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# LRFD Design of Precast

Concrete Pipe

## Josh Beakley – ACPA Director of Technical Services

September 16th, 2010

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Design Options
12 10 Reinforced Concrete Pipe
12.10
• 12.10.1
• “The structural design of the type of
pipes
p p indicated above may yp
proceed
by either of two methods.”

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## 12 10 Reinforced Concrete Pipe

12.10
• “The direct design
g method at the
strength limit state as specified in
Article 12.10.4.2 or
• The indirect design method at the
service limit state as specified in
Article 12.10.4.3”

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## Direct Design per AASHTO

Section 12
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Standard LRFD
Minimum Maximum
Water 1.3 1.0 1.0
E th – Vertical
Earth V ti l 13
1.3 0 90
0.90 1 30
1.30
Earth - 1.3 0.90 1.35
Horizontal
Live 1.3 x 1.67 = 2.17 0.0 1.75*

## * A multiple presence factor is included in the total load

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Per AASHTO LRFD

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## Per AASHTO Standard Specifications

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Reason for Differences Between
LRFD and Standard Specification
Allowable Fill Heights
• Increase in live load concentration
 1.15H versus 1.75H distribution
• Increase in impact factor
 0.33 to 0 at 8 feet versus 0.30 to 0 at 3
feet
• C-wall used in the LRFD tables
versus B-wall in the Standard tables

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LRFD Fill Height
Example

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Gi en
Given:
• Di = 48 in.
• t = D/12 + 1.75
= 5 75 in
5.75 in.
• Do = Di + 2t
= 59 5 in
59.5 in.
• H = 5 ft.
• w = 120 pcff
• Type 2 Installation

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AASHTO LRFD 12
12.10.2.1
10 2 1
• WE = Fe w Bc H
 Fe = Soil-structure Interaction Factor
 w=u unitt weight
eg to of so
soil (pc
(pcf))
 Bc = outside diameter of pipe (ft)
 H = height of fill over the pipe (ft)

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AASHTO LRFD 12
12.10.2.1
10 2 1
• “Standard installations for both
embankments and trenches shall be
designed for positive projection,
where Fe shall be taken as the
vertical arching factor
factor, VAF
VAF, specified
in Table 12.10.2.1-3 for each type of
standard installation
installation.”
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## AASHTO LRFD 12.10.2.1

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Embankment Installation

Soil Frictional
Prism
Forces

N t lG
Natural Ground
d
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## Calculate soil load on the pipe:

 PL = w[H + (Do(4 –π))/96] Do/12
 PL = 3292 lbs/ft
• Vertical Arching Factor
 Fe = 14
1.4
 WE = Fe * PL
F
 WE = 4608 lbs/ft

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## AASHTO LRFD 12.10.2.2 – Pipe

Fluid Weight
• “The unfactored weight
g of fluid,, WF, in
the pipe shall be considered in design
based on a fluid weight of 62.4 lb./ft3,
unless otherwise specified.”

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## Calculate fluid load in the pipe:

• Unit
U it weight
i ht off water
t
 γw = 62.4 pcf
• Volume of water
V = π[Di/(2*12)] 2 * 1
V = 12.56
 WF = γw * V
 WF = 784.1 lbs/ft

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## • Per Article 3.6.1.2.1,, vehicular live

consist of a combination of the:
 Design truck or design tandem

## • Per article 3.6.1.2.2, Design truck = 32 kip

axles
• Per article 3.6.1.2.2, Design tandem = 25
kip axles
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## AASHTO LRFD 3.6.1.2.5 – Tire

Contact Area
• “The tire contact area of a wheel
consisting of one or two tires shall be
assumed to be a single rectangle,
whose width is 20.0 in. and whose
length is 10.0 in.”

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Distribution through Pipe and
Soil
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Live Load Distribution for Select Granular
Fill
• For a vehicle traveling perpendicular:
 2
2.05
05 – 1.15D
1 15Do < H < 5
5.5
5
 From calculation above
• P = 32,000
32 000 lbs
lb
• Spread a = a + 4 + 1.15H
• Spread a = 20/12 + 4 + 1
1.15(5.0
15(5 0 ft
ft.)) = 11
11.42
42 ft
• Spread b = b + 1.15 H
• Spread b = 10/12 + 1.15(5.0 ft.) = 6.58 ft.
• A = Spread a * Spread b =11.42 ft * 6.58 ft
• A = 75.18 ft2
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## Pressure at Top of Pipe

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## Calculate Average Pressure

Intensity
• Impact
p Factor
 IM = [33 (1 - .125(5 ft.)] / 100 = .124

## • Average pressure intensity

 w = [P (1 + IM)] / A
 w = [32,000 lbs( 1+ .124)] / 75.18 ft2
 w = 478
478.44 lbs/ ft2
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## Live Load Above the Pipe

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• Dimension of area parallel to longitudinal axis of
pipe
 L = Spread a = 11.42
11 42 ft.
ft
• Lesser of the outside horizontal span, Do, or
axis of pipe
 SL = Do = 4.96 ft.
 WT = wLSL = 478.4 lbs/ft * 11.42 ft. * 4.96 ft.
 WT = 27,089 lbs.
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Distribution
st but o ofo Live
oug the
t e Pipe
pe

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Total
pe Linear
ea Foot
oot
Calculation
• Effective
Eff ti supporting
ti llength
th off pipe
i
 Le = L + 1.75(.75*Ro)
 Le = 11.42 ft. + 1.75(.75 * 4.96 ft.) =
17.93 ft.

## • Total live load in pounds per feet

 WL = WT / Le = 27089 lbs. / 17.93 ft.
 WL = 1,511 lbs./ft.
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## Extra Safety Factor for Type 1 Installations

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## Extra Safety Factor for Type 1 Installations

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Earth L d Bedding
B ddi Factor
F t

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## Calculate the D-load per Equation

12 10 4 3 1 1
12.10.4.3.1-1
• D0.01 = ((12/D)*{[(W
) { ( E + WF) / BFE] + [WL /
BFLL]}

[1,511 /2.2]}

## • D0.01 = 641.9 lbs./ft./ft.

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Per AASHTO LRFD

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Direct Design of
Concrete Pipe Using
PIPECAR

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12.4.2.7 – Yield stress limited to 65 ksi for smooth wire and 70 ksi for
deformed welded wire fabric
5.4.2.1 – concrete strength limited to 10 ksi

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## Indirect Design Method

WE = 4608 lbs/ft
WF = 784.1 lbs/ft
WL = 1 511 lb
1,511 lbs./ft.
/ft
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p – C-wall

## Asi = 0.14 SQ. IN./FT

Aso = 0.08 SQ. IN./FT

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The End

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