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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources


1. How to Use This Guide

2. Introduction to Social Impact
3. Corporate Responsibility (CSR) & Sustainability
4. Nonprofit and Public Sector Management
5. Socially Responsible Investing (SRI)
6. Social Entrepreneurship
7. International Development
8. Cleantech
9. Education
10. Example Haas MBA Alumni Profiles

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
How to Use This Guide
This guide presents an overview of social impact careers along with introductions to seven of the most
popular social impact sub-sectors. While some of the material is unique to this guide, we have provided
links to as much existing information as possible. It is not intended to be the definitive source of
information about social impact careers, and we encourage you to seek out other sources as well,
including but not limited to the Social Impact Career Handbook authored by Wharton’s Net Impact
chapter in 2005.

Students enter Haas with varying levels of knowledge about social impact. Some are already experienced
but want to connect with on-campus resources and learn about the latest techniques and trends. Many
come from more traditional careers but have some social impact experience that they would like to build
on at Haas. And other students are exploring the sector to see if it is right for them. We hope that this
guide has elements that can help experts and beginners alike.

If you are already experienced in the social impact space, you may wish to skip some of the material on
industry background and types of organizations and focus on leading employers at Haas, alumni profiles,
resources and opportunities on campus. For those of you newer to the space, you may find that
familiarizing yourself with the context of various social impact sectors gives you the vocabulary and the
confidence to speak and write fluently at networking events, in interviews, and in other venues.

Introduction to Social Impact

Do you believe that making a positive impact on society, the environment or the life of a customer is as
important as running a successful business or organization? If so, this guide is for you. However, you
may be wondering what exactly is meant by “social impact.” A good place to start is using the power of
business to – as Mahatma Gandhi said – “be the change you want to see in the world.”

Rather than seeking to define the term, it may be easier to see how some leading organizations use it. Net
Impact, a global network of student and professional leaders, aims to “create a more socially and
environmentally sustainable world.” The design firm IDEO states its desire to “create significant
social change.” FSG Social Impact Advisors, a consulting firm, talks about its commitment to
“accelerating social progress.”

There may be countless ways of improving the world, and the Haas MBA Career Services Organization
(CSO) focuses on helping MBA students apply traditional and newly emerging business skills to achieve
social impact. As recently as a few years ago, social impact career seekers were more likely to pursue
graduate studies in public policy, public management or international affairs than an MBA. Some joined
MBA programs, and many felt like outsiders. This need not be the case today, and certainly not at Haas,
where students arrive to find career services staff, centers of excellence, student groups, events, and
courses specifically tailored to achieving positive impact on society and the environment.

Along with the cultural shift in MBA programs has come a new appreciation within social impact
organizations of the skillset brought by MBA students and graduates. Rather than simply accommodating
MBAs, more and more organizations are designing projects and positions with MBAs in mind.

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
This guide provides information about seven social impact sub-sectors:
 Corporate Responsibility (CSR) & Sustainability
 Nonprofit and public sector management
 Socially responsible investing (SRI)
 Social Entrepreneurship
 International Development
 Cleantech
 Education

The Social Impact Landscape

The diagram below provides a simplified depiction of the social impact landscape, dividing the universe
into small and large (x-axis) and nonprofit and for-profit organizations (y-axis), with an emphasis on
organizations that have recruited on campus or involve Haas alumni in some way. While the diagram
does not identify all of the seven subsectors covered in this guide, the amount of overlap (also the source
of much of the disagreement on how to categorize organizations) between sectors should become clearer.

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
Within each of the seven sub-sectors, this guide provides available resources and advice in the following
 CENTERS (i.e. at Haas or UC Berkeley)

The subsectors in this guide are defined to maximize clarity and consistency with the way social impact is
understood and taught at Haas. Others may define social impact and its various subsectors differently.
Don’t be discouraged by this – people disagree about the definitions of mainstream business concepts all
the time. Let this guide be a starting point to explore and reach your own conclusions about the vast
world of social impact.

General Advice
As with any other sector, Haas students looking for social impact jobs should take advantage of all the
resources offered at Haas, through the Career Services Organization (CSO), and on the wider UC
Berkeley campus. CSO advisors work across industries and functions and are happy to discuss your
career goals and how your skills and experience can best be positioned to achieve those goals.

CSO Industry Account Manager: Rich Wong is the Account Manager for social impact, as well as
technology, entertainment and media. He is available to meet with all students once they have picked
their area of focus and qualified for On-Campus Recruiting by completing the Career Management
Conference in the fall.

Career Coaches: Second-year students are available to act as advisors and mentors to incoming students
in social entrepreneurship, nonprofit, energy, education, and other sectors. They can give informational
interviews about their summer internships as well as reviewing resumes and cover letters and sharing
alumni contacts.

CareerNet: Besides full-time and internship opportunities, CareerNet has a wealth of information on
industries and functions, contacts at organizations that recruit on campus, resume/cover letter/interview
assistance, a MBA roadmap, and downloadable workshops on general career topics, etiquette and much
more. Go to the resources tab to access a wealth of information, including existing CSO career guides
referred to in this document.

Academic Advisors: Dan Sullivan, Director of Academic Affairs for the full-time MBA program, can
assist you in planning your electives – both Haas and non-Haas courses – to fit your objectives.

Connect with Alumni: The Haas MBA provides numerous opportunities to connect with alumni, either at
networking events and conferences, or through your own searching of the Haas alumni database. Talk to
current students and the relevant centers on campus about what alumni might be appropriate given your
career goals.

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
CSR & Sustainability Nonprofit & Public Sector Socially Responsible Social International Cleantech Education
Management Investing (SRI) Entrepreneurship Development
Career Guides  CSR Guide (CSO)  MBA Roadmap (Center  Buy-Side Finance  Startup Profile (CSO)  Vault Guide to Careers  Energy – Career Profile None
(guides  CSR Guide (Haas Net for Nonprofit & Public Profile & Resource list  Entrepreneurship in International & Resources (CSO)
marked “CSO” Impact) Leadership) (CSO) Profile (CSO) Development (CSO)  Vault Guide to the
can be  Social Impact Career  Wet Feet and Vault  Social Energy Industry (CSO)
downloaded Handbook (Wharton Net guides to NPO/Gov (CSO) Entrepreneurship
from Impact)  MBA Non-Profit Teaching Handbook
CareerNet)  MBA Career Roadmap Connection (Ashoka)
(Center for Responsible  Goldman School Career
Business) Resources
Courses  Strategic CSR & Projects  Social Sector Solutions  Social Investing  Entrepreneurship  Entrepreneurship  Cleantech to Market  Leadership in
(SS=Speaker  Sustainability Metrics  Achieving Social Impact  Haas SRI Fund  New Product Dev.  Business & Tech for (C2M) Education SS
 Achieving Social Impact  Strategic Mgmt of  All finance and  Business & Tech. for Sustainable Dev  Energy & Enviro
 Sustainability courses in Nonprofit Organizations investments courses Sustainable Dev.  Social Enterprise, ICTs Markets
the Engineering School  Fin. Mgmt of NPOs (PP  Social Enterprise, ICTs and Int’l Dev (I-school)  New Prod. Dev.
 Engineering & Business 290-2) and Int’l Dev (Info 290-7)  Microfinance SS  Renewable Energy SS
Sustainability (certificate)  Nonprofit Boards  Achieving Social  Market-Based  Energy & Infrastructure
 Marketing & Fundraising Impact Approaches to Poverty Project Finance (Boalt)
for Nonprofit Orgs  Market-Based Alleviation SS  Engineering &
Approaches to Poverty  Achieving Social Business Sustainability
Alleviation SS Impact (certificate)
Centers  Center for Responsible  CNPL  CRB  CNPL  The Blum Center  Center for Energy &  Net Impact
Business (CRB)  The Lester Center  Henry Wheeler Center Environmental Innovation
for Emerging &  The Lester Center
Neglected Disease
Clubs  Net Impact  Net Impact  Net Impact  Net Impact  Net Impact  BERC  Net Impact
 Education Leadership  Finance Club  GIH  GIH  Net Impact  Education Leadership
Club  Berkeley Investment  Hub Bay Area  GIH Club
Events  Net Impact Conference  Net Impact Conference  Net Impact Conference  Global Social Venture  Net Impact Conference  BERC Symposium  Net Impact Conference
 BSR Conference  Craiglist Foundation Non-  SRI in the Rockies Competition (GSVC)  GSVC  GSVC
 Sustainable Brands Profit Bootcamp  SoCAP & BeDo  Net Impact Conference
 Go Green Expo  CNPL Public Leadership  SoCAP & BeDo
 SF Green Festival Dinner
Experiential  Strategic CSR & Projects  Board Fellows  Haas SRI Fund  International Business  IBD  C2M  Oakland Schools
Learning Development (IBD)  Blum Center Residency
Opportunities  Board Fellows Fellowships  Board Fellows
Case & B-Plan  Net Impact Case  GSVC  UNC Sustainable VC  GSVC  GSVC  Berkeley Business Plan  Education Leadership
Comps Competition (Leeds)  Global Citizenship Investment Competition  Berkeley Business  Global Citizenship Competition Case Competition
 Global Citizenship Challenge Plan Challenge  National Energy  MIT Nonprofit Case
Challenge  GWU Int’l MBA Case  Global Citizenship  Global Social Finance Challenge Competition (Ed theme)
 William James Foundation Competition (Nonprofit Challenge Entrepreneurship  GSVC
Socially Responsible focus) Challenge (UW)  Vestas Winnovation
Business Plan Competition Challenge

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources

Corporate Responsibility (CSR) & Sustainability

CSR describes the activities in which a corporation engages to drive social and environmental impact. A
few common definitions include the following: (1) The efforts companies make above and beyond
regulation to balance the needs of stakeholders with the need to make a profit.1 (2) The continuing
commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving
the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at
large.2 (3) The efforts taken by a corporation to maximize positive impacts and minimize negative
impacts on society and the planet.3 (4) A business approach that creates long-term shareholder value by
embracing opportunities and managing risks deriving from economic, environmental and social

While CSR frequently takes on environmental, social and “employee wellness” dimensions at many
corporations, the term sustainability generally refers to a company’s environmental footprint although
some use the term more broadly. This footprint can be measured in different ways, and often looks at
water, energy and materials used in manufacturing, transportation and the impact of products after they
reach the end user. Some companies are taking a more comprehensive approach to product design by
considering “end of life” issues including recycling and upcycling. The evolution of sustainability
suggests that where companies once ignored problems and then sought to limit the damage, the future will
see new competitive advantage and additional business opportunities brought about by sustainable
product design and business practices.

EXISTING CAREER GUIDES: CSR Career Profiles And Resources (CSO), Haas Net Impact Chapter’s
document with same title (contact club rep), Profession and Purpose: A Resource Guide for MBA
Careers in Sustainability (Greenleaf Publishing, $25).

COURSES: Strategic CSR & Projects, Sustainability Metrics, Achieving Social Impact, Sustainability
courses in College of Engineering. UC Berkeley now offers the Engineering and Business for
Sustainability (EBS) certificate, which is open to graduate students who successfully submit an
application and take the appropriate number of units in approved courses.

CENTERS: The Center for Responsible Business (CRB) was launched at Haas in 2003 to create a more
sustainable, ethical and socially responsible society. The CRB sponsors courses, scholarships,
fellowships, grants, prizes, and events to further the cause of sustainability. In addition, the CRB
maintains a large database of key practitioners in the field of CSR. Past Haas students have found
internships and jobs by networking with these individuals. Contact Cecilia Pracher at the CRB for more

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Nearly all large corporations and some small and medium sized firms have
CSR departments or roles. Companies hiring Haas students for CSR internships or full-time jobs in
recent years include Apple, Dow Chemical, Brown-Forman, Gap, Intel, Levi Strauss & Co., LifeScan,
Nike, The North Face, and Patagonia. CRO (a magazine) publishes an annual “100 Best Corporate
Citizens” list, which is one way to identify top CSR performers amongst American firms. A handful of
consulting firms focus on CSR and sustainability including BluSkye Consulting, SustainAbility, BSR,
and FSG Social Impact Advisors.
Net Impact Corporate Social Responsibility Career Guide
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
Ellen Weinreb
Dow Jones Sustainability Index
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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources

CLUBS: CSR and sustainability is a core focus area of the Haas Net Impact chapter. Joining a Net
Impact Professional Chapter, such as San Francisco, can sometimes alert you to additional events and

1. Net Impact  Career Center  Job Seekers
2. Common Good Careers
3. Just Means job search
4. BSR CSR Jobs Page
5. BridgeStar  Services  Find Jobs

In addition to checking these web sites, CSR Wire, Environmental Leader, and Sustainable Life Media
produce email newsletters to help keep up with the latest news in CSR and sustainability.

EVENTS: Net Impact’s national conference (held in November in a different city each year) is attended
by thousands of MBA students, professionals and recruiters, and a large group from Haas. Other
conferences include the BSR Conference, Sustainable Brands, the Go Green Expo, and the San Francisco
Green Festival.

CAREER PATH: While some CSR roles and departments are highly strategic, others are
communications-oriented (i.e. talking about what the company does) or more closely resemble corporate
philanthropy. Many CSR experts, including those at the Haas Center for Responsible Business (CRB)
recommend that MBA’s pursue roles that are directly related to a firm’s core product or service directly
after business school to maximize impact and long-term career opportunities. Through a strategic role,
you can either integrate CSR principles into the job or transition into a full-time CSR role over time. To
the extent that CSR is about changing the behavior and practices of a firm, your effectiveness can be
greater with the influence that comes along with managing a core part of a business. That said, many
Haas students have secured internships and full-time positions in CSR departments that are highly
strategic and very rewarding.

Due to the variety of CSR roles, there are multiple career paths one can pursue. Consulting at either a
mainstream firm (McKinsey, BCG, Bain, etc) or a specialized one (BSR, FSG, BluSkye, etc) can be a
jumping off point to in-house positions down the road. CSR is a general term that covers every industry,
so while it helps to master the overall landscape (CSR at Monsanto versus CSR at Cisco), it also pays to
focus. If your passion lies in managing supply chains for minimal environmental impact or improving
nutrition, that will narrow down your search to a very different list of companies as well as identifying
different required expertise.

Nonprofit and public sector management

Nonprofit management
In the US, one in 14 jobs is in the nonprofit sector, and the number of 501(c)(3) organizations grew from
650,000 to over one million between 1996 and 2006 (Marts & Lundy). While the predominant sectors in
terms of monetary contributions are religious organizations (33%), health and human services (17%), and
education (14%), nonprofits run the gamut from arts and culture to the environment and international
affairs (Giving USA 2007).

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We include philanthropy in the nonprofit sub-sector, which refers
primarily to the 75,000 foundations (US) that make contributions to
nonprofits. The vast majority (around 71,000) are small family
foundations, and two-thirds of those have assets of less than $1 million. Nonprofit Reading
So while the multi-billion dollar endowment foundations (Gates, Ford,
Robert Wood Johnson, Kellogg, Packard, etc.) are well known to the Alison Davis, Executive Director
public, they are few in number, and the sub-sector creates relatively few of the MBA Non-Profit
jobs. Most large companies also have corporate foundations. The Connection recommends three
Foundation Center’s 50 Largest Corporate Foundations by Total Giving books to MBA students making
gives a sense of the most active corporate philanthropists, which not the transition into the
surprisingly includes many of the most recognizable American brands in nonprofit sector.
retail, banking, healthcare and consumer products. While private 1. From Making a Profit to
foundations are typically independent, corporate foundations tend to Making a Difference, by
support causes related to their core business. Richard M. King (2000)
2. Transitioning to the
Public sector management
Nonprofit Sector, by Laura
Approximately one in six non-farm jobs are with the government. As
the government sector seeks to run more efficiently, the role for MBAs Gassner Otting (2007)
has increased. While it is difficult to summarize opportunities at the 3. Winning Strategies to Get
state and local levels, certain federal/national organizations such as the Your Next Job in the
Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and General Accounting Office Nonprofit World, by Larry
(GAO) recruit MBAs in addition to public policy and public Slesinger (2004)
administration masters. Interested students should consider applying to
the Presidential Management Fellows (MPF) program, a two year
rotational program based at a federal agency.

EXISTING CAREER GUIDES: Nonprofit & NGO Resources (CSO),

Vault Guide to the Top Government & Nonprofit Employers (CSO), CareerLeader Non-Profits
(Administrators in Higher Education, Government, and Human Services) (CSO)

COURSES: Social Sector Solutions, Achieving Social Impact, Strategic Management of Nonprofit
Organizations, Financial Management of Nonprofit Organizations (PP 290-2), Nonprofit Boards,
Marketing & Fundraising for Nonprofit Organizations

CENTERS: The Center for Nonprofit & Public Leadership (CNPL) is the Haas center dedicated to
training MBAs for leadership roles with nonprofit and public sector organizations. The Center manages
coursework, fellowships, and experiential learning programs such as the Berkeley Board Fellows
Program, which places students on local nonprofit boards for one academic year. In addition, the Center
maintains a large database of key practitioners in the field. Students may want to access this database to
network with potential employers that do not appear on CareerNet’s database. Outside of Haas, the
Goldman School of Public Policy has a career center that can assist students in finding internships and
full-time jobs.

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Haas students have gone on to work for a wide variety of nonprofit and
public sector institutions. Some of the nonprofits are listed elsewhere in this guide under the social
entrepreneurship and education sub-sectors, and others include NGOs such as the Environmental Defense
Fund and foundations like the Packard Foundation. On the public side, Haas students have worked for
the National Park Service, the Department of Justice, The White House, and various local government
positions. The US State Department recruits for summer internships.

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
CLUBS: Net Impact, Education Leadership Club

EVENTS: Net Impact annual conference, the annual CNPL Public Leadership Dinner, Craigslist
Foundation Nonprofit Bootcamp

a. MBA Non-Profit Connection – sign up for job listing emails
b. Net Impact  Career Center  Job Seekers
c. Common Good Careers
d. Just Means job search
e. BridgeStar  Services  Find Jobs
g. Opportunity Knocks
h. – Not a job site, but useful for viewing nonprofits’ 990 forms

Career paths in the nonprofit and public sectors are much less clearly defined than in the private sector.
Many organizations have a glass ceiling for staff without advanced degrees, though an MBA should be
sufficient to advance within most organizations. Other constraints may exist in the nonprofit sector,
particularly at smaller organizations with few management positions.

The ideal candidate for MBA-friendly nonprofit jobs has a “hybrid” profile – with experience in both the
nonprofit and private sectors. A candidate with strong corporate experience should consider volunteer
work, pro bono consulting, nonprofit board service, and/or nonprofit-related coursework to strengthen the
nonprofit side of their resume. Students with nonprofit backgrounds should take care to emphasize
business skills developed on the job and in business school. It is recommended that you seek the advice of
experts at Haas through coursework and the Center for Nonprofit and Public Leadership to explore the
best career path for you.

While both the nonprofit and government sectors increasingly value private sector skills, it is not required
to gain experience in the private sector directly after business school and before transitioning to the
nonprofit sector. Some skills, such as nonprofit fundraising, are unique to the nonprofit sector and do not
mirror private sector sales and marketing skills exactly. Also, nonprofit and private-sector accounting are
similar but not identical: nonprofits use “fund accounting,” which groups assets and liabilities according
to the purpose for which they are used.

Nonprofit management positions may pay more than you think, although it true that salaries are lower on
average. A recent survey of Haas alumni showed that the average total cash compensation for the
nonprofit sector (several hundred MBA graduates from 2001-2004 were surveyed) was $117,000,
compared to $160,000 for technology, $161,000 for energy/environment, $180,000 for consulting, and
$200,000 for MBAs in financial services.

Socially Responsible Investing (SRI)

SRI is defined by the Social Investment Forum as “a broad-based approach to investing that now
encompasses an estimated $2.71 trillion out of $25.1 trillion in the U.S. investment marketplace today.”
In addition to analysts at specialized investment organizations who perform quantitative and qualitative
analysis on companies’ financial, environmental and social performance, the SRI industry also consists of
shareholder advocates who pressure firms to adopt more responsible practices.

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
This relatively strict definition of SRI focuses on the screening and trading of equities. A looser
definition of SRI as investments – including equity, debt and grants – designed to achieve social impact is
sometimes used, but this guide focuses more on the strict definition and would place organizations falling
under the wider definition in either the social entrepreneurship or nonprofit/philanthropic sectors.

EXISTING CAREER GUIDES: Buy-Side Finance Profile and Resource List (CSO)

COURSES: Social Investing with Lloyd Kurtz (fall) in addition to all Haas MBA courses related to
finance and investments

CENTERS: The Center for Responsible Business (CRB) launched the Haas Socially Responsible
Investment Fund (HSRIF) in 2008. The CRB also drives thought leadership in the SRI field with the
Moskowitz Prize for Socially Responsible Investing.

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Domini Social Investments, Calvert Investments, CalPERS, Parnassus

Investments, KLD Research & Analytics Good Capital, Pacific Community Ventures, RSF Social

CLUBS: Net Impact, Finance Club

EVENTS: SRI in the Rockies, Social Capital Markets (SoCap)

Social Investment Forum Jobs Board
European Sustainable Investment Forum (Eurosif) Jobs – European focus

According to the managing director of the Social Investment Forum, “a good track record as an analyst
and a displayed passion for the field” is needed to succeed in the SRI industry. In other words the
socially responsible component, which includes not only passion but additional analytical and screening
tools, must be overlaid upon a strong foundation of traditional investment skills. For this reason, it is very
challenging to move directly from a MBA program into SRI. The most common career path is to learn
the ropes at a conventional financial institution and then move laterally into a SRI organization, or to
incorporate SRI principles into a mainstream investment career.

While at Haas, students are encouraged to build a foundation in finance and investments while exploring
SRI, for example through the Haas SRI Fund. This initiative is the “first ever student managed
investment fund within a business school that uses corporate responsibility (CSR) criteria as a screen for
the fund’s portfolio.” Students apply to participate as fund principals in October. More information is
available at the Center for Responsible Business (CRB).

Social Entrepreneurship
Social enterprises sell products and services that strive to achieve social or environmental impact, and
they can be nonprofit or for-profit organizations. The more successful social enterprises are often
synonymous with the entrepreneurs who found them, such as Mohammad Yunus (Grameen Bank), Bill
Drayton (Ashoka), and Pierre Omidyar (eBay/Omidyar Foundation). This sector includes institutions that
invest in social enterprises, which creates potential overlap with philanthropy and SRI.

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EXISTING CAREER GUIDES: Be sure to study the CSO’s “Entrepreneur Profile” and “Start-up
Profile,” as many social enterprises share much in common with traditional start-up ventures. Ashoka’s
Social Entrepreneurship Teaching Handbook is not a career guide per se, but its summaries of research,
descriptions of social ventures, and links to case studies are useful for learning about the field.

COURSES: Entrepreneurship, New Product Development, Business & Technology for Sustainable
Development, Social Enterprise, ICTs and Int’l Dev (Info 290-7), Achieving Social Impact,

CENTERS: The Center for Non-Profit & Public Leadership (CNPL) now includes social
entrepreneurship in its portfolio. The Lester Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation is the place at
Haas for those interested in starting new ventures. Both centers sponsor coursework, fellowships, and
programs that can teach you about social entrepreneurship or even help get your own social enterprise off
the ground.

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Most social enterprises are small and dispersed, so only a few recruit at
Haas or hire a large number of MBAs on a predictable basis. Some of the most celebrated social
enterprises – e.g. the Grameen Bank, Institute– are focused almost entirely on serving one or several
developing country markets. However, the Bay Area is known as a center of innovation in social
entrepreneurship, with organizations including Rubicon Programs, Kiva, Benetech, World of Good, and
Microplace. Others organizations support social enterprises, either through funding, support services, and
marketing/promotion of the sector, including the following: Ashoka, Acumen Fund, The Skoll
Foundation/Social Edge, Omidyar Foundation, The Calvert Foundation, Good Capital, Pacific
Community Ventures, RSF Social Finance, and REDF. REDF’s Farber internship and fellowship
program places MBA interns and graduates with social enterprises in REDF’s portfolio.

CLUBS: Net Impact and GIH began collaborating to promote social entrepreneurship at Haas in 2009.
The clubs co-sponsor a new social entrepreneurship group that focuses on both domestic and international
issues. Off campus, Hub Bay Area is a new space in downtown Berkeley for social entrepreneurs to
“work, meet, connect and inspire.”

EVENTS: The Global Social Venture Competition (GSCV) is held on the Haas campus every April and
is the leading event of its kind anywhere in the world. All Haas students interested in social
entrepreneurship should be involved in some fashion, either by pitching a business plan, organizing the
conference, or simply attending the finals and symposium. Net Impact’s national conference is attended
by social entrepreneurs as well as MBAs focused on the sector. SoCAP and the affiliated BeDo
conference cover a mix of social entrepreneurship and “intrapreneurship” with many influential attendees.

Social Edge’s Job Listings is one of the few sites dedicated to jobs in this sector, but many of the
opportunities they post can be found on nonprofit and international development job sites as well. Due to
the overlap in these sectors, checking a variety of job sites is the best way to find openings, but even this
technique is second best to networking and personal contacts due to the entrepreneurial nature of the

CAREER PATH: There is no single career path in this field. While some Haas students go on to found
their own social enterprise during or right after their MBA, others join existing social enterprises to gain
additional experience in the sector, while others still pursue traditional careers in consulting or another
industry and make a transition some years later. Many in the “first generation” of the industry, including
many of its leaders, transitioned from more traditional careers or started social enterprises as a second or

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Social Impact – Career Profiles and Resources
third career. For example, Ashoka’s Bill Drayton consulted for
ASK AN EXPERT: What’s the
McKinsey for ten years, and Mohammad Yunus was an economics
professor before founding Grameen Bank. difference between international
development and social enterprise?
Social enterprises should not be thought of as “Business Lite” but
rather firms that face all of the challenges of traditional businesses “The activities of international
in addition to its social, environmental or economic mission. development organizations are usually
Therefore, a foundation in core business skills and experience in project-based and fixed-term, providing
managing businesses is extremely valuable. That said, it is not goods or services perceived to benefit the
compulsory for MBA students to work in a more traditional role poor. There is rarely an expectation of
before entering the sector. significant revenues flowing back to the
provider from the beneficiaries.

International Development A social enterprise identifies a market for a

International development refers to a diverse group of activities good or service that is purchased by under-
intended to drive positive economic, social and environmental resourced people themselves. The goal is
change in lesser developed countries. This guide includes to deliver goods or services valued highly
emerging markets development, microfinance, and international enough by the poor to generate revenues
public health under the umbrella of international development, sufficient to sustain the enterprise without
on-going subsidies.
while arguably each could stand alone as its own sub-sector within
social impact.
Though development organizations are
International development: This term is often associated with learning to become increasingly
fixed-term projects implemented by government agencies, non- entrepreneurial, even the most innovative
governmental organizations (NGOs) and for-profit consulting require donor funds when the goods or
firms. Projects include investments in infrastructure, (irrigation, services they provide are not affordable to
water/sanitation, housing, energy, telecom, health, education, etc.), the direct beneficiaries. Such work may
still be justified for humanitarian or other
the provision of services (health, education, finance, etc.), advice
public interest reasons, so it is not likely
and support to produce an “enabling environment” for
that social entrepreneurship will replace
development (policy and legal reform, improved financial systems, international development anytime soon.”
the promotion of human rights, environmental conservation, etc.),
and various forms of human and organizational capacity building
(education, training, enterprise development services, -- George Scharffenberger is Special
organizational development, etc.). Assistant for International Development
Policy and Practice for UC Berkeley’s Vice
Organizations and individuals who fund projects via grants or Chancellor for Research, and previously
loans are called donors while those who work to implement them directed the Blum Center.
can work for NGOs (both international and local), for-profit
contactors, individual consultants or volunteers. The industry size
is estimated at $200 billion (Vital Wave Consulting), with approximately half funded by the public sector.
Given the level of public funding and, arguably, its political nature, the headquarters (and thus, most
domestic jobs) of international donor and implementing organizations are often located in national
capitals. Public sector donors are multilateral (The World Bank, United Nations, The European Union,
The Global Fund), or bilateral such as the United States (USAID), Britain (DFID), or Canada (CIDA).
Private donors include foundations (such as the Bill and Melinda Gates, MacArthur and Ford
Foundations), corporations (either via corporate foundations or CSR programs) and individuals. Public
sector donors and foundations use grants (usually to NGOs) and contracts (usually to for profit firms) to
engage development organizations that implement projects on the ground. The level of involvement of
governments in the receiving countries varies considerably.

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Emerging Markets Development: Due to increased interest in developing countries as markets (along the
lines of C.K. Prahalad’s The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid), private sector firms have begun to
diversify product development, marketing and sales strategies to correspond to these opportunities,
particularly in the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) where hundreds of millions
of people have risen out of poverty to be considered customers or potential customers for a variety of
goods and services.

Many BOP initiatives are largely profit-driven, while others take a more hybrid approach that attempts to
grow market share while bringing additional positive social or environmental impacts. These hybrid
initiatives can involve NGOs and donors (in arrangements sometimes called public-private partnerships or
multi-stakeholder alliances) to develop, test and even launch products or services, particularly in markets
where going it alone would not be profitable for the business. Investor interest in emerging markets, for
both social and more straightforward enterprises, has led to the development of investment funds that
specialize in this market segment. Some (the Omidyar Network, the Acumen Fund, the Skoll Foundation,
and the Draper Richards Foundation) focus on social enterprises while others (the IFC’s Emerging
Markets Growth Fund, Grofin, Agora Partnerships, and Emerging Capital Partners) use more traditional
business metrics to identify opportunities in developing countries that create employment and income.

Microfinance: Between Mohammad Yunus’ first loan of $27 in 1974 and his Nobel Prize in 2006, the
field of microfinance exploded around the world. Generally defined as financial services targeting the
poor, microfinance institutions (MFIs) typically operate on a “village banking” model, providing small
loans to groups of borrowers designed to reduce risk and lower transaction costs. In addition to these
small group loans, many MFIs have begun offering additional products/services including loans to
individuals, savings, insurance, and business education or training. Some combine loans with basic
literacy and health services. Globally, the majority of microfinance clients are women.

While microfinance exists in the United States (e.g. Accion, Opportunity Fund), the dearth of credit for
poor people in many developing countries has focused most of the activity outside the developed world.
Previously the domain of nonprofit organizations, larger commercial banks and for-profit MFIs have
entered the scene, for example with Compartamos in Mexico (which started as a nonprofit but
transformed to a bank and issued a controversial IPO) and SKS Microfinance in India (which received
$11 million from Sequoia Capital). There are currently an estimated 3,000 MFIs in the world today, a
mix of NGOs and for-profit institutions.

The microfinance industry employs thousands of people, but staff on the ground is increasingly sourced
from the local population, and most smaller MFIs have no offices in the developed world at all. Thus,
while jobs for MBAs can be found in the field (some, like Kiva Fellows, are volunteer), other
opportunities exist at organizations that support MFIs through capacity building or access to capital.
These can be NGOs and nonprofits (such as Unitus and Kiva) or for-profit financial institutions (such as
MicroVest and even larger banks like Morgan Stanley).

International Public Health: Many donors (such as The Gates Foundation and The Global Fund) and
NGOs (e.g. PATH and PSI) specialize in global health issues such as eradicating malaria, treating people
with HIV/AIDS, and jumpstarting markets for health-related products such as condoms, mosquito nets,
cookstoves and water purification technologies.

UC Berkeley’s School of Public Health has a jobsite with domestic and international health opportunities
as well as a career development page with links to job and internship listings. Though providing
healthcare products and services is obviously a large opportunity in the United States, this career guide
focuses on opportunities in international public health as a subset of international development work.

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EXISTING CAREER GUIDES: Vault Guide to International Development Careers (access through

COURSES: Entrepreneurship, New Product Development, Business & Technology for Sustainable
Development, Social Enterprise, ICTs and Int’l Dev (Info 290-7), Market-Based Approaches to Poverty
Alleviation Speaker Series, Microfinance Speaker Series, Achieving Social Impact

CENTERS: The Blum Center for Developing Economies is based at UC Berkeley but spans Berkeley,
Davis, UCSF and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to commercialize technologies and educate
students to improve the lives of the poor. Its web site gives details on projects and coursework that MBA
students can explore. The Henry Wheeler Center for Emerging and Neglected Diseases is also based at
UC Berkeley and is a cross-campus, multidisciplinary partnership that seeks to accelerate the innovation
of new technologies for diseases that affect developing countries.

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Haas students have interned or worked in recent years for TechnoServe,
PATH, Endeavor Global, Ashoka, Acumen Fund, Unitus, The Clinton Foundation, Good Morning Africa,
and Agora Partnerships. Other organizations that either hire MBAs or take a private sector approach in
their work include Population Services International (PSI), IDE, and Mercy Corps.

CLUBS: Global Initiatives at Haas (GIH) is focused on international development and emerging markets
development, in partnership with Net Impact. GIH sponsors speaker series, events, career treks, and other
activities related to this sector.

EVENTS: The Global Social Venture Competition (GSCV) frequently has entrants seeking to solve
international development challenges and the GSVC symposium often covers similar topics. Net
Impact’s national conference is attended by some international development practitioners (particularly in
the microfinance space) as well as MBAs focused on the sector.

a. ReliefWeb  professional resources  vacancies
b. InterAction (int’l dev. and relief)
d. The Development Executive Group
e. USAID PVO Registry (identify hundreds of NGOs funded by USAID)
f. Bay Area International Development Professionals Network (find networking and project
g. Vital Wave’s The Nugget Newsletter (news about BOP product/service initiatives)

CAREER PATH: A Haas student interested in breaking into the international development space should
consider applying to the Haas International Business Development (IBD) program as well as lining up an
overseas internship. Some – such as Endeavor Global – are more structured and typically come to
campus for recruiting activities, whereas others (MBAs Without Borders) are smaller and are best found
through networking and independent research. It is also recommended that the student study another

Donors, NGOs and companies place a very high value on field experience in addition to academic
credentials. Besides the internship opportunities discussed above, field experience can be gained via
academic research and projects (e.g. The Blum Center), or informal experiences that give the applicant a
base of knowledge of a region, and ideally another language. While extensive field experience is not

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required for all positions, it is likely to be necessary for anything “core” to the organization, including
program or product development and management.

In the international development community, donors (governments and foundations) are often considered
the top of the food chain, and many senior positions at NGOs (VPs and above) are staffed with people
with direct experience at or at least knowledge of major donors, to help the organization secure funding
for its work. However, job openings at most donors are extremely competitive and are often available
only to those with extensive experience, or through specialized recruitment channels (such as the World
Bank’s Young Professionals Program). Experience at prestigious management consulting firms (e.g.
McKinsey, BCG) can also be an entry point to some donors.

Independent consulting is another career path in international development. Consultants specializing in a

particular function or industry, such as microenterprise development, value-chain analysis, or impact
monitoring can consult for a variety of donors and NGOs.

The Cleantech sector encompasses new processes that meet needs for energy, water and resources with
less environmental impact than traditional methods. The Cleantech Group defines the sector as “new
technology and related business models that offer competitive returns for investors and customers while
providing solutions to global challenges.” Renewable energy has been the largest segment of Cleantech.
Interest in renewable energy and energy efficiency began building in the 1970s with the first oil shock
and the emergence of the modern environmental movement. Interest and investment has only increased
with the acceleration of climate change. While the term cleantech has a strong connotation of venture-
backed startups, large multinational firms (e.g. major oil companies and industrial conglomerates and
their subsidiaries) also participate in the sector.

After several years of rapidly growing private sector investment in the Cleantech sector, funding reduced
in 2008 due to the global financial crisis. According to the New York Times, 139 companies received $2
billion in funding in the first half of 2008, compared to 83 companies raising $513 million in the first half
of 2009. It is expected that the US government’s stimulus programs will provide a boost to the sector,
particularly through governmental institutions such as Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

EXISTING CAREER GUIDES: Energy – Career Profiles & Resources (CSO), Vault Guide to the
Energy Industry (CSO)

COURSES: Cleantech to Market (partnership between LBNL and BERC), Energy & Environmental
Markets, New Product Development, Renewable Energy Speaker Series, Energy & Infrastructure Project
Finance (Boalt). Berkeley’s Energy & Resources Group (ERG) offers classes that may be of interest to
MBAs, including Energy & Society and Interdisciplinary Energy Analysis. UC Berkeley now offers the
Engineering and Business for Sustainability (EBS) certificate, which is open to graduate students who
successfully submit an application and take the appropriate number of units in approved courses.

CENTERS: The Center for Energy & Environmental Innovation partners with a number of other UC
Berkeley colleges and centers (technical and non-technical) to develop energy leaders, increase
collaboration, and open the Berkeley energy community to the public and private sectors.

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Runs the gamut from standalone energy providers to divisions of larger
energy firms, to equipment manufacturers, consulting firms, banks, venture capital firms and nonprofit
organizations focused on cleantech. See CSO Energy profile for examples. Some public sector

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organizations worth exploring include the California Public Utilities Commission and the California Air
Resources Board.

CLUBS: The Berkeley Energy Resources Collaborative (BERC) is the most active student-led group on
the UC Berkeley campus dedicated to energy issues. Co-managed by student representatives from Haas
and Boalt, the club is interdisciplinary and has over 1,000 members. The group supports curriculum
development, consulting programs, Idea Labs and competitions. One opportunity to explore is BERC
Innovative Solutions (BIS), a student-led consulting program.

EVENTS: UC Berkeley Energy Symposium, produced by BERC, held every spring with high level
keynotes, and a variety of panels and workshops. MBAs can be involved as attendees or can join the
planning committee.

JOB WEBSITES: BERC has a job board and students can subscribe to its mailing list which features
frequent job postings. Other web sites with cleantech jobs, news and blogs include the following:
LinkedIn Renewable Energy Business Network
Greentech Media

Some of the main functions MBAs can explore in cleantech include product marketing, finance, business
development, supply chain management, and corporate strategy. A few of the larger players including
Chevron, GE and PG&E have MBA rotational programs which can provide credibility and a foundation
in the larger energy sector. Before graduation, however, it is critical to gain experience and a toehold in
the industry through coursework and experiential learning opportunities, either formal (e.g. C2M) or
informal (networking with companies and other departments on campus).

The role of MBAs in the education sector has increased substantially in recent years as education reform
has accelerated, driven by the need in the United States to reduce the achievement gap and compete more
successfully in the global economy. An increase in private funding for education has also led to both the
creation of education-focused nonprofits as well as an increased focus on bringing business skills into the
sector. MBAs are increasingly desired in a variety of organizations including school districts, charter
schools, human capital organizations, policy organization, and supplemental education programs in a
variety of functions including strategic planning, finance, operations, HR, and technology. Reform
efforts, and therefore jobs, tend to be concentrated in the larger urban school districts (e.g. Oakland, Los
Angeles, Chicago, New York, Washington, DC, etc.)


COURSES: Leadership in Education Speaker Series – features guest speakers from leading education
institutions on topics including education reform, finance and operations, human capital, technology, and
social enterprise. Inquire with UCB’s Graduate School of Education for relevant courses that might be
open to MBAs.

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CENTERS: The Center for Nonprofit and Public Leadership has connections to many education
organizations and frequently places Board Fellows with education organizations.

POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS: Education Pioneers, Aspire Public Schools, KIPP Foundation, California
Charter Schools Association, The Broad Foundation, GreatSchools, Leadership Public Schools,
NewSchools Venture Fund, Oakland Unified School District, Teach For America, New Leaders for New
Schools, Rocketship Education.

CLUBS: The Haas Education Leadership club explores and promotes the role of MBAs in education. In
addition to an annual career trek and career advising, the club hosts a case competition at Haas every year
to elicit innovative solutions to problems faced by a particular urban school district.

EVENTS: The Net Impact national conference typically attracts education-related organizations to its
recruitment fair and there are occasionally speakers and panels on the topic of education.

The National Alliance for Public Charter Schools has job listings for the thousands of charter schools in
its network.
NewSchools Venture Fund Job Openings – List openings with NewSchools and its portfolio
Bay Area Edupreneurs – A Yahoo Group with 1000+ members

As with other social impact sectors, there are many possible destinations, and many paths to get there. In
terms of a Haas roadmap to gain credibility and experience, early involvement with the education club
and applying to a summer internship with Education Pioneers is the best place to start. Education
Pioneers places fellows with innovative education institutions including charter schools, school districts,
human capital organizations, and foundations. Fellows complete a project with a nonprofit education
organization and participate in a cohort experience that includes training in education issues, opportunities
to meet leaders from the sector, and a chance to discuss issues in education with talented graduate
students with a variety of background. Education Pioneers also helps its alumni find jobs in education
upon graduation. After graduation, one very competitive and prestigious opportunity is The Broad
Residency program: a two-year “management training” program for education leaders. Applications open
in September and are due in February, for a residency beginning in the summer with an urban school
district or charter management organization.

MBAs can also apply for senior positions within school districts, CMOs, foundations, and other nonprofit
organizations (though some of the top positions in large districts may be politically appointed). On the
private sector side, companies like Kaplan and Scholastic focus on provision of education and tutoring
services or classroom support services such as publishing, software and literacy programs. There are also
smaller for-profit education organizations such as Inside Track or Galileo Summer Camp who might be
hiring for MBA levels. CSR programs and corporate philanthropy support from large companies such as
Intel, Microsoft, Cisco, and ExxonMobil often focus on education, though they typically maintain
relatively small staffs.

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Example Haas MBA Alumni Profiles

Aylin Bell MBA '05 Julie Clugage MBA '02

Summer Internship: A.T. Kearney Summer Internship: Softbank Emerging Markets
Current Role: Senior Business Development Current Role: Strategic Alliances Manager,
Manager, WestEd. Provides strategic planning Emerging Markets Platform Group, Intel
and marketing support to earned income Corporation
projects at WestEd. Other Community Involvement: Menlo Park
Other Community Involvement: Volunteer at KIPP Presbyterian Church (Sunday School teacher,
schools working both with students and the Ethiopia Education Initiative volunteer), AYSO
board finance committee. soccer coach
Why social sector involvement is important: Why social sector involvement is important:
“Especially because I work in education, “After college I volunteered for two years at a
volunteering in schools keep me connected to rural school in Guatemala and saw the
students, and reminds me why I chose to work difference access to quality education can make
in education in the first place.” in advancing the lives of children and their
Most valuable courses and opportunities for communities. My passion is to help in whatever
exploring and building a foundation in the small way I can to extend this opportunity to
social sector while at Haas: Financial Modeling, more children around the world.”
Marketing, Berkeley Board Fellows, Net Impact Most valuable courses and opportunities for
Advice to current Haas students: “Identify as many exploring and building a foundation in the
people as you can who are working in your social sector while at Haas: International
desired field; create opportunities to meet Business Development program, independent
with/talk to/work with them. (Incorporate their study project (and several class projects) on
organizations into class projects, volunteer, technology industry programs to address the
invite them as speakers to campus etc.)” digital divide.
Contact Aylin at Contact Julie at

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Matt Evans MBA ‘08 Steve Hardgrave MBA ‘05
Summer Internship: Sunpower Corporations Summer Internship: Hewlett Packard, Emerging
Current Role: Impact Carbon, Director of Business Market Solutions
Development Current Role: Senior Managing Director, Gray Ghost
Other Community Involvement: Founder of Ventures Other Community Involvement: Global Social
Why social sector involvement is important: In an Venture Competition, Silicon Valley Microfinance
unfair world where our place of birth determines Network, Partners in Hope, Mexican Association
our opportunities, I can't imagine working on for Rural and Urban Transformation (AMEXTRA)
anything but trying to make it more fair. Why social sector involvement is important: “First
Most valuable courses and opportunities for of all, I experience incredible joy when I am able to
exploring and building a foundation in the social help others, and even more when I can help others
sector while at Haas: Negotiations, Financial help others. Secondly, my faith mandates action in
Modeling, and believe it or not, journalism this regard - I have been blessed with resources and
courses! I also served as the marketing chair for gifts that are only fully realized when applied to
GSVC. helping others.”
Contact Matt at Most valuable courses and opportunities for
exploring and building a foundation in the social
sector while at Haas: “GSVC was great to learn more
about the social venture world and meet people
working in it. I came from the social impact arena
before Haas, so I ate up all of the more traditional b-
school classes in order to apply them to the field.”
Contact Steve at

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Margot Kane MBA ‘08 Akif Koca MBA ‘07
Summer Internship: Walden Asset Management Summer Internship: United Way of the Bay Area
Current Role: Underwriter, Calvert Foundation Current Role: Expert, Prime Ministry, State Planning
Why social sector involvement is important: “I care Organization, Turkey. “As the expert for the
about improving people's lives, livelihoods, and metals industry, I formulate industrial strategy and
environments, especially for those people who policy. I also supervise public investment
face significant challenges. Also, I believe we are projects.”
all interconnected, and that the healthier & Other Community Involvement: “Working for the
happier each individual is eventually improves the government, I am naturally involved in the social
human whole at a global level. Finally, I really sector. I contribute to economic think-tanks. In
enjoy and respect the people I meet while working addition, I advise to nongovernmental
in this sector, and I get inspired by all the amazing organizations and chambers.”
work they do to support positive growth & Why social sector involvement is important: “Social
change.” sector involvement is a way of life. It is integrated
Most valuable courses and opportunities for into both professional and personal goals. It brings
exploring and building a foundation in the social the satisfaction of doing well for the sake of
sector while at Haas: “Definitely co-chairing the common good.”
2007 GSVC! In terms of courses, CSR Consulting, Most valuable courses and opportunities for
S-cubed, SRI, Behavioral Finance, Corporate exploring and building a foundation in the social
Finance, Social Enterprise, and Entrepreneurship. sector while at Haas: “I was the VP of Nonprofit
Being a student principal of the Haas SRI Fund; at the Haas Net Impact Club. I think the Net
and going to the Net Impact conference (which is Impact Club offers an important platform for
how I ended up applying for my previous job). And enhancing nonprofit work at Haas and sharing of
last but not least, making friends with the many ideas and perspectives. I participated in both
like-minded people I met at Haas!” Berkeley Board Fellows and Social Sector
Solutions. I found my internship through the
Board Fellows Program. Social Sector Solutions
provided a real nonprofit consulting opportunity
which improved my knowledge of the field.”
Contact Akif at

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Ellen Martin MBA '07 Shaolee Sen MBA ‘07
Summer Internship: Strategic Corporate Summer Internship: Opportunity Fund
Partnerships, Citizen Schools (Education Pioneer Current Role: Director of Marketing &
Fellow) Communications, Opportunity Fund
Current Role: Consultant, FSG Social Impact Other Community Involvement: Serves on board of
Advisors. Advises foundations, corporations (CSR)
and nonprofits on strategy and evaluation to Why social sector involvement is important: “I
address social and environmental issues. measure progress by the number of lives we can
Other Community Involvement: Board service improve.”
including, Office of Letters and Light, Root Most valuable courses and opportunities for
Division, Global Social Venture Competition exploring and building a foundation in the social
Advisory Board. sector while at Haas: CSR and Social Sector
Why social sector involvement is important: Solutions.
“What’s the point of doing anything else?”
Most valuable courses and opportunities for
exploring and building a foundation in the social
sector while at Haas: Oakland Small Schools
Residency; Social Sector Solutions; Global Social
Venture Competition; Social Entrepreneurship
(speaker series); Strategic CSR; Sustainable
Development; Business and Policy; GSI for CSR
undergrad course; International Business
Development (IBD); independent studies in social
impact evaluation and social entrepreneurship.
Advice to current Haas students: “Don’t
be afraid to seek out opportunities
outside of the core/popular courses that
everyone else is taking. Chart your own
course of study and seek out mentors
who inspire you.”
Contact Ellen at

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