strategy for re-
facturers have followed suit, and, at this time, ducing NOx emissions (Figure 1). Lean combustion is
nearly every manufacturer has introduced a low emis- enhanced by premixing the fuel and combustor air-
sions gas turbine product line based on lean-premixed flows upstream of the combustor primary zone. This
combustion. premixing prevents stoichiometric burning locally within
Despite the significant improvement in gas turbine the flame, thus ensuring the entire flame is at a fuel
emissions over the last eight years, regulatory agen- lean condition.
cies continue to consider and implement more There are three aspects of lean-premixed com-
stringent emissions regulations. For example, NOx bustion that warrant attention:
control levels for gas turbines have been set as low as
• CO/NOx tradeoff
2.5 ppmv in areas within California. Levels this low
require the use of expensive exhaust gas cleanup • Combustor operating range
systems in addition to advanced low NOx combustion • Combustor pressure oscillations
technology. CO levels as low as 10 ppmv may be
required by future emissions regulations. CO/NOx Tradeoff
The primary purpose of this paper is to provide a Since the flame temperature of a lean-premixed
broad overview of Solar’s low emissions combustor combustor is designed to be near the lean flamma-
development and how it is being shaped by emissions bility limit, lean-premixed combustor performance is
regulations that are continually changing. Discussed characterized by a CO/NOx tradeoff (Figure 2). At the
in this paper is a description of the development and combustor design point, both CO and NOx are below
present status of SoLoNOx; a discussion of how target levels; however, deviations from the design
increasingly restrictive emissions regulations impact point flame temperature cause emissions to increase.
industrial gas turbine production; and a review of new A reduction in temperature tends to increase CO
combustion technologies with the potential to achieve emissions due to incomplete combustion; an increase
lower emissions levels. Solar continues to explore in temperature will increase NOx. This tradeoff must
combustion technologies in the belief that clean com- be addressed during part-load turbine operation when
bustion is a more cost-effective path to low emissions the combustor is required to run at an even leaner
than exhaust gas cleanup. condition. The tradeoff also comes into play in devel-


AIR 3700˚F

INLET 2000˚F



(1) Conventional Combustors Have High Flame

(2) SoLoNOx Combustors Operate with Lower Flame
Temperatures and Lower NOx Emissions

(3) NOx Emissions Increase Rapidly with Flame Conventional

Temperature (1)

Lean Premixed Premixed

AIR 2800˚F (2)

INLET 2000˚F



Figure 1. How Lean-Premixed Combustion Reduces NOx Emissions

emissions limits can be satisfied. As a gas turbine

moves away from full-load operation, a lean-premixed
combustor will eventually produce excessive CO

emissions. To broaden the operating range, low emis-

sions gas turbines can use variable geometry to
Operating maintain the combustor primary zone at its optimum
Range low emissions point despite load changes. Variable
geometry involves combustor airflow control within
NOx the gas turbine to maintain a nearly constant flame
The current generation of low emissions gas tur-
bines uses compressor air bleed at part-load to broaden
the operating range of the lean-premixed combustion
PRIMARY ZONE FUEL / AIR RATIO system. Although effective, compressor bleed results
082-002M in a reduction in part-load efficiency because high
Figure 2. Typical Lean-Premixed Combustor
pressure air is vented to the atmosphere upstream of
Emissions the gas generator.
Some applications such as single-shaft gas tur-
bines can use the inlet guide vanes (IGV) to perform
opment efforts to reduce lean-premixed combustor the variable geometry function without an efficiency
NOx emissions by further reducing the primary zone impact; however, the IGV technique is not applicable
design point temperature. to two-shaft gas turbines.
Combustor Operating Range Combustor Pressure Oscillations
In a gas turbine, the lean-premixed CO/NOx tradeoff The introduction of lean-premixed combustion sys-
is manifested as a limited load range over which tems for gas turbines has raised manufacturer aware-

ness of the consequences of large combustor pres- • Exchangeability – SoLoNOx engines to be
sure oscillations. Simply put, lean flames have compatible with conventional packages with
a greater tendency to cause pressure oscillations only minor package modifications.
that can lead to engine damage. It is recognized that
Combustion System
the reduced stability of a lean-premixed flame
contributes to combustor oscillations. Despite in- Development of the SoLoNOx combustion system
creased awareness, however, manufacturers are still required modifications to the following gas turbine
working to develop design methodologies and com- components:
bustion system features that prevent excessive com- • Combustor liner
bustor pressure oscillations.
• Fuel injectors
The three lean-premixed combustion system char- • Variable geometry systems
acteristics previously identified represent significant • Engine casings
constraints in efforts to develop advanced combus-
• Control system
tion systems that will further reduce gas turbine NOx
and CO emissions. • Fuel system
Combustor Liner
The lean-premixed combustor liner is generally similar
In 1987, Solar began a major development effort to to a conventional liner in terms of geometry, materials
integrate dry, low NOx combustion technology into its and construction (Figure 3). The most significant
product lines. Several potential low NOx combustion difference in the lean-premixed liner is an increase
techniques were evaluated and lean-premixed com- in combustor volume. The larger volume is required to
bustion was selected as the most promising approach ensure complete combustion and low CO and UHC
for near-term application. Advantages of lean-premixed emissions at the lower overall flame temperature of
combustion include the concept’s proven potential for the lean-premixed combustor (Figure 4). Since
low NOx emissions, general similarity of combustion combustor length, was constrained by the engine
system hardware to that used in conventional gas exchangeability objective, the increased combustor
turbines, and Solar’s extensive lean-premixed tech- volume was achieved by increasing the outer liner
nology base developed through earlier research work. diameter. The larger liner required an increase in the
The goals and objectives established for the SoLoNOx diameter of the combustor housing (Figure 5).
development program were:
• Emissions (ppmv @15% O2)
– Natural Gas:
NOx < 42 (introduction level)
< 25 (final level)
CO < 50
UHC < 25
– No. 2 Diesel
NOx < 96 (introduction level - gas start only)
< 60 (final level)
CO < 50
UHC < 25
• Low Emissions Operating Range – Continu-
ous compliance over the 50-to-100% load range
of the engine with ambient temperatures above
-20°C (0°F).
• Performance – Unchanged design point output
power and heat rate compared to a conventional
• RAMD – Unchanged reliability, availability,
maintainability and durability levels compared to Figure 3. Lean-Premixed Annular Combustor
the conventional unit. Inlet Section

been developed to give improved CO compliance at
ambient temperatures below -20°C (0°F).
The current production SoLoNOx combustors use
louvers on the inside of the liner to direct air axially
along the walls to produce a protective film of cooling
air between the wall and the hot combustion gases
(Figure 6). This method of liner cooling is commonly
used in industrial and aircraft gas turbine combustors.
The cooling air film gradually mixes with the hot gas
stream; thus, a succession of louvers must be
placed along the liner to maintain the required tem-
peratures. This method of wall cooling uses relatively
HE-0129 high levels of cooling air because the wall just down-
stream of the louver must be overcooled in order to
Figure 4. Comparison of Conventional and
SoLoNOx Combustor Liners keep the wall adjacent to the next louver below the
maximum temperature limit.
Effusion cooling of the combustor walls has been
developed for the SoLoNOx combustor liners in order
to reduce the cooling air required and, in turn, reduce
CO emissions.
The injection of cooling air along the combustor
wall can quench the combustion reactions in the
CONVENTIONAL wall region and, thus, contributing to CO and UHC
The basic geometry of the effusion-cooled liner is
the same as the louvered version. Effusion cooling is
obtained by starting a film of air with a cooling louver
at the front of the combustor and then continuously
feeding this film with additional air through a
multitude of small diameter holes laser drilled at an
SOLONOX angle of 20 degrees to the wall surface (Figure 7).
An effusion liner has the total cooling air reduced by
20% relative to the louvered liner. The thermal gradi-
ents in an effusion liner are significantly less than in

Figure 5. Comparison of Conventional and
SoLoNOx Combustion Systems
(Cross Sections)

A second difference in the lean-premixed liner is

the absence of large air injection ports in the combus-
tor primary zone. All air used in the combustion
process is introduced through the air swirlers of the
fuel injectors. The remaining compressor delivery air
is used for cooling the walls or for dilution to achieve HOT GAS
the specified radial temperature profile and pattern COOLING
factors at the combustor exit. AIR SPLASH PLATES
Early SoLoNOx combustor liners incorporate con- (louvers)
ventional air film louver wall cooling techniques. More
recently, an improved effusion-cooled liner design has Figure 6. Louver Cooling Design



Figure 7. Effusion Cooling Design 082-060M/S

Figure 9. Comparison of SoLoNOx and Conventional

the louvered liner while still maintaining acceptable Fuel Injectors
wall temperatures. Additional cooling effectiveness is
achieved by adding an impingement shield to the fuel tubes injects natural gas fuel into the air
SoLoNOx combustor liner and combining air impinge- just downstream of the air swirler. Uniform mixing of
ment on the back side of the combustor wall with the fuel and air occurs within the annular premixing
effusion through the wall (Figure 8). chamber prior to reaching the combustor primary
Fuel Injectors zone. The strong swirl stabilizes the combustion
process in the primary zone by establishing a recircu-
SoLoNOx fuel injectors (Figure 9) are significantly
lation zone that draws reacted hot gases back up-
larger than their conventional counterparts due to the
stream, thus providing a continuous ignition source.
higher airflow through the injector air swirlers and the
Above 50% engine load, the majority of the fuel
required volume of the premixing chamber used to mix
(approximately 90 to 100%) is introduced through the
the fuel and air. The injector module includes a
main fuel tubes.
premixing main fuel injector, a pilot fuel injector, and
in some cases a variable geometry system for part- Pilot Fuel Circuit. The pilot fuel injector circuit is
load control purposes. used mainly for lightoff and low load operation. The
pilot fuel injector consists of an air swirler and tangen-
Main Fuel Circuit. The premixing main fuel injector
tial fuel inlet ports to provide partial premixing of air
uses an axial swirler to impart a high degree of swirl to
and fuel prior to combustion. During lightoff and low
the primary zone air. A series of multi-orificed, radial-
load operation, approximately 30 to 50% of the fuel
passes through the pilot injector, providing a rich fuel/
WALL SHIELD HOLES air mixture. Combustor stability is enhanced in this
mode compared to lean-premixed operation, although
NOx and CO emissions are higher. Above 50% engine
load, the pilot fuel is reduced to less than 10% of the
total fuel flow to optimize emissions performance. The
pilot fuel is also momentarily increased during off-load
transients to help stabilize the flame during the tran-
Variable Geometry Systems
Several variable geometry systems have been em-
HOT GAS ployed to avoid lean extinction and broaden the low
COOLING emissions operating range of the lean-premixed
FILM STARTING SoLoNOx combustion system. Different variable ge-
SLOT 082-059M
ometry design approaches were used initially in
Figure 8. Impingement/Effusion Cooling Design SoLoNOx systems for the Taurus™ 70, Mars® and

Titan™ gas turbines than were used for the Centaur® Engine Casings
and Taurus 60 gas turbines. Each technique, how- New combustor casings are required for the
ever, ultimately provided control of the primary zone SoLoNOx system due to the increased diameter of
airflow to maintain the primary zone fuel/air ratio near the combustor liner and larger fuel injectors. This
its optimum low emissions level during part-load larger combustor case also requires modification to
engine operation. the mating compressor diffuser and gas producer
Casing Bleed. Two-shaft Centaur 40S, Centaur 50S, turbine cases. The overall length of the engine
and Taurus 60S gas turbines used for gas remains unchanged.
compression and mechanical drives, bleed air from
the combustor casing at part load. This method of Control System
variable geometry has proved effective in controlling The SoLoNOx gas turbine control system is identical
the CO emissions while using the production bleed to the conventional gas turbine system at start-up and
valve of conventional engines. A consequence of air low load operation, but differs when the gas turbine
bleed, however, is a deterioration in engine part-load operates in the low emissions mode (above approxi-
thermal efficiency since compressed bleed air no mately 30 to 50% of rated load). The control system
longer enters the turbine section of the engine to for SoLoNOx engines modulates the variable geom-
produce power. etry systems to keep the combustion primary zone
Inlet Guide Vanes. Single-shaft Centaur 40S, temperature within a specified range. Accurate control
Centaur 50S, and Taurus 60S gas turbines used for of the primary zone temperature is critical to control-
power generation, maintain optimum primary zone ling NOx and CO emissions; however, direct mea-
fuel/air ratios by modulating the compressor inlet surement of this temperature, which is greater than
guide vanes (IGV). Closing the IGVs reduces the 1540°C (2800°F), over an extended period of time is
airflow through the engine compressor and combus- impractical. Standard gas turbines use the power
tor. No bleeding of high pressure air is required. turbine inlet temperature (T5) as an indirect measure-
Swirler Inlet Valve. In addition to casing bleed, ment of the combustor exit or turbine inlet tempera-
Centaur 40S, Centaur 50S, and Taurus 60S gas ture. The initial release of the SoLoNOx gas turbine
turbine fuel injectors have a two-position swirler inlet also used T5 for control.
valve (SIV) located upstream of the main air swirler, To control the SoLoNOx engine primary zone
which is used to control the airflow into the combustor temperature (Tpz) , the combustion zone temperature
primary zone. This valve is pneumatically actuated is derived from a thermodynamic heat balance across
from outside the combustor casing. In the open the combustion system. The parameters used in this
position, full airflow passes through the swirler. In the calculation are the compressor discharge tempera-
closed position, the slotted SIV reduces the primary ture, the power turbine inlet temperature, the flow split
zone airflow. By closing the SIV, the primary zone between the combustor primary zone air and the total
fuel/air ratio is changed in a step-wise fashion. Addi- combustor airflow, and the ratio of the power turbine
tional low emissions combustor operating range is inlet temperature to the first-stage turbine inlet tem-
obtained without any heat rate penalty. perature (T3).
Injector Bleed. In an effort to improve part-load heat
rate, the initial fuel injectors for the Taurus 70 and Mars Fuel System
gas turbines incorporated a different type of variable The natural gas fuel system for SoLoNOx gas
geometry system. A bleed port upstream of the main turbines includes two separate fuel circuits: one for
air swirler of each injector was used to bleed compres- the pilot system and one for the main. Separate fuel
sor discharge air slectively from the injectors. The 14 manifolds are used to supply pilot and main gas to the
fuel injector bleed ports were connected to a common respective fuel circuits of each fuel injector. The pilot
manifold and a single butterfly valve was used to and main throttle valves are both controlled with a
control the bleed flow. Bleeding primarily from the fuel single fuel actuator. During start-up and low load
injectors reduced the total amount of bleed air and, operation, both fuel circuits are active. When the
thus, minimized the effects on heat rate. Due to engine is in the low emissions mode, a pilot fuel
system cost and durability issues associated with the shutoff valve closes. A fixed percentage of the total
air ducting components, injector bleed has now been fuel continues to flow through the pilot circuit via an
replaced with a casing bleed configuration on these orifice in parallel with the pilot shutoff valve. This fixed
engines. pilot flow is used to stabilize the flame.

Initial Field Test Engines designs are now being incorporated into production
The first prototype production SoLoNOx gas turbines machines and have allowed the NOx guarantee
used in gas transmission service were installed at level to be reduced to 25 ppmv.
customer field evaluation sites in 1992. A Centaur Dual Fuel Capability
50S gas turbine, rated at 4100 kW (5500 hp), was
The design of the prototype dual fuel injectors
installed at the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG)
installed in three Centaur 50S generator packages in
Window Rock Station near Window Rock, Arizona
Germany at the end of 1994 is shown in Figure 11. The
(Figure 10). In mid-1992, a Mars 100S gas turbine,
design concept is based on an air-blast injection
rated at 10 500 kW (14,000 hp), was installed at the
system for the liquid fuel delivery. This design has
Pacific Gas Transmission (PGT) station near Rosalia,
been successful in meeting the introductory require-
ments for the liquid fuel option, but development to
Recent In-House Development meet the final emissions goals continues.
The most recent SoLoNOx development activities Production Engines
have been concentrated in two main areas:
Production Centaur, Taurus, Mars and Titan SoLoNOx
• Fuel injector modifications to allow a gas turbines are now in service as prime movers for
reduction in the guaranteed NOx level gas transmission, mechanical-drive applications, and
from 42 to 25 ppmv on natural gas fuel power generation throughout the U.S., Canada, Eu-
• Fuel injector development for No. 2 rope, and Japan. These engines have demonstrated
diesel firing the capability of meeting the emissions guarantees at
ambient temperatures between -20°C (0°F) in Canada
25 ppm NOx Guarantee Level and 50°C (120°F) in the Arizona/California desert.
Early development testing of the SoLoNOx Operation has also been successful on lower Btu fuels
system revealed that the combustion pressure such as Dutch Groningen gas, but with slightly higher
oscillations became unacceptably high as NOx emis-
sions were reduced to target levels. This was ad-
dressed in the short term by raising the pilot fuel flow
that reduced the pressure oscillations to acceptable
levels. Increasing the pilot fuel flow, however, in-
creased both NOx and CO levels, limiting SoLoNOx
production units to a NOx guarantee of 42 ppmv. MAIN GAS
The key to the long-term resolution of this problem FUEL SPOKES
was design optimization of the fuel injector premixing FUEL
section. Improved fuel injector configurations have
now been developed. Pressure oscillations are low at
all points within the operating envelope and do not
require high levels of pilot fuel. These new fuel injector





PORTS 082-062M

Figure 10. Centaur 50S Engine Installed at EPNG,

Window Rock Station, Arizona Figure 11. Prototype Dual Fuel Injector Design

CO emissions than natural gas. The experience to • Ability to address technical “surprises” that arise
date has shown excellent durability of the SoLoNOx during product introduction or extended opera-
combustion hardware. Inspections of the high time tion in the field. A prime example is the occur-
engines indicate that these engines will have life rence of unacceptably high combustor pressure
expectancies equivalent to Solar’s conventional en- oscillations, which have forced combustion sys-
gines. Table 1 presents a compilation of SoLoNOx tem design changes throughout the entire gas
engine operating experience. turbine manufacturing community.
In this environment of ever-changing driving forces,
Table 1. SoLoNOx Experience through Dec 1999 it is unlikely that low emissions combustion systems
will be able to maintain complete design stability.
Type Units Sold Estimated Hours
Combustor Performance Functions
A well-designed gas turbine combustor must satisfy a
Centaur 40 81 1787
wide range of performance criteria. The primary goal of
Centaur 50 91 1509
achieving essentially 100% combustion efficiency is
Mercury 50 9 2
only one of many requirements. Other requirements
Taurus 60 249 3645
Taurus 70 83 659
Mars 90 34 660 • Producing a specific radial exit temperature
Mars 100 124 1393 profile in the gas flow delivered to the turbine
Titan 130 11 10 section of the engine
Total 682 9545 • Having a generally uniform circumferential exit
temperature (as reflected in the pattern factor) to
ensure turbine nozzle durability
MAINTAINING PRODUCT STABILITY • Having sufficient operating stability to permit
It is understandable that one might assume SoLoNOx engine light-off and acceleration to full-load
to be a mature Solar gas turbine technology now that conditions
eight years have passed and hundreds of turbines • Providing combustion stability during large on-
have been installed since 1992. Yet, numerous forces and off-load transients operating without exces-
have been at work over this time period that have sive combustor pressure oscillations
required SoLoNOx to evolve technically. A look to the
• Maintaining sufficiently low material tempera-
future suggests that these same forces will continue
tures to meet durability requirements (30,000
to act. To remain competitive, SoLoNOx, as well as
hours for Solar) even under highly cyclic operat-
other dry low emissions (DLE) systems, will have to
ing conditions
evolve. The forces that are driving the evolution of
SoLoNOx include: • Burning widely different fuels (gases and liquids)
in dual fuel systems
• Continuing need to reduce NOx emissions to 25 • Avoiding coking of combustor components dur-
ppm and lower to meet increasingly strict air ing liquid fuel operation
quality regulations
• Functioning acceptably with engine inlet tem-
• Promulgation of increasingly strict CO emis- peratures that may range from -20°F to as high
sions limits as 120°F
• Market desire for dual fuel capability (natural gas • Functioning acceptably in different configura-
and No. 2 distillate) at many power generation tions of the same turbine product. For example,
sites and the growing desire to utilize a broad gas turbines for power generation have different
range of alternate fuels that need to have no operating characteristics than engines for me-
visible smoke when operating on liquid fuels, chanical-drive applications. In addition, operat-
even during transient operation ing characteristics may vary in engines that are
• Product cost reductions specifically designated to operate at extremely
• Need to uprate engine performance over time to hot or extremely cold customer sites.
meet customer requirements • Meeting all of the above requirements while
• Desire to introduce new turbine products to maintaining trace emissions concentrations
provide a more diversified product line (NOx, CO and UHC) at low ppm levels

Clearly, combustor development can be a chal- • Uniformity with which fuel is delivered to each of
lenging activity, particularly when stringent emissions the 12 to 14 injectors. Non-uniform fuel flows will
requirements exist. Compounding this challenge is lead to non-uniform flame temperatures in the
the complexity of the gas turbine combustion pro- combustor. High local flame temperatures will
cess. The combustion process involves highly turbu- contribute to high NOx, while low temperature
lent, reacting, high temperature, two-phase (for liquid zones may cause excessive CO emissions.
fuels) flows that defy accurate quantitative modeling. • Variable rates of air leakage through seals be-
Consequently, commercial combustor development tween the combustor and other engine compo-
always involves an iterative process of analysis, nents can lead to air maldistributions. Seals
design, and performance testing. must provide for differential thermal expansion
Meeting Emissions Guarantees between engine components without allowing
excessive air leakage through the seal.
Although gas turbine output, efficiency and cost are
the most important considerations for the majority of One final phenomenon that impacts engine test
turbine operators, emissions have become a “gate” success relates to the occurrence of unacceptably
through which turbines must pass to compete in high combustor pressure oscillations. Combustor
emissions-sensitive markets. oscillations tend to be of the “rumble” type (below 100
Simplistically, the turbine manufacturer has two Hz) or of the “buzz” type (200 to 500 Hz). Excessive
emissions-related milestones that must be met to oscillations can lead to engine shutdown from high
ensure a viable low emissions product. First, the rotor vibrations or component failure due to high-cycle
turbine manufacturing process must be sufficiently fatigue. At the present time, the elements of combus-
repeatable to ensure that new engines consistently tor design that lead to high amplitude oscillations are
meet their emissions guarantees during both pre- not well understood.
shipment testing and engine start-up at the customer’s The primary means of combating oscillations is
site. In addition, the manufacturer must establish a through the use of pilot flames to enhance the stability
design that is sufficiently robust to meet emissions of the main flames downstream of each fuel injector.
guarantees over an extended period of operation at the In cases where oscillations occur, the amount of fuel
customer’s site. needed for the pilot injectors varies from engine to
engine. This is largely a reflection of manufacturing
Meeting Emissions Guarantees at the Factory
variability. In extreme cases, the pilot fuel required to
By and large, the major challenge in routinely meeting dampen oscillations may be so large as to push NOx
emissions guarantees with new engines relates to emissions above guaranteed levels. Combustor pres-
airflow management within the turbine. Production sure oscillations are undoubtedly the most frustrating
processes and tooling must be maintained so that the characteristic of lean-premixed combustion systems.
precise airflow distribution required within the engine Two engines, nominally identical, may have very
is achieved. This includes the percentage of air different levels of oscillations. Attempts to correlate
flowing to the fuel injectors and combustor liner, and oscillations with engine hardware characteristics
through other passages used to cool turbine compo- (manufacturing variances) have not been completely
nents downstream of the combustor. Manufacturing successful.
variations in any of the injector flow areas (there are
12 to 14 nominally identical injectors in Solar’s low Meeting Emissions Guarantees in the Field
emissions engines), in the open area of the combus- The sensitivity of emissions to combustor and engine
tor liner, or in the orifices used to control turbine component design features was discussed above.
cooling will have a direct impact on the flame tempera- From that discussion, it is clear that degradation in the
ture in the primary zone of the combustor. Since NOx combustion system components through extended
emissions are exponentially sensitive to flame tem- operation in the field may also impact emissions. The
perature, airflow distribution is critical in meeting potential mechanisms for emissions degradation are
emissions guarantees. If too much air passes through many, including:
one or more of the injectors, CO emissions may be
• Blockage of liner cooling holes by particulate
excessive. If too little air enters the combustor through
matter or thermal distortion of the liner cooling
the injectors, NOx emissions may be higher than
Other factors that influence the emissions achieved • Fretting of component interfaces that leads to
with new turbines include: increased air leakage with time

• Formation of local cracks in the liner due to high- The development of robust low emissions gas
cycle fatigue, thermal stresses, or oxidation turbines across a product line is now fully appreciated
blockage of gas fuel ports, typically near 0.89- as the formidable task that it is. Low emissions turbine
mm (0.035-in.) diameter, or liquid fuel ports by development in a regulatory environment, in which the
fuel contaminants emissions targets are changing with time and are
• Blockage of liquid fuel ports or the degradation established on a regional basis, adds additional com-
of liquid fuel injection patterns due to coking plexity to an already complex task. Manufacturers
• Fuel leakage within the injectors due to thermal have to stretch their development resources to ad-
or mechanical stresses. The need for dual fuel dress issues at two levels. At the first level, the
injectors to have gas and liquid fuel main pas- challenge is to maintain a growing fleet of engines and
sages, gas and liquid fuel pilot passages, and a assure that current emissions regulations can be met.
pilot air passage makes these injectors very At another level, resources are needed to continue
complex. The potential for internal leakage is technology development for the stricter emissions
considerable. requirements that are anticipated for the future, but
not quantified definitively (either control level or imple-
Since component life is affected by turbine duty mentation date). Virtually every aspect of gas turbine
cycle, so too are emissions. Engines experiencing manufacturing is in a cascade effect (Figure 12). The
frequent cyclic loading and engines operated at peak engineering and manufacturing challenges are con-
conditions can be expected to show degradation in siderable. The costs to the manufacturer are much
hardware more rapidly and have a higher potential for greater than the cost increments reflected on the
undesirably high emissions. engine price tag.
Additionally, regarding turbine component degra- In light of the now recognized technical challenges,
dation with time, two other factors may be significant the progress made in the last eight years in reducing
in causing turbine emissions to be different in the field gas turbine NOx emissions from hundreds of parts per
from emissions measured at the factory. First, a wider million to under 25 ppm should be recognized as a
variation in ambient temperatures at the operator’s major technical achievement and a significant factor
site will almost always occur relative to Solar’s test in improved air quality. Manufacturers, however, are
venue in San Diego. Extremely hot or cold ambient still working to stabilize their product lines to consis-
conditions will impact NOx and CO emissions. In tently meet the 25 ppm NOx need. Industry needs a
addition, as neither natural gas nor No. 2 diesel are reasonable time to complete this step before it can
pure fuels, fuel composition variations can cause effectively address the development of cost-effective
variations in emissions levels. This may not only systems for even lower emissions levels.
occur between two different test sites, but also at an
operator’s site where significant fuel composition ADVANCED COMBUSTOR
variations occur over the life of the engine. TECHNOLOGIES
Product Stability Status In response to the trend toward more stringent emis-
sions regulations, gas turbine manufacturers are
Based on the rapidly growing experience base with
assessing their current lean-premixed systems to
lean-premixed combustion systems, gas turbine manu-
establish viable combustion system enhancements.
facturers are now well aware that emissions are
The areas that exhibit the greatest potential for lower
extremely sensitive to a number of factors, some of
emissions include advanced combustor liners and
which are beyond the control of the manufacturer.
more effective variable geometry systems.
These factors include:
Advanced Combustor Liners
• Combustor and engine design parameters
The present generation of lean-premixed combustors
• Manufacturing variability
primarily uses film cooling to maintain acceptably low
• Ambient conditions combustor wall temperatures. Film cooling involves
• Fuel composition variations the passage of cooling air through holes in the liner
• Component degradation over time and the formation of a cooling film on the hot
side of the liner using internally positioned louvers.
• Fuel quality (contaminants)
Preliminary research has shown that the method
• Engine duty cycle used to cool a lean-premixed combustor liner can
• Combustor pressure oscillations have a significant effect on emissions. Specifically,

• Air Management • Radial Profile • T5 Spread
MANDATED COMBUSTION • Low Emissions • Emissions Tradeoffs • Pattern Factor
ISSUES Operating Range • Oscillations
REDUCTION REDESIGN • Transient Stability • Rumble

• Rig Modifications
DEVELOPMENT • Controls Development
TEST • Field Testing

• Tighter Manufacturing Tolerances

MANUFACTURE • Tooling Mods/Replacement
• Tighter QC

• Lower 1st Test Success

PRODUCTION • Modified Test Specs
TEST • Measurement Accuracy

• Competing GT Manufacturers
COST • Other Prime Movers
• Electric Utility Grid

• Injectors
• Liners
• Nozzles
• Blades

• Reliability
FIELD • Maintainability
SUPPORT • Overhaul Frequency
• Retrofit Capability
• Availability

Figure 12. Cascading Effects of Reduced Emissions Limits

conventional film cooling can lead to reaction quench- are controlled solely through convective cooling by a
ing at the combustor primary zone wall. This quench- high velocity airstream on the cold side of the liner
ing process leads to high CO emissions because the (Figure 13). In most instances, the high heat flux from
CO, a combustion intermediate, is prevented from the flame requires augmenting of the backside con-
oxidizing to CO2. The quenching is traceable to the
injection of a relatively large flow of cooling air into the
The development of an advanced liner that does COOLING AIR
not promote reaction quenching will provide a two-fold
benefit in terms of emissions. First, of course, CO
emissions will be reduced. Additionally, the lower CO
levels will allow combustor reoptimization to a lower
flame temperature. This will produce lower NOx levels
along with the lower CO concentrations. ZONE
Development work is ongoing in an effort to
mitigate the reaction quenching characteristic of
film cooling. Technologies being studied include
augmented backside-cooled (ABC) and ceramic com-
Augmented Backside-Cooled (ABC) Liners 120-004M

Backside-cooled liners forego cooling air injection Figure 13. Augmented Backside-Cooled (ABC)
completely. Instead, combustor wall temperatures Combustor Cross Section

vective process to keep liner wall temperatures from gas turbine in a joint Solar/Department of Energy
becoming excessive. Turbulators in the form of trip (DOE) program . One of the primary program goals is
strips, fins, and pins act to increase the cooling flow to explore the potential for lower emissions using
turbulence at the liner wall and augment the heat these advanced combustor technologies.
removal process. The ABC combustor utilizes a backside-cooled
Although effective in reducing CO formation through primary zone with the dome and dilution sections
quenching, backside cooling is a challenge to maintaining the current production metal configuration
implement because of the high flame temperatures (Figure 14). A yttria-stabilized zirconia TBC is applied
and heat fluxes associated with gas turbine to the hot sides of the two primary zone cylinders.
combustors. An additional degree of liner protection Testing to date has been very successful. A short
can be achieved through the application of a in-house gas turbine test documented performance
thermal barrier coating (TBC) on the hot sides and acceptable wall temperatures at full-load condi-
of the liner walls. These TBCs are frequently com- tions. A 50-hour cyclic test was completed to evaluate
posed of zirconia-based materials that are plasma- the TBC spalling resistance. Results from both tests
sprayed on the liner. A typical TBC of approximately are encouraging and significant emissions reductions
0.25 mm (0.01 in.) can reduce wall temperatures by with this liner design were observed. Figure 15 pre-
approximately 40oC (72oF). sents typical ABC liner emissions data.
Ceramic Combustor Liners
The ceramic combustor addresses the CO quenching
issue in the same manner as the ABC liner. Cooling air
injection through the liner is avoided, thus providing
potential emissions benefits. These emissions ben-
efits have been found to be very similar to those of the
ABC combustor.
In the ceramic combustor configuration employing
a continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) de-
sign, the inner and outer combustor cylinders that
form the combustor primary zone have been rede-
signed to incorporate CFCC cylinders. The ceramic
cylinders are housed within metallic cylinders that
bear the structural and pressure loads on the assem-
The advantage of the ceramic combustor versus
an ABC combustor is that ceramic materials can 120-007M/S
tolerate higher temperatures. Typical CFCC materials
are expected to give good service at liner tempera- Figure 14. ABC Combustor for Centaur 50S Turbine
tures near 1100oC (2011oF) as opposed to the 850oC
(1560oF) limit for typical metallic combustor liners.
Monolithic ceramics can tolerate even higher tem-
peratures, but are characteristically brittle. Currently,
NOx AND CO @15% O2, ppm

the high risk of turbine damage from these brittle 20

materials effectively precludes their use in an indus-
trial gas turbine. 15 NOx
Although CFCCs can tolerate higher temperatures,
when used as a combustor material they still require 10 Full Load
cooling. Back-side cooling of the primary zone CFCC
cylinders is needed to moderate wall temperatures
for good durability. Use of a metallic housing for the
CFCC liners makes it more difficult to obtain CO
adequate CFCC cooling.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Initial development work on both an ABC combustor
and a ceramic combustor is directed at the Centaur 50 Figure 15. Typical ABC Liner Emissions (Full Load)

At the present time, a field test of a production Variable Geometry Systems
prototype Centaur 50 ABC combustor is ongoing. The Variable geometry systems provide control over the
field test will demonstrate performance over an ex- airflow entering the gas turbine combustor primary and
tended time period and over a wider range of turbine dilution zones. In a non-variable geometry combus-
operation. More than 10,000 hours of successful tion system, the flow split between the primary and
operation have been logged. The prototype ceramic dilution zones remains constant as turbine load var-
combustor design parallels the ABC design (Figure ies. As a result, the operating range over which low
16). emissions can be maintained is quite narrow. Varying
The primary zone combustor cylinders of the the combustor airflow split allows the primary zone
production Centaur 50 gas turbine liner were replaced stoichiometry to be maintained at an optimum condi-
with SiC CFCC cylinders. The combustor has under- tion across a larger portion of the turbine load range.
gone extensive testing at Solar in both combustor rigs The ultimate benefit is a wider range of low emissions
and an in-house gas turbine. The testing has docu- operation due to a finer degree of control over the
mented that the CFCC combustor meets all perfor- combustion process.
mance goals established for the liner and has Current lean-premixed gas turbines use compres-
emissions essentially identical to the ABC combus- sor air bleed or inlet guide vane (IGV) modulation to
tor. perform the variable geometry function. Although
At this point, the development focus is on CFCC effective, both approaches have a negative impact.
material durability. In a 4000-hour field evaluation, the Air bleed results in a loss in turbine efficiency at part
CFCC cylinders showed a moderate degree of oxida- load. IGV modulation is suitable only for single-shaft
tion. It has been determined that the 1200oC (2190oF) gas turbines, where the compressor and gas genera-
temperature limit specified early in the program for tor are mechanically linked, and for cogeneration
these materials is too high for a gas turbine environ- applications which can result in excessive boiler inlet
ment. Design modifications have been completed to temperatures at part-load conditions.
augment the cooling of the CFCC cylinders and to drop Variable power turbine nozzles can be used
the temperatures to the 1100oC (2011oF) level. Dura- to perform the variable geometry function; however,
bility is expected to increase at the lower temperature. the use of modulating components in the high
Field testing of this combustor design is under way. temperature turbine section raises gas turbine
In general, the Solar/DOE program results have durability issues.
demonstrated a significant emissions advantage Development work is focused on a system that will
with the CFCC and ABC combustors. In terms of the enhance the performance of low emissions gas tur-
CFCC liner, additional testing is expected to docu- bines at part load.
ment material durability. CFCC costs, however, are
still considered too high for widespread commercial Variable Geometry Valve System
acceptance. Solar is developing a variable geometry system for
near-term applications where this function is removed
from the fuel injector and performed by a series of
valves external to the combustor liner/fuel injector
subsystem. Figure 17 depicts such a system being
developed for the new 14.5-MW (19,500-hp) Titan 130
gas turbine.
In the Titan 130 gas turbine design, variable geom-
etry valves are integrated into the combustor housing.
The housing divides the compressor discharge flow
into two airstreams that flow separately to the injec-
tors and the combustor liner. The series of 14 vari-
able geometry valves can be modulated to alter the
flow split between the injectors and the liner.
The variable geometry valve system has the poten-
tial advantage of better durability than the variable
geometry injectors due to of its rugged design. This
valve system, however, does have two shortcomings.
Figure 16. CFCC Liner for Centaur 50S Gas Turbine First, it provides flow control over the total airflow to

VARIABLE Concept Description
VALVE Catalytic combustion produces extremely low NOx
levels by operating at very low flame temperatures of
1250 to 1350oC (2280 to 2460oF). Catalytic combustor
flame temperatures are below levels that can be
sustained in a lean-premixed combustor. The major
element of this ultra-low NOx technology is a catalytic
reactor that initiates and stabilizes the combustion
process at conditions not normally sustainable
through homogeneous (lean-premixed) combustion.
Catalytic combustor components for gas turbine
applications are illustrated in Figure 18.
The catalytic system has a number of features that
are reminiscent of lean-premixed combustion and, in
fact, a catalytic combustor can correctly be consid-
ered a catalytically stabilized, lean-premixed system.
A typical catalytic combustor includes the following
components: preburner, fuel injection/premixing sec-
tion, catalytic reactor, homogeneous burn-out zone,
Figure 17. Titan 130 Gas Turbine Variable part-load injector, and variable geometry system. All
Geometry System but the preburner and catalytic reactor are found in
some form in the lean-premixed combustor.

the injectors rather than controlling the flow into each

of the injectors. Thus, the system relies on manufac- CATALYST POST-CATALYST
turing repeatability and pretesting of the injectors to
ensure that equal flows are passing through each 1316°C
(2400°F) Wa = 30%
injector. Second, the variable geometry valve system
does not have the capability to control each injector
separately if needed for further emissions reductions
in the future.
Catalytic Combustion
The success of the first-generation lean-premixed
combustion system has established that the tech-
nology is well-suited to meet NOx emissions levels 1121°C
as low as 25 ppmv. Development test data and MAIN FUEL (2050°F)
production system performance suggest that lean-
Wa = 70%
premixed combustion has the potential for even lower
NOx levels. Lean-premixed combustion should be GEOMETRY
capable of meeting 15 ppmv NOx limits and perhaps SYSTEM
limits as low as 9 ppmv. However, for a 9 ppmv
NOx lean-premixed system, there may be signif- Figure 18. Catalytic Combustor Schematic
icant load-range restrictions on the gas turbine,
particularly if CO emissions limits are reduced from
today’s requirements. To achieve NOx emissions SUMMARY
levels of 9 ppmv and not compromise turbine perfor- Despite the great success of the first-generation low
mance, it may be necessary to find an alternative to emissions gas turbines in lowering NOx emissions,
lean-premixed combustion. Catalytic combustion, or manufacturers are dealing with the reality of even
some yet to be recognized technology, will be neces- more stringent emissions regulations. Gas turbine
sary at the 5 ppmv NOx level, a level that is beyond manufacturers are working to improve the lean-
the capabilities of lean-premixed combustion. premixed combustion systems used in current low

emissions gas turbines and develop new and cleaner BIBLIOGRAPHY
combustion technologies. Etheridge, C.J., 1994, “Mars SoLoNOx Lean-Premix
Improvements being advanced for lean-premixed Combustion Technology in Production,” ASME Paper
combustion systems include advanced liner cooling 94-GT-255, International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine
technologies and more effective variable geometry Congress and Exposition, The Hague, Netherlands.
systems. These technologies are well along in their Mutasim, Z.Z., 1998, “Coating Technology Ad-
development and are nearing or are already in the vancements for Industrial Gas Turbines,” TTS117,
field-test stage. Full commercialization will depend Turbomachinery Technology Seminar, Solar
upon a combination of technical success, market Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, California.
need, and economics. Rocha, G., Etheridge, C.J., and Hunsberger, R.E.,
Experience with lean-premixed systems over the 1998, “Evolution of the Titan 130 Industrial Gas
last few years indicates that there is a practical lower Turbine,” TTS122, Turbomachinery Technology
NOx limit associated with lean-premixed combustion. Seminar, Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego,
This limit appears to be in the 9-to-15 ppmv range. To California.
achieve NOx levels below this through low emissions Schneider, P.H., 1998, “New Technologies in Ad-
combustion, gas turbine manufacturers are looking to vanced Turbine Systems,” TTS130, Turbomachinery
catalytic combustion as the most likely candidate. Technology Seminar, Solar Turbines Incorporated,
Although under development for nearly 20 years, San Diego, California.
catalytic combustion has yet to prove itself totally in Smith, K.O. and Fahme A., 1996, “Experimental
a gas turbine environment. This is attributable to both Assessment of the Emissions Benefits of a Ceramic
unresolved technical issues and the lack of a signifi- Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME Paper 96-GT-318,
cant market need. The state of catalytic combustion International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress
today is comparable to the status of lean-premixed and Exhibition, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
combustion 10 years ago. Significant rig testing is Smith, K.O. and Fahme, A., 1997, “Testing of a Full
ongoing, but the technology has not yet progressed to Scale, Low Emissions, Ceramic Gas Turbine Com-
the long-term field-test stage. Significant technical bustor,” ASME Paper 97-GT-156, International Gas
milestones in the areas of catalyst and substrate Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition,
durability, system integration and controls remain to Orlando, Florida.
be achieved. Additionally, the economics of the tech- Smith, K.O. and Fahme, A., 1998, “Backside-
nology need to be established as acceptable for the Cooled Combustor Liner for Lean Premixed Combus-
catalytic combustor to succeed in the marketplace. tion,” International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine
One issue affecting the development of advanced Congress and Exhibition, Stockholm, Sweden.
gas turbine combustion technology is the uncertainty Solt, J.C., 1997, Catalytica, personnal communi-
in emissions levels that will be required in the future cation, Mountainview, California.
and a timeline for their implementation. Manufactur- van Roode, M., Brentnall, W.D., Smith, K.O.,
ers are unable to focus development resources cost- Edwards, B.D., Faulder, L.J., and Norton, P.F., 1996,
effectively on well-established emissions targets, but “Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development
must broaden development efforts to meet a range of Program-Third Annual Summary,” ASME Paper 96-
emissions constraints. With limited resources avail- GT-460, International Gas Turbine and Aero-
able, this results in a slower pace of technology engine Congress and Exhibition, Birmingham, United
development. Kingdom.

Turbomachinery Technology Seminar

Increasing Turbine Life through

Improved Maintenance Procedures


SUMMARY 104-11

Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc.

Solar, Saturn, Centaur , Taurus, Mars, Turbotronic, and SoLoNO x are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Specifications subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A.
Copyright © 1995 by Solar Turbines Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Increasing Turbine Life through
Improved Maintenance Procedures
Q.K. Stewart
Regional Service Manager – Eastern U.S.

INTRODUCTION eliminates the more cost-effective option of repairing

Gas turbine overhaul is the largest single mainte- only slightly damaged or worn parts and material.
nance expense that turbomachinery users will face Consideration also needs to be given to the cost of
over the service life of their equipment. Fortunately, premature turbine overhauls from the perspective of
most modern turbomachinery has been designed to the present value of the earlier-than-expected over-
operate continuously for years before an overhaul. haul expense. For example, if a turbine owner antici-
Many turbomachinery users routinely operate their pates achieving 30,000 operating hours (about 3.5
gas turbine packages 30,000 to 40,000 hours before years of continuous service) between overhaul inter-
gas turbine overhaul is performed. Some turbines vals, and if an unexpected turbine outage occurred
have logged over 100,000 operating hours before after only 15,000 operating hours (slightly less than
they were overhauled. two years of continuous service), the additional present
Due to several improvements in industrial gas value cost to the owner would be $14,490 assuming
turbine design, maintainability, reliability, and dura- a $100,000 overhaul expense at a 7% effective
bility, the overwhelming majority of gas turbines are capital borrowing rate. The turbine owner would have
removed for overhaul in a nonfailed condition. Sev- a newly overhauled turbine engine that may reason-
eral turbomachinery users remove these nonfailed ably be estimated to operate 30,000 hours until the
gas turbines as part of a “fired-hour” overhaul agree- next overhaul cycle, but the first overhaul occurred
ment with Solar. Regardless of the level of mainte- two years earlier than originally planned, and all
nance performed on the turbomachinery, however, subsequent overhauls for that turbine will be sched-
overhaul of the gas turbine is inevitable. uled 15,000 hours or two years sooner than planned,
This paper examines maintenance and operat- given the same projected service life.
ing practices that could increase the time between The costliest aspect of an unexpected or un-
inspections (TBI) at an overhaul facility, and re- planned turbine failure is the unavailability of
duce the risks of more costly unscheduled equipment turbomachinery that is critical to business opera-
outages. tions. This is especially true in the oil and gas produc-
tion, gas transmission, and power generation
BACKGROUND industries, where unexpected turbine outages can
Although turbomachinery overhaul is the greatest result in significant costs or revenue losses in millions
single maintenance expense in equipment life- of dollars. For example, a 2983-kW (4000-hp) tur-
cycle cost analysis, unscheduled or unexpected gas bine-driven compressor package in an offshore gas
turbine outages could be the costliest of all events. gathering application compressing 50 million stan-
With an unscheduled turbine outage, the damage dard cubic feet per day (scfd) at a compression ratio
to the engine is almost always more extensive than of 3.2 to 1 would result in a $100,000 per day revenue
what would be expected at a planned overhaul inter- loss at a gas cost of $2 per thousand scf.
val for a properly maintained unit. This usually re- The truly unfortunate aspect of most unexpect-
quires the replacement of significantly more parts ed turbine outages is that such problems could
and components in the turbine, and the damage often have been avoided if there had been greater
to the turbine parts and components is usually attention given to turbomachinery maintenance. lt is
more severe. Such extensive turbine damage often estimated that fully 30% of the overhauls in the

745-to-3730 kW (1000-to-5000 hp) range are a result quate supply of clean air. Most air inlet systems have
of poor maintenance practice and that most unsched- metal ducting and supports made of carbon-based
uled equipment outages are preventable. steel. This steel is painted first with an inorganic zinc
If all unscheduled equipment failures could be primer, then with an epoxy polyamide primer and,
eliminated, the average product TBI in the 745-to- finally, with a polyurethane top coating.
3730 kW (1000-to-5000 hp) range could be increased These metal air inlet ducts generally use rubber
by 17%. From an equipment cost standpoint, this gaskets and waterproof sealants at joints and flanges
equates to a 22% overall reduction in overhaul costs to prevent air from bypassing the filter media. How-
that turbomachinery owners would pay if mainte- ever, even the best air inlet systems often deteriorate
nance programs were improved to avoid unsched- with the passage of time and exposure to the ele-
uled equipment outages. ments and, without corrective maintenance, some of
With this basic understanding of how costly un- these materials may break loose and cause FOD to
scheduled gas turbine outages can be, several pri- the compressor. For example, compressor damage
mary areas should be reviewed where poor and fouling may result from:
maintenance practices typically result in premature • Chipping or scaling (Figure 2) of the
gas turbine overhauls and failures. These areas paint in the air inlet system
include inlet air, water, fuel, lube oil, vibration, and • Rust scale (Figure 3) where oxidized
heat recovery systems. Some of these maintenance material is ingested into the engine
issues are relatively well known to experienced tur- • Ingestion of sound attenuating or
bine users, but problems continue to occur which silencing material
could have been prevented by proper maintenance
programs and timely corrective action.


One of the most prevalent causes of unscheduled
outage is poor air inlet/filtration system maintenance,
which commonly results in foreign object damage
(FOD) and/or fouling to the turbine compressor sec-
tion. Such damage or fouling necessitates expensive
compressor section rework that is not usually re-
quired during routine overhauls.
Foreign Object Damage
When new turbomachinery equipment is ordered,
great care generally is taken to ensure that air in-
let (Figure 1) and filter systems are specified and
installed on the turbine, which will provide an ade-

Figure 2. Paint Peeling within Air Inlet System

104-001M/S 104-005M/S

Figure 1. Typical New Air Inlet System Figure 3. Area Rusted through in Air Inlet System

Ducting gaskets and sealing material also may In addition, some air inlet systems are rendered
become hardened or brittle and crack with age. If ineffective due to cavitation of the filter media (Figure
these materials disintegrate, they can enter the inlet 7) or improper sealing or seating of the air filters in the
airstream and cause damage when they are ingested filter housings.
by the engine. In cases of premature overhaul or failure, the air
inlet system itself all too frequently has not been
Unfiltered Contaminants
included in a planned maintenance program. The
The ingestion of contaminated air resulting from air entire air inlet system should be inspected both inside
inlet system leakage or dirty or deficient filtration and out on a yearly basis, preferably prior to the start
media also can cause extensive corrosive pitting of the winter operating season.
throughout an engine. Compressor blades and stator
Maintenance Recommendations. The system
vanes (Figure 4) sustain the majority of the damage.
should be checked thoroughly for signs of rust, peel-
Contaminated air also can enter the buffer seal air
ing paint on the inside of the air inlet ducting, leaks in
passages, causing friction, wear and damage to the
the air inlet system, and cracking of gasket or silicon
carbon seals (Figure 5). Wear on the forward turbine
material on ducting joints and covers. For a 2983-kW
seal allows oil to seep past the seals and into the
(4000-hp) ISO-rated gas turbine, a 25.4 mm (1 in.) air
compressor airstream, adding more contamination
inlet system pressure differential causes a power
to the compressor section.
loss of approximately 0.5%. Proper operation of all air
Air inlet systems frequently are equipped with
inlet “blow-in” doors should be verified and the differ-
“blow-in doors,” which are actuated and opened
ential pressure measurements across the filter media
(Figure 6) if the pressure differential across the filter
must be within allowable limits.
media becomes too high. Without proper mainte-
nance, these systems sometimes malfunction or
simply remain open if the differential across the air
filter remains high. As with other types of leaks in the
air inlet system, an open blow-in door will cause a
reduction in air inlet filter back pressure, but unfiltered
air will continue to enter the turbine.


Figure 6. Air Inlet Housing with Top Mounted

Blow-In Door
Figure 4. Contaminated Stator Vanes

104-003M/S 104-007M/S

Figure 5. Damaged Carbon Seal and Bearing Figure 7. Air Inlet Filter Needing Replacement

lt is important to ensure that any silencing material
used in the air inlet system has not deterior-
ated so it will not break loose and cause FOD to the
compressor section. ln some cases, as when operat-
ing conditions have changed substantially or where
damage or deterioration to the existing air inlet
system is extensive, it may be advisable to install a
new air inlet system (Figure 8) with maintenance-
saving features, such as self-cleaning pre-filters
and/or stainless-steel duct work for offshore and
corrosive environments.
Avoiding dirty or fouled engine air compressors
may be the biggest opportunity for turbine opera-
tors to increase efficiency and reduce operating costs.
However, compressor water washing (Figure 9) is a
routine maintenance task that often is taken
for granted.
Some turbine owners clean their turbine air com-
pressors on a regular time interval, while others will
perform compressor cleaning only when compressor
discharge pressure (Pcd) has declined, usually about
5% from baseline (Figure 10). It is best to establish
the compressor discharge pressure baseline, which
may vary somewhat with changes in ambient tem-
perature, when the equipment is new or when the gas
turbine has just been overhauled.
A fouled compressor penalizes engine operation
because more fuel is required to maintain the same
power output. ln T5 temperature-topped operation,
reduced compressor discharge pressure associated
with fouling equates to a loss in mechanical or electri-
cal output. Every year, several gas turbines are 104-010M/S

removed from operating service for overhaul Figure 9. Typical Water Washing Process
only to find that the loss of performance was due to a
fouled compressor and that the compressor section
of the turbine needed to be thoroughly cleaned.

104-008M/S 104-011M/S

Figure 8. New “Huff-and-Puff” Air Filter System Figure 10. Typical Turbotronic Display of Pcd over Time

The gas turbine manufacturer’s guidelines pro- the air inlet duct, which allow water to seep into the
vided in the operation and maintenance manuals and inlet system, or moisture, which puddles in low spots
in applicable service bulletins should be followed inside the air inlet duct. After solidifying, the ice slags
carefully when compressor cleaning is undertaken. off and impinges upon the first-stage compressor
Using the right quantity of compressor cleaning blades.
agent is essential because an insufficient amount Many turbine operators have the impression that
will not provide adequate results and using too ice ingestion is a serious problem only in extremely
much cleaner may cause bent airfoils in the compres- cold ambient temperatures. However, most damage
sor, as well as bearing damage from excessive from ice ingestion occurs during turbine operation in
loading. Another important step is to ensure that all ambients between -7 and 5°C (20 and 40°F) and
liquid is purged from the engine following routine when there is some evidence of moisture, such as
water-wash cleanings. Some overhauls become nec- fog, rain, or snow.
essary as a direct result of inadequate purging of Ice ingestion damage to an engine generally will
cleaning fluids that subsequently cause corrosion in result in a slight loss of turbine performance and often
the compressor variable guide vane area. is accompanied by a noticeably different noise profile
The operator also should make sure that the entire during turbine operation.
diameter of the compressor is cleaned. Cleaning one Maintenance Recommendations. Although anti-ic-
section of the assembly will improve compressor ing features are available commercially for air inlet
discharge pressure only slightly and may create an systems, the best means to prevent ice ingestion is to
imbalance that will cause compressor rotor vibration. seal any leaks in the system and to prevent water or
Use of abrasive turbine compressor cleaning agents snow from accumulating on top of them.
should be used as a last resort on some engines
and never on second-generation engines with com- WATER QUALITY ISSUES
pressor coatings and internally cooled nozzles and ln recent years, overhauls have increased due to
blades. To prevent thermal shock to engine compo- operators using water beyond specification limits in
nents, a cool-down procedure may be required be- combustor water-injection systems for NOx emission
fore water or other liquids are injected into the control (Figure 12) or in evaporative coolers to cool
compressor assembly. the turbine inlet air.
Ice Ingestion Hot Corrosion
During winter, engines may fail from ice ingestion. Before the recent introduction and acceptance of dry,
The FOD generally is not extensive because the lean-premixed combustion technology for NOx pre-
ingested ice ordinarily damages only a few first-stage
compressor blades (Figure 11) and then breaks up
and melts as the ice moves aft through the compres-
sor rotor. The ice usually forms due to either leaks in

104-009M/S 104-012M/S

Figure 11. First-Stage Compressor Blade Figure 12. Typical Package with Water Injection
with Ice Damage for NOx Control

vention, the most popular means to reduce NOx
formation was to inject water or steam into the com-
bustor. While this process has been effective, several
engines have sustained significant hot corrosion dam-
age in their combustor and gas producer sections
due to the high levels of sodium commonly found in
untreated water. Figure 13 shows a first-stage tur-
bine blade that sustained extreme hot corrosion
damage after a few hours of operation with water for
NOx control which did not meet manufacturer speci-
Evaporative coolers or chillers (Figure 14) have
been used by turbine operators in locations with high
ambient temperatures and relatively low humidity to
reduce air inlet temperatures and, thus, to increase
engine output. However, water or mist carry-over into
the turbine can occur from evaporative coolers.
If the water used for the evaporative cooler does
not meet manufacturer specifications, extensive dam-
age to the turbine hot section components can occur.
Figure 15 illustrates the damage to a first-stage blade
where untreated evaporative cooling water carried
over into the turbine.
Maintenance Recommendations. To overcome
problems associated with hot corrosion of turbine 104-014M/S
components, the water specifications always must Figure 14. Typical Evaporative Cooler
be adhered to stringently for all water ingested.
This includes water that is used for wet NOx
control, evaporative air inlet coolers, or compressor
wash water.
Continuous water quality monitoring is essential
for water-injected NOx reduction systems because,
given the large quantities of water required, even a
few hours operation with water that is out of specifi-
cation can cause serious damage. The turbine should


Figure 15. First-Stage Turbine Blade Damage from Out

of Specification Evaporative Cooler Water

not be operated when the NOx reduction water fails to

meet specifications.
Turbine users might seriously consider retrofitting
their turbine units with the latest technology of dry, low
NOx turbine combustion systems at the next overhaul
cycle. The initial cost of the dry, low NOx retrofit most
likely will be more than offset by the costs of maintain-
104-013M/S ing the typically high volumes of treated water required
Figure 13. First-Stage Turbine Blade with to achieve the same level of NOx reduction. For
Hot Corrosion Damage example, 11 L/m (3 gpm) are typically required for a

3356-kW (4500-hp) turbine operating with a 0.65 wa-
ter-to-fuel ratio.


Localized thermal damage in the combustor and first-
stage nozzle area and thermal erosion and coking of
fuel injectors are symptomatic of liquid hydrocarbons
in a gas turbine fuel system. While such liquids occur
more prevalently in natural gas gathering and gas
reinjection applications, gas pipelines also may con-
tain some accumulated hydrocarbon liquids due to
leaks in gas compressor oil seals upstream of the
a. Normal Condition 104-019M/CD
engine compressor and/or condensation resulting
from gas pressure drops across valves and pressure
Gas Fuels
Untreated wellhead gas or associated gas recover-
ed during oil production also may have fuel-bound
contaminants, especially sulfur. Any such sulfur in
excess of specification which enters the turbine com-
bustion process may cause material sulfidation and
rapid erosion of turbine hot section components.
Figure 16 shows the carbon build-up, resulting
from impurities in the fuel, on the gas fuel injector
nozzles from a gas turbine. Blockage of some of the 104-030M/CD

fuel ports occurred in several of the nozzles. This b. Condition with Clogged Fuel Injectors
restriction or blocking (Figure 17) forces the natural
gas out of the other unblocked ports at a higher Figure 17. Combustor Flame Patterns
pressure, which causes the flame pattern in the
combustor to move aft. The aft movement of the
flame pattern will cause thermal erosion on the first-
stage turbine nozzle (Figure 18). The blockage also
will divert the gas flow and can cause thermal erosion
of the combustor outer liner as well (Figure 19).


Figure 18. First-Stage Nozzle Damage

104-018M/S 104-021M/S

Figure 16. Carbon Build Up on Fuel Nozzles Figure 19. Combustor Liner Thermal Damage

Liquid Fuels filter and separator systems are installed. At sites
Liquid fuels also have the potential to become con- where fuel gas pressures drop more than 14 bar (200
taminated, most commonly due to the presence of psi) to operating fuel gas pressure, consideration
water or paraffin waxes or through poor or dirty fuel should also be given to the installation of fuel gas
storage. Liquid fuels need to be checked periodically heaters to prevent liquid condensation.
on dual fuel and standby power generation units for
water accumulation and contamination. LUBE OIL CONSIDERATIONS
While gas turbines can operate on a wide variety Turbine failure due to lube oil issues has caused
of fuels, a review of fuel suitability and compli- problems for some operators. Wear metals and con-
ance with manufacturer specifications is critical for taminants that are not filtered out of the lube oil
turbine life. system can cause scoring on bearings and journals.
Maintenance Recommendations. Damage to en- Contaminated Oil
gines from liquid hydrocarbons in the fuel gas can be Lube oil contamination frequently is a result of adding
avoided by the installation and proper maintenance oil or oil additives which do not comply with manufac-
of fuel filter and separator systems (Figure 20) in- turer specifications. ln the case of turbine-driven gas
stalled near the turbine package. Analysis of gas fuel boost compressors with wet oil seal systems, the oil
contaminants always should be made and liquids in can become contaminated after extended use and
the gas fuel control filter should be checked. Scrub- reflect an increase in acidity. ln other cases, sealing
ber vessels, while important for removing large quan- material commonly used on gearboxes and intercon-
tities of liquids, usually are not adequate for gas nect coupling covers can deteriorate and be carried
turbine fuel systems. into the lube oil sump.
Proper maintenance of scrubber vessel level Figure 21 shows thrust bearings from a gas turbine
switches and dump valves is required, even if fuel that has been operated with contaminated lube oil.
There are numerous small scratches on the surface
of the babbitt material and the accumulation of babbitt
in the oiling glands of the aft thrust washer. Over an
extended period of time, this babbitt would build up in
the oiling glands and restrict the flow of lube oil to the
bearing, resulting in oil starvation and bearing failure.
Some lube oil-related failures are the result of
starting or operating the engine in cold ambient
temperatures without heating the lube oil sump
or bypassing the lube oil coolers until the lube oil
has reached a satisfactory operating temperature.

104-022M/S 104-023M/S

Figure 20. Typical Fuel Gas Filter/Separator Figure 21. Thrust Washers

Depending on lube oil type, the oil operating tempera-
ture without a sump heater should be between 16 and
30°C (60 and 85°F).
Maintenance Recommendations. Lube oil analy-
sis (Figure 22) is an excellent maintenance tool
to help determine the condition of the engine. Spec-
trochemical oil analysis to detect increas-
ed levels of wear metals is available from a variety
of sources. The analysis also should check for oil
viscosity, the presence of water, and the total
acid number.
The key to a successful lube oil analysis program
is to watch for changes and trends in the condition of
the oil over time. Turbine lube oil needs to be changed
only if the oil is beyond manufacturer specifications.
In the event of a change to a different lube oil or oil
additive when the oil tank is refilled, the operator must
make sure it meets the gas turbine manufacturer’s 104-025M/S

specification. When a different viscosity oil is used, it

is important for the recommended oil operating tem- Figure 23. Typical CSI Vibration System Equipment
perature to be considered, particularly during starts in
colder weather. Many older gas turbine packages do
not have lube oil tank heaters. A change to a different vibration data or inaccurate data has resulted in some
viscosity oil may require installation of a lube oil operators experiencing costly equipment outages and
heater. avoidable overhaul costs.
In addition, the experienced operator will, upon Sometimes, suspected engines are removed from
removal of any major turbine component, always service and sent in for overhaul due to suspected
check the lube oil for metal contaminants and vibration problems only to be found to have vibration
examine the bottom of the oil tank sump for un- levels well within specification when the turbines are
usual accumulations. run in a test cell prior to overhaul. While there undoubt-
edly was high vibration in the turbine package, the
VIBRATION PROBLEMS problem was due to improper equipment alignment,
ln the past decade, real-time vibration analysis coupling wear or imbalance, coupling lubrication or
(Figure 23) has become widely available in the grease, worn trunnion mounts (on older packages),
turbomachinery industry. However, the absence of and imbalance or vibration problems in the turbine’s
driven equipment.
Maintenance Recommendations. Vibration mea-
surements should be made consistent by ensuring
that the same points and equipment are used for data
acquisition. In analyzing vibration data, absolute vi-
bration limits should be considered, as well as trends
to determine what is going on in the package. Micro-
processor-based turbine control systems
(Figure 24) are well suited for gathering and trending
vibration data over time.
Alignment verification and coupling checks should
be made on an annual basis or whenever major
turbine components are exchanged or overhauled.
Particular care should be taken on older turbine
packages to ensure that engine trunnion mounts are
not worn and that inlet and exhaust systems or boost
compressor suction and discharge piping do not
Figure 22. Typical Lube Oil Analysis Data Sheet contribute to turbine package vibration.

Many good vibration analysis programs (Figure 25)
are available to customers. As with lube oil analysis,
the key to good equipment vibration
programs is establishing a vibration baseline or sig-
nature at the time a new turbine is installed or just
after overhaul.


Gas turbines are extremely well suited for applica-
tions with exhaust heat recovery (Figure 26). The
utilization of exhaust thermal energy from a turbine
can achieve 70% net system efficiency unfired and
84% efficiency with supplemental firing. However, 104-028M/S
the addition of an exhaust heat recovery system must
Figure 26. Typical Package with Waste Heat
be undertaken carefully to ensure that the heat recov- Recovery
ery system does not damage or impair turbomachinery

The most common exhaust heat system problem

resulting in damage to the turbine is malfunction of
the exhaust diverter valves. If a gas turbine is shut
down with its diverter valve open (Figure 27) and heat
continues to be supplied to its exhaust heat recovery
equipment either via supplemental firing or from the
exhaust of another operating package, there will be a
back flow of hot air through the idle turbine which can
damage its variable geometry grommets. Turbine
damage also will occur occasionally due to a diverter
or exhaust system weather cover being in a closed or
partially closed position during turbine start, thereby
causing low speed turbine surge.
Maintenance Recommendations. Exhaust back
pressure should be monitored and maintenance
checks performed regularly for turbines fitted with
Figure 24. Typical Turbotronic Vibration
Display Summary exhaust heat recovery systems to ensure the proper
operation of exhaust heat diverter valves. Any in-
stalled weatherhoods and covers also should be
included during the maintenance checks. It is worth
noting that every 25.4 mm (1 in.) of water back
pressure imposed by the heat recovery equipment on
the turbine exhaust will exact a penalty of about 7.5
kW (10 hp) for a 3000-kW (4000-hp) gas turbine.
Turbine control systems can be designed or modi-
fied to notify turbine operators when hot air from
exhaust heat recovery systems feeds back or leaks
through the diverter valves.


A well-planned and properly executed maintenance
program will provide numerous benefits to the gas
104-026M/S turbine owner, including avoidance of unscheduled
equipment outages, increased overhaul intervals,
Figure 25. Typical CSI Vibration Survey Data and lower overhaul and operating expenses.






Figure 27. Diverter Valves in Waste Heat Ducting

When allowed to persist, all of the problems dis- cline in Pcd would result in a loss of approximately
cussed above, including inlet air considerations, wa- $300 every day on power produced at $0.08/kWh.
ter quality issues, fuel quality issues, lube oil
considerations, vibration problems, and heat recovery SUMMARY
problems, will result in a reduction in equipment Turbomachinery owners should make the effort to
performance and possibly either immediate or long- improve or correct maintenance practices to improve
term damage to the turbine equipment. Component equipment performance, extend the time between
damage as a result of these problems almost always overhaul, and increase the life of the equipment.
will be evident at overhaul. Operators should witness the disassembly of the unit
Furthermore, problems such as a dirty turbine in the overhaul shop, even if an exchange engine is
compressor section or a high air inlet filter differential used, because this will help them understand what
can result not only in earlier and costlier turbine was wrong inside the unit and gain additional insights
overhauls, but also in loss of turbine efficiency and into what may have caused the damage. Owners
additional operating costs. For example, a 3505-kW should review the condition of the engine, study the
(4700-hp) turbine will lose about 22 kW (30 hp) for engine condition report and then take the next steps
each psi of compressor discharge pressure lost due by performing a root-cause analysis of the problems.
to contamination. A 5% decline in compressor dis- Those findings should initiate positive changes in
charge pressure would equate to a loss of 145 kW maintenance and operating procedures.
(200 hp), with the fuel flow remaining constant. If the One of the major advantages of recent advance-
natural gas cost were $2 per thousand scf, this would ments in microprocessor-based turbine control sys-
result in an additional fuel cost of $35,000 annually. tems is their ability to not only record performance
The most serious economic effect on the turbine data, such as compressor discharge pressure, vibra-
operator, however, would be the loss of production tion data, operating temperatures, and turbine power
and profit that the equipment could have generated. output, but also to trend the data and to predict when
If the 3505-kW (4700-hp) turbine in this example corrective action such as compressor cleaning needs
were in a power generation application, the 5% de- to be performed.

By incorporation of improved maintenance prac- Lehmann, D.M. and Keller, B.B., 1986, “Techno-
tices and control system advancements, turbine us- logical Advancements for Servicing of Turboma-
ers can help avoid unscheduled equipment outages, chinery,” TTS35, Turbomachinery Technology
increase the average time between inspections (TBls), Seminar, Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego,
reduce the cost of overhaul expense, lower the cost of California.
turbine operation, and increase the value of their Hsu, L.L. and Aurrecoechea, J.M., 1995, “Air, Fuel
turbomachinery. and Water Management,” TTS89, Turbomachinery
Technology Seminar, Solar Turbines Incorporated,
BIBLIOGRAPHY San Diego, California.
Corzine, E.S., 1995, “Turbine Control Systems Ryan, W.T. and Tse, K.B., 1995, “Interpretation of
Update,” TTS72, Turbomachinery Technology Vibration Data on High Speed Turbomachinery,”
Seminar, Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, TTS112, Turbomachinery Technology Seminar,
California. Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, California.
Jepson, P.B., 1989, “Documenting and Reducing Woods, C.S. and Bliss, W.J., 1992, “Quality in
Gas Compression Equipment Maintenance Costs,” Maintenance,” TTS81, Turbomachinery Technology
TTS58, Turbomachinery Technology Seminar, Seminar, Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego,
Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, California. California.

NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the Ser-
vice Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn, Centaur,
Taurus, Mars, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Cat and Caterpillar are
trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 2.0/102A
ISSUED: April 1998
REVISED: February 1999
Specifics: Mars Turbines with Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Electric Start Systems


Type of Change: Product Improvement

Compliance: Information

To alert Customers of the availability of an improved sprag clutch for the Mars start system.

Continued product development has resulted in the availability of an improved overrunning (sprag)
clutch for the Mars Turbine start system. Solar now incorporates the newest version Accessory
Drive Assembly (P/N 117850-30) in all new production start systems and the improvement is avail-
able for all replacements in the field.

The previous P/N 117850-10 and P/N 117850-20 Accessory Drive Assemblies can be upgraded to
a P/N 117850-30. The new overrunning starter clutch has inherent friction that causes the starter to
rotate after starter dropout. It is normal for this to occur, and speeds up to 5400 rpm can be reached
without any detrimental effect to the starter system.


NUMBER: 2.0/102A
To order an upgraded Accessory Drive Assemblies P/N 117850-30 contact your Solar Service Parts
Representative or to obtain more information regarding this product improvement contact your lo-
cal Solar Field Service Office.


NUMBER: 2.0/102A
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 2.0/103
ISSUED: April 2001
PRODUCT: Mars/Titan
Specifics: Mars/Titan Turbines with Hydraulic or Electric Start Systems


Type of Change: Product Improvement

Compliance: Information

To announce the availability of an improved clutch for the Mars and Titan start systems.

Continued product development has produced an improved clutch system for the Mars and Titan
turbine starter systems. This improved design incorporates a Synchro-Self-Shifting Clutch system
that will improve the Mars and Titan clutch assembly’s reliability. In addition, the new clutch as-
sembly will not cause the starter to rotate after starter drop-off.

Solar now incorporates this improved design of the starter clutch assembly, P/N 301575-100, in all
new production hydraulic and electric start systems. The previous P/N 117850-10, P/N 117850-20
and 117850-30 clutch assemblies employs a sprag clutch (Figure 1) and can be upgraded to the
improved design P/N 301575-100 (Figure 2), at the customer’s discretion.


NUMBER: 2.0/103
To order an upgraded clutch assembly Solar P/N 301575-100, contact the local Solar Service Parts
department. The following table list retrofit kit part numbers:

Kit Part Numbers Product/Model

1046632-1XX Mars GS
1046632-2XX Mars CS/MD
1046632-3XX Titan CS/MD

Please contact the local Solar Field Service office for assistance as required.

Figure 1 Sprag Clutch Assembly


NUMBER: 2.0/103
Figure 2 Synchro-Self-Shifting Clutch P/N301575-100

Keylist for Figure 2

1 Output Clutch Ring 2 Helical Sliding Component
3 Output Assembly 4 Rotor Shaft
5 Starter 6 Primary Pawl
7 Ratchet 8 Secondary Pawl


NUMBER: 2.0/103
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 3.3/106A
ISSUED: June 1999
REVISED: April 2001
PRODUCT: Mars 90, Mars 100
Specifics: Mars Standard Combustion "Dual Fuel" Applications



This revision replaces Service Bulletin 3.3/106. The previous
bulletin must be removed and discarded. This version announces
the availability of an improved retrofit kit.

Type of Change: Product Improvement

Compliance: Earliest Convenience

• To announce the availability of an improved retrofit kit to alleviate the fuel migration
problem of dual fuel Mars engines.
• To inform customers about additional kit modifications and control logic changes to
optimize the purging of the air assist and liquid fuel lines after a turbine shut down.


NUMBER: 3.3/106A
The original purge kit released in 1999 prevented liquid fuel migration into the gas fuel manifold.
This kit has now been optimized and expanded to correct other problems with liquids collecting in
fuel and air assist lines of running and/or stationary gas turbine packages.


1. Prevent liquid fuel migration (original kit):
Mars dual fuel units with standard combustion systems operating on liquid fuel have been
experiencing problems associated with migration of liquid fuel into the gas fuel mani-
fold. The liquid fuel cokes in the injector passages, causing problems with subsequent
gas fuel operation. Also, some of the injector fuel lines were found to have excessively
elevated temperatures at the sites with the fuel migration problem. Both problems are
caused by recirculation of combustor air between injectors with slightly different pres-
sure levels (cross flow).
2. Additional problems addressed in the modified kit:
• The reverse-flow purging of the liquid fuel lines after a transfer to gas fuel or after a
package shut down is sometimes incomplete. The problem is most severe if a liquid
fuel line purge is initiated after an aborted start attempt on a hot engine. PCD pressure
is very low at that time. The driving force to back-purge the fuel lines and injectors
is missing and not all fuel is purged. The residual fuel remaining in the liquid fuel
lines and injectors may coke up and block the injectors.
• Condensed water and other liquids may accumulate in the air assist lines during
turbine operation and/or after a package shut down. During a start attempt on liquid
fuel, this liquid is blown into the torch, delaying or preventing light off. In cold
weather, the liquid may freeze during package standstill, completely preventing any
further start up.

The PCD forward purge system has been developed for the Mars dual fuel standard en-
gines to alleviate the fuel migration problem on a running turbine. This system prevents
the entrapment of liquid fuel into the gas passageways of the dual fuel injectors and the
resulting plugging of these passageways with coke and carbon. A positive flow of PCD
air through the gas fuel manifold and the gas passageways of the injectors prevents the
entrance of liquid fuel. This positive flow of PCD is achieved by the use of a connect-
ing line between the combustion chamber housing and the gas fuel manifold through
two automated high temperature shutoff valves. The pressure drop across the combus-
tor liner provides the pressure differential to achieve the airflow. Without this purging


NUMBER: 3.3/106A
airflow, liquid fuel can be carried into the gas passageways by "cross flow" due to the
small pressure differences around the combustor.
The latest kit contains modifications based on experience gained with operating pack-
• A larger dP transmitter range allows the use of a less sensitive test orifice and permits
differential pressure measurements across the whole operating range.
• PCD air is taken from a separate take-off port on the combustor housing to prevent
interference with the bleed valve operation.
• The liquid fuel purge time (back purge) after a package shut down has been
lengthened to 180 seconds to ensure complete drainage of the fuel system. The first
120 seconds are continuous purge, followed by four (4) cycles of ten (10) seconds
off/five (5) seconds on (pulse purges), to allow any trapped fuel to collect and then
be removed. The original purge time of 20 seconds is insufficient.
• After a package shut down, the combustor air pressure (PCD) available to induce
reversed flow decreases rapidly due to the falling gas producer speed. Therefore, the
starter is engaged to keep the engine turning at purge crank speed. This produces a
certain PCD pressure and guarantees a minimum driving force to back-purge the fuel
injectors, providing the additional purging needed.
• After an unsuccessful light-off attempt on diesel fuel, the turbine continues to crank
for another 180 seconds. As with the purge after a shutdown, there is 120 seconds
of continuous back purge, followed by four (4) five (5) second pulse purges with ten
(10) seconds between.
• The air assist system is activated during engine roll down to blow out possible liquids
accumulated during engine operation ("forward purge" of air assist line into the
coasting turbine). Liquids could freeze during package standstill and may prevent
the next start up.
• Liquids collecting in the air assist and fuel manifolds during package standstill
(condensed water, lube oil, residual liquid fuel) must be purged. To remove those
liquids, the start up sequence has been altered:
• The liquid fuel purge valves are being re-opened during the turbine purge crank
cycle for a final fuel line blow back.
• The torch drain valve is re-opened during the turbine purge cycle to remove
possible condensed water, fuel and lube oil from the torch before light off.


NUMBER: 3.3/106A
• If a start on liquid fuel is selected, the air assist solenoid is activated during the
first 45 seconds of purge crank to blow the line clean and to improve the torch
• After a fuel transfer from liquid to gas, the purging sequence of the liquid fuel
remaining in the liquid fuel system has been changed. As with a shutdown purge,
there is continuous purge, followed by four (4) pulse purges. The duration of the
continuous purge varies with load as follows:
• 90 seconds under 25% load
• 45 seconds from 25% to 50% load
• 25 seconds from 50% to 75% load
• 15 seconds above 75% load

Gas fuel line purge kits have been developed for field installation on dual fuel packages to correct
the fuel migration problem. Contact your local Solar Field Service office for assistance in ordering
the appropriate Retrofit Kit and to schedule its installation. The kit will be provided free of charge.

The software included in the new kit also addresses and corrects the additional fuel line purge
problems mentioned in this Service Bulletin. Most modifications are software changes only, but
one small wiring change is required for full implementation of the modifications. The torch drain
valve solenoid (L 348-3) must be electrically separated from the liquid torch valve control (L348-1)
and must be connected to a separate discrete output of the PLC. In most applications, both solenoid
valves are already individually wired from the control panel to the valve inside the package; but
they are operated by a single common output relay in the control panel. Wiring changes are limited
to separating this common control signal inside the control panel.

Customers using an earlier version of this kit should obtain and incorporate the latest hardware
changes and software modifications. Contact your local Solar Field Service office for assistance.


NUMBER: 3.3/106A
The retrofit kit must be installed and tested according to the instal-
lation instructions included in the kit. Failure to do so may result in
severe equipment failure and /or bodily injury. Air or Nitrogen with a
pressure of at least 300 PSI (20 bar) is required to test the system.

The liquid drain connection at the package edge must be an atmo-

spheric drain with no backpressure. Besides liquids (fuel, water), air
and small amounts of fuel gas may get purged through this connec-
tion. Liquids and the gaseous media must be safely disposed off ac-
cording to local regulations. See Service Bulletin 22.0/100 for addi-
tional information (Liquid Fuel Purge, chapter 8).

The forward purge system uses customer-supplied pilot air to operate

the critical high temperature ball valves. The pilot air supply must re-
main active during the whole package operation.

After above modifications, the air-assist system is being activated for

an additional 45 seconds during each turbine start and stop cycle.
Customers with marginal compressed air systems might have to in-
crease their air storage capacity or might have to shorten the recom-
mended purge times to prevent the depletion of their air supply. See
your individual fuel schematic and Mechanical Installation Instruction
for shop air flow and pressure requirements.




NUMBER: 3.3/106A
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 5.4/116
ISSUED: October 1996
Specifics: SoLoNox



Type of Change: Product Information

Compliance: Earliest Convenience

1. To inform Solar Customers of the potential for combustor oscillations and combustor
rumble in Mars SoLoNox systems.
2. To inform Solar Customers of the field retrofit kit designed to monitor combustor

- Combustor Oscillations

Mars SoLoNOx engines have occasionally exhibited an oscillation phenomena during operation.
This is caused by pressure pulsations inside of the combustor. These pulsations reduce and increase
fuel flow through the injectors, in turn amplifying the oscillation effect. An open bleed valve also
contributes to this activity, so oscillations at part load are even more likely to occur. The oscillations,
normally seen at approximately 360 Hz, can be picked up on the number three bearing proximitor
probe. Extended operation of engine with excessive oscillations could result in decreased durability
of combustion and other system components.


NUMBER: 5.4/116
In order to expand our database of operating unit histories, each occurrence should be properly
documented. A pulsation monitor, included in kit 1006692-103, should be installed to continu-
ously monitor and collect vibration history on the number three bearing. The monitor (Solar P/N
1006285- 1), normally mounted on the back of one of the control console doors, receives inputs
from the gas producer key phasor as well as the number three bearing vertical proximitor probe.
The module monitors for peaks between 320 and 380 Hz and sends a 4-20 mA output signal to
a PLC analog input module. 4 mA corresponds to a 0 mil and 20 mA corresponds to 1.0 mil vi-
bration amplitude. The latest software configuration will record a discrete event in the event log
any time vibration amplitude stays above .25 mils for more than ten seconds and annunciate an
alarm whenever vibration levels exceed 0.40 mils for more than ten seconds. Additionally, average
and maximum hourly vibration levels and corresponding gas producer speeds will be recorded and
saved as snapshot data. Solar will collect history data from the monitor at appropriate site visits.

- Combustor Rumble

Another rare but potential phenomena that is unique to lean burn, low emissions engines is known
as combustor rumble. It is important to differentiate between combustor oscillations and combustor
rumble. The rumble is a low frequency (25-35 Hz), partial flameout phenomena that occurs only
when there is injector clogging or other fuel supply problems. This is usually audible in structures
surrounding the equipment and sometimes from distances of several hundred feet. The condition is
very serious and can quickly lead to severe engine damage.

A monitoring setup for engine rumble is presently being developed and will be announced via a
revision to this Service Bulletin. If this condition is observed in the field it should be reported
immediately to your local Solar District Office.

– If the kit is not installed, order and install per kit instructions. The kit is provided free of
charge. Contact your local Solar District Office for assistance.
– Contact your local Solar District Office as soon as possible to report any package where
alarm annunciations have occurred or previous prolonged periods of vibration are suspected.
– Contact your local Solar District Office to report any instance of combustor rumble.

Field retrofit kit number 1006692-103.


NUMBER: 5.4/116
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the Ser-
vice Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn, Centaur,
Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Cat and
Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 5.9/103A
ISSUED: October 1997
REVISED: June 1999


This revision replaces Service Bulletin 5.9/103. The previous
issue must be removed and discarded.

Type of Change: Product Information

Compliance: Earliest Convenience

To ensure your battery charger is adjusted correctly for your battery type.

In several recent instances, engine bearings have been damaged after loss of AC power. The root
cause was traced to improper settings on the battery charger that resulted in the battery not being
charged sufficiently to perform the required backup post-lube cycle when commercial AC power
was lost.

When commercial AC power is lost the DC backup post-lube cycle is critical to prevent damage to
engine bearings. Both 24 volt and 120 Vdc systems are affected.

Battery chargers that are supplied by Solar are usually pre-adjusted for use with lead-calcium
(VRLA) batteries. (A tag in the battery charger indicates the factory settings as-shipped.) In-field


NUMBER: 5.9/103A
re-adjustment of the float voltage and high-rate voltage settings are required for use with other
battery types. If re-adjustment is not provided, it is possible that damage to the battery could occur
due to over-charging or the battery could not be adequately charged. This could very likely result
in an inability to perform the required back-up post-lube cycle when commercial AC power is
lost. Both 24V and 120Vdc systems are affected, as applicable to your site.

The required float-voltage and high-rate-voltage settings are accomplished by adjusting appropriate
multi-turn potentiometers which are on a printed-circuit card in the battery charger. See the battery
charger operations manual for specific instructions. (For chargers in NEMA-3R enclosures, the
manual is in a pocket on the inside of the door.)


Unless indicated otherwise for specific sales orders, the following settings should be used. Before
making these adjustments, ensure the battery charger output current is less than half the charger
nameplate rating. Voltmeter used for adjustments should be accurate within ± 0.5%.

Number of Float High-Rate

Battery Type
Cells Setting Setting
Lead-Calcium (VRLA) 12 27.1V 27.5V
24VDC Lead-Acid 12 25.8V 28.8V
Ni-Cd 20 28.4V 31.5V
Lead-Calcium (VRLA) 60 135V 137V
120VDC Lead-Acid 60 129V 140V
Ni-Cd 96 135V 150V

Set "Float" voltage before adjusting "High Rate" voltage.

The "Current Limit" potentiometer is set at the factory and sealed. Do

not change this adjustment. An improper setting may damage the rec-
tifier. Under no circumstances should the rectifier current exceed the
nameplate value. Damage may occur if misadjusted.


NUMBER: 5.9/103A
The "Float/High Rate" switch controls the "High Rate" charge. Never
leave the switch in the "High Rate" position for long periods of time.
Excessive "High Rate" charging will cause the battery cells to gas
(through electrolysis) and dissociate the water in the electrolyte into
hydrogen and oxygen. Never let the electrolyte level drop below the
minimum level line.


Refer to battery charger operation and maintenance manual for specific step-by-step instructions.

Although the above procedure is accomplished with the battery charger operating, the following
comments apply any time that it is necessary to turn the charger "ON" or "OFF":

1. Manual turn-on of the charger should be accomplished by using the AC switch or circuit
breaker. That is, the DC output circuit breaker should be closed first, then the AC switch
or circuit breaker should be closed.
2. When turning the battery charger off, the AC switch or circuit breaker should be opened
first, then the DC circuit breaker may be opened.
3. Make sure the turbine is shut down and the post-lube cycle is complete before turning
off the battery charger.


NUMBER: 5.9/103A
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the Ser-
vice Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn, Centaur,
Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Cat and
Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 6.0/123A
ISSUED: July 1996
REVISED: June 1999



This revision replaces Service Bulletin 6.0/123. The previous
issue may be removed and discarded.

Type of Change: Product Improvement

Compliance: Earliest Convenience

To clarify changes recommended in operating Mars Turbine Packages. The recommended
changes help to increase the turbine oil life and to avoid oil related problems:

• Inform customers about recent design changes in Mars Turbines to reduce oil oxidation.
• Announce the widening of the acceptable lube oil temperature range to allow package op-
eration with lower bulk oil temperatures.
• Recommend lowered package lube oil temperatures for continuous operation.
• Give guidelines regarding the package lube oil pressure in order to optimize oil flow to the
turbine bearings.
• Revision A: Clarify the modifications recommended on "Jordan" temperature control


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
This bulletin will discuss lube oil degradation, lube oil pressure setting, lube oil temperature control
settings and and provide inspection procedures.

Lube Oil Degradation:

In some instances Mars turbine packages have exhibited oil-related problems. These problems have
been generally associated with rapid oil degradation, heavy coking of the labyrinth seal in the No.
2/3 bearing area and, in a few instances, sump oil fires. Oil degradation can lead to corrosion prob-
lems and eventual failure in the main bearings. Solar addressed these problems with design changes
in the #2/3 bearing area (New Bi-Metal bearings with increased oil flow, Tungsten Carbide labyrinth
seal teeth, improved seals to prevent hot air leaks past the oil supply tubes, preventing heat conduc-
tion into the bearing cap area). All new and recently overhauled Mars turbines incorporate these

Oil life is directly related to oil temperature. In order to reduce the oil temperature, Solar has ap-
proved lower lube oil supply temperatures for all Mars turbines. High oil temperatures in the
bearing #2/3 area and sump temperatures are being reduced by lowered supply oil temperatures,
lowered heat conduction and increased bearing oil flow.

Customers can further slow the lube oil degradation with simple operational changes and better
thermal management in the existing lube system. Solar recommends reducing the bulk oil temper-
ature by lowering thermostat settings and avoiding marginal oil pressures.

Lube Oil Pressure:

The recommended Mars package lube oil pressure is a compromise between several requirements.
The oil system in a package not only supplies the Mars turbine, but also the driven equipment
(generator, compressor, pump) and in some applications also a gearbox. Often, the supply pressure
requirements for these items are different. Solar therefore uses the lube oil manifold pressure to
specify the nominal package oil pressure range. All gauges, pressure switches and transmitters
are connected to the main lube oil manifold, indicating and limiting manifold pressure.

• Mars Turbine Supply Pressure:
Solar specifications require a lube oil pressure of 26 to 45 PSIG (1.8 to 3.1 bar) at the oil
inlet flange of a Mars turbine. All turbine oil seals are designed for this lube oil pressure
range and no internal or external oil leaks should occur during normal operation or during
the post lube cycle.


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
• Gearbox and Driven Equipment Oil Supply Pressure:
Compressors and gearboxes are selected in such a way, that the individual operating oil
pressure ranges coincide with the turbine lube oil pressure or at least overlap for a large part
of the range.
• Supply line restrictions:
Supply lines between manifold and final equipment (turbine, compressor, and generator)
are sized for minimal losses. The pressure loss is normally negligible (less than 1PSID;
0.07 bar with cool oil), but has to be considered if additional restrictions such as oil flow
meters, start-up strainers or similar devices are installed.
A clean start-up strainer introduces a pressure loss of about 10 PSID (0.7 bar) with cold
lube oil. The pressure drop is considerably less when the oil is at its operating temperature
(1 PSID, 0.07 bar).
• Package Manifold Pressure:
The nominal package operating oil pressure (design pressure) is selected to satisfy all of
the above requirements. The pressure range is set at 35 ± 5 PSIG (2.4 ± 0.3 bar), measured
at the manifold. All package components (turbine and driven equipment) are able to op-
erate satisfactorily with a lube oil supply pressure inside these limits.

Packages should not be operated continuously with a manifold pressure be-
low 30 PSIG (2.1 bar). The minimum lube oil pressure of 26 PSIG (1.8 bar;
instantaneous shut down) is an absolute minimum threshold and is intended
to avoid a trip during relatively short system upsets.

Maintain the package manifold oil pressure at 35 ± 5 PSIG (2.4 ± 0.3 bar). If necessary, adjust the
lube oil pressure regulator to remain within this pressure range under all operating conditions. Do
not operate Mars turbine packages for extended periods with lube oil manifold pressures below 30
PSI (2.1 bar).

Lube Oil Temperature:

All Solar packages are designed to operate at ambient temperatures up to 140F (60C). Bear-
ing #2/3 drain temperatures exceed 200F (93C) at those high ambient temperatures and raise the
oil tank temperature. Though a certain operating oil temperature is necessary to prevent the accu-
mulation of water in the oil (condense water etc.), extremely high oil temperatures accelerate oil
oxidation and adversely affect the lube oil live:


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
• The rate of lube oil oxidation increases rapidly at temperatures above 200F (93C) and
shortens the useful oil life.
• Higher lube oil supply temperatures reduce internal turbine cooling and elevate the housing
temperature in the seal area for bearings #2/3. Lube oil may get locally overheated and
may carbonize. The carbon produced can act as an abrasive and can wear the edges of the
labyrinth seals.

In most Solar packages, air-to-oil coolers are used to maintain the desired lube oil temperature. At
low and moderate ambient temperatures, the temperature control valve (thermostat) is modulating
and partially bypassing the lube oil cooler to keep the oil temperature within the recommended
operating range. At high ambient temperatures, the temperature control valve is wide open and
the lube oil manifold temperature starts to drift upwards. The oil cooler will now maintain a fixed
air-to-oil differential temperature.


To minimize the adverse long-term effect of high oil temperatures, Solar has widened the acceptable
lube oil temperature range for the Mars turbine and all Solar designed gas compressors. This allows
a reduction of the operating oil temperatures by lowering the temperature control valve setpoint.
The oil cooler loop opens earlier, decreasing oil temperatures.

To increase the customer awareness about possible lube oil degradation at increased operating tem-
peratures, Solar recommends to lower the "Lube-Oil-Temperature-High" alarm setting to 160F
(71C) for lube oils with a viscosity grade of C32 or C46.

Table 1 lists the modified alarm setpoints and recommended lube oil header temperatures.

• Newer packages are equipped with larger oil coolers and are able to maintain the lowered
oil temperatures at all specified ambient temperatures.
• Older packages can achieve lowered oil temperatures during cold and moderate ambient
temperatures only, when the thermal control valve is operating and is diverting part of the
lube oil flow around the cooler. The oil temperature cannot be reduced on a really hot day
due to cooler limitations (all the oil is already pumped through the cooler).

• Take advantage of the widened lube oil temperature range on Mars turbines and reduce
the operating oil temperature of your package. Most packages use temperature control
valves with fixed thermostat cartridges. The whole cartridge must be replaced in this case.
On certain packages, an adjustable setpoint can be lowered on the temperature control valve
(Table 1).
• Lower the "High Lube Oil Temperature" alarm setpoint to 160F (71C) if you operate your
package with C46 grade oil. Do not lower the shut down level of 180F (82C; C46 grade


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
oil only) to avoid trips on a hot day. The lowered "high lube oil temperature" alarm setting
will alert you to possible oil degradation and shortened oil life.

Table 1 New and Original Mars Package Lube Oil Header

Temperatures (hot engine).
Lube Oil Viscosity Grade
Manifold Oil C32 C46
Original: New: Original: New:

130 - 165F 110 - 160F 150 - 180F 125 - 160F
54 - 74C 43 - 71C 66 - 82C 52 - 71C
140 - 145F 120 -125F 155 - 160F 135 - 140F
60 - 63C 49 - 52C 68 -71C 57 - 60C
160F 160F 175F 160F
71C 71C 79C 71C
165F 165F 180F 180F
74C 74C 82C 82C
Shut Down
Please note that the individual site cooler performance may be insufficient to maintain
lowered header temperatures at very high ambient temperatures.

1. Verify Lube Oil Pressure:
• Maintain a lube oil manifold pressure of 35 ± 5 PSIG (2.4 ± 0.3 bar). Review your
records and note the lube oil manifold pressure at different ambient temperatures and
loads. Adjust the lube oil pressure regulator, if the manifold pressure falls outside
these limits under certain operating condition.
• Inspect the lube oil system in your Mars package. Make sure that pressure losses
between the lube oil manifold and the turbine inlet flanges are minimal. Do not run
turbines in commercial operation with flow meters or start-up strainers installed. If
required, increase lube oil header pressure to offset flow meter or start-up strainer
pressure losses.
2. Lower Lube Oil Operating Temperatures:
Temperature control valves from several different vendors are used in Mars turbine pack-
ages and adjustment procedures differ. To lower the lube oil operating temperature, the


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
temperature control valve may require resetting or thermostat cartridges may have to be
Make sure you have new cartridges and/or gaskets available before you work on any
temperature control valve. Replacement cartridges and gaskets can be ordered through
your normal Solar Service Parts channels.
3. Modify Software Setpoints:
Temperature setpoint changes are required for correct package operation with lowered
lube oil temperatures. (See also Service Bulletin 6.0/116A):
• If C46 grade lube oil is used, lower the "high lube oil temperature alarm" setpoint to
160F (71C).
• On packages with electric cooler fans, lower the lube oil cooler fan “on-off” setpoints
if C32 grade oil is used. The old setpoints (120F; 49C “on”, 100F; 38C “off”)
must be reduced to 100F (38C) “on” and 80F (27C) “off”. For C46 oil the cooler
fan setpoints can be left at 120F “on” and 100F “off”.
• Mars turbines built after January 1994 use a tilting pad thrust bearing in the gas
producer rotor. Packages using those turbines require additional software changes.
The logic introduced in Service Bulletin 8.9/104 must be modified:
Lower the minimum threshold temperature for activation of the thrust bearing differ-
ential temperature protection. Change the threshold temperature from 130F (54C)
to 110F (43C) for C32 oil and to 125F (52C) for C46 oil.
The alarm and shut down values for the thrust bearing absolute and differential tem-
peratures do not change with the introduction of lowered lube oil temperatures.

The minimum oil temperature required for package start-up and the
maximum acceptable oil temperatures are not affected by above
changes. The setpoints for “start permissive” and high temperature
“alarm” and “shut down” should not be changed except where noted.

4. Modify Temperature Control Valves (if required):

a. “Jordan”temperature control valve.
Two different types of “Jordan“ temperature control valves were used in Mars Tur-
bine Packages. Valve modifications or a complete exchange are required to stabi-
lize the operation of these valves.


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
• Two-way valve P/N 120458
This valve is plumbed in parallel to the cooler (bypass valve) and controls the
manifold temperature. The valve uses an external temperature sensor installed
in the lube oil manifold. To reduce the manifold temperature, simply lower the
temperature setpoint until you reach the desired manifold temperature. Valves
variations with and without manual temperature control override exist in the
field. Both valves operate identically.
The basic valve is designed to maintain very tight temperature limits. In Solar’s
application as lube oil temperature control valve, tight control is not required.
Valves P/N 120458-2 to -17 have too little "droop" and are unstable. These
valves require modifications before satisfactory operation is achieved.
Order retrofit kit P/N 120458-30. The kit includes a new control head and a
stiffer spring together with the necessary instructions and is suitable for valves
with and without manual override.
The modified valves should be re-identified with new part numbers:
P/N 120458-20 (valve without manual override)
P/N 120458-21 (valve includes a manual override).
• Three-way "Jordan" valve P/N 190976
Very few packages were equipped with these valves. Valves cannot be modified
in the field and were replaced in all known applications. Order retrofit kit P/N
1018296KI00B if your package still contains a 3-way "Jordan" valve. The kit
includes a new "Robertshaw" valve and all necessary hardware for a "drop-in"
The 3-way "Robertshaw" valve included in the kit is P/N 120713-16 and has
an operating range of 136 - 152F (58 - 67C). The valve controls the tank
temperature and not the manifold temperature and is acceptable for most cases
(See "Robertshaw" valve below).
b. "Robertshaw" temperature control valve P/N 120713.
Though this is a 3-way valve, Solar plumbs the valve in parallel to the cooler and
uses it as a 2-way valve. The valve acts as a "diverter" valve, bypassing lube oil
around the cooler as long as the oil tank temperature is low. The temperature sens-
ing cartridge inside the valve points towards the oil inlet (from the pump) and
controls the supply temperature. This temperature is essentially the lube oil tank
temperature and is about 25 to 30F (14 to 17 C) above the manifold temperature.
The valve starts to restrict the cooler bypass flow when the oil temperature reaches
the valve operating range (147 -160F; 64 - 71C in older packages using C32 oil).
At oil tank temperatures above 160F (71C), the valve is closed and the oncoming


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
oil is forced to flow through the cooler. No fixed manifold temperature is main-
tained, since the control valve stabilizes the tank temperature and not the manifold
• Review your records and record the lube oil manifold temperature at low and
moderate ambient temperatures during part and at full load operation. Under
these conditions, the temperature control valve is modulating and stabilizes the
tank temperature. If the recorded lube oil manifold temperatures are consider-
ably above the new "Recommended Operating Range" (Table 1), a new control
valve cartridge (poppet) should be installed:
• Determine the maximum permitted oil temperature decrease by calculating the
difference between the lowest manifold temperature (observed in the previous
step) and the lower number of the "Recommended Operating Range" (Table
1). This is the "optimum temperature decrease".
• Determine your control valve part number from the actual part or from the lube
oil schematic.
• Consult Table 2 and read the nominal "valve operating range" for your partic-
ular valve. Please note that this valve controls the tank temperature and not the
manifold temperature.
• Subtract the calculated "optimum temperature decrease" from the nominal
"valve operating range" found in the previous step. This is the new "ideal lube
oil tank temperature operating range".
• Consult Table 2 and select the nearest "Replacement Temperature Element"
above the "ideal lube oil tank temperature operating range" determined in the
previous step. This temperature element is the best compromise possible. Order
this element set.
• Replace element set. See Operation and Service Manual under Vendor infor-


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
Table 2 "Robertshaw" Lube Oil Temperature Control
Valve (P/N 120713)
Valve Operating Range Solar Part Number:
Complete Replacement
C F Replacement Temperature
Valve Element
58 - 67 136 - 152 120713-16 120713-32
64 - 71 147 - 160 120713-5 120713-30
71 - 79 160 - 175 120713-6 120713-31
67 - 74 152 - 166 N/A 120713-33

c. Early Mars packages:

Early Mars packages use a lube oil block which incorporates five thermostat car-
tridges. The cartridge valves operate similar to the "Robertshaw" valve discussed
above, but the individual cartridges are externally accessible and can be exchanged.
Again, no clear manifold temperature can be given due to the fact that the tank tem-
perature is controlled and not the manifold temperature.

The cartridge valves actually perform a double duty, being combined ther-
mostat / differential pressure valves. The cartridge valves will also open, if
the pressure drop across the cooler exceeds 50 PSID (3.5 bar d).

• Determine the correct temperature range of your replacement cartridges from
Table 3. Use a similar procedure as described under the "Robertshaw" valves.
• Order five new cartridges per package and replace existing valves. All replace-
ment cartridges are supplied with new o-rings.


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
Table 3 Early Mars Temperature Control Cartridge Valves
Solar Part
Temperature Range (start to close to fully closed)
C F Cartridge
27-49 80-120 120391-1
38-60 100-140 120391-2
49-71 120-160 120391-3
60-85 140-185 120391-4

d. "Amot"valve P/N 120337.

Newer Mars packages use an "Amot" valve for lube oil temperature regulation
(Solar P/N 120337). This is a true 3-way valve controlling the lube oil manifold
temperature. The sensing cartridges (thermostats) are installed in the outlet port
of the valve.
As long as the control valve is modulating, the manifold temperature remains
within the operating range listed in Table 4. The table can be used directly to order
replacement cartridges.
Each element kit contains all the hardware required to modify one valve.

Table 4 "AMOT" Temperature Control Valves

Operating Continuous
Temperature Manifold Solar Part Number:
Range Tempera-
F C F C Complete Temperature
Valve Element Kit
135 - 151 57 - 66 165 74 120337-1 120337-30
124 - 140 51 - 60 180 82 120337-3 120337-31
110 - 131 43 - 55 165 74 120337-15 120337-32
Please note the maximum temperature limits of the Amot elements. If observed
summertime manifold temperatures exceed these values; the temperature elements
will be permanently damaged. For C46 grade oil, temperature control valve
P/N120337-3 or element kit P/N 120337-31 must be used.


NUMBER: 6.0/123A
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 6.5/107
ISSUED: June 1997


Type of Change: Product Information

Compliance: Information

To provide information to customers on post lube oil requirements for the engine bearings. This
service bulletin emphasizes the importance of the post lube oil in protecting the engine after shut-

Solar Turbines packages are equipped with a primary post lube oil system to protect the engine
bearings from damage due to heat soak from hot internal engine components. Depending upon
the type of engine and application, many packages are also equipped with a backup post lube oil
system. The primary post lube oil pump is usually driven by either an A.C. power or pneumatic
motor. The backup post lube oil pump is usually driven by a D.C. motor.

After engine shutdown, the post lube oil is automatically supplied by the primary post lube system.
In the event of the failure of the primary system, the post lube is supplied by the D.C. backup; if
installed on the package. In most cases, the post lube systems on Solar packages have been adequate
and have worked properly in protecting the engine bearings after engine shutdown. However, there
have been some engine failures because the primary post lube and it’s backup system did not operate
after the engine shutdown.


NUMBER: 6.5/107
The following defines post lube requirements for current production engines:

Mars 90, 100, and Taurus 70 Engines (SoLoNOx and Non-SoLoNOx)

A post lube cycle is initiated after any gas turbine shutdown, other than fire emergency, where the
gas producer has exceeded 65% (Ngp) of rated speed. For new engines built in 1997, post lube is
required when the engine has achieved light off (T5 average ò 400F). The post lube cycle allows
lube oil to continue to be pumped though the gas turbine bearings to remove the residual heat build
up in the bearing areas. The turbine can be started any time during the 4 hour post lube cycle. The
post lube cycle consists of the following:

1. A minimum four hour cycle. The post lube cycle must be completed even if it is
interrupted by an aborted start or test crank. The cycle may be continuous or consist of
a continuous one hour cycle followed by a three hour intermittent cycle of 2.5 minutes
post lube on and 9.5 minutes post lube off. Many Mars units in the field have a three
hour intermittent cycle of 2.5 minutes post lube on and 12.5 minutes lube off.
2. The minimum lube oil header pressure allowed for the post lube cycle is 8 psig,
maximum pressure allowed is 25 psig.

Saturn 10, 20, Centaur 40, 50, Taurus 60, (SoLoNOx and Non- SoLoNOx)
A post lube cycle is initiated after any gas turbine shutdown, other than fire emergency, where the
gas producer has exceeded 65% (Ngp) of rated speed. For new engines built in 1997, post lube is
required when the engine has achieved light off (T5 average ≥ 400F). The post lube cycle allows
lube oil to continue to be pumped though the gas turbine bearings to remove the residual heat build
up in the bearing areas. The turbine can be started any time during the 55 minutes post lube cycle.
The post lube cycle consists of the following:

1. A minimum 55 minutes continuous cycle. The post lube must be completed even if it is
interrupted by an aborted start or test crank. Many Saturn 10 units in the field have 30
minutes continuous post lube cycle.
2. A minimum lube oil header pressure allowed for the post lube cycle is 6 psig, maximum
pressure allowed is 25 psig.

Post Lube in the Event of Fire or Plant Emergency Shut Down (for all Engines)
If the engine is shutdown due to fire, the engine shall continue to be lubricated until the run down
timer is done. The post lube shall then be postponed for a maximum time of 20 minutes. The post
lube can be started any time during this period by acknowledging and resetting the alarm. After the
20 minutes timer is done, the control shall initiate the post lube. If a post lube is still not desired, a
manual intervention is required to stop the post lube.

If a hot engine has been without post lube for longer than 20 minutes, the engine bearings may
require inspection.


NUMBER: 6.5/107
1. Review the post lube system installed on your package to check that the engine bearings
are properly protected after any engine shutdown.
2. The post lube requirements discussed in this service bulletin may not be specific to your
package. If you have questions or need field service assistance, contact the Solar field
service representative in your area.


NUMBER: 6.5/107
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the Ser-
vice Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn, Centaur,
Taurus, Mars, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Cat and Caterpillar are
trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 6.5/108B
ISSUED: April 1998
REVISED: March 1999
Specifics: Turbotronics Controls Systems



Type of Change: Product Reliability

Compliance: Next Maintenance

To announce the availability of backup post lubrication control system enhancements designed to
increase the reliability of the backup lube oil supply system.

The intent of this Service Bulletin is to improve product reliability to safe-
guard our customer’s equipment in the event of a shutdown. The information
in this Service Bulletin implements enhancements to assure the post lube
oil pump operates for the full post lube cycle. There may be facility related
circumstances which necessitate the site operator to interrupt the post lube
cycle. These site related circumstances should be considered when incor-
porating the backup postlube enhancements contained in this document.

Solar Turbines Mars packages are equipped with an auxiliary pre-post lube oil system to lubricate
the bearings before start-up and to protect the engine bearings from damage after a shut down due to
heat soak from hot internal engine components. The auxiliary post lube oil pump is usually driven


NUMBER: 6.5/108B
by an A.C. motor. The backup post lube oil pump is driven by a D.C. motor, VFD/AC motor or
pneumatic motor.



During and after engine shutdown, the post lube oil is automatically supplied by the auxiliary post
lube system. In the event of the failure of the auxiliary system, the post lube is supplied by the
backup system. In most cases, the post lube systems on Solar packages have been adequate and have
worked properly in protecting the engine bearings after engine shutdown. However, there have been
some recent engine failures which occurred when A.C. power was lost and the D.C.or pneumatic
backup system failed to operate after the engine shutdown. Packages with electrically driven main
lube oil pumps appear to be the most susceptible to this type of failure.

Investigation of the failures has led to several control system enhancements and new recommended
maintenance procedures. The first recommendation was communicated in Service Bulletin 5.9/103,
"Battery Charger Adjustments" released October 1997. The second recommendation "suggested
annual battery maintenance and testing of backup lube system" was communicated as Service Bul-
letin 6.5/109, released June 1998. The third recommendation communicated by this bulletin is to
incorporate controls modifications to improve and periodically test the operation of the backup post
lube pump and to lockout the turbine upon loss of post lubrication as defined in this Service Bul-

Solar has developed a retrofit kit #1028812-1XX that is designed to perform several functions that
will increase the dependability of the backup post lube system. Logic change recommendations
included in the kit are tailored for Turbotronics 2.0 and 3.0 control systems, but the hardware and
generic instructions can also be used to modify older packages in similar ways. The key features
of the kit are:

– Modifications of the P.L.C. logic to perform a backup lube pump check every 24 hours.

Daily use of this check may not be practical for pneumatic backup lube sys-
tem due to fugitive emission issues. Solar recommends that this check be
done as often as is practical subject to site condition requirements.

– Incorporation of a "fail-safe" DC backup pump relay which activates the emergency lube
pump when the 24 Vdc control power fails.


NUMBER: 6.5/108B
– Additional logic to inhibit Mars engine restart for 12 hours or until a complete four-hours
post lube cycle has been completed, if post lube is interrupted for more than 20 minutes.
– An increase in the rundown timer from 3 to 20 minutes.

Solar control systems are designed for uninterrupted power supplies. If the PLC fails or the 24 Vdc
control power is interrupted, the logic changes recommended in the above kit will correctly activate
the backup pump ( 120 Vdc must be available if back up lube is DC operated).



Order retrofit kit #1028812-1XX (at no charge) from your Solar Service Parts representative. It is
recommended that Solar Field Service personnel perform the installation of the kit. The installa-
tion of the kit involves modification of control system logic, electrical wiring modification, piping
modification and system verification. Please contact your local Solar District Field Service office
for assistance.


NUMBER: 6.5/108B
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 6.5/109A
ISSUED: June 1998
REVISED: June 1999



This revision replaces Service Bulletin 6.5/109. The previous
issue may be removed and discarded.

Type of Change: Product Reliability

Compliance: Next Maintenance

To provide a recommended procedure for a monthly inspection of the battery system, semi-annual
battery maintenance and annual operational check of the backup lube system to ensure that these
systems are operating properly and are capable of providing the full lube cycle.

In recent instances, engine bearings have been damaged after loss of ac power. In some of these
situations, the cause was traced to improper settings on the battery chargers. This issue has been
addressed by Service Bulletin 5.9/103A. A procedure has also been implemented to perform brief
daily tests on the backup lube system operation on Mars and Taurus 70 packages. These package
modifications are addressed by Service Bulletin 6.5/108B.


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
This Service Bulletin outlines the procedure to periodically operate the backup lube system through
a battery test period. As a part of this procedure, it is important to also perform monthly battery in-
spections and semi-annual maintenance on the battery assemblies. Although this bulletin addresses
turbine packages with a dc backup lube system, the same procedure should be used for packages
that have a pneumatic backup lube system.


Monthly Battery Inspection

A visual inspection of the battery should be performed at least once per month. This will aid in
assuring the battery system is capable of satisfying its design requirements.

Remember that the battery is electrically live at all times and cannot
be isolated in the conventional sense, although the voltage at any
point can be reduced by the removal of the appropriate inter-unit
connectors. Take care that short circuits are not caused by acciden-
tally dropping or touching metal objects onto the cellblock terminals.
When working with batteries, always wear the proper protective

1. Check general appearance and cleanliness of the battery rack and battery rack area.
Inspect the battery rack for stability and signs of corrosion. Clean as required. Check
that all bolts are properly tightened.
2. Check general appearance and cleanliness of the battery. Check battery cellblocks for
cracks or leakage of electrolyte. Clean as required. (Do not use solvents on battery cells.
See manufacturer’s instructions for maintenance procedures.)
3. Where applicable, visually check the electrolyte level of all battery cells. If required, add
distilled or de-ionized water to bring the electrolyte up to the desired level.
4. Visually confirm that all battery connections are in place.
5. Check general appearance and cleanliness of the battery charger. Check the float
voltage on the charger voltmeter. Confirm this reading corresponds to the voltage given
in Service Bulletin 5.9/103A: Battery Charger Adjustments, for the appropriate battery
6. Record and retain data for future reference.


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
Semi-Annual Battery Maintenance
For the semi-annual battery maintenance, it is necessary for the battery to be in a passive condition-
neither being charged nor discharged. This requires that the turbine is stopped, post-lube cycle
completed, and the control system shut down. The battery chargers must be turned off, and if there
are battery circuit breakers they should be opened.

Prior to start of work, follow proper lock out and tagging procedures
to isolate hazardous energy sources. Read the battery manufacturer’s
Material Safety Data Sheet and understand the hazards associated
with handling or working with the battery electrolyte / acid. Batteries
generate Hydrogen Gas that is highly flammable. To avoid risk of fire
and explosion, keep sparks or other sources of ignition away from

Nickel Cadmium Battery - the alkaline electrolyte is a strong caus-

tic agent. Contact with electrolyte solution causes very rapid, severe
damage to human tissue. It is also extremely corrosive to eye tissue.
May cause serious burns to the skin. Do not inhale or ingest.

Lead Acid Battery - the sulfuric acid is a strong corrosive agent that
can burn the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Do not inhale or in-

When working with batteries, always wear the proper protective

equipment including, but not limited to, protective rubber gloves,
chemical goggles or full-face shield, rubber boots, rubber apron, and
long sleeved clothing. Remove all jewelry such as watches, rings,
bracelets, or other metal jewelry. Use only insulated tools.


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
Never work on 120V batteries alone unless the high voltage danger
is minimized by first removing an inter-cell (inter-row) cable so that
the battery assembly temporarily consists of two 60V sub-assemblies.
Be certain that all loads are first disconnected and be certain that the
battery charger is turned off at both its ac input and dc output.

1. Perform steps 1 through 5 in the Monthly Battery Inspection section above.
2. Measure the overall voltage of the complete battery assembly (or of the two 60-volt
sub-assemblies). Also measure the voltage of individual cells (or of multi-cell blocks if
individual cells cannot be measured). Record these measurements for future reference.
3. 3. If the voltage of one or more cells is noticeably lower than for other cells, it is advisable
to measure the specific gravity of all cells (excepting "sealed" cells). Low specific gravity
for a lead-acid cell usually indicates that the cell is not charged. The specific gravity
of nickel-cadmium cells does not change with charge-discharge conditions. Refer to
manufacturer’s electrolyte instructions for appropriate specific gravity readings.

Never permit a hydrometer to be used for both lead-acid and Ni-Cd

cells, as the inadvertent mixing of even a small amount of electrolyte
between the battery types can cause failure of the batteries! If there
are discrepancies in the voltages and/or the specific gravities of a few
cells, it is advisable to further examine these cells for deformation of
the case, deformation or discoloration of the internal plates, excessive
shedding or flaking at the plates, electrolyte leakage at the terminal
posts, etc., as this may be an indication of impending cell failure.

If a single lead-acid cell, or up to three Ni-Cd cells, are questionable in

a 120V assembly, they may be temporarily disconnected and bypassed
with a suitable jumper cable. However, the battery charger must be
re-adjusted to compensate for cell removal. Similarly, one Ni-Cd cell
may be removed from a 24V assembly if necessary.

4. If the battery checks indicate that the battery is within acceptable tolerances, then
re-connect the cable that may have been used to isolate the two sections of the 120V
battery. Re-coat the battery terminal connections with no-oxide grease, but do not allow
grease to get onto plastic components on the cell covers. For automotive/truck batteries


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
(which are usually in 12-volt block arrays), a petroleum jelly such as Vaseline may be
5. If the annual tests of the dc or pneumatic backup post-lube motor are to be performed
right away, then proceed to the next section of this service bulletin. If the backup lube
motor tests are not going to be performed at this time, then re-close the battery circuit
breakers if applicable, and turn on the battery chargers. Verify that the battery chargers
are operating satisfactorily.
6. Record and retain data for future reference.

Annual Post-Lube System Tests

Verify the integrity of the dc backup lube system and the available battery capacity at least once per
year. With the engine shut down and the post-lube timer timed-out, lock-out the normal post-lube
pump and operate the backup dc lube oil system for 90 minutes on Mars, Titan and Taurus 70
turbines, 55 minutes on Centaur and Taurus 60 turbines and 30 minutes on Saturn turbines. Monitor
system operation and battery voltage during this time.

Preliminary Conditions - Batteries should be fully charged prior to performing these tests. Per bat-
tery manufacturers’ definitions, this requires that the batteries be on float charge for a minimum
72-hour continuous period with no loads which exceed the battery charger output current capabili-
ties. (If there were no loads on the system at the end of the charge period, the battery charger output
current would be less than two amps.)

1. Select a suitable test time when the engine is not used for eight hours and the station is
manned for the first two hours. Make sure that batteries are fully charged as described
above. Complete Semi-Annual Battery Maintenance procedure as described above.
2. Hook up a voltmeter or a strip chart recorder to the battery terminals. Do not continue test
if battery voltage does not correspond to the voltages given in Service Bulletin 5.9/103A:
Battery Charger Adjustments.
3. Install a dc clamp-on ammeter into the dc motor supply lines and monitor the motor
current. Some systems have a shunt installed in the motor supply lines to facilitate this
4. Turn off battery charger.
5. Activate backup dc lube oil pump. Run the pump for a continuous period as noted in the
table below.
6. Monitor lube oil header pressure. The post-lube pressure must be at a minimum as listed
in the table below at all times. If this minimum pressure cannot be maintained, interrupt
test and correct system.


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
7. The lube oil header pressure is not allowed to exceed the maximum listed in the following
table. Finish the test in this case and correct afterwards (see Service Bulletin 6.5/105 for
orifice in lube oil line).
Minimum Maximum Pump Test
Pressure Pressure Time
Saturn 10/20 4 psig 25 psig 30 min.
Centaur 40/50 4 psig 25 psig 55 min.
Taurus 60 4 psig 25 psig 55 min.
Taurus 70 4 psig 25 psig 90 min.
Mars 90/100 8 psig 18 psig 90 min.
Titan 130 8 psig 18 psig 90 min.
8. Monitor the backup dc motor current. The current should not exceed the dc motor
nameplate reading regardless of lube oil temperature.
9. Check dc motor starter contactor and its thermal overload setting. The motor should not
be allowed to trip. Give ample margin when setting the thermal overload. Remember
that this is an emergency lube oil pump and you are trying to protect the whole turbine
and not just the electric dc motor.
10. Monitor lube oil temperature and the corresponding dc motor current draw. Compare
with records about normal post-lube temperatures in summer and winter. The
relationship may require higher thermal overload settings for extreme winter operation.
11. Measure and record the battery voltage shortly after starting the post-lube cycle, before
it is completed and after the completion of this test. These readings give important
information about the health and capacity of your battery system. Correct system and/or
replace batteries if problems are found. (In some cases a battery problem may be caused
by errors in battery charger settings, low battery electrolyte levels in one or more cells,
or inadequate torque on battery terminals or downstream electrical connections).
Minimum Acceptable Battery Voltages:
24V Battery 120V Battery
Pump running: 20.8 Vdc Pump running: 104 Vdc
After pump stops: 22.8 Vdc After pump stops: 114 Vdc

Do not permit a 24V battery to operate below 19.2 Vdc.

Do not permit a 120V battery to operate below 96 Vdc.


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
12. After the completion of the backup post-lube test restore normal pre/post-lube system
and re-activate battery charger. Let batteries re-charge for a minimum of six (6) hours. By
observing the dc ammeter on the battery charger, confirm the battery is being charged.
13. Put engine back into service. Record and retain data for future reference.


NUMBER: 6.5/109A
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 6.6/102
ISSUED: March 1992
Specifics: Units with pneumatic backup lube oil pump



Type of Change: Product Information

Compliance: Information

To announce the availability of new pneumatic motor (Solar Part Number 186998-1) and pump
assembly (P/N 190234-100).

The pump/pneumatic motor P/N 120520-3 has been discontinued and replaced by pneumatic mo-
tor, P/N 186998-1 and pump assembly, P/N 190234-100. Minor system alterations are required as
specified in the retrofit kit, P/N 179821K100. Performance of the new motor/pump assembly is the
same as the replaced assembly.

When replacement of the pneumatic motor, P/N 120520-3 is required, order the replacement retrofit
kit, P/N 179821K100. The kit includes all necessary instructions for removal of the replaced assem-
bly, all the necessary parts, and the installation procedure for the new pump and motor assembly.


NUMBER: 6.6/102
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 8.6/107
ISSUED: February 2000
PRODUCT: Mars 90 and Mars 100


Type of Change: Product Information

Compliance: Earliest Convenience

This Service Bulletin alerts the field that variable stator vanes can lockup, a condition that poten-
tially could lead to engine failure.

There have been reports of compressor failures related to variable stator vane lockup. Lockup can be
caused by excessive rust buildup that bonds the stator shafts to the housing bushings (see Figure 1).
Additionally, contamination from particulates can build up and cause the vanes to lockup. When
individual vanes in a stator row are locked in a fixed position or become stiff (limited rotation),
these vanes could be out of position with the remaining vanes in that row. This could disrupt airflow
through the compressor and create localized areas of turbulent air. As the compressor blades rotate
through this turbulent air, abnormally large dynamic forces are applied to the blades. These forces
may result in fatigue failure of the compressor blades.


NUMBER: 8.6/107
Figure 1 Vane Stem, Bushing and Case Rust

Proper maintenance is important to ensure proper turbine operation and prevent unscheduled down-
time. The following recommendations should be part of the maintenance program to ensure proper
turbine operation and longevity.

• Engines should be visually inspected periodically for signs of contamination (rust,

excessive sand, dirt or bent stator arms) in and around the variable stator vanes and
associated hardware. Engines, which operate in corrosive environments e.g. off shore,
should be inspected more frequently.
• Units that have been shut down for an extended period time or show signs of corrosion
should have each stage of variable stators rotated by hand to verify freedom of movement
before operation.

Under no circumstances, should an engine be operated with seized
stators. Rust or particular buildup must be removed from around
the guide vanes prior to continued engine operation. If assistance
is required to remove contamination or to repair a bent stator arm
contract the local Solar district office.


NUMBER: 8.6/107
• To minimize ingestion of contaminants, the air inlet system should be visually inspected for
leaks and the air filter delta P should be recorded and monitored.

In addition to the maintenance checks, the following are documents that provide information rele-
vant to proper stator vane operation.

• Engineering Specification (ES) 9-62 verifying the proper fluids and procedures for ingestive
cleaning are being met (especially run time after water wash).
• ES 1565 (section 4.1) verifying that all air filter requirements for the Mars engine are being
• Service Bulletin 8.6/106 provides information to set up and adjust the Inlet Guide Vane
(IGV) and variable stators to an optimum schedule.

To obtain a copy of the Service Bulletin or the Engineering Specifications referenced in this Service
Bulletin please contact the local Solar district office.


NUMBER: 8.6/107
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 8.8/108B
ISSUED: November 1998
REVISED: June 2000
PRODUCT: Mars 90S, Mars 100S
Specifics: Mars SoLoNOx “Gas Fuel Only” Applications




This revision replaces Service Bulletin 8.8/108A and announces
updated retrofit kits and a separate kit providing a new more
durable 6" bleed duct replacing the previous 4" bleed duct.

Type of Change: Personnel Safety

Compliance: Mandatory

The purpose of this Service Bulletin is to announce the availability of an updated retrofit kit to
change Mars SoLoNOx engines from the injector bleed system to a case bleed system. This change
eliminates the injector bleed hose and therefore eliminates a safety hazard first describe in Product
Advisory 8.8/108A released August 1997. This bulletin also announces durability improvements
to the case bleed system, available both in the updated kits and as a separate retrofit kit. Included
in these improvements is a 6" bleed duct configuration that replaces the 4" duct originally provided
with the case bleed system that had experienced some premature failures.


NUMBER: 8.8/108B




SOLONOX PACKAGES. (See Figures 1 and 2)

Background Information:
Since December 1995, four Mars SoLoNOx injector bleed hoses have ruptured during operation.
These failures caused a significant discharge of high temperature, high-pressure air near the en-
gine, and discharged metal debris from the hose. In one instance, fire was reported exiting the
failed injector hose. In each of these cases, the extent of damage was minor and no personnel have
been injured. Although only four incidents of bleed hose failures have been reported a hose rupture
presents a potential serious personnel safety concern.

The aforementioned incidents led to the introduction of the case bleed system described below.
Most of the operating fleet has been retrofitted with the system. Subsequently, reports of bleed
duct failures at several sites configured with case bleed have been received. Packages operating
for extended periods at part load/high bleed conditions appear to be the most susceptible. Damage
from 4" bleed duct failures have varied from hot Pcd bleed air leakage into the surrounding areas
to full separation and rupture of the hose, creating a serious potential safety issue.

General Information:
Solar has developed an alternative method for removing bleed air from the combustor in order to
maintain control over emissions during part load operation. This is achieved by bleeding air directly
from the combustor case, similar to the design of 2-shaft Centaur and Taurus 60 SoLoNOx engines.
This system can be easily retrofitted onto existing Mars engines by removing the injector manifold
bleed system, and replacing it with a single port case bleed. This new bleed system was incorporated
in new production engines and overhaul engines beginning in August 1998.

The case bleed retrofit requires removing the injector bleed hoses from each injector, removing the
bleed manifold, 6" bleed valve and ducting. A 3" combustor bleed port is available on the right
side of the engine (aft looking forward) and a 90-elbow 3" to 4" adapter piece is attached to this
port. A new 4" bleed valve is mounted to the flange and a new 6" flexible duct is then attached to


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
the exhaust collector at the location of the 4" port. A new bleed diverter must also be installed in
the collector. The diverter requires cutting and welding to install and is necessary to prevent high
velocity air from impinging on the exhaust collector aft panel. Installation instructions are included
in the retrofit kit. The only skid modification required is the re-routing of the electric and hydraulic
control for the new bleed valve. Minor software changes are required to the bleed valve schedule
for surge avoidance during startup, and the T5 setpoints for part load emissions control should be
verified, although experience to date has shown they will rarely need to be adjusted.

Figure 1 Typical Unenclosed Mars SoLoNOx Package

As indicated above, the latest version of the case bleed retrofit kit incorporates the change from a
4" bleed duct to a 6" bleed duct to address durability and safety concerns. No physical changes are
required on the fuel injectors, other than removing the flexible bleed ducting, and installing a cap
on the injector bleed flange. This cap is secured in place with the same clamp that was used to hold
the flexible ducting.


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
Figure 2 Main Area of Concern


I. Units configured with Injector Bleed System.

Contact your local Solar Field Service office for assistance in ordering the appropriate Retrofit Kits
(provided at no charge), and to schedule the case bleed modification. See Figures 3, 4, and 5 to aid
in selection of appropriate kits. For each package order:

1. one Actuator kit (1032269-1XX) for units with ‘Tactair’ actuator or (1032269-2XX) for
units with ’Moog’ actuator. (Figure 3)
2. one Package kit (1032271-1XX). (Figure 4)
3. one 6" Bleed Duct and Diverter kit (1042502-XXX). (Figure 5)

The following actions (A, B, and C) are still in effect until your package has
completed the retrofit to case bleed. These modifications were announced
in Service Bulletin 8.8/108A in June of 1999.


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
PACKAGES. (See Figures 1 and 2)

A. A retrofit kit has been developed for installation on the bleed manifold to allow for
detection of fuel within the bleed system. The kit, P/N 1025052-100, includes tube, ball
valve, clamps, brackets, and all necessary components to install on your package. The
kit is designed for use with Customer supplied gas monitors or other detection system.
Detection of 2% of Lower Explosive Limit (L.E.L.) indicates a potential injector fuel
tube leak and requires an immediate shutdown of the engine for further investigation.
At that time fuel injectors should be inspected immediately and replaced as required.
Contact your local Solar District Field Service office for assistance. Order kit P/N
1025052-100 from Solar Service Parts. The kit will be provided at no charge.
B. Solar is available to perform an inspection of your fuel injectors. Please contact your
local Solar District Field Service office to schedule injector inspection.
C. Solar has completed a design for a rigid bleed system cover, initially intended to replace
existing insulation blankets on bleed system components. When installed, this cover
would also significantly minimize the potential for injury in event of a hose rupture.
Please contact your local Solar District Field Service office for information.

II. Units already configured with the case bleed system and with
the original 4" bleed duct.
Contact your local Solar Field Service office for assistance in ordering the appropriate Retrofit Kit
(provided at no charge). For each package order one 6" Bleed Duct and Diverter Kit (1042502-
XXX). See figure 5 to select the appropriate kit.


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
Figure 3 Mars Case Bleed Selection Guide - Actuator Kits


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
Figure 4 Mars Case Bleed Selection Guide - Package Kit


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
Figure 5 Selection Guide - 6” Bleed Duct and 6” Diverter Kit


NUMBER: 8.8/108B
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the Ser-
vice Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn, Centaur,
Taurus, Mars, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Cat and Caterpillar are
trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 8.8/112
ISSUED: June 1999
MODEL(S): M 100



Type of Change: Product Reliability

Compliance: Earliest Convenience

The purpose of this Service Bulletin is to alert Customers to a potential durability issue with Mars
standard combustion combustor liners.

A number of Mars 100 standard combustion combustor liners (P/N 241600) have been found by
boroscope inspection to be suffering from thermal distress after a relatively low number of hours of
operation. This distress is initially manifested as cracking emanating from cooling air holes located
immediately downstream of the injectors, and may progress to thermal erosion and burn-through
of the cooling holes. This distress in its early stages has been found in engines with as few as 1,700
hours and can reach a significantly more advanced stage of deterioration by 4,000 hours of opera-
tion. Factors such as poor fuel quality, particularly liquids in gas fuel, and continuous operation at
full load can accelerate the deterioration. The existence of this deterioration is not initially apparent
from either turbine performance or T5 spread measurements and must be detected by boroscope
inspection. If allowed to go unchecked, the liner distress may require a replacement of the combus-
tor liner. No cases to date have resulted in collateral damage to the engine.


NUMBER: 8.8/112
The problem has been discovered on Mars 100 (T14000 or T15000) engines operating on gas fuel
and fitted with either the effusion-cooled gas only injector or dual fuel injector (P/N 198834).

Each of Solar’s District Field Service offices has a list of those engines, which are or may potentially
be at risk, and they will be contacting customers with such engines to set up an inspection of the
combustor liner and fuel injectors. You can also contact the local Solar District office to confirm
which, if any, of the engines in your Mars 100 fleet may be at risk and discuss actions required.

A modification to the current injector design has been confirmed through testing to substantially
reduce outer liner temperature. This injector (P/N 301380) will be incorporated in all new and over-
hauled engines and will be available for retrofits over the next several months. Pending availability
of this injector, an alternate injector design (P/N 124835-500 for gas fuel and P/N 198337-20X for
dual fuel engines) can be installed temporarily to arrest or prevent combustor liner thermal distress.
Combustor liner replacement may also be required based on assessment of combustor liner condi-
tion during boroscope inspection.

In the event that either the combustor liner or the fuel injectors require replacement, it is essential
that the replaced parts be returned as expeditiously as possible to Solar’s refurbishment center in
Mabank, Texas. Solar personnel on site to perform the component replacements will provide assis-
tance to help ensure prompt return of replaced parts.


NUMBER: 8.8/112
NOTICE: The Type of Change and Recommended Compliance specified reflects Solar’s best judgment regarding the
Service Bulletin. All questions should be directed to your Solar Field Service Representative. Solar, Saturn,
Centaur, Taurus, Mercury, Mars, Titan, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated.
Cat and Caterpillar are trademarks of Caterpillar Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.

NUMBER: 8.12/102A
ISSUED: June 1995
REVISED: March 2001
PRODUCT: Saturn, Centaur


This revision replaces Service Bulletin 8.12/102. The previous
bulletin must be removed and discarded. This version announces
availability of an improved drain valve, retrofit kit, and installation

Type of Change: Product Improvement

Compliance: As Required

To announce the availability of improved combustor/exhaust drain valve and field retrofit kit.

The existing valves, Solar P/N 901086C91 and 190786-100 (Figure 1) have been in operation for a
number of years. Some of these valves develop combustor discharge gas leaks through the gasket
or sealing ball and fitting. Solar has developed an improved higher-pressure valve, together with in-
structions for installation. The new valve, Solar P/N 1020281-100 (Figure 2) has been successfully
laboratory and field-tested. The new valve is used on current production models. The new valve
assembly has twelve bolts at the flange, compared to the old valve assembly, which has only six


NUMBER: 8.12/102A
If the combustor/exhaust drain valve on the unit has leakage at the gasket area or excessive leakage
through the valve, replace the existing valve with the improved valve using field retrofit kit, Solar
P/N 179902K105B. This kit includes all necessary parts and instructions for field modification.
Please contact the Solar Field Service office for assistance as required.

Figure 1 Existing combustor/Exhaust Drain Valve.


NUMBER: 8.12/102A
Figure 2 Improved Combustor/Exhaust Drain Valve.


NUMBER: 8.12/102A
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

ABC Augmented Backside Cooled
ACS Application Check Sheet
ATS Advanced Turbine Systems
CED Cold-End Drive
CGCM Combination Generator Control Module
CO Carbon Monoxide
CSA Customer Support Activity
DCR Design Change Request
DF1 Communications Protocol of the External System Link
DIN Deutches Institute der Normen (German Specification Institute)
DLE Dry Low Emission
DOE Department of Energy
DOS Disc Operating System
DOT Department of Transportation
DP Differential Pressure (compressor)
dp Differential Pressure (flow meter)
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning
ESI Energy Services International Limited
FOD Foreign Object Damage
FPSO Floating Production, Storage and Offloading
FSR Field Service Representative
HED Hot-End Drive
HMI Human Machine Interface
HRD Human Resources Development
HTML Hyper-Text Markup Language
IEC International Electrical Code
IGV Inlet Guide Vane
I/O Input/Output
ISO International Organization for Standardization
KVAR Kilovolt Amp Reactive
LSM Line Synchronization Module
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers' Association
NOx Oxides of Nitrogen
ODBC Open Data Base Connectivity
OLE Object Linking and Embedding
OMI Operation and Maintenance Instructions
OPC OLE for Process Control

A-3 Appendix
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001

O2 Oxygen
Pcd Compressor Discharge Pressure
PD Project Definition
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
P/N Part Number
RBOT Rotary Bomb Oxidation Test
RFE Regional Field Engineers
RS Recommended Standard of the Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
SAMS Solar Asset Management Services
SCADA Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition System
TAN Toxic Acid Number
TBC Thermal Barrier Coating
Tpz Primary Zone Temperature
TRIT Turbine Rotor Inlet Temperature
T5 Power Turbine Inlet Temperature
VAMS Variable Air Management System
VBA Visual Basic for Applications
XML Dynamic Markup Language

A-4 Appendix
Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001


Argentina Indonesia
Turbigas Solar S.A. P.T. Solar Services Indonesia
J. Salguero 2745 – Office 21/22 Gedung Menara Perdana 3 Floor
(1425) Buenos Aires, Argentina Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said Kav. C-17
Phone: [5411] 4802-8200 Jakarta, Indonesia 12940
Fax: [5411] 4801-0066 Phone: [6221] 522-0860
Fax: [6221] 522-0864
Australia – Melbourne
Solar Turbines Australia Ireland
38 Kingsley Close Energy Services International Ltd
Rowville, Victoria 3178 Australia Boghall Road, Bray County, Wicklow Ireland
Phone: [613] 9764-1411 Phone: [3531] 2768400
Fax: [613] 9764-0025 Fax: [3531] 2867797

Australia – Perth Malaysia

Solar Turbines Australia Delcom Services SDN. BHD.
6/48 Vinnicombe Drive No. 42, Jalan 1/82B, Bangsar Utama
Canningvale, WA 6155 Australia Bangsar, 59000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phone: [618] 9455-6566 Phone: [603] 282-6091
Fax: [618] 9455-6466 Fax: [603] 282-6313

Belgium Mexico – Carmen

Turbinas Solar, S.A. de C.V.
Solar Turbines Europe S.A.
Calle 31, No. 113
Avenue Des Etats-Unis 1, Boite Postale 1
Colonia Aviacion C.P. 24170
B-6041 Gosselies, Belgium
Cd. Del Carmen, Campeche Mexico
Phone: [3271] 25-3000
Phone: [52938] 2-4038
Fax: [3271] 344739
Fax: [52938] 2-8906
Caterpillar Brasil Ltda Mexico – Mexico City
Avenue Marechal Camara, 160-Gr 523/4/5 Turbinas Solar, S.A. de C.V.
20020-080 Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil Bosque de Alisos No. 45B-1 Piso
Phone: [5521] 215-5671 Arcos Oriente, Bosques de Las Lomas
Fax: [5521] 215-5673 Mexico, D.F.C.P. 05120
Phone: [525] 570-3850
Fax: [525] 570-3994
Canada – Edmonton
Solar Turbines Canada Ltd.
2510 - 84 Avenue
Mexico – Veracruz
Turbinas Solar, S.A. de C.V.
Edmonton, Alberta T6P 1K3 Canada
Av. Framboyanes, M6 L1
Phone: (780) 464-8900
Cd. Ind. B. Pagliai
Fax: (780) 464-8942
Phone: [522] 989-7900
Fax: [522] 989-7938
Caterpillar China, Ltd.
Beijing Liaison Office Mexico – Villahermosa
Room 801, Tower A, Full Link Plaza Solar Turbines Villahermosa
No. 18 Chaoyangmenwai Avenue Campo Samaria 100, Conj. Giraldas Casa 7
Beijing, 100020 People’s Republic of China Fracc, Carrizal C.P. 86038 Mexico
Phone: [8610] 6588-1625 Phone: [5293] 16-5381
Fax: [8610] 6588-1629 Fax: [5293] 16-2932

Internet: A-5 Appendix

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001


Nigeria United Kingdom – Aberdeen

Solar Turbines Services Nigeria Limited Solar Turbines Europe S.A.
36 Trans Amadi Industrial Estate Unit 2, Hareness Circle
P.O. Box 3783 Altens, Aberdeen, Scotland AB12 3LY UK
Port Harcourt, Nigeria Phone: [441224] 291919
Phone: [23484] 230186 Fax: [441224] 291910
Fax: [23484] 230185
United Kingdom – London
Singapore Solar Turbines Europe S.A.
Solar Turbines International Company Suite H, Centennial Court, Easthampstead Road
7 Tractor Road, Singapore 627968 Bracknell, England RG12 1YQ UK
Republic of Singapore Phone: [441344] 782920
Phone: [65] 6608800 Fax: [441344] 782930
Fax: [65] 6608856
United Arab Emirates CENTEC C.A.
Solar Turbines Europe S.A. Multicentro Empresarial del Este
Office 503/504, Bin Ham Building Ed. Miranda, Torre B, Piso 16
Trade Center Road, P.O. Box 12023 Av. Fco. De Miranda, Chacao
Dubai, United Arab Emirates Caracas, Venezuela
Phone: [9714] 3593818 Phone: [582] 263-2755
Fax: [9714] 3593802 Fax: [582] 263-3014

Internet: A-6 Appendix

Solar Turbines Incorporated GTUA 2001


Anchorage Miami
Solar Turbines Incorporated Solar Turbines Incorporated
524 West International Airport Road 10691 S.W. 88 Street, Suite 109
Anchorage, AK 99518-1105 Miami, Fl 33176
Phone: (907) 562-2440 Phone: (305) 279-6270
Fax: (907) 561-2591 Fax: (305) 595-2575

Chicago New Orleans

Solar Turbines Incorporated Solar Turbines Incorporated
40 Shuman Boulevard,Suite 350 6128 Jefferson Highway
Naperville, IL 60563 New Orleans, LA 70123
Phone: (630) 527-1700 Phone: (504) 734-8241
Fax: (630) 527-1997 Fax: (504) 736-9186

Houston New York

Solar Turbines Incorporated Solar Turbines Incorporated
13105 Northwest Freeway, Suite 400 Sherbrooke Center
Houston, TX 77040 600 East Crescent Avenue, Suite 305
Phone: (713) 895-2300 Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Fax: (713) 895-4240 Phone: (201) 825-8200
Fax: (201) 825-8454
Los Angeles
Solar Turbines Incorporated Odessa
2121 S. Towne Centre Place, Suite 370 Solar Turbines Incorporated
Anaheim, CA 92806 2626 J.B.S. Parkway, Suite B-110
Phone: (714) 937-0360 Odessa, TX 79761-1947
Fax: (714) 937-1411 Phone: (915) 367-5055
Fax: (915) 367-9523
Solar Turbines Incorporated Salt Lake City
1501 Ambassador Caffery Parkway Solar Turbines Incorporated
Lafayette, LA 70506 6965 Union Park Center, Suite 460
Phone: (337) 988-7400 Midvale, UT 84047
Fax: (337) 988-7434 Phone: (801) 352-5100
Fax: (801) 352-5151

Internet: A-7 Appendix