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(mouse ear cress)
Oryza sativa (rice) 24
o Heredity = it is where traits are passed on from Zea mays (corn) 20
parents to offspring.
o Variations = it demonstrates differences among
o Every living thing undergoes reproduction.
o The cellular level of reproduction, in the for of cell
CHROMOSOMES division, provides growth in living organism.
o Growth is a permanent increase in size resulting from
- Are rod-like structures made of DNA and protein
cell division and cell differentiation to form tissues
- Storage units of genes
and organs in multicellular organism.
2 Kinds of proteins in chromosomes o Cell can increase in size to a certain point, after which
most of them undergo division.
A. Histones
- Helps hold shape of chromosome and allows
o Cell division is an essential aspect of life.
DNA to pack tightly
o It enables a multicellular organism to grown and
B. Nonhistones
reach the adult size.
o Do not aid in packing of DNA, instead they
o It makes possible the replacement of worn out or
control specific regions of the DNA
damaged cells and keeps the total number of cells in
an adult organism relatively constant.
o Chromosomes consist of two identical halves (each
half is called a chromatid) THE TYPES OF HUMAN CELLS
o Chromatids form when DNA makes a copy of itself
o The human body is composed of two general types of
prior to cell division
o When the cell divides, each new cell receives one
1. Body cells or somatic cells
2. Sex cells
o Chromatids are held together by a centromere

o The human body cells or somatic cells

o Like blood cells, bone cells, skin cells and muscle
o Are diploid in number (abbreviated as 2n)
o Has 23 pairs of chromosomes
o 22 pairs = autosomal chromosomes
o 1 pair = sex chromosomes
o XY = male sex chromosome
o XX = female sex chromosome
Chromosome numbers of selected organisms o Every cell of an organism produces by sexual
reproduction has 2 copies of each autosome (one from
Organisms Chromosome number each parent)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae o The two copies of each chromosome are called
(common yeast) homologous chromosomes – same shape and size and
Caenorhabdites elegans carry genes form same trait.
Drosophila melanogaster
(fruitfly) DIPLOID CELLS
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs) 52
- Cells with two sets of chromosomes (2n)
Homo sapiens (man) 46
- Diploid cells have both chromosomes for each pair as o One or more nucleoli are visible inside the nucleus.
well as the sex chromosomes o The chromosome cannot be clearly seen.
- Diploid cells in humans have 23 pairs, or 46 o They appear as an irregular mass that is grainy in
chromosomes 2n = 46 appearance because the DNA they contain are
stretched out thinly in the nucleus.
o This facilitates the replication of DNA during S
- Human gametes or sex cells are haploid phase.
Sperm - male gamete o Nuclear division is divided further into:
Egg - female gamete 1. Prophase
- Haploid cells contain only one set of chromosomes 2. Metaphase
(n) 3. Anaphase
- Have half the number of chromosomes as diploid 4. Telophase
cells and only have one sex chromosome o Cytokinesis = is the cytoplasmic division.


- Is a picture showing the complete set of chromosome o In order for multicellular organisms like plants and
in one’s cell animals to grow, they must produce new cells from
o In karyotyping class, chromosomes are isolated, pre-existing cells.
stained and examined under a powerful microscope o The cells produced must be the same or identical to
o Before cell starts dividing, the chromosomes are the original or parent cell.
duplicated o This type of cell is Mitosis.
o This process produces sister chromatids o However, there is another type of cell division which
produces daughter cells with half number of
CELL CYCLE chromosomes as the original parent cell, the resulting
- The series of events in which cells grow and divide are not similar.
o 2 main parts: o This type of cell division is called Meiosis.
A. Interphase – cell growth and DNA replication o In humans, mitosis cell division is important in the
B. Mitosis – nuclear and cytoplasmic division growth of organisms an in repair of worn-out tissues.
o The cell cycle is divided into several stages: o Somatic cells / body cells are involved in mitosis.
 G1 Phase o All daughter cells are diploid (2n) and identical to its
 S Phase parent cell.
 G2 Phase
 M Phase 46

o Most of cell’s time spent in this part of cycle

46 46
o G1 Phase (Growth 1) = the cell marks the onset of its
cycle there is an increase in the number of cell
organelles. 2n 2n
o S Phase (Synthesis Phase) = DNA replication takes
o G2 Phase (Growth 2) = enzymes and proteins
required during M phase are synthesized o (early) Each chromosome consists of two sister
o M Phase = is cell division phase / meiosis / mitosis; chromatids attached at the centromere;
nuclear and cytoplasmic division takes place. o Structure called asters start to form around the
o Some cells enter G0 phase where they remain and no centrioles;
longer grow or divide (Ex: nerve cells) o The two centrioles move apart to opposite poles;
o The nucleus is clearly visible as a distinct membrane o (later) Nucleolus disappears;
– bound organelle/
o Nuclear envelope disappears and spindle fibers
appear. 2n
Meiosis I
o The chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate;
23 23
o Each chromosome is attached to a spindle fiber at the n n

ANAPHASE 23 23 23 23
n n n n
Meiosis II
o Each chromosome splits;
o The spindle fibers pull the chromatids apart to
opposite poles of the cell.


o Spindle fibers disintegrate; nuclear envelope reforms; PROPHASE I

o Nucleolus appears in each nucleus; o Homologous chromosome undergoes synapsis
o Chromosome uncoils pairing (homologous chromosomes have the same
o After telophase, cytokinesis or division of the shape, genes and length)
cytoplasm follows. o Asters appear around the centrioles and centrioles
o The cytoplasm divides forming two identical cells. move apart opposite poles.
o In animal cells, cytoplasm divides by forming o Chromatids of each chromosomes cross and twist
cleavage furrow. around each other (crossing over) the point of
o In plant cells, cleavage of the cytoplasm doesn’t crossing is called chiasma (chiasmata, plural) this
occur. allows exchange of genetic materials (crossing ovetr
o Instead, it forms a cell plate. is very important because this produces new
Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells combinations of genes, thus VARIATION occurs.
o Nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear; spindle
o In animals, cytokinesis occurs by cleavage. fibers form
o This process pinches the cell apart.
o Homologous chromosomes align themselves along
o Also in humans, meiosis occurs in reproductive the equatorial plate.
organs (female and male gonads) these are the ovaries
and testes respectively. ANAPHASE I
o Sex cells / gametes (egg cell and sperm cell) are being o Homologous chromosomes separate and move to
produced through meiosis cell division. opposite poles of the cell.
o A diploid cell produces four haploid sex cells at the
end of two successive cell division. TELOPHASE I AND CYTOKINESIS
o The sex cells are not identical in genetic make up. o Nuclear membrane forms, nucleus and cytoplasm
divides forming two haploid daughter cells; centrioles

o Meiosis II is essentially the same as mitosis

- The sister chromatids of each chromosome separate
- The result is four haploid daughter cells


o Centrioles move to opposite poles;

o Nuclear envelope disintegrates; o Either homologous pairs fail to separate during
o Spindle fibers form again meiosis I.
o Or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II.
o When chromosomes in a pair fail to separate from
o Chromosomes arrange along the equatorial plate each other during meiosis I.
along with the spindle fibers. o The resulting gametes acquires both members of a
pair of chromosomes.
ANAPHASE II o If this involves chromosome pair 21, for ex. one of
o Sister chromatids separate; they are pulled towards the gametes contains two copies of the chromosome,
the opposite poles. then the individual produced will have 47
chromosomes in his or her cells (wit three copies of
TELOPHASE II chromosome 21)
o Spindle fibers disappear, nuclear envelops form o This condition is known as Down’s Syndrome.
nucleus and cytoplasm divide, forming four haploid o Named after Dr. Langdon Down – who first studied
daughter cells. the condition.


o Meiosis is important in the production od sex cells or o People with this condition suffer from variable
gametes. degrees of mental retardation, sterility and increased
o Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis = are processes risk beyond the age 40 of Alzheimer’s disease, which
resulting to the production of sperm cells and egg affects the functioning of the brain.
cells respectively. o It is usually associated with pregnancy in women
above 35 years if age.
FERTILIZATION AND VARIATION o Connection: an extra copy of chromosome 21 causes
down syndrome
o The production of haploid sex cells ensures that when
fertilization (union of egg cell (n) and sperm cell (n) CRU DI CHAT SYNDROME
happens, the zygote contains a diploid number (2) of
chromosomes. o Sometimes, a piece of chromosome breaks off and
o Meiosis also ensures variation. gets lost.
o It is made possible through the process of crossing o The effects of this accident depend on the particular
over, during the Prophase I, crossing over ensures the genetic material lost.
formation of gametes with a varied set of genetic o For ex. when a part of chromosome is lost, the
characteristics. afflicted individual will have a face that is round,
moonlike, cries feebly and is mentally and physically
MEIOSIS o Cru di chat is a French for cat’s cry, which is the
sound of a baby with this condition makes when he /
o Meiosis may not always proceed normally.
she cries.
o Accidents sometimes happen.
o These accidents may affect the functioning of the KLINEFELTER SYNDROME
spindle fibers or the movement of one of more
chromosomes. o A male child with this condition has an extra X
o In humans, some accidents have been known to cause chromosome.
abnormal conditions. o Lower IQ than sibs
o Tall stature
Accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome number o Poor muscle tone
o Reduced secondary sexual characteristics
o Abnormal chromosome count is a result of
o Gynaecomastia (male breasts)
o Small testes / infertility

o A female child with this condition lacks an X


o Several drugs may cause breaks or other

abnormalities in the chromosomes.
o Chlorpromazine (a popular tranquilizer)
o Diphenhydramine (an antihistamine)
o Lysergic acid diethylamide or LSD (a hallucinogen)