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Chapter Thirty-Three
Atonality and Twelve Tonality


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1. Phrase a encompasses mm.1-8. Cadential extensions repeat the final bar
of the basic phrase (mm.4-5) in mm.5-6 and mm.7-8. Phrase b entails

2. The figure of mm.1-3 appears again in mm.34-36. It also appears with

somewhat altered interval structure in mm.9-11, mm.17-18, mm.25-27,
and mm.30-32 (where it switches voices and octaves).

3. The opening motive is doubled in major thirds against a chromatic rising

bass line (with octave shifts) in mm.34-36. In mm.36-38, the motive
undergoes further variation, still doubled at the major third while the bass
continues its chromatic ascent upward. The generative (014) set is also
present throughout the passage. If, for example, we consider in m.34 the
opening E sixteenth note together with the major third Db-F that follows,
we have the (034) set—the inversion of the (014). The same thing applies
as the right-hand part continues.

4. The most prominent secondary set is the (026), found in m.4, beat 2, m.5,
beats 2-3, m.7, beats 1-3 (right hand), m.8, m.11 (left hand), m.17, beats
1-2 and beat 3 (left hand), and m.18 (left hand). Other sets, less pervasive
and less obvious, can also be found.

F. Erratum: Viola m.3: The second note should be G#, not G §

The two operative sets (related) in this excerpt are (0134) and (0145). Examples:

• The three-note chords formed by the violins and violas in mm.1-3;
m.5, beats 1 and 2; m.6, beats 2, 3, and 4; and m.8
• The melodic fragments of m.6 in each of the three upper strings

• The eighth-note figures in m.7
• Violin I, m.5, Violin II, m.5-6
• In partial form, Cello m.8 (final three-note figure)

Twelve Tonality

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1. The row is: D Eb A C# Bb E G# G C B F F#
The only linear statement is by the voice, which completes a Po form in
m.7 followed immediately by Ro, which concludes in m.10. The remain-
der of the voice part (mm.11-14) contains Po and Ro statements of the
third tetrachord.

2. The only row forms used are Po and Ro. The piano part uses only Po

3,4. Schoenberg treats the row as three tetrachords. These segments are con-
sistently distributed among three “parts”—the voice, the piano right hand,
and the piano left hand—so that no pitch is duplicated (although immedi-
ate pitch repetitions occur in motivic fashion). A diagram follows:

Tetrachord A: D Eb A C# Tetrachord B: Bb E G# G Tetrachord C: C B F F#

Voice: A B C
Piano RH: A B A B C B A B
Piano LH: C C B A A B A
m.: 1 2 4 6

Voice: B A C
Piano RH: A B A and B alternate in repeated-note motives
Piano LH: C* B and A alternate in repeated-note motives
m.: 9 10 11

Piano RH: A B
Piano LH: B C
m.: 14 15 16

* The C tetrachord is also heard in the mid-register piano (right hand, mm.9-10),
but in retrograde so that pitch duplication with C prime form does not occur.

5. In both the prelude (mm.1-3) and the postlude (mm.14-18), Schoenberg employs
tetrachord C in the lowest register, pairing the pitches to produece open fourths
and fifths (C-F and B-F#), producing an ominous tone that aurally distinguishes
these passages from the body of the song.

Note: Schoenberg’s use of a single row form seems to reflect the first line of the text: “If
all is one, what does it matter?”