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You are on page 1of 22

Fundamental variables

Throughout your working career, you will be adding to

your technical vocabulary list.

• Pressure

• Density

• Temperature

• Velocity

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Pressure : p

Definition :

Pressure p is defined as the force/area acting normal to a

surface

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Pressure : p

A solid surface doesn’t actually have to be present. The

pressure can be defined at any point x, y, z, in the fluid, if

we assume that a infinitesimally small surface ΔA could be

placed there at whim, giving a resulting normal force ΔFn

Fn

p lim

A0 A

the pressure p(x,y,z,t) in general is a time-varying scalar

field.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Density : ρ

Definition :

Density ρ is defined as the mass/volume, for an

infinitesimally small volume.

m

lim

v 0 v

change in time. So ρ(x,y,z,t) is also a scalar field.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Temperature : T

Temperature takes on an important role in high-speed

aerodynamics.

point to point in the gas.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Velocity : V

We are interested in motion of fluids, so velocity is

obviously important. Two ways to look at this:

• Fluid is moving past a stationary body – e.g. airplane in wind

tunnel

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Velocity : V

Consider a fluid element as it moves along. As it passes

some point B, its instantaneous velocity is defined as the

velocity at point B.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Velocity : V

This velocity is a vector, with three separate components,

and will in general vary between different points and

different times.

V ( x, y, z, t ) u( x, y, z, t )iˆ v( x, y, z, t ) ˆj w( x, y, z, t )kˆ

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Velocity : V

So, V is a time-varying vector field, whose components are

three separate time-varying scalar fields u, v, w.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Steady and unsteady flows

If the flow is steady, then p, ρ, V don’t change in time for

any point, and hence can be given as p(x,y,z), ρ(x,y,z),

V(x,y,z).

these quantities do change

in time at some or all points.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Streamline

Definition :

For a steady flow, we can define a streamline, which is the

path followed by some chosen fluid element. The figure

shows three particular streamlines.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Surface force distribution

The fluid flowing about a body exerts a local force/area(or

stress) f on each point of the body. Its normal and

tangential components are the pressure p and the shear

stress τ.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Surface force distribution

In typical aerodynamic situations, the pressure p is

typically greater than τ by at least two orders of magnitude,

and so f is very nearly perpendicular to the surface.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Surface force distribution

The stress distribution f integrated over the surface

produces a resultant force R, and also a moment M about

some chosen moment-reference point. In 2-D cases, the

sign convention for M is positive nose up, as shown in the

figure.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force components

the lift L, parallel and perpendicular to Vinf.

Body axes : The R components are the axial force A and

the normal force N, parallel and perpendicular to the airfoil

chord line.

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force components

then be obtained by a simple axis transformation using the

angle of attack α. Specifically, L and D are obtained from N

and A as follows.

L N cos A sin

D N sin A cos

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 16 -

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force and moment calculation

A cylindrical wing section of chord c and span b has force

components A and N, and moment M.

A A / b N N / b M M /b

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force and moment calculation

On the upper surface, the unit-span force components

acting on an elemental area of width dsu are

dN u pu cos u sin dsu

dAu pu sin u cos dsu

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force and moment calculation

On the lower surface they are

dN l pl cos l sin dsl

dAl pl sin l cos dsl

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force and moment calculation

Integration from the leading edge to the trailing edge points

produces the total unit span forces.

TE TE

N dN u dN l

LE LE

TE TE

A dAu dAl

LE LE

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force and moment calculation

The moment about the origin (leading edge in this case) in

the integral of these forces, weighted by their moment arms

x and y, with appropriate sign.

TE TE TE TE

xdNu xdNl ydAu ydAl

M LE

LE LE LE LE

Introduction to Aerodynamics

Force and moment calculation

The complete expressions are as follows :

TE

M LE

LE

TE

LE

ds cos dx

ds sin dy

dy

dx

dx

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