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Method Principle Most Suitable Soil Maximum Effective Economic Size of Ideal Properties of

Conditions/Types Treatment Depth Treated Areas Treated Materials

In-Situ Deep Compaction
1. Vibratory probe Densification by Saturated or dry clean 65 ft. (20 m) routinely >10,760 ft.2 (1000 m2) Can obtain relative
vibration; liquefaction- sand; sand. (ineffective above 10-13 densities of 80% or more.
induced settlement and ft. (3-4 m) depth); > 100 Ineffective in some
settlement n dry soil ft. (30 m) sometimes. sands.
under overburden to
produce a higher density.
2. Vibroflotation Densification by Cohesionless soils with > 100 ft. (30 m) >10,760 ft.2 (1000 m2) Can obtain high relative
vibration and compaction less than 20% fines. densities (over 85%),
of backfill material of good uniformity.
sand or gravel.
3. Compaction piles Densification by Loose sandy soils; partly > 65 ft. (20 m) >10,760 ft.2 (1000 m2) Can obtain high
displacement of pile saturated clayey soils; densities, good
volume and by vibration loess. uniformity. Relative
during driving, increase densities of more than
in lateral effective earth 80%.
4. Dynamic Compaction Repeated application of Cohesionless soils best, > 65 ft. (20 m) possible 35,520 ft.2 (3300 m2) Can obtain high relative
high-intensity impacts at other types can also be densities, reasonable
surface. improved. uniformity.
5. Displacement/ Highly viscous grout acts All soils. Unlimited Small Grout bulbs within
Compaction grout as radial hydraulic jack compressed soil matrix.
when pumped in under Soil mass as a whole is
high pressure. strengthened.
6. Surcharge/ Buttress The weight of a Can be placed on any soil -- >10,760 ft.2 (1000 m2) Increase strength and
surcharge/buttress surface. reduce compressibility.
increases the liquefaction
resistance by increasing
the effective continuing
pressures in the
Method Principle Most Suitable Soil Maximum Effective Economic Size of Ideal Properties of
Conditions/Types Treatment Depth Treated Areas Treated Materials
Pore Water Pressure Relief
7. Gravel Drains Relief of excess pore Sand, silt, clay. > 100 ft. (30 m) >16,150 ft.2 (1500 m2) Fast relief of excess pore
water pressure to prevent water pressure will
liquefaction. prevent liquefaction.
Injection and Grouting
8. Particulate grouting Penetration grouting-fill Medium to coarse sand Unlimited. Small Impervious, high strength
soil pores with soil, and gravel. with cement grout. Voids
cement, and/or clay. filled so they cannot
collapse under cyclic
9. Chemical grouting Solutions of two or more Medium silts and Unlimited Small Impervious, low to high
chemicals react in soil coarser. strength. Voids filled so
pores to form a gel or a they cannot collapse
solid precipitate. under cyclic loading.
10. Pressure-injected Penetration grouting – Medium to coarse sand Unlimited Small Impervious to some
lime fill soil pores with lime. and gravel. degree. No significant
strength increase.
Collapse of voids under
cyclic loading reduced.
11. Electrokinetic Stabilizing chemicals Saturated sands, silts, Unknown Small Increased strength,
injection move into and fill soil silty clays. reduced compressibility,
pores by electro-osmosis voids filled so they
or colloids into pores by cannot collapse under
electro-phoresis. cyclic loading.
12. Jet grouting High-speed jets at depths Sands, silts, clays. Unknown Small Solidified columns and
excavate, inject, and mix walls
a stabilizer with soil to
form columns or panels.
Admixture Stabilization
13. Mix-in-place piles Lime, cement, or asphalt Sand, silt, clays, all soft > 65 ft. (20 m) (200 ft. Small Solidified soil piles or
and walls introduced through or loose inorganic soils. (60 m) obtained in walls of relatively high
rotating auger or special Japan) strength.
in-place mixer.
Soil Reinforcement
14. Vibro-replacement Hole jetted into fine- Sands, silts, clays. > 100 ft. (30 m) (limited >16,150 ft.2 (1500 m2); Increased vertical and
stone and sand columns grained soil and by vibratory equipment) fine-grained soils, horizontal load carrying
A. Grouted backfilled with densely >10,760 ft.2 (1000 m2) capacity. Density
B. Not grouted compacted gravel or increase in cohesionless
sand; hole formed in
cohesionless oils by soils. Shorter drainage
vibro techniques and paths.
backfilled with
compacted gravel or
sand. For grouted
columns, voids filled
with a grout.
15. Root piles, soil Small-diameter inclusion All soils. Unknown Unknown Reinforced zone of soil
nailing used to carry tension, behaves as a coherent
shear and compression. mass.