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The Attorney General Washington, D.C. March 24, 2019 ‘The Honorable Lindsey Graham ‘The Honorable Jerrold Nadler Chairman, Committee onthe Judiciary (Chairman, Committee onthe Judiciary United States Senate United States House of Representatives 290 Russell Senate Office Building 2132 Rayburn House Office Building ‘Washington, D.C. 20510 Washington, D.C. 20515 ‘The Honorable Dianne Feinstein ‘The Honorable Doug Collins Ranking Member, Committee on the Judiciary Ranking Member, Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate United States House of Representatives 331 Hart Senate Office Building 1504 Longworth House Office Building ‘Washington, D.C. 20510 ‘Washington, D.C. 20515 Dear Chairman Graham, Chairman Nadler, Ranking Member Feinstein, and Ranking Member Collins: ‘Asa supplement to the notification provided on Friday, March 22,2019, Lam writing today ‘o advise you of the principal conclusions reached by Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller IT and to inform you about the status of my initial review of the report he has prepared, ‘The Special Counsel's Report On Friday, the Special Counsel submitted to me a “confidential report explaining the prosecution or declination decisions” he has reached, as requied by 28 CER. §600.8(9). This reports entled “Report onthe Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidetil Election.” Although my review is ongoing, believe that iti in the public intrest to deseibe the report and to summarize the principal conclusions reached by the Special Counsel andthe results otis investigation ‘The report explains that the Special Counsel and his stall thoroughly investigated allegations that members ofthe presidental campaign of Donald J. Tromp, and athersassocinted with it, conspired with the Russian government in its efforts to interfere in the 2016 US. presidential election, or sought to obstruct the related federal investigations. Inthe report, the Special Counsel noted that, in completing his investigation, he employed 19 lawyers who were assisted by a team of approximately 40 FBI agents, intelligence analysts, forensic accountants, and other professional staff. The Special Counsel issued more than 2,800 subpoenas, executed nearly ‘500 search warrants, obtained more than 230 orders for communication records, issued almost 50 orders authorizing use of pen registers, made 13 requests to foreign governments for evidence, and interviewed approximately 500 witnesses. ‘The Special Counsel obtained a number of indictments and convictions of individuals and entities in connection with his investigation, all of which have been publicly disclosed. During the course of his investigation, the Special Counsel also referred several matters to other offices {or further action. ‘The report does not recommend any further indictments, nor did the Special Counsel obtain any sealed indictments that have yet to be made public. Below, I summatize the principal conclusions set out in the Special Counse’s report Russian Interference in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election. The Special Counsel's report is divided into two parts, The first describes the results of the Special Counsel's investigation into Russia's interference inthe 2016 U.S. presidential election. The report oulines ‘the Russian effort to influence the election and documents crimes committed by persons associated ‘with the Russian government in connection with those efforts. The report further explains that a primary consideration for the Special Counsel’s investigation was whether any Americans ~ including individuals associated with the Trump campaign ~ joined the Russian conspiracies to influence the election, which would be a federal crime. ‘The Special Counsel's investigation did not find that the Trump campaign or anyone associated with it conspired or coordinated with Russia in its efforts to influence the 2016 U.S, presidential election. As the report states: “[T]he investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in ts election interference activities." ‘The Special Counse’s investigation determined that there were two main Russian efforts tw influence the 2016 election, The first involved attempts by @ Russian organization, the Intemet Research Agency (IRA), to conduct disinformation and social media operations in the United ‘States designed to sow social discord, eventually with the aim of interfering with the election. AS noted above, the Special Counsel did not find that any U.S. person or Trump campaign offical or associate conspired or knowingly coordinated with the IRA in its efforts, although the Special ‘Couinse! brought criminal charges against a number of Russian nationals and entities in connection these activites. The second element involved the Russian government's efforts to conduct computer hacking operations designed to gather and disseminate information to influence the election. The Special Counsel found that Russian government actors successfully hacked into computers and obtained emails ftom persons affiliated with the Clinton campaign and Democratic Party ‘organizations, and publicly disseminated those materials through various intermediaries, including WikiLeaks, Based on these activities, the Special Counsel brought criminal charges against a ‘number of Russian military officers for conspiring to hack into computers in the United States for ‘purposes of inluencing the election. But as noted above, the Special Counse! didnot find that the ‘Trump campaign, or anyone associated with it, conspired or coordinated with the Russian ‘government in these efforts, despite multiple offers from Russian-affiliated individuals to assist the Trump campaign, Im assessing potential conspiracy charges, the Special Counsel also considered whether ‘embers ofthe Trump campaign “coordinated” with Russian election interference act ‘The Special Counsel defined “coordination” as an “agreement—tact or express—between the ‘Trump Campaign and the Russian government on election interference.” 2 Obstruction of Justice, The repos second part addresses a number of actions by the President ~ most of which ave been the subject of publi reporting ~ thatthe Special Counsel investigated as potetially raising obstruction-of justice eoncems. After making a “thorough factual investigation” into these matters, the Special Counsel considered whether to evaluate the conduct under Department standards governing prosecution and declination decisions but ultimately determined not to make a traditional prosecutorial judgment. The Special Counsel therefore did not draw a conclusion - one way ofthe ather—as to whether the examined conduct consiued obsttion. Instead, foreach of the relevant ations investigated, the report ses ut evidence on bah sides ofthe question and leaves unresolved what de Spal Counsel views as “ffcult issues” of law and fact concerning whether the Presidents ations and intent could be viewed as obstrcton, The Special Counsel states that “while this report doesnot conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him.” The Special Counsel's decison to deseribe the ficts of his obstruction investigation ‘without reaching any legal conclusions leaves itt the Atomey General to determine whether the conduct desribed in the report constitutes a crime. Over the course ofthe investigation, the Special Counsel’s office engaged in discussions with certain Department officals regarding many ofthe legal and factual matters at issue inthe Special Counsel’s obstuction investigation, Aer reviewing the Special Counsel's final report on these issues; consulting with Department officials, including the Office of Legal Counsel; and applying the principles of federal prosecution tha guide ‘our charging decisions, Deputy Atomey General Rod Rosenstein and I have concluded thatthe evidence developed during the Special Counsel’ investigation is not sufieient to establish that the President commited an obsrution-of justice offense. Our determination was made without regard to, and is not based on, the constitutional considerations that suround the indictment and ‘criminal prosecution ofa siting president? In making this determination, we noted that the Special Counsel recognized that “the evidence docs not establish that the President was involved in an underlying crime related to Russian election interference,” and that, while not determinative, the absence of such evidence bears upon the President's intent with respect to obstruction. Generally speaking, to obtain and sustain an obstruction conviction, the government would need to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that a person, acting with corrupt intent, engaged in obstructive conduct with a sufficient nexus to ‘apending or contemplated proceeding. In cataloguing the President's actions, many of which took place in public view, the report identifies no actions that, in our judgment, constitute obstructive ‘conduct, had @ nexus to a pending or contemplated proceeding, and were done with corrupt intent, ceach of which, under the Department's principles of federal prosecution guiding. charging decisions, would need to be proven beyond a reasonable doubt to establish an abstruction-of- justice offense ‘Status ofthe Department's Review ‘The relevant regulations contemplate that the Special Counsel's report will be a confidential report” tothe Attorney General. See Office of Special Counsel, 64 Fed. Reg. 37,038, ‘See A Sitting President's Amenability to Indicment and Criminal Prosecution, 24 Op. O.LC. 222 (2000, 3