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Rachel Wildermuth

Prof. Trotter
English Composition 2
March 17, 2019
Annotated Bibliography
My essay will attempt to explain if starting school later will impact a students body.
I want to know if starting schools later will benefit a students academic performance? I also want
to know the downfalls of starting school later.
Marie Anderson, Synonym, 31 Mar. 2017, the main point is that schools have reasons for starting
earlier and that there are advantages to starting early. This article gives four advantages to
starting earlier. Those reasons are academic, extra-curricular, transportation costs are better for
parents’ schedules. Academically, there is evidence that starting earlier helps increase test scores
and the top three high schools in Baltimore, Maryland all start their day at 7:25 am. As for extra-
curricular activities, administrators agree that earlier start times helps provide more after school
hours for students to participate in sports and other activities such as jobs for high schoolers.
They also claim that having more daylight at the end of the day allows for more safety for
students who are involved in after school activities. Transportation costs remain lower in
districts in which high schools start earlier. Those districts are able to stagger but times and
therefore save money on busses and drivers and maintenance. Finally, parents appreciate earlier
start times if they have long commutes or early work times themselves. They will be able to
avoid child care costs if their child goes directly to school at the same time they leave for work.

The author’s purpose in writing this article is to praise earlier start times for schools. The
author’s audience is most likely educators or others who work in education, such as
administrators. The author wrote this piece for an education based website. One would assume
that it is geared toward educators who are in favor of earlier start times for school. The article
names only advantages.

The author is Marie Anderson who holds a Bachelor of Science in exercise and sports science
and a Master of Science in education administration. She has seven years of teaching and
coaching experience in the Texas public school system. She is employed in the education field
and has experience teaching. She cited her own sources for her article which gives her more
credibility. The website this article is found on is geared toward those interested in education
topics and claims to be an educational resource for people of all ages.

I will use this source to argue against my point that starting school later. This will go in my
rebutal, and explain the reasons why starting school earlier is better than starting later.
Jeremy Gungabeesoon, SITN, 21 Dec. 2018, the main point is that when two Seattle area schools
started later students academic performance began to improve in school. This aritle discusses the
importance of moving the start time back, and how it benefited students academic performance.
The author then shares that a group of scientists from University of Washington was attempting
to work on that problem. They worked with two high schools and pushed back their start times.
The scientists studied sleep-wake monitors for students for a couple of weeks to determine if the
later time made a difference. The study indicated an increase in sleep led to better test score.
The study acknowledges that there are other factors that affect sleep including screen time right
before bed. Overall students who receive more sleep each night will more likely do better in

The author’s purpose in this article is to indicate that later start times increased the sleep times in
students in two different Seattle high schools. The audience is readers of science journals and
blogs. These journals and websites are geared toward people with science interests.

The author is a member of Science in the News, Boston. His blog is taken from a larger article
published in December, 2018, for the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
He cites that longer article, giving him more credibility in writing his blog.

I will use this source in my research because it is backed by scientific research and supports my
claim that later start times are better for high schoolers.


Jennifer A. Heissel and Samual Norris, Journal of Human Resources, fall 2018, the main point of
this article is about the different effects about the amount of sunlight can have on a students
academic performance. This article discusses how time zones and the change of sunlight can
have on a students grades. The central and east time zone were dicussed in this article, and it
showed that those students who were right across the border, and those who got the extra hour of
sunlight before school performed better. Waking up early and still seeing darkness can have an
effect on a students academics. When you wake up and it is still dark your brain thinks it is still
night time. So seeing light in the morning can make a big difference in a students life.

The articles main point was to explain that if students sleep in until there is sunlight then they
are more likely to do better in school. The author also compares different schools from different
time zones, that were near each other to show the impact sunlight has on a students academic
The authors are Jennifer A. Heissel and Samual Norris. These authors are credible because they
come from a source located in the Sinclair library which also makes the source reliable. The
source also comes from a volume of the Journal of Human Resources which is a reliable source
with accurate information.

I will use this source to help support my argument for later school start times because this
information includes scientific research that is important to include in my essay.
Jeff Mann, Sleep Junkies, 1 Feb. 2019, the main point of this article is that children are not
getting the amount of sleep that they should be getting. The amount of sleep that a person needs
changes over time. As babies you typically need more sleep, but as you get older you start to get
and average of 7 to 8 hours of sleep. One thing that people forget about is how much sleep
adolecants should be getting. Schools start very early and most of the time when kids head off to
school they are still in sleep mode. This article discusses how it can be dangerous for kids to be
waiting for the bus in the dark. Some people may think that kids should just go to bed earlier but
there brain doesn’t start to get tired until 11. The school start times interupt the normal sleep
cycle of an adolecent. This artice continues on to discuss the health benefits that a later school
start time can have on kids.

The writer is Jeff Mann and he is interviewing Phyllis Payne who serves on the executive board
of the SSL. This source is reliable because it comes from a recent interviewer with an executive
board member.

I am using this source to support my argument for later school start times because this article
provides information from a specific person with their viewpoints in an interview as a parent and
as a teacher.
National Research Council, NCBI, 1 Jan. 1970, the main point of this article is about how a later
school start time can benefit a students health. This article explains that students in the first few
periods were more alert and not as tired with the later start time. If students are more alert in
class then their school results will begin to increase. Also counselors at schools in Minnesota
reported that less students would report signs of depression with the later start time. With more
sleep students began to behave better in the classroom, and were overall more happy. Moving the
school start time had so many benefits including; improved behavior, more alertness, and less
The writer is the National Research Council. This is a reliable source because it is a national
research website by the government, so I know I can trust it.

I am using this source to support my argument with different pieces of evidence from a national
research website. This source includes informatiion about improved behavior to add to my
Judith Owens, Children’s National. This main point of this video was to explain the importance
of sleep in adolecants. Most teenagers can’t fall asleep until 11; which is when their brain starts
to shut off. Teens need at least 8-9 hours of sleep, so they shouldn’t be getting up until about 8.
Most schools start before 8. This leads to many kids being sleep deprived. Having enough sleep
is very important, especially for adolecants who are still growing. So moving back schools start
time would be very beneficial for a childs health, and would make getting sleep deprived less

Judith Owens is the speaker in this video. She is reliable because she is a director of sleep
medicine. The source Childrens National is reliable because it is a known organization.

I am going to be using this source to explain the importance of sleep that a child should receive,
and how that relates to a schools start time. This source is from a professional, so I know that the
information is accurate and reliable.
James Urton, University of Washington News, 12 Dec. 2018. The main idea of this article is to
explain how moving back the school start time can increase a students amount of sleep. Moving
back schools start times allowed students to sleep in more. This allowed them to gain more sleep
than they would have normally. Not only did they just gain sleep from sleeping in more, they
also started to go to bed earlier, and resulted in a healthy amount of sleep. This all was a result of
moving a schools start time back. If students don’t reach a healhty amount of sleep this can affect
digestion, heart rate, body temperature, immune system function, attention span and mental
health. All things that are negative effects that we wouldn’t to cause becasue of lack of sleep.
Moving back the start time is a very healthy way for students to reach the amount of sleep they

James Urton is the author who writes for the news at the University of Washington. This is a
reliable source because it is a university, and is an educational site.

I am using this source to help support my argument about the imortance of sleep that an
adolecant needs in order to be healthy. This news source is a reliable source that will help me.
Works Cited
Anderson, Marie. “What Is the Advantage of Having School Start Early?” Synonym, 31 Mar.
Accessed 3 Mar. 2019.

Gungabeesoon, Jeremy. “Later School Start Times May Help Improve School Performance.”
Science in the News, 21 Dec. 2018,
formance/ Accessed 3 Mar. 2019.
HEISSEL, J. A.; NORRIS, S. Rise and Shine: The Effect of School Start Times on Academic
Performance from Childhood through Puberty. Journal of Human Resources, [s. l.], v.
53, n. 4, p. 957–992,
2018. Disponível em:
e&db=bth&AN=132629225&site=eds-live>. Acessed: 3 Mar. 2019.
Mann, Jeff, et al. “Interview: Should We Be Sending Kids to School at 5am? | Interview.”
Sleep Junkies, Sleep Junkies, 1 Feb. 2019, Accessed 3 Mar. 2019.
National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Adolescence.
“CHANGING SCHOOL STARTING TIMES.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience
Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, Accessed 3 Mar. 2019.
Owens, Judith. “Judith Owens, M.D., Discusses New AAP Policy on School Start Time.”
Children's National,
Accessed 3 Mar. 2019.
Urton, James. “Teens Get More Sleep, Show Improved Grades and Attendance with Later
Start Time, Researchers Find.” Office of Minority Affairs Diversity, 12 Dec. 2018, Accessed 3 Mar.