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LRFD Design of Precast

Concrete Pipe

Josh Beakley – ACPA Director of Technical Services


September 16th, 2010

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Design Options
12 10 Reinforced Concrete Pipe
12.10
• 12.10.1
• “The structural design of the type of
pipes
p p indicated above may yp
proceed
by either of two methods.”

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12 10 Reinforced Concrete Pipe


12.10
• “The direct design
g method at the
strength limit state as specified in
Article 12.10.4.2 or
• The indirect design method at the
service limit state as specified in
Article 12.10.4.3”

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Indirect Design Method


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Direct Design per AASHTO


Section 12
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Load Factors
Load Load Factor
Standard LRFD
Minimum Maximum
Dead 1.3 0.90 1.25
Water 1.3 1.0 1.0
E th – Vertical
Earth V ti l 13
1.3 0 90
0.90 1 30
1.30
Earth - 1.3 0.90 1.35
Horizontal
Live 1.3 x 1.67 = 2.17 0.0 1.75*

* A multiple presence factor is included in the total load


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Per AASHTO LRFD

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Per AASHTO Standard Specifications

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Reason for Differences Between
LRFD and Standard Specification
Allowable Fill Heights
• Increase in live load concentration
 1.15H versus 1.75H distribution
• Increase in impact factor
 0.33 to 0 at 8 feet versus 0.30 to 0 at 3
feet
• C-wall used in the LRFD tables
versus B-wall in the Standard tables

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LRFD Fill Height
Example

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Gi en
Given:
• Di = 48 in.
• t = D/12 + 1.75
= 5 75 in
5.75 in.
• Do = Di + 2t
= 59 5 in
59.5 in.
• H = 5 ft.
• w = 120 pcff
• Type 2 Installation
Soil Load

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AASHTO LRFD 12
12.10.2.1
10 2 1
• WE = Fe w Bc H
 Fe = Soil-structure Interaction Factor
 w=u unitt weight
eg to of so
soil (pc
(pcf))
 Bc = outside diameter of pipe (ft)
 H = height of fill over the pipe (ft)

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AASHTO LRFD 12
12.10.2.1
10 2 1
• “Standard installations for both
embankments and trenches shall be
designed for positive projection,
embankment loading conditions
where Fe shall be taken as the
vertical arching factor
factor, VAF
VAF, specified
in Table 12.10.2.1-3 for each type of
standard installation
installation.”
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AASHTO LRFD 12.10.2.1


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Embankment Installation

Soil Frictional
Prism
Forces

N t lG
Natural Ground
d
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Calculate soil load on the pipe:


• Prism load
 PL = w[H + (Do(4 –π))/96] Do/12
 PL = 3292 lbs/ft
• Vertical Arching Factor
 Fe = 14
1.4
• Soil load
 WE = Fe * PL
F
 WE = 4608 lbs/ft
Fluid Load

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AASHTO LRFD 12.10.2.2 – Pipe


Fluid Weight
• “The unfactored weight
g of fluid,, WF, in
the pipe shall be considered in design
based on a fluid weight of 62.4 lb./ft3,
unless otherwise specified.”

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Calculate fluid load in the pipe:


• Unit
U it weight
i ht off water
t
 γw = 62.4 pcf
• Volume of water
V = π[Di/(2*12)] 2 * 1
V = 12.56
• Fluid load
 WF = γw * V
 WF = 784.1 lbs/ft
Live Load

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AASHTO HL-93 Load

• Per Article 3.6.1.2.1,, vehicular live


loading on roadways or bridges shall
consist of a combination of the:
 Design truck or design tandem
 Design lane load

• Per article 3.6.1.2.2, Design truck = 32 kip


axles
• Per article 3.6.1.2.2, Design tandem = 25
kip axles
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AASHTO LRFD 3.6.1.2.5 – Tire


Contact Area
• “The tire contact area of a wheel
consisting of one or two tires shall be
assumed to be a single rectangle,
whose width is 20.0 in. and whose
length is 10.0 in.”

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Calculate the Live Load
Distribution through Pipe and
Soil
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Critical Live Load Parameters

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Live Load Spread

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Live Load Distribution for Select Granular
Fill
• For a vehicle traveling perpendicular:
 2
2.05
05 – 1.15D
1 15Do < H < 5
5.5
5
 From calculation above
• P = 32,000
32 000 lbs
lb
• Spread a = a + 4 + 1.15H
• Spread a = 20/12 + 4 + 1
1.15(5.0
15(5 0 ft
ft.)) = 11
11.42
42 ft
• Spread b = b + 1.15 H
• Spread b = 10/12 + 1.15(5.0 ft.) = 6.58 ft.
 Spread wheel load area at outside top of pipe
• A = Spread a * Spread b =11.42 ft * 6.58 ft
• A = 75.18 ft2
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Pressure at Top of Pipe

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Calculate Average Pressure


Intensity
• Impact
p Factor
 IM = [33 (1 - .125(5 ft.)] / 100 = .124

• Average pressure intensity


 w = [P (1 + IM)] / A
 w = [32,000 lbs( 1+ .124)] / 75.18 ft2
 w = 478
478.44 lbs/ ft2
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Live Load Above the Pipe

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Total Live Load Calculation


• Dimension of area parallel to longitudinal axis of
pipe
 L = Spread a = 11.42
11 42 ft.
ft
• Lesser of the outside horizontal span, Do, or
spread wheel load perpendicular to longitudinal
axis of pipe
 SL = Do = 4.96 ft.
• Total Live Load
 WT = wLSL = 478.4 lbs/ft * 11.42 ft. * 4.96 ft.
 WT = 27,089 lbs.
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Distribution
st but o ofo Live
e Load
oad Through
oug the
t e Pipe
pe

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Total
ota Livee Load
oad per
pe Linear
ea Foot
oot
Calculation
• Effective
Eff ti supporting
ti llength
th off pipe
i
 Le = L + 1.75(.75*Ro)
 Le = 11.42 ft. + 1.75(.75 * 4.96 ft.) =
17.93 ft.

• Total live load in pounds per feet


 WL = WT / Le = 27089 lbs. / 17.93 ft.
 WL = 1,511 lbs./ft.
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D-Load Equation

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Extra Safety Factor for Type 1 Installations

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Extra Safety Factor for Type 1 Installations

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E th Load
Earth L d Bedding
B ddi Factor
F t

Interpolate for 48 in pipe BFE = 2.867


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Live Load Bedding Factor

For 48 in pipe @ 5.0 ft of cover BFLL = 2.2


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Calculate the D-load per Equation


12 10 4 3 1 1
12.10.4.3.1-1
• D0.01 = ((12/D)*{[(W
) { ( E + WF) / BFE] + [WL /
BFLL]}

• D0.01 = (12/48)*{[( 4,608 + 784.14) / 2.867] +


[1,511 /2.2]}

• D0.01 = 641.9 lbs./ft./ft.


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Per AASHTO LRFD

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Direct Design of
Concrete Pipe Using
PIPECAR

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12.4.2.7 – Yield stress limited to 65 ksi for smooth wire and 70 ksi for
deformed welded wire fabric
5.4.2.1 – concrete strength limited to 10 ksi

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Indirect Design Method


WE = 4608 lbs/ft
WF = 784.1 lbs/ft
WL = 1 511 lb
1,511 lbs./ft.
/ft
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48 Inch Class II ((1000 lbs/ft/ft)) Pipe


p – C-wall

Asi = 0.14 SQ. IN./FT


Aso = 0.08 SQ. IN./FT

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