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International Day of Yoga

21st June 2018


Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad
Shri Ram Vaishya, Shekhar Nayak, S. Sasanka Mouli
YOGA

योग: च -वृ नरोध:


yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ
— Yoga Sutras 1.2
Schools of Yoga

● Jnana Yoga
● Bhakti Yoga
● Karma Yoga
● Pātanjala Yoga
● Kundalini Yoga
● Hatha Yoga
● Dhyāna Yoga
● Mantra Yoga
● Laya Yoga
● Raja Yoga
● Jain Yoga
● Buddha Yoga etc.
Ashtanga Yoga
1. Yama [moral codes]
a. Ahimsa - A principle of non-violence
b. Satya - A principle of Truthfulness
c. Asteya - A principle of non stealing
d. Brahmacharya - Continence / Celibacy
e. Aparigrah - A principle of non-hoarding or non possessiveness
2. Niyama [self-purification and study]
a. Shoucha - Purity
b. Santosh - Contentment
c. Tapa - Endurance
d. Swadhyaya - Self study
e. Eshwar Pranidhan - Dedication
Ashtanga Yoga
3. Asana [posture] A stable and comfortable posture which helps attain mental
equilibrium
4. Pranayama [breath control] Extension and control of breath
5. Pratyahara [sense control] Withdrawal of senses from objects
6. Dharana [concentration] Concentration of mind on one object and its field
7. Dhyana [meditation] Withdrawing mind from all external objects and focusing it on
one point and meditating on it
8. Samadhi [absorption into the Universal] State of Super bliss, joy and merging
individual consciousness into universal consciousness
Ashtanga Yoga
1. Yama
2. Niyama
3. Asana
4. Pranayama
● 1, 2, 3 and 4 are considered external cleansing practices
5. Pratyahara
● 5, 6, 7 and 8 are considered internal cleansing practices
6. Dharana
7. Dhyana
8. Samadhi

Today’s session is on 3rd and 4th, that is, Asana and Pranayama
Pre-requisites
● Cleanliness
● Empty stomach or light stomach
● Light and comfortable clothes
● Yoga mat or blanket

Avoid in case of -

● Chronic disease
● Pain
● Cardiac Problems

Asanas should be performed according to one’s own capacity and not


forcibly
Surya Namaskara

Physical Benefits: Mental Benefits:


● Increases blood oxidation ● Increases concentration
● Increases body flexibility ● Reduces Stress
● Helps with better sleep ● Improves memory
● Tones up the digestive system ● Enhances ‘mind-body’
● Strengthens nervous system coordination
Surya Namaskara

Precautions and Tips:


● Warm Up The Body Before You Start Surya Namaskar
● East or West?
○ Morning --> East
○ Evening -->West
● Keep a smile on your face
● Breathing should be natural
● Relax after finishing Surya Namaskar (Shavasana)
Surya Namaskar
Step-1 Step-2 Step-3
Inhale deeply Inhale deeply while going Exhale while bending
stand straight back forward
look forward
Surya Namaskar
Step-5 Step-6
Step-4
Exhale fully Hold your breath
Inhale deeply
vision on the ground forehead, chest, palms,
balanced on palms & toes knees toes to ground
Surya Namaskar

Step-8
Step-7 Step-9
Exhale fully
Inhale deeply Inhale deeply
touch heels to the ground
Surya Namaskar

Step-10 Step-11 Step-12


Exhale while bending Inhale deeply while going Inhale deeply
forward back stand straight
look forward
Shankha Prakshalana (Kriya)
Should be done in morning after drinking lukewarm water

Consist of the following five steps:

1. Tadasana (palm tree pose)


2. Tiryaka Tadasana (swaying palm tree pose)
3. Kati Chakrasana (waist rotating pose)
4. Turning back seeing the legs
5. Kawa Chalasana (crow walking)
Shankha Prakshalana

Tadasana (palm tree pose)


Shankha Prakshalana

Tiryaka Tadasana
(swaying palm tree pose)
Shankha Prakshalana

Kati Chakrasana (waist rotating pose)


Shankha Prakshalana

Turning back seeing the legs


Shankha Prakshalana

Kawa Chalasana (crow walking)


Vrikshasana

Benefits

● Improves neuro-muscular coordination, balance, endurance


and alertness
● It tones up the leg muscles and rejuvenates the ligaments

A word of caution

Please avoid this practice in case of arthritis, vertigo and obesity


Trikonasana (triangle pose)
Benefits:
● Stimulate and improve the function of
blood through the entire body
● Strengthens and stretches the hips,
back, arms, thighs and leg
● Reduces blood pressure, stress and
anxiety.
● Cure indigestion
● Gives flexibility to groins, hamstrings
and hips
● Transactional calm the mind
Virabhadrasana
Benefits:
● Strengthens and stabilizes the
muscles of the feet and knees
● Strengthens the shoulders, arms, and
the back
● Stretches the hip flexors and calf
muscles
● Improves balance and concentration.
Salabhasana

Benefits

● Helps in sciatica and lower backache


● Tones the hip muscles and those in the kidney region
● Reduces fat on the thighs and buttocks; good in weight management
● Helps the abdominal organs aiding digestion

A word of caution

● Cardiac patients should avoid this posture. Please proceed cautiously in case of
sever lower back pain
● People with high blood pressure, peptic ulcers and hernia should also avoid this
posture
Uttanpadasana
Benefits
● Strengthens the abdominal muscles
● The pressure on the abdominal wall
tones all the organs in the abdomen
● Strengthens the lower back muscles
helping to relieve lower back pain
● Strengthens the hamstring muscles
● Improves the functioning of the
digestive organs
● Improves digestion and removes
constipation
● Good for the pancreases and those
who suffer from diabetes
Naukasana
Benefits
● Strengthens the back and abdominal muscles
● Tones the leg and arm muscles
● Useful for people with hernia
● This Yoga Pose helps to remove belly fat
● It improves digestion.
Setu Bandhasana
Benefits
● Strengthens the back, buttocks, and hamstrings
● Improves circulation of blood, digestion
● Stimulates the lungs, thyroid glands, and abdominal organs
● Helps relieve symptoms of menopause
● Relieves symptoms of asthma and high blood pressure
Sarvangasana (shoulder stand pose)

Benefits:
● Treats thyroid problems
● Good for heart health
● Treats hypertension
● Treats insomnia
● Relieves constipation
● Beneficial for asthma
● Prevents hair fall
● Weight Loss
● Enhances your eyesight
Halasana (plough pose)

Benefits:
● Strengthens & opens up the
neck, shoulders, abs & back
muscles
● Calms the nervous system,
reduces stress and fatigue
● Tones the legs and improves
leg flexibility
● Stimulates the thyroid gland
and strengthens the immune
system
Paschimottanasana

Benefits:
● Stress reliever
● Reduces fatty deposits in the
abdomen
● Remove anxiety, anger and
irritability
● Good for constipation and
digestive disorder
● Useful for increasing height
Vakrasana

Benefits:
● reduce belly fat
● improves the function of spinal cord
and nervous system
● Enlargement of liver
● prevent and control diabetes
● kindles adrenal gland to function
properly
● Waist and back pain are overtaken
● strengthens kidney
● Chronic back pain and shoulder pain
are weeded out
Sitting Posture

Sukhasana/siddhasana Veerasana
Sitting Posture

Ardha-padmasana Padmasana
Sitting posture

Vajrasana
Shashankasana (pose of the moon or hare pose)
Pranayama

Thus being established in asana and having control (of the body), taking a
balanced diet; pranayamas should be practised according to the instructions of
the guru. Hatha Yoga Pradipika (2:1)

Pranayama = Prana + Ayama

Life Force Expansion


Pranayama

● Quantity of life is also dictated by the rhythm of the respiration.

● Those who breathe in short, quick gasps are likely to have a shorter
lifespan than those who breathe slowly and deeply. On the physical
level, this is because the respiration is directly related to the heart.

● Slow breathing rate keeps the heart stronger and better nourished
and contributes to a longer life.
Pranayama

● Irregular breathing disrupts the rhythms of the brain and leads to


physical, emotional and mental blocks.
● These lead to inner conflict, imbalanced personality, disordered
lifestyle and disease.
● Pranayama establishes regular breathing patterns, breaking this
negative cycle and reversing the process.

“There is an intimate connection between the breath, nerve currents and


control of the inner prana or vital forces.” - Swami Sivananda
Four aspects of pranayama
Four important aspects of breathing which are used in Pranayama are -

1. Pooraka or inhalation
2. Rechaka or exhalation
3. Antar Kumbhaka or internal breath retention
4. Bahir Kumbhaka or external breath retention

These practices influence the flow of prana in the nadis, purifying,


regulating and activating them, thereby inducing physical and mental
stability.
Bhastrika Pranayama

Benefits:
● Increases metabolic rate
● Increases oxygen intake
● Reduces toxins and body wastes
● Asthma and lung disorders
● Induces peace and concentration
of mind
Anulom Vilom

Benefits:
● Cleans nasal tract
● Increases oxygen intake
● Controls blood pressure
● Helpful in sinus and headache
problems
Kapalbhati Pranayama

Benefits:
● Removes sleepiness
● Energises mind
● Good for patients of
Asthma, Bronchitis,
Tuberculosis
● Tones digestive organs
Bhramari Pranayama

Benefits:
● Relieves stress and tension
● Reduces anxiety, anger and
insomnia
● Reduces blood pressure
● Increases concentration
● Induces meditative state
Bandha Mudras

● Jalandhara bandha
○ Constriction Point - Throat (Vishuddhi)
● Uddiyana bandha
○ Constriction Point - Abdomen (Manipura)
● Moola bandha
○ Constriction Point - Perineum (Mooladhara)
● Tri-bandha
○ Constriction Point - Throat, Abdomen and Perineum
References

● Patanjali Yoga Sutras

● Hatha Yoga Pradeepika

● Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha by Swami Satyananda Saraswati

● International Yoga Day - Common Yoga Protocol