NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management

Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its effort towards goal setting and goal achievement. It involves inspiring, enlivening, and encouraging others to follow willingly, voluntarily, and cooperatively to meet this goal with zeal and confidence and to their greatest potential. Various Definitions of Leadership  It is a process of persuasion and example by which an individual induces group to take work and action that is accord to with the leader’s purposes or a shared purposes of all (Gardner)  It is a process by which a person inspires a group of constituents to work together using appropriate means to a common mission and goal (Holloman)  It is a process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members (Stoner)  It is a process of social transaction in which the person influences others (Merton)  It is a process of stimulating to strive willingly to attain organizational objectives giving them the experience to attain the common objectives and satisfactions with the type of leadership provided (Flores)  It is a process of empowering beliefs and teaching others to top their full capabilities by shifting the beliefs that have been limiting them (Robbins)  It is a process of influence in which leader influences, inspires, enlivens, or encourages others towards goal achievement (Yukl)  It is a process in which leaders make vision so palpable and seductive that everybody is willing to sign on (Bennis)

LEADER SOCIAL MILIEU characteristics / personality CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ORGANIZATION purpose / structure / nature of the task (situation in which leadership is exercised) FOLLOWERS ECONOMIC MILIEU

personality of the group (attitudes, needs, and other personal characteristics of the group) POLITICAL MILIEU Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm on the Working Variables of Leadership (Based on McGregor, 1960)

Robert C. Reña


NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management LEADER ROLES       Risk taker Influencer Change agent Good communicator Mentor Critical thinker       Good listener Forecaster Energizer Visionary Problem solver Role model

CONSIDERATIONS IN AN EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP (by Merton) 1. 2. 3. 4. Person receiving the communication understands it Person has the resources to do what is being asked for in the communication Person believes that the behavior being asked is consistent with personal interest and values Person believes it is consistent with the purposes and values of the organization


Leadership (with influence as an instrumental part) is a result of the relationship between the environment, the organizational structure, the group members and the leader. TWO TYPES OF LEADERS 1. Formal leader – person in legitimate or official authority to act in sanctioned or assigned role 2. Informal leader – does not have official sanction to direct activities of others; usually chosen by the group members THREE STYLES OF LEADERS (according to Kurt Lewin) Autocratic Maintains strong control Gives orders Makes decision Leader does the planning Directive Fosters dependency Authoritarian leaders tend to be directive, critical, punitive, and give themselves higher position than the members which in turn reduces open communication and trust. • This type of leadership tends to get good quantity and quality of output but little autonomy, creativity, or self-motivation. • Autocratic leadership can be used in emergencies when the leader knows what to do but this does not
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Democratic Maintains less control Offers suggestions Gives suggestions Group does the planning Participative Fosters independence The democratic leader involves the group in the decision making process and makes suggestions instead of orders. This participation then leads to increased motivation and creativity. • Democracy works when the members are knowledgeable, skillful, and work well with others. • It may be a tedious and is less efficient than the autocratic
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Laissez-faire No control Nondirective Abdicates decision-making No planning Uninvolved Fosters chaos Laissez-faire leaders are very permissive, nondirective, passive, and inactive. • Members may work independently. • Chaos is likely to develop unless an informal leader arises to the situation. • Laissez-faire can work with very mature, autonomous workers, but is more likely to be inefficient and unproductive
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Robert C. Reña


o Some common leadership traits:  Leaders need to be more intelligent than the group they lead  Must possess initiative. while others are born to be led o indicates that few people are born with the necessary characteristics to be great o great and effective leaders in any situation possess both instrumental and supportive leadership behavior. loyalty.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management develop people. dependability. and allows for participation and consultation from subordinates for decisions that concerns them 2. ability to perceive. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 1. Trait Theory o Traits earlier thought to be inherited but later research indicates that traits could be obtained through learning and experience o Leadership traits are: energy.  fluency of speech  adaptability  decisiveness  alertness  knowledge  creativity  judgment  cooperativeness  personal integrity  self-confidence  nonconformity  emotional balance and control Ability traits – technical and administrative talents to demonstrate understanding and achieve workers’ understanding and motivation for achieving organizational goals  enlist cooperation and prestige  sociable  good interpersonal skills  tactful  diplomatic  enhances collective unity among members of the system to achieve its goal Robert C. Reña 3 . organizing. ambition. friendliness. method. Great Man Theory o holds that some people are born to lead. decisiveness. fairness. drive. self-confidence. enthusiasm. and teaching skills. and start the courses of action not conceived by others  Creativity and originality  Emotional maturity and integrity  Adequate communication skills  Persuasive to gain consent of followers  Perceptive to distinguish allies from opponents and place subordinates in suitable positions  Participative in social activities Intelligence traits – perceive Personality traits – knows how to knowledge and competence in a motivate workers to achieve specific job which is the one of the organizational goals most important factors in a leader’s effectiveness to enable the nurse manager to relate well and inspires subordinates to perform well. selfassurance. technical mastery. aggressiveness. affection. honesty. and controlling the activities of subordinates to achieve goals  Supportive leadership: socially-oriented.  Instrumental activities: planning.

that is matching the appropriate leadership style to the individual’s or group’s level of task-relevant readiness. Selling leadership – groups with low to moderate maturity who are unable but are willing and confident. but how the leader behaves o Two Basic Leader Behavior (Michigan & Ohio State University) 1. the task. and efficiency resulting in a lack of attention to developing work groups and high performance goals Two Dimensions of Leadership Behavior Initiating Structure Consideration o Emphasis is on the work to be done. Telling leadership – groups with low maturity with members unable or unwillingly to participate or are unsure. democratic. Reña 4 . Behavioral Theory o Argues that it is not who the leader is. and procedures 4.  Leader’s role is to provide direction and close supervision 2. and o Focus is on employment and emphasizes production relating and getting along with people o Concerned with how the work is organized and on the o Concerned with creating trust and respect and achievement of goals (planning.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management  independence  facilitates leadership capability of a nurse manager so he/she is able to motivate people 3. Participating leadership – groups with moderate to high maturity who are able but unwilling or unsure. personal policies. Job-centered leadership – less effective because their focus is on schedule. directing. Delegating leadership – groups with high maturity who are able and ready to participate and can engage in the task without direction or support Robert C. Situational Theory o Assumes that a leader should help followers grow in their readiness to perform new tasks as long as they are able and willing to go The skill in which the leader applies the three basic tools of leadership–autocratic.  Leader can give clear direction and supportive feedback to get the task done 3. empathetic and show interest in o For example: nurse manager provides a manual for job them as people descriptions. others and members’ contribution establishing deadlines and details of how wok is to be o For example: nurse-leaders talk to codone) workers. Readiness or maturity is one’s ability and motivation to perform particular task.  Leader can give support and encouragement 4. Employee-centered leadership – effective leadership with focus on the human needs of subordinates 2. It is addressed in order to select one of the four leadership styles as enumerated below (Hersey & Blanchard): 1. costs. and laissez-faire techniques–determines the leader’s personal success as a leader.

and outcomes that practitioners can be expected to have acquired based on the five levels of experience 1. They have learned from their experiences the need to develop a plan of care for a patient to be guided from point A to point B and that in typical situations a patient is expected to manifest specific behaviors to achieve specific goals. trust. degree of task structure. Motivational Theory o Motivation is a concept used to describe both the extrinsic conditions that stimulate certain behavior and the intrinsic responses that demonstrate behavior in human beings. and stop the behavior. sustain. Proficient nurses – nurses who look at situations as a whole rather than a series of tasks. o Identified three aspects of a situation that is structure leader’s role:  Leader-membership relationship – are feelings and attitudes of followers regarding acceptance. Their conscious and deliberate planning skills promote efficiency and organization. trust. Competent nurses – nurses performing the same role for two to three years who have developed the ability to view their actions as part of the long-range goal set for their patients. This theory views the pattern of leader behavior as dependent upon the interaction of personality of the leader and the needs of a situation or how favorable the situation is towards the leader which involves leader-member relationships. Advance beginners – nurses who are able to demonstrate marginally acceptable performance 3. competencies. Participative style – focuses on involving followers in decision-making 4. Leaders motivate followers and influence goal accomplishment using the appropriate style of leadership for the situation to make the path toward the goal easier for the followers. it implies that changes should be done in the care plan. Supportive style – reaction-oriented providing encouragement. Path-Goal Theory o Derived by Robert House from Expectancy Theory. Reña 5 . direct. and attention 3. and credibility of the leader  Good leader-member relation – followers respect. Expert nurses – nurses whose expertise is so embedded in their practice as they intuitively know what is happening with their patients. Achievement-oriented – provides high structure and direction through consideration of behavior 7. and have confidence in the leader Robert C. o People are motivated when they believe that they are able to carry out the work and when they thin k their contribution will lead to the expected outcome and that the rewards for their efforts are valued and meaningful. interest. 6. Directive style – leaders provide structure through direction and authority with focus in getting the job done 2. 4. Content theories of motivation focus on factors or needs within a person that energize. 1. and leader’s position of power. which argues that people act as they do because they expect their behavior to produce satisfactory results. o The leader facilitates task accomplishment by minimizing obstructions to the goals and by rewarding followers task completion. 5. Novice nurse – practitioners who are task-oriented and focused 2.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management Framework of Situational Leadership as applied to Benner’s model of novice to expert (based on Dreyfus & Dreyfus model of skill acquisition in nursing) specified that there are tasks. 5. Once those behaviors are not exhibited within a certain period of time or time frame. Deficiencies in needs stimulate people to seek and achieve goals to satisfy those needs. Contingency Theory o States that there are other factors in the environment which influence outcomes as much as leadership style.

convert followers into leaders. authority inherent in a position. predictable. are based on a sense of quality. and honesty are always respected. and dissatisfaction with the leader by the followers  Task structure – the degree to which the work is defined with specific procedures. It is critical that nurse leaders recognize their lack of management skills and then take responsibility to their own continuing education. ability of leader to create focus or clear picture of an outcome  Management of meaning – leaders inspire commitment thus. Nurse leaders need to master the skills of leadership because mastery reduces stress and burnout. involves work that is not routine. People would much rather follow individuals they can count on. Reña 6 . allow creativity and appeal to the values of nurses. appeal to values and emotions and are feasible yet challenging. Ability to recognize own strengths and weaknesses 9.  High task structure – easy to define and measure a task. concerned about people 8. and goals. ability to translate their ideas unto symbols with real meaning  Management of trust – leaders whose judgment is sound and consistent and whose decisions are based on the fairness. The leader is a caretaker who sets goals for employees. artistic. explicit directions. Transformational Leadership – assumes that power is the basic energy to initiate and sustain action translating intention into reality (Bennis & Nanus) Leaders commit people to action. All elements must enhance the worth of individuals. the power to use rewards and punishment and the organization’s support of leader’s decision  High power position – favorable for the leader  Low power position – unfavorable for the leader Effective – task-directed leader concerned with task accomplishment Most effective – intermediate or moderate range of favorableness. lack of confidence and respect. must communicate their vision and create culture that sustains vision. Differences between Transactional and Transformational Leaders Transactional Hierarchy Networking Transformational Robert C. or qualitative research activities  Position Power – the degree of formal authority and influence associated with the leader.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management  Poor leader-member relationship – reflects distrust. task-focused approach that takes place in hierarchy. It is a contract for mutual benefits that has a contingent rewards. It is a competitive. Ability of leader to inspire trust in other by contributing to integrity of organization  Management of self – knowing one’s skills and using them effectively. equity. and uses management by exception. than people they agree with but who shifts positions frequently. even when they disagree with their viewpoint. Competencies for dynamic and effective transformational leadership include:  Management of attention – leaders possess a vision or sense of outcomes or goals which are mutually developed. Transactional Leadership – an exchange posture that identifies needs of followers and provides rewards to meet those needs in exchange for expected performance. and may convert leaders into agents of change. focus on a day-today operations. predictable. clearly defined work tasks  Low task structure – difficult to define the task and to measure the progress towards its completion. or clearly defined like creative. involves routine. human relation leader.

share with others generously. and complex issues  Honestly share critical challenges with parties and ask for their inputs which is more important than personally providing solution  Be clear on goals and good at pointing the direction without giving orders  Be a servant. Leaders use their gifts from God according to the grace given to them. Servant Leadership – according to Robert Greenleaf. Reña 7 .NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management Competitive Task-focused Exchange posture Identify needs of followers Provide rewards to meet goals Exchange for expected performance Contract for mutual benefits Contingent rewards Caretaker Set goals for employees Focus on day-to-day operation Management by exception Cooperative Process-focused Promote employee development Attend to needs and motives of followers Inspire through optimism Influence exchange in perception Provide intellectual stimulation Encouragement of followers creativity Role model Individualize consideration Provide sense of direction Encouragement of self-management 10. communicate high expectations to followers and express confidence in them. if they have the authority. helper. They set example by their behavior. and teacher first. Defining Characteristics: A servant leader has the ability to:  Listen on a deep level and to truly understand (listening)  Keep an open mind and hear without judgment  Deal with ambiguity. paradoxes. Charismatic Theory – is based on the inspirational quality possessed by individuals that others feel better in their presence. and then a leader (stewardship)  Be always thinking before reacting  Choose work carefully so as not to damage others being led  Use foresight and intuition  See things whole and sense relationships and connections  Focus on long-term management that involves slower promotions and less direct supervision. they should work hard and should show acts of mercy with cheerfulness. is life and leadership in the Lord. Organizations invest in its employees and addresses both home and work issues creating a path for career development Robert C. and arouse motives for the group’s mission.

NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management LEADERSHIP STYLES IN PHILIPPINE SETTING 1. Reña 8 . uses expert power and power base afforded by having close personal relationships 3. Person-oriented Robert C. Democratic – leader participates with authority delegated to others. leader defers decision making 4. Laissez-faire – passive and permissive . Bureaucratic – leader acts as a representative of the power and prestige of the entire structure. gives one a false sense of self-confidence to proceed even unsoundly in the belief that somehow one will manage to get by  Segurista – demands demonstration of assured success 2. Bahala na or pagwawalang bahala – manifested negatively as:  Pasensiya or pagtitimpi – resignation to and acceptance of failures and shortcomings  Suerte – relating everything to fate  Overdependence on authority  Resiliency or capacity to adapt to misfortune with tendency to return to old ways and forgetting lessons of past misfortunes  Pagtitiis – to endure a hard life without complaint and with complete resignation to such fate  Manyana habits – putting off for later what can be done now  Filipino Time – propensity to be late for appointments  Ningas-kugon – tendency for sudden outburst of enthusiasm at the start of any endeavor followed by equally abrupt loss of interest  “come what may” attitude – one can leave matters as they are. no need to exert effort because the supernatural spirits or Bathala will take care of everything for anybody  Mixing pleasure with work leading to failure to distinguish one from another  Talagang ganyan ang kapalaran (That’s life!) – eats up one’s sense of responsibility and personal accountability. leader makes the decision with the use of power to command and control others 2. Autocratic – centralized decision making. leader is vested with definite authority in his official role FILIPINO BEHAVIOR PATTERN AND VALUES SYSTEM AFFECTING THE FILIPINO LEADERSHIP STYLE 1.

utang na loob (sense of gratitude) – considers moral dimensions of his actions. close fiend. Personalism – identifies leadership with benevolences. and even competitors. puri (modesty). The core of which is the need to be treated as a person and not as an object   3. Dangal (honor). Sense of gratitude to the people who supported the company at the early stage may make him/her decide to retain an employee even if his/her skills and knowledge are no longer needed 7. cannot be repaid by money. Repayment is expected by the donor but in a form decided at some future time by the donor Pakikisama (going along together) Practice of galang or respect – the result of the definition of rights and obligations which are inherent in the structural positions of individuals in the Filipino kinship system Practice of using go-betweens (lakad system) – arrange or fix things for someone Practice of bata system (relationship between superior and subordinate) – a protégé. Reña 9 . comrade to rely on time of need  Amor-propio (self-esteem) – leads to smooth interpersonal relationship with his subordinates. and decisions. not so much on what the person knows as whom he knows and who knows him not as much on the objective reality of things as on the way things are actually perceived 6. favored individual. Great zeal for professionalism and education – pursue masters and doctoral degree which entail great sacrifices in them considering their busy schedule and work Robert C. Application of bureaucracy – constitute an essential part of Filipino life because the chief function is reinterpreted is – to strengthen the traditional norms of society through the evolution of a unique synthesis of the rational and the traditional 5. focuses not so much on what a person does as in who he is.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management  Hiya (shame or embarrassment) – development of the capacity for this feeling is encouraged by the family since the threat of experiencing it is considered an effective means of obtaining approved behavior Utang na loob (obligation) – feeling which develops when someone has received a favor from another. solutions. High respect and regard for women – the “Pinay Power” becomes very evident in Filipino organizations 4. fellow managers.

Reña 10 . and controlling including manage is to forecast and plan. giving rewards fairly. giving direction. and representing both staff members and administration as needed set • process of obtaining and organizing resources. coordinating. and to control Forecast – to foresee and provide mean in examining future and drawing up a plan of action Organize – building up the dual structure which is a material and human undertaking Command – binding together. to organize. unifying. or instances of overlapping steps directed toward the achievement of organizational goals and objectives Importance of Management • to facilitate the act • to achieve certain objective and goal • to deliver quality nursing care to our patients Features: • time dimensions reflecting the dynamic nature of management (includes time frame) Robert C. developing staff. to command.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management MANAGEMENT Management . directing.came from the word “to manage” (Henri Fayol) . building up dual structure (skills and people) and of achieving objective through people a set of interactive process through which the utilization of resources results in the accomplishment of organizational objectives • a body of knowledge existing the process of science and art Management as a Process • also a series of systematic. monitoring operation. sequential. and harmonizing all activities and efforts Control – seeing that everything occurs in harmony with established rules and expressed demand Management • process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment • planning.

intuition.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management • • • • • recognition that one major task of management is the integration of the efforts of group or organization Interpersonal – involve communication either written or verbal Technical – involve external factor and physical resources “Purposeful group” It includes not only the goal definition but the direction and purpose Management is a Science • Because achievement is required through the scientific method which implies an empirical measurement of data casual links among phenomena log organization of external structure and conclusions validated through experimentation Management is an Art • Because it involves getting one done through people • Problems are adaptive through individual style based on creativity. and experience instead of the visual systematic method of science Difference between Leadership and Management Motto Challenge Focus Time Frame Methods Questions Outcomes Focuses on Human LEADERSHIP Do the right thing Change / innovation Purposes Future Strategies Why? Journey Potential MANAGEMENT Do thing right Continuity Structures. and how? Destinations / goals Performance LEADERS Do the right thing Are interested in effectiveness Innovate Develop Focus on people Rely on trust Align people with a direction Emphasize philosophy. when. core values. Reña MANAGERS Do things right Are interested in efficiency Administer Maintain Focus on systems and structure Rely on control Organize and staff Emphasize tactics. structure. judgment. and systems Have a short-term view Ask how and when Accept the status quo Focus on the present Have their eyes on the bottom line Develop detailed steps and timetables Seek predictability and order Avoid risks Motivate people to comply with standards Use position-to-position (superior-to-subordinate) 11 . where. and shared goals Have a long-term view Ask what and why Challenge the status quo Focus on the future Have their eyes on the horizon Develop visions and strategies Seek change Take risks Inspire people to change Use person-to-person influence Robert C. process. what. and procedures Present Schedules Who.

measurement. policies. and set work standards • found that the same result could be obtained in less time with fewer or shorter motions • the most productive workers were hired • threw aside rule-of-thumb judgments and developed systematic approach to determine most efficient means of production • considered management function to be planning • working conditions and methods had to be standardized to maximize production • management’s responsibility is to select and train workers rather than allow them to choose their own jobs and methods and train themselves Four Principles of Taylor 1. policies.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management influence Inspire others to follow Require others to comply Operate outside of organizational rules. select and train workers effectively and scientifically by means of technical competence and abilities Robert C. regulations. and scientific comparison to determine the most efficient way to accomplish a task • conducted time-and-motion studies to time workers. regulations. Operate with organizational rules. analyze their movements. applied the principles of observation. develop science for each man’s work . and procedures and procedures Take initiative to lead Are given a position Management Theories Scientific Management Frederick Taylor Lillian and Frank Gilbreth Henry Gantt Classic Organization Henri Fayol Max Weber Human Relation Mary Parker Follett Elton Mayo Kurt Lewin Behavioral Science Abraham Maslow Frederick Herzberg Douglas McGregor William Ouchi Chris Argyris Rensis Likert Peter Drucker Scientific Management Theory • guided and characterized by scientific procedures and approaches to solve managerial problems • area of focus is productivity and profit 1. Frederick Taylor • generally recognized as the father of scientific management • believed that an organization is like a machine to be run efficiently • through the use of stopwatch studies.scientifically designed to be efficient 2. Reña 12 .

needs to have cooperation and interdependently . views the organization as a whole rather than focusing solely on production managerial activities are classified as planning.” a forerunner of PERT (program evaluation and review technique) chart. as well as effects of the incentive wage plans and fatigue on work performance • his system of “speed work” eliminated haste and also increased work output by cutting out unnecessary motions • workers could be paid higher wages because they accomplished more in a shorter time • among the first to use motion-picture films to analyze workers’ motion • Lillian Gilbreth is known as the first lady of management 3. also was concerned with problems of efficiency • preferred to refine previous work rather than introducing new concept • developed the “Gantt chart.give and take . depicts the relationship of the work planned or completed on one axis to the amount of time needed or used on the other • developed a task and bonus remuneration plan whereby workers received a guaranteed day’s wage plus a bonus for production above the standard to stimulate higher performance • recommended that workers be selected scientifically and provided with detailed instructions for their tasks • argued for a more humanitarian approach by management. Reña 13 . divide responsibility more equitable between managers and workers .work should be shared equally Outcomes reduced wasted efforts set standards for performance encouraged specialization stressed the selection of qualified workers who could be developed for a particular job 2. Henri Fayol • known as the “father of the management process school” • concluded that management is universal • all managers. coordinating. Henry Gantt • a disciple of Taylor. recognizing useful nonmonetary incentives such as job security and encouraging staff development Classic Organization deductive rather than inductive. and controlling • believed in the division of work and argued that specialization increases efficiency • encouraged development of group harmony through equal treatment and stability of tenure of person • firm believer in order – advocated “a place for everything and everything in its place” • argued that management be taught in college 14 Management Principles • • • • Robert C.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management 3. organizing. and controlling 1. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth • also did pioneering work in time-and-motion studies • emphasized the benefits of job simplification and the establishment of work standards. have essentially the same tasks: planning. placing emphasis on service rather profit objectives. organizing. regardless of the type of organization or their level in the organization. accomplish work objectives through cooperation of management and labor 4. issuing orders.

Traditional authority – accepted because it seems things have always been that way. Unity of Command – employees should receive orders from only one superior 5. and ability to fulfill the position • • recognized that if subordinates do not believe a person is qualified for the position. they may not accept that person’s authority suggested the avoidance of traditional and charismatic leadership through systematic selection of personnel • administrators are chosen for their competence • their authority is clearly defined • they are given legal means of exercising their authority • continuity of administration is provided Characteristics: Robert C. Subordination of individual interest to general interest or common goal – the overall objective that the group seeks to achieve takes precedence over the objective of the individual 7. such as rule of a king in a monarchy 2. Discipline – obedience to agreement between parties in the firm must be exercised. Rational.Esprit de corps – unity of effort through harmony of interest. promote team spirit to promote sense of unity 2. both friendly and fair to everyone 12. legal authority – rational in formal organizations because the person has demonstrated the knowledge.Stability of tenure of personnel – tough management should implement practices which encourage the longterm commitment of employee particularly manages to firm 13. Unity of direction – each group activities having the same purpose should operate under one head and one plan. Centralization () and decentralization () – role of subordinates in decision making.Initiative – employees must be encouraged to think through and implement a plan of action.Order – the material and human instrument of business must be arranged logically. Division of work – the more people specialized. operation within organization should have the same object (should be directed by one superior) 6.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management 1. material should be rin the right place and right time 11. Reña 14 . Charisma – strong personal convection 3. Authority and Responsibility – the right to give command and order and power to exact obedience 3. manager in the organization needs to respect the rules and agreement that govern the organization 4. involves the degree to which subordinates participate in decision making 9. the more efficiently they can perform 2. Remuneration of personnel – compensation for works should be based on systematic attempt to reward 8. freedom to conceive and carry out plan even if some mistakes result 14. skill. Max Weber • earned the title “father of organization theory” • conceptualized bureaucracy with emphasis on rules instead of individuals and on competence over favoritism as the most efficient basis for organization conceptualized a structure of authority that would facilitate the accomplishment of organizational objectives Three Bases of Authority 1.Equity – enforcement of established rules tempered by the sense of blindness and justice should prevail in the organization. Scalar chain / hierarchy / line of authority – a graded chain of authority from top to bottom through which all communication flow 10.

and material Robert C. promotes personality • rewards and incentives given based in technical qualification. 4. and sense of belonging 1. Mary Follett • stressed the importance of coordinating the psychological (more on human behavior) and sociological (interaction with other people / individuals) aspects of management • believed that managers should be aware that each employee is a complex collection of emotions. 6. Reña 15 . and productivity • chief concerns are individuals. beliefs. and achievement Disadvantages • red tape – complaints heard and experiences • observable procedural delays • inevitable frustrations among employees and clients Human Relations • focused on the effect individuals have on the success or failure of organization • stresses the social environment • source of control. accomplishment. tasks are specialized people are appointed by merit on promotion because of their ability career opportunities are provided authority and responsibility are clear activities are routine rational climate exists Conditions in Weber’s Bureaucracy • administrators are appointed not elected • administrators are career officials who work for fixed salaries and do not own what they administer • they are subject to strict rules which are applied impersonally and uniformly • all personnel are selected for competence • the division of labor. and responsibility is clearly defined • positions are organized into hierarchy Advantages • produce competent and responsible employees • employees perform by uniform rules and conviction • accountability to one’s authority • social distance with supervisors and clients • reduce favoritism. people. motivation. 5.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management 1. 3. seniority. and communication • managers encourage workers to develop their potential and help them meet their needs for recognition. leadership. interpersonal relations. 2. and habits • one of the first theorists to success the principle of “Participative Decision Making” or “Participative Management” • considered subordination offensive • the law of situation dictates that a person does not take orders from another person but from the situation • advocated that managers study the total situation to achieve unity because she believed that control would be obtained through cooperation among all of the elements. authority. attitudes. group process.

regard by others) Love and Belongingness (affectionate relations with others acceptance by one’s peers. Kurt Lewin • advocated the three leadership styles • advocated democratic supervision • his research indicates that democratic groups in which participants solve their own problems and have the opportunity to consult with the leader are most effective • autocratic leadership promotes hostility and aggression or apathy and decreases initiative Behavioral Science • emphasized the importance of maintaining a positive attitude towards people. achievement of full capacities Self-esteem needs (self-respect. positive selfevaluation. water. and deprivation such as physical harm. and obtaining commitment through participation in planning and decision making Self 1. food. Elton Mayo • discovered that when special attention is given to workers by management. sleep.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management • Cooperation • Spirit of Unity • Self-control Seen by Follett as the key to • • Productivity Democratic way of life 2. promoting employees’ sense of achievement. companionship. fitting supervisory action to the situation. training managers. recognition as a group member) Safety and Security Needs (freedom from danger. Abraham Maslow actualization • developed the hierarchy of needs theory (self-fulfillment. economic distress. Reña Physiological Needs – most important and most necessary for survival (oxygen. ill health) Robert C. sex. meeting employees’ needs. and activity) 16 . threat. productivity is likely to increase regardless of changes in the working condition • informal work groups and informal social environment among employees which allow for group decision making have a great influence on productivity • proposed that improvements be made by making the structure less formal and by permitting employees’ participation in decision making • meaning there’s human factors such as care and attention and recognition for employee not just the physical environment • discovered the “Hawthorne Effect” Hawthorne Effect • phenomena of being observed or studied resulting in changes in behavior • improvement in performance by workers resulting from awareness that experimental attempts are made to bring improvement 3.

and the next need becomes prepotent 2.cannot motivate but can lower performance and cause job dissatisfaction • Supervision • Company’s policy • Working conditions • Interpersonal relationship with superiors. peers. controlled.can raise the level of performance and meet the higher-order needs • Achievement • Recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Adjustment • Potential for growth Extrinsic / Dissatisfiers / Hygiene Factors . coerced. Douglas McGregor • Theory of X and Y or human side of the enterprise • Noted that one’s style of management depends on one’s philosophy of mans Theory X • manager’s emphasis is on the goal of the organization • assumes that people dislike work and will avoid it • workers must be directed.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management • Father of motivation who determined that people can best be understood through the study of human needs and their influence in behavior • Once a need is satisfied. it is no longer a motivator. and subordinates • Status • Job security • Effect on one’s personal life 3. and threatened so that organizational goals can be met • mot people want to be directed and to avoid responsibility because they have little ambition • desire security • managers will do the thinking and planning with little input form staff associates • lack desire to improve quality • noncreative • money is the reason for working • believes achievement is irrelevant Robert C. Frederick Herzberg • Motivated “Hygiene theory” or “Two-Factor Motivational Need theory” Intrinsic Motivators / Satisfiers . Reña 17 .

NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management • He works to survive but no dream in life Theory Y • Emphasis is on the goal of individual • views human nature positively • assumes that people do not inherently dislike wok and that work can be source of satisfaction • workers have self-direction and self-control necessary for meeting their objectives and will respond to rewards for the achievement of those goals • believe that under favorable conditions. William Ouchi • published Theory Z (Japanese form of Participative Management) • focuses in better way of motivating people through their involvement Characteristics: • long-term employment / lifetime • slow evaluation and promotion • more implicit and less formalized control system have written plan or goal • personal concern for the employee • cross functional rotation (participation) • some degree of participative decision making • emphasis on individual responsibilities Reasons: • • • • cooperation collective decision making practice increase workers production enhance job satisfaction. ingenuity. people seek responsibility and display imagination. and creativity • human potentials are only partially used • allow participation • give general rather than close supervision • support jib enlargement • use positive incentives such as praise and recognition • exercise self-control • work is natural • enjoy responsibility • value achievement • with potential imagination and creativity • want to improve quality 4. Reña 18 . solving identified problems Focus: Four Soft S’s of Management • staff – workers • skills – capability of organization • style – how managers achieve goal • superordinate goals – guide posts Robert C.

but they do not feel very free to discuss their jobs with their managers • the top management and middle management are responsible for setting set goals • there is little communication. and they feel free to discuss their work with the manager Robert C. Benevolent-Authoritative • the manager is condescending to staff associates • staff associates’ ideas are sometimes sought. goal setting and problem solving • “psychological energy theory” 6. Chris Argyris • focused on the coexistence of personal and organizational needs • found out that individuals give priority to meeting their own needs • managers can make job more meaningful by taking advantage of people’s talents and letting them participate in planning. Exploitative-Authoritative • managers show little confidence in staff associates and ignores their ideas • staff associates do not feel free to discuss job • responsibility for organizational goal is in the top • goals are established through orders • what little communication is used is directed downward.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management Three Hard S’s of Management • system – mechanism whereby information is circulated through the organization • structure – organization itself • strategy – plan of action 5. and it is mostly directed downward after being censored by manager and is received with some suspicion • decision are made at the top with some delegation • managers do have some knowledge of the staff associates’ situation • staff associates are occasionally consulted for problem solving • goals are established through orders with some comment invited and moderate resistance received • rewards and punishment are used as control functions by top administration 3. Reña 19 . Rensis Likert • Participative Management Theory • believed that effective managers are highly sensitive to their staff associates and use communication to keep the working as a unit • foster supportive relationship among all members Four Types of Management Systems: 1. Consultative • manager has substantial confidence in staff associates • their ideas are sought. and is often inaccurate and is accepted with suspicion • managers do not know about their staff associates’ problems • decisions are made with input from below • policing and punishment are used as control function by top administration • workers strongly resist the organization’s goal and develop an informal organization of their own 2.

there is little or no resistance to them • there is not an informal organization resisting the goals of the formal organization • control is widely shared through the use of self-guidance and problem solving 7. downward. and they feel completely free to discuss their jobs with their manager • goals are set at all levels • there is great deal of communication – upward. and there is decision making throughout the organization • control functions are delegated to lower levels where reward and self guidance are used • sometimes an informal organization resists the formal goals 4. both upward and downward but it has limited accuracy and is accepted with some caution • managers are quite familiar with the problems faced by their staff associates • broad policy is set at the top with delegation • goals are set after discussion. define each individuals’ major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him and use these measures as guide for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each members • • • • • • Problems: top management is not supportive inconsistent among managers goals are too easy and attainable conflict of goals and policies accountability beyond control of subordinates lack of commitment of subordinates Objectives: • simple • focus on what is important • genuinely created from the bottom up • MBO is a living contract not form-driven exercise • • Robert C. Peter Drucker • management is a tool for effective planning and appraisal • introduced management by objectives • as directing element and made famous by George Odiorne Management by Objectives • process whereby the superior and the subordinate managers of an organization jointly identifies its goals. Reña 20 . and sideways – that is accurate and received with an open mind • managers are very well-informed about the problems faced by their staff associates • decision making is well integrated throughout the organization with full involvement of staff associates • because goals are established through group action.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management responsibility for setting goals is fairly general there is considerable communication. Participative • associated with the most effective performance • managers have complete confidence in their staff associates • staff associates’ ideas are always sought.

philosophy. orienting the staff. Reña 21 . motivating b. managing conflicts c. hiring. policies. legal and ethical control.strategic planning. communicating e. determining the most appropriate of pt.“leading” human resource management responsibility a. Staffing – recruiting. facilitating collaboration 5. quality control. staff development. determining of fiscal course of action and planning 2. interviewing. scheduling.establishing structures to carry out plans. employee socialization 4. and understanding and using power and authority 3. working in the structure of org. objectives. Controlling .a process of coordinating actions and allocating resources to achieve organizational goals of the health care delivery system 1. delegating d. professional and collegial control *long-term goal . performance.tactical planning LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT Robert C. Planning . care delivery and grooming activities to meet unit goals. Organizing .“evaluation” fiscal accountability. Directing . procedures and rules carry out short and long range production. 3-year development plan *short term goal . appraisals. goals.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management NURSING MANAGEMENT NURSING MANAGEMENT .

Nursing Management is planning -necessary to all activities -should be written -decrease the risk of decision making and problem solving -planning is tentative 2. unit manager. Operational Level – organizational structure 7.. Reña 22 . Department 3. Organizational culture reflects values and beliefs -nursing staff are working together. Top Level manager .case manager. Nursing Management is the formulation and achievement of social goal -community extension-voluntarism -community health nurse-meet the needs of poor people and large community 6. mission.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management 1. Meeting patient’s nursing care needs is the business of the nurse manager -patients are the starting point of our responsibilities 5. Nursing Management is effective communication -to decrease misunderstanding to have common understanding to have unity of direction and effort -receiving new nurses Robert C. a discipline and a field of study 8. united 10. conduct day to day operations with some involvement —long term planning and policy 3. Nursing Management denotes a function. vice president. Unit 2. concern with specific units and deal with immediate day to day operations problem PRINCIPLES OF NURSING MANAGEMENT 1. nurse practice. Nursing Management is effective use of time -use your time effectively: systematic 3. First level . team leader. social position or rank. Executive officer leader 4. Nursing Management is the active organ of the division of nursing of the organization and of the society in which it functions -exist for the good of the people 9. generally made decision and the help of few guidelines or structure to coordinate internal and external influences 2. A well manage division of nursing motivates employee to perform satisfactory -job satisfaction 12. Middle . Nursing Management is directing and leading -accomplish the object of nursing leadership style 11. Nursing Management is organizing -to identify organizational need thru assessment. Nursing Management is decision making -you have to know the advantage and disadvantages 4.supervisor. vision and objectives FOUR BUILDING BLOCKS OF NURSING MANAGEMENT 1.executive CEO.

Reña 23 . Interpersonal .different people has different attitude . Diagnostic .pertains to how something is done to working with people and to one’s abilities to work with others in the achievement of goals . techniques 3. Nursing Management is controlling or evaluating -evaluating the implementation of action plan LEVELS OF SKILLS MANAGEMENT IN NURSING 1.NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management 13.includes motivation.human skills .day to day hands on process that helps employee to recognize opportunities and ways to improve performance and capabilities mutually acceptable action creating a supportive.thru practice and experiences 5. Conceptual . healthy climate and influencing employees to change their behavior Robert C. good communication.difficult to acquire 4.refers to an individual mental ability to coordinate a variety of interests and act . Technical Skills .includes in abstract. manipulation.are the tools.ability to determine by analysis and examination the nature and circumstances of particular condition or situation . procedures and techniques that are unique to the nurse manager specialize to a situation . Coach and Mentor Skills . analyze and critical thinking 2. selection.

NCM 105: Nursing Leadership and Management Robert C. Reña 24 .

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