n .. rstan~in ••..

ulation an~

Develo ment

A Guide for Media

by Vicente G. Tirol




Unil:ed Nations Popul ation Fund

Published i 9'99 by the

C'cl1t:er: fl:l:r: Media lFre'edoDili, & Respol1l.siibility with S! grant from the

U.mb.'ldlNalians Popddion ftmd (lTNFPA)

Umt.:!, #9 Twin Peab DrJive

'61' 1"'~.;iI' "iEl' n. ·~~·~-C·"7 M ~ ·M·--·1- , Uil .XlIU~ JiJI ~~t· lii ... , '.' eY.'u ..... a!:~

m: 647..0945/438-5128

~ M7.JiJ94S

I. H~gh Rair.es of Gmw~h, , , 2

n. Ccmpnnents of Growth" 6

m.. Pepulanon Momenrum 8

IV.. Migration and U rbanizatioa 8

V. Dependency.l..ato.r

and Bmployment. + ••••••••••••••••••••• 10

VI. Agriculture and. Natural ReSOUflCecS .•....• 11

VII. B eginnings of the Population

Program 11

VIII. The Population Program Today 12

IX. The P-.R-E Framework " 14

X. Paths of Action 15

XI. Ih_e PhJHppine f amil s

PlannIng Program " , , 17

XII. Methods cf'Contraeeption ...... , .... ,,, ... ,, .. 19

XllI. Know ledge and. Practice

of Conu.ace:ption .. ,.,,, ..••... ,,.,, 19

XVI. Church and State

on Ccntraception " " " 20'

XVD. S~o]'.iesWruting to be, W riuen , 2'2


I. Demy stifying the Population

Pyramid, " ... LI IJ IJ ••• ~ I ~ •• ~ IJ ~. ~ ~ ... r. ~ ~ ~~, ~ r. = ~~, ~ ~ .. ~ ii ~ 'I' ~ ~! ~~, ~ ~ 5

0.. iD:oub~ingtime: No, Mag]c Here ., ..... " ... 7'

m. Putting Life into Popul arion

and Development Reporting. .... , .... , .... , 23

Uaderstaedlng Popu~31ti.om ~Dd Development A Guide for Media

by Vice:l!l!te G a, Tlrel

Imagine Ceb« ,Oly in 1975. That year. houses, office'i. /iu::tories and other establishments consuJ,~e(ljrJ;sl Q Uttle GIl.!e.r n,()OO cubic meters a/water a day.

In J9'91,or Hi yecu:~ iaser whel~ the· cityexperienced an economic boom, de.mand jar water jro.m aU these USers rose fifle,enfo.ld. to a:b.nrut 175,QOO cubic m:e,tersQ! day.

By 2000 - oldy one year away - demand !Gl'~~er in t'lJ:a.t city is fOreet1s! to reach close to 270,000 cubic meters a day.

Me.cmti.me, homes, farms and facU>ries in the province of Ceb« are themselwes ,at a loss jor water. .The prQvilrce 's pop:ulati07!, which grew from 1.6 million .in 1970 to 2.1 million in 1980 and thereafter to 2.6 million in 1990, has put a s,erious strain on its water resources.

Cebu '.1 major fivers p,un dry dUring summer. Ma,JY of iMwells have dri@d up because far too numy pZl1UpS ha'!/,f~ been eonstrueted. ln some communities, people haw to us« br;(l,cktshw,a·.i'er, which iS~Jifitf()r hw.ncm c()ns~u'f!pUon .

The ql,lest.ion even noW is: where are Cebu ctly .cmd O!bu provinee goiNg to gel aU the l'l<l'(lte:r tit-at thetr people need, {mdwill ll@ed?

Believe i~ or not, the vignette youjust reed is material fOf .apopublltion and development story.


That's because a story on population and developmera need not only be about thecountry' s continuing high birthrate. Or about the debate between officials of the Catholic Church and the government on the issue of artificial contraception, Population and development area whole lot more than just these two topics.

Let's take a closer look at these topics and the "whole lot more:'

High Rates of Growth

The total ~ertmty rate (TFR)., or the average number of children that a woman has during her childbearing years, is the most important determinant of the size and growth ofthepopulation, The childbearing years are from age t5 to 44.

In 1948, the Pnilippmeshad apopuletion ofonl.y 19 million, Sincethen, it has been experiencing high rates of pop til uti on growth and ferti.lity. Both

Up, up and a'Way!

Philippine pepu'atton growth (PGoR): 1948 - 1995


pg,:mlaUoII l!':IfcrC{ll1 sal Percentage PGR

Jnu~ase Increase


19-4S; ~ 9,234., 1182:
7,853,503 40,6
1960 27.087.,686
9'.5'90,801 35.4
1910 30.584 .. 486
5,380.174 14.7
ill'?'5 4h2.01{),,600
6,02'7.800 14,,3
1980 48.096,4'60
12.,604,746 26,,2
1990 00,703,2:06
7',910,500' 13.0
19915 68,613,706 2.71




phenomenahave given the country arnostly you~popu]ation which now has a higher Ufe expedcalu:y - the avera,ge years ]I ved from birth to de~tlldum ever before ..

At last count in 1995, theeountry' is po[pulmion. totalled 68.6 m:lIHOJ\ population growth rate was 2.32 %. TfR'!.V3S four) andthe yooog·- those ,ag,ed zero te 14- made up' 38% oftllle totau] population. In ['991 ~ wmlmem of rejpf'O€J)lIIlcth'e ag,e accountedfor 233% of the

total population. Philippbtes' TF R

tl.I1l0n:g world's ,Idghest

Over the last 2:5 yea[s~ TfR has deelined.from six. births per woman in ~ 913~o 3. 7 ~l1l 199'8 .. Demographers descrilhetltis decline only as moderate,


4.1 (1993)







Slow descent

'Trends iin the PhiliIPpill1e~'t~~al ~enill~i[y Fa~e, t968-1997

I I 4.1
~ __j I - ~ ~
, I
" 7.0







$J)u.r~e; N!iltj'(mal Sta~;J;tj',e[; ,oJfi~1l lilm Macro ln~\trmr~i!lmtl> Philipp.i·mrs Nrn!'i()/jifil Demographic al1~ .He,aflh Sur~~j' ,I, j)'!l8

Between 1948 and .~ 995" the: avenge po:Jfu~ation ,gror\Vt:h rate deelined, bu!tat ' a. slow pace. Whhin. Utat p'eriod. it fe]} by on~y 0.74 percentage points. This

. ',_ ~

'\VaS rhe result Otf only a moderate decUne irnB1e incidence of births. t'liI'l:d a faster

decline in monalityorthe incidence of deaths. This pace of decline is too ,S]OrW for economic growth to sal[pr]}otit.

.Falling ,deal/Hi, s.te'tldy b.ir-t:hs

c: n~ de deaUl! rat8s a IIIdJ Clml!ldJtI ~Irth rates. IlrI ~lh,lI Philip pim es, 196iO·~995

&I ,--------- ------------,

4B -- .-

- "'., ... ng

.1- -, • as __;£


The large pr-opomon o<.nhaLt'Yomgpopu~ation is readily seoolnt!]le COllllUty'S pll!IpuJamOr]J py-:ramid (shoYm below),

~;s 4$ :35 39 25 2Q ts 10 s



-I!!,._. -"-'.27

&,~."~.f: 1>ISO" 19:70 c~.-.;'." .. ~'I l'bfJ~lt1'lIM "lta H<lIII:Iiltg; AldtJM:k':'~ml .fiK[Hoormbi<! Hfflhil .Ii'rofi~,· ~1m11 1I!1I (C~.tIi Yi'l'II)'<15i_ UMwroii)' of t~ i'hilippill~6 i'<:>pMr~~rUJI {nslrh!f~ ,~oo .~~ A.0l!wII' if'Cfl\r.1~l;i' ,QOO i!i~~Uty SIilJ9!' Urr<kfmJ

Arpyramidi'n,tiJ p:o:pulation

IHc,w IF j'lwp'i nos, ,alfle dffis:~ri biUI~ed by age and S:O'<IC



A pop ulatlon P'Y1I6fl1id is a graph ic rspresentetlen of the compcHiition, by age and sex., of a gill/en popu ~a;ti:o n at 031 paliilioular point in lime.

The Iline lihat.'f'uns diowrll~'he middle otthe pywamid ~s the dividing line he,tween the sexes, The layers that form the pyramid


~ikt! 1~~~1:S l=il~ i~S l~s.ao ,~~ 1~~s...!O 1-"15 ,(I;O~ '*,,5 1~!i-6Il '1i!lIUI~ '~~'O 1~'S

1~5.ilD ,~o.t:: i1iO~




;I'O-:l,j liiii.!. ~ ~ ~~

!l!<!§.1 ,~~ ~. ~ »34l ~.~ .~~. 1S·t~ 10.11>1 $.0

•. 1f.!IiECl[III!III.r:;,~

S()lm::e: TJre .fit)lfrIitlfhm R'eferf!,~ ~~ .Bu~·e[m'~ Pllpu!.:,uiDn .H,~J.ldl:.>{mk: 11\I/~mDffollal (Mifr!},!. J 991

re~.resenlt the 'iI,a ruCII,JI,S; ag:e 9 rCII,J ~s: the yOlJnge.r popu latDon o(;cup'fes~he bass tl:ayers, l~e olderall1d the ,aging, poplJI'latiolii the iU!,pper II ayers and the apex.

The p~ i I lppines' pepu latiorrJ pylram id h8JS a normal shape - broad at Ule base and tapering at Ile ,apex. This shape ~s typi:cal ofd €velop~~g couli1trl-es wilh mostly young papUhE!ltiofll!S.

Hie· ~yramid s of develloped cou ITltries "such as thos:€ show~ here)' h ave a riI.ll1l1row base U1ia.t. widefils in the: m!ddl!e and ta~er"S only 9 ~adua Illy at til! e top. They show older a rn dla! 91i n 91 popu~ations .

As, we shall seelater, all three phenomena~' 111~jd. popalation gro:wth~ high [ert]]itymles and a: young pOl'ulmi.OOl!. - sre eeuse foeeoncem, Butbefure we ~e thmn.uf' in detail, let us dmfy ,3, f~ points,

First" about population growth.

Mmwy people. many journalism mc1urlOOl.ll'lls<mkemy believe IiIhat\ tihe country's population problem is rooted orull.y in ~:ts high bWrUlmlfi. Some even iliiIlk the populationgID'OMh rate, is the same 9J5, the birthrate. Not so. There is more 10 population ~ow(hthru:1.just ~he Omll rote.

Demographers- the people whemeke a sci!enJl[~fic smdy ofpopula!ti~nwmpoint Q1.WI~ 11I:at population grovvfh hasthree cempcnents: biilrtJbs~ death:s and migraro0l!1I.

The difference between births {mom precisely.jhe crude b~rdl rate) and deaths (tb.e' crude death rase) is. known as the natu.ral ill1crea:se,.iBot11 are described as "crude' beeause they are the :ralites given per I ,000 population with no distinctio~ as !(}I' age or sex.

'\\Vben peoplemove, fuey ,always come from someplace (arlll out -migration area) and move to ano!herp~ace (in~migrntkm. area). The G]fferen.oe in. the raees o,f cut-migrancn and. in-migration is known as the Ji1iet nugrati:ou rate.

Ifweput allofjhesetogether, we getthe foUoMng:

'Crude bIDr~b. !r,a,te ~. 'Crude de:a,tli1ralb!: '" .Raire ,or n!l:t!.!l~ ... 1 i~~~ea<se 'OIl~~_jwaltiio'!1rate - ~~F~,fuln f""~ ee Net m;lg~:ilill:lllln r:atJe

Rate .00fnaturrail jncrr~4i~;e

+ Oil" ~ Net mJg"t~oilll to'Iite: ~o_aIWD


Q I_ ..L"~j<"".",,r/.~ ..... ~ ... c7f",;, u/,..t-ir...n. """', _/ 0 ... a .... ./...,J;"..."' .... t-. ~~-~·u~~ ~~~v r..,u .. {,.{b ~(:;..v··~rrT~~--.

When you report 011 population and development, you willi at some time or other tH3ar or come across the term IdiOl.iltl,1 i ng Ume, as in "The IP hiil ippines:" populanon will double in 3'0' years" ~

Don't let tha,t b it of what appears to be crystallball= gazingl throw yOIlJ on. There's no, magic here, All it ta kes is asiimple If''IIiathematica~ fOrmula knowna.s the Rule of '(0"

The number 70 Is a mathematical constant; anylhing that 'gnlWs at the rate of 1 % ,:3 y,ear will take 70 years fo double. 'The number 10,~erefore" divided by 1he rate of gmw1h of a given pO'Pu'latiion per year, willi giiV9 tl1e number of years that. that popul.i;I,tion will double if its rate of growth remains constant. let's try the formula on tine country's population wh leh, as we saw earl ~er" now tota~s 68.6, million a nd graws, at th,s wate o,f 2.32 % a year:


--- - 30 years

2 .. 32%

This, means that in 30, years, ,fthe rate at which our population grows does not change. iit wiill double ill s.ize, from '08.6 million to 13J6.2 mimon.

From t'le formula you win see that. the 'faster the rate, of growth ofthe populiation, the shorter the time it will take for that population to dOlLl'ble In size. Thet's because its grOW'tll is ,exponential. This simply means 'tnat .a1lthougl1 the given rate of glmwt'h of the pepu I,avion. is constant, that rate ~s beingl app I iedtol a :base population tha1 ~s ,constantly growing over



In cide n tal Iy ~ d em 0 grap hers study many more aspects of the population. Aside from studying population growth, SIze and composition, they also study its d i s tr i bu t i o n, density and other demographic and

. "


character] sti cs (such as education. employment and income), and the causes and consequences of changes in these factors. Journalists writing about population and d evelop men t would do well to Iook carefully at these same factors, to come up with better-rounded stories,

Population Momentum

The second point that needs to be clarified is the impression that if fertility is cheeked, our problem ofrapid population growth will be solved immediately,

In theory ~ population should cease to grow once replaeemen t fertiliity - about two children per woman- is attained. But in reality. population in the Philippines will continue to grow for two or three more generations - or for as long as 70 years - even afterreplacement fertility is attained. This is because tbe country has a high concentration of young women aheadyin the childbearing ages.

This continued growth in the population despite the attainment of replacement fenili ty is known as population momentum.

Migration and Urbanization.

Now let' s take a closer look at migration and urbanization which, in the past, were rarely reported. on.

First, a bit ofhistory:

From shortly after the end of World War II to the late fillies, Pibpinos were

II .. --~--~.....""",..."'"

~ +--~---____"~--~_";~_"""""=;--4 U.rban ,4, +----:;:;><Io<;;;!"""'"--":-~«------~-____:___'l

3, t----;;".,..::;...".......,---::-='"'s~=::;;;z_-:--_:"'_:::'_"i

Coil ntryvime 2+-----------~--.~,~~--~~~--~~


A preterell'ce fo'r city Ilgh,ts

A.v,erago' aJnnua~1 '9 r'(lwth rates· C),I urban II rnd [rural areas, 1 ~IIIS·~ 995


moving tothe .fu::mti'er provinces, located mostly in Mindanao. Starting in the sixties, however, their movement slDfted ro tlil.e: urbamaeeas, Berween 1975 and I '980. more than half of aUmigra.tion was in the direction oflhe cities .mtliJ;erilian. the countryside."

Peop,]e were drawn to tile cities by so-called "pull" factors such as better economic and educational epportunines, and impelled to.leeve therural areas by '''ush'' factors such aspoverey; lowwa:ges~absence ofjobS'l.lam::11esmess, m dwindling fmm size,

Tod01JY there are prac~ti.Cat]]y as'many Fmpinoo livili_ngm. the urban areas as there are in the rural areas. And more are packing the' c~ties m search ofa better life. This process of increase in the.proporfionofthe population living in urban areas ~s mown as nrD,anizatiO'lII.

Both migration aad Wibwllzati.on halVe oontributed, to theuaeven distri~tion of thepopulation tbreughcut the' country' s regions. Some are regardedas overpopulated; others as spa:rne~y inhabited.

Mo:retillim half ofall Filipinos i.ve in L1!lZOIl And the proportion of the population thatis urban has been risiu~ steadily: from 3001O,:in 1960. it went up to 49% in ~.995.

The National Capital Region, .Metropo1itan. Cebuand ili.e~ess dense bu~ resource .. richprovinces in Mindanao are the top, destinations for migrants. Bieol, Iloeos and. the entire Visayas - mostly areas where the agriculture base is poor - are thetop seadingregions,

TIlls kind oflmgmtion has threeeonsequences: it ttmls:fem poverty from the rw:all areas to the c~ties; causes sn iimha1ancein.®he age, sex and skills dismbution back home; oodputs Ruther pressure on the cities' limited resourees.

Migrants, including thosewho Me young, skilied and better educ-ated. cannot aIliwaysfind jobs. As a result, they swell the nmts oftbe UI'han unemp toyed

_ 9

Meantime, city governments have to find ways to provide them} as well asjbe native and long-time residents, enough water. electrieiry, health services and facili ties, transport, waste disposal systems, telecommunication facilities and recreation. Like all ecosystems, cities, have acarryingca:padJty~ which is the maximum. size of'a resident popuiation that an ecosystem can sustain.

The increasing population has putpressure on the uplands as wen: at lea-st a founh ofthe total population me said to live in the upland areas, They denude forests andnan them into Imingin farms, When the thin topsoHoffue mountain slopes can 1101 longer support. their crops~ they move on, deouding more wrests.

Dependency, Labor and Emtploy:ment

The country' s young population has resulted in a high d.epend.ency burden.

- ,

For every 10 people in the working age grouiP (15 to 64), there are seven others who depend on them for food and other basic needs, Of the seven, about six are aged 14 and below" and one, 65 and. above. Considered. dependents are those aged. 0 to 14. and. 65 and above.

At the national level, this level of dependency means more resources have to be channeled into social services such as schools, hospitals and. day-care instinnions rather than into economically productive investments.

100 manyentrants intothe labor fume have depressed, real wages. On average~ 800,000 people join the labor force every year. II1I. 1994. this number had to compete with 2.6 million ctherpecple who remained. unemployed, and 5.2 million who were underemployed .. For all these people, there were only 200)000 newj obis to fight over. This shortage of opportunities for domestic employment gave rise to the phenomenon of the overseas contract worker.


The rapid growth in. the country's population has created problems :for its neturalresouree base: forests baveb een deeimated aJ.nd degraded,. soil has lh een.eroded, mangrove SWttiThpS havebeenjost, coral reefs: de!itJloyed~ and nearshosefisheries depleted

The .oolmtry has a:ho1!ll[ m (I miltion heotaves o;ffrum]and but fueJrproductiivity is diminishing duemaIin1y w, soH. erosion, That is why~m 1995!. llie, comtzy had. ttl· import12{1~OOO metric tons of rice, our staple product, S oil erosion ~s a consequence ofdeforestation, which hasaffected three-q uarters 0 fpublic lads ..

. 1]]. ]9~.8~ the country's mangrove S'WlmfIiIl~ouea.lfowsts -im.lOortmt breeding grounds for many marine species and a cover against typhoons£'or intesior areas - totaled 450~OOOh.ocl3!res. is event)' years later, in [988.,. they sbrank to only ] o11:J9 ~OOO hectares because of s]l~a!timl~ pclluticnand indiseriminase mmg.

The Philippines recognized the need to address pro ble; •. is related to rapid population growthas early as 1967 when it signed the United Nations Declaraden 011 Population. The Declaration sarmd: ~Thepo,]Yu]at~on p:rotD:le:m must be reeagnized as a princ\ipal element in long-range aational p]~: if gevernmeetsare toachieve then economic go.als and fu]fiU the aspiratio,ns o,f then: people."

In 1'969. th.e Philippine: govemmeontcreated. the Ccmmiesicn on Population

~'. .' .

~oom) ID studyand recommend policies, .an.J:I.program_s OIl population withjn.

the context of social and economic development


In 1970, the government, acting on the' Commission 's reeommendations, launched a national population program.

In the early seventies, tills program focused mainly on fertility reduction because 1

ofthe conditions, knowledge level and attitudes during the time. Toward the ,

eighties, it was reoriented tDI include family welfare. During the adminisiretion ,I

ofPresident Aquino.changes in. policy and in the program were instinued.

The current policy puts more emphasis on th.e right of couples to make decisions regarding the size of their families. overall improvement offamily welfare' (not just fertility reduetion), promotion of family solidarity, responsible parenthccd, child survival and safe motherhood; enhancement ofthe role and status of women, promotion of self-reliance through community-based approaches) coordination and integration ofdevelopment efforts at various levels of government, and enhancement of' public- pori vate sectorpartnership through the complementary participation ofnongovernmeotal organizations eNG-Os).

Program changes includedthe division ofthe Philippine Population Program into t\VO' areas _. integrated population and development, and family planning - and. the designation of the Department of'Health (DOH) as the lead agency

- .

in the implementation of the national family planning program.

This change underscores the fact that, for the program, family planning is a means of promoting healthy chiJdbeari.11lg (which, consequently. would make a demographic impact)" ratherthan at. means oftowering fertility, with health benefits.

The Population Program Today

1 J

The population program today comes undera new name _ the Philippine Population Management Program (PPl'vlP).. Launched in 1993. it seeks to secure "the proper balance among population, resources and environment to

achieve an improved quality onife for all Fillp'mos bymanagmg: the gro'W111 and distribution ofpopulation,"

Achieving such a balance is regarded as a dynamic processwherepolicies and programs influence coeditions of the population. resourcesand the environment in the present while ooticipalting their possible effects onthe ijuility

, ,.., - -

of'lifeofthe coming generaticns ..

More specifically, the pI'Ogram hopeato accomplish HIe following:

• promote smaller families. longer spacing ofchildren and delayed marriages;

• promote restraints in the growth of set1lements~ improve land use planning, and bringabout prudent exploitation. ofnaruralreoources; and

• promote growth with eql!li ty, unity wi th participation, and. proper delineation of public-private roles

Three major challenges stand out ]]1 the quest for this balance:

Pressure of growing comnnmities 00 fragUe and everburdeaed ecosyst't:n1!s. Much o:fthiis is fe1:t at Local! levels, manifes1ing itselfin calamines like floods and drougbt, pollution oflakes and rivers and desnuction of fo,rests and coral reefs.

Competing .approa!chesto :iinlproVli:ng family welfare. People's decisions on whether and when to marry ~ when to have children and when to stop having them. have left varied ccnsequencesin therrwak~. Some are unhappy frunili~ particularly among the poor Md msadvanmgoo! continued high infant and. child deaths" high ~.evds of mamutritioll,. high levels of'primary school dropouts and repetition, low levels of schooHngand. high incidence of'ehild sbandonment.


of consti tutional democracy III the Philippines haa opened a new era in statepeople relations, On the matter of population and :famUy planning, a question. often asked is: how far should ~ovemment goin pursuing its population policy objectives, and what should it leave for families to do?

Because attainment of the balance among population, resourcesand environment depends primarily on private behaviors (particulsrly mani~e and childbearing), the state can help by encouraging greater rationality in such behaviors. It could take the following actions: make more infcnnadon widely available, ensure P eople's access to what they need for rational behavior.and set up regulations (e.g, against marriage before at certain age and agllinstmsafe maternal care, and for allowing various methods onega]. and medically safe rnethodsof family planning),

TheP'~R-.E Frameiwork

The program has adopted what it calls the "P-R~lE framework." This states that, tohave a population {P) that. is healthy, educatedand gainfully employed and enjoys the benefits of'development in. other ways" the country needs to have adequatefiscal resources (R) for health.education and other services. and ahealtlry environment and natural resource base: (E)- With a quality populatien, the country can generate more economic growth and preserve; its natural resources and the, environment.

Working together in theprogram are various agencies of'gcverranent.local government units (LOU s), NGOs and private instimticns.

LGU s take the lead in implementing the program locally and. providing the local funds.personnel and. other support far it. NOOs and private agencies help carry (Jut and. support. the program. through infunn.atio:n, education and communication, and. advccacyand service d.elivery. Government line agencies take care ofthe program's sectoral concerns:

• Department ofHealth for reproductive health and family pbum~ng;

• Department of Agriculture fur food security;

• Department ofBdlu.cation, Culture and Sports forpopnladon education;

.' Department of Labor and Employment foremployment ofworkers and the welfare oftheir families; and

.. Department of Social Welfare and Development for social services and the enrichment of family life.

Popcorn coordinates the PPMP and provides the needed pOJ:lCY~ informatica and advocacy SUPPo,rt

Paths of Action

The PPI'vIP's paths of action to bring ehout needed chenges in people's attitudes and behavior as well as in the quality of their life are si mated in the pro gram's five components:

.. R_epnldlu:lli,ve bealtb and. family planning. The program provides information and services that win help enablecouples and individuals to exercise theirrightto choose their sexual behavior freely and In, a well informed and fuUy empowered manner: to marry or not, to have children or not. and to decide on the timing. spacing and number 0 f their children,

'. Adolescent h,ealth and you th. de'vel.opm'lmt The program helps the youihform proper values about sexnalityand develop favorsble attitudes toward family ~ gender; reproductive health, the environment and the common good.

TIns sector of the population is important to the program because its members were born in the 70s., when population growth rate was at its


highest" They are now old enough to bear children themsel v es, By their sheer number, they could cause another surge in pcpulationgrewth, even with the program 's past success at bringing famHy planning

. -

information and services to a considerable portion ofthe population .

., Migration and urb'3nizafi.on. The program does research, pilot projects and policy advocacy to promote a balanced distribution of the population, prevent urban congestion.and preserve ecological balance,

., Gender equity and womeu'sempmverilIl1eDt., The program promotes women' s rights: to education, livelihond, health and the management. of their own fertility according to their own beliefs and preferences. It also seeks ('0 convince men to be more supportive during their wives' pregnancy as wen as during the birth, caring and raising ofilieiir children. In addition, the pf'ogram provides information about and advocatesthe establishment of a\ legal, social and economic environment that is genderfair and helps women realize their fuJl potential as human. beings.

• Popula.tiliilmi and developme'otp,b.nuin:g. The PPMP advocates the integration ofpopulation factors in developmentplanning, particularly ill policy and program formulation, as well as in land use planning and environmental protection and general socioeconomic interventions of govemment

P'PI\1P 0]) erstions are guided by the following values and principles:

I. The family isthe basic unit ofdevelopment,

2. Marriage ~s the foundation ofthe family.

3. Human lwfe is sacred and abortion is mung.

4. The individual's freedom of conscience, religiousconvietions and right too free choice should. be respected.

5. The integrity ofthe natural physical en~nm~!lt sP9ql~ !?\; respected. a:J s a 'j..1 ~tSI nr n'T'd noitsluqoq n~rlw ,('.O\' ;)nj 111 rnod :rrJ'.'i ~-1~1;m: ILl

TllePhinppine Family Planning Program

ThePhilippine Family Planning Program responds tothese realities:

• 80% nfrnarried women of reproductive age are considered high-risk from. pregnancy and childbirth .. The foilowing conditions place women at high risk age (either too yOUtlJ.g~ below 20~ or to 0 old, above]':5)~ number of'pregnancies {four or more), spacing of pregnancies (less than 15 months), and state cfhealth (too sick) .

.. Of every [~OOO mothers who give birth. one dies during pregnancy or childbirth.

Majo,rcaJUses ofrnaternal death are hemorrhage, infection, 'Obstructed labor and septic abortion .

.. llnfmt mortality rates remain high .. o.f every 1,000 babies born, 48.9 die before reaching their first year.. Leading causes of infant death. 9!ire respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases which are preventable .

., Birth spadn~ of au least two years will reduce maternal deaths by 2:9%. infant deaths by 20%.

Unspaeed pregnancies d.enymotlhers the chance to recover the nutrients and blood they lost during their most recent pregnancy and delivery. This. makes them. vulnerable to disease, particularly if tbey are malnourished, and can affoct the heaith offhe child in their womb. Birth intervals ofless than. a )reaT' increase the likelihood offetal loss, stiHibirtlt, prematurity and earLy childhood death,

• The l'FR 0f3.1 is tuOo high.


More .FilipinQ mother8 die






Mort!' Filipino habies die








Ofaoout: 14 million wemenof reprodaetive age, ninemillionare married. Ofthese women, three million have an unmet need.theyhave expressed a. desire to space 'Okths or stop childbearing. but are not prootiOMng famiJy pjanning, About one in, every five ofthese women want to space childbearing; two in eC'!!erythveew1IDt to S'tophavil1g children all!togeilier"


.. M'·· ,-tt .. , " ,-, , . l' ,",' " I" ,,11,' £', ",']' , 'l',I~'·· of ,,-~ ,.1..1" - - _-

, ,Oi:>lYOtmgcOlllp eswanrasmaner l00!tL~r. wo 0 .every I,I,LJJL'OOwomen

would. like to have only three children or fewer.

Theprogram hasfive objectives: reduce unmetneed for famillyp]ru:mlng,rrouce high-risk births, prevent ebortions.imosove program slUstl.'Wlnabrility"and expand private sectorperticipetion. illts vision is "Familyplenning practice as a way of' life of every man and woman 0 freprodlictivea2-e.·' Its goal is~~Un]vers,al access tofamily plenning Fnro,m:m.tlon. education and. services;"

In carrying out its work, the'pr,ogram adheres roo t!b.eprincip,les, o-f respect for basicbumsn rights, freedom ofchoiee, and. voluntary dedsJon~maki_n~,

Among its strategies Me to increase and impreve use of family planning methods, convince couple's to switch from tiraditional to modem methods, dispelrumoes and misccnceptions, increase male participation, 'Widen use of avamJab]e methods, and focus on adolescentsandthe unmarried flm:l-1!l:glhschoo1 programs, mass media, outreach, peer el~uc91tionand contraceptive services,

Methods 0" Contracepnen

Methods of contraception fall into two categories: modern and traditionat, Modem methods include the pill, injectable, surgical sterilization, intrauterine device (llJD), condom, diaphragm, spermicide andjelly, and natural family planning (NFP). Traditional methods include withdrnwei and calendar rhythm,

Ofthe modem. methods, the most popular are: the pill (36% in 1998), condom (14%)., female sterilization (1 {I%)o and IUD (9%). Of'the traditional methods, the most popular are withdrawal (33%) and cca~,endarrlTyfum (24%).

The most common sources offsmilyplanoing methods are public health centers,

Knowledge and Practice of Cantraceptlen

Almost all women - 96% - and almost aU currently married women- 99% - have knowledge of'contraeepti ve methods .

. In reporting familyplanning practice, a journalist mould focus not amy on the acceptance rate; not all acceptors stay as accepters, Some shift to another method, some discontinue practice, and some drop out

Heavy re,liance on go'vern.ment

Sourc:eof famlll:y pla.lillillflg methods, iiJ'l the P'ililippines,. 1998

M~di~;)J1 jlriV8be


p rl",ala sector 2%

Soun'i!: lVatuma'l Stat~tk~ OJfif,1J (loud Macro InitJttUJli(jJ:l,aI, PhMfppJnes Nat16ntl'l lJewogmphtc {lIId HeaM S,ur~.ey 19'98


The more significant measure is the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR}, which is the proportion of'a specified population tbatreports current use of any method of contraception.

The moot common reasons given for diseontimiafion are accidental pregnancy,. a desire to become pregnant, and side effects. Among the methods, discontinuation rates are highest for the condom (60% in 1998},]nj ectable 1(52%), withdrawal (46%) and thepill (44%).

Amongrnarriedwomen, the mosteommon reasons :Cor no! usingfamilyp1arurirllg are fear of side effects (17.5%,]l1J. 1998).,. health concerns (13 .. 8%) and adesire to havemore chJ11.dren{20.4%),.

Contracepti ve prevalence rate increased. from 1.5.4% in. 1968 to 4.7% in 1998. OfUlis 47%" 28% were using modem methods: 1.8%. traditional methods. Rate of contracepti ve use is. higher amongurban women and. women. ;'vith higheredueation,

Church and State on Con.traception

Officials: of the Catholic Church acknowledgethat couples need. to practice responsible parenthood and plan their families, But f'Or philosophical 3.IJd religious reasons, the chllI0h disapproves, ofthe me of contraceptives, including the pill, IUD~ condom and. sterilization, It even wants government to stop funding and providing contraceptiveserviees,

But the churchdoes not acceptrespcnsibility fbrtbeconsequeoces of its position on contraception: unwanted pregnancies, unwanted children, unsafe pregnancies, deaths from unsafe abortions and. deterioration of family life, among others.

The church regards natural family planning as the only mcrellyacceptable meihed.


Despite their differences, the Catholic Church and government have reached some basic agreements onthe issueoffarnilyplaoning:

1. There must be freedom of'choice. ::t There must be alternatives,

3. There mustbe no coercion.

4. There m ust be no abortion.

But as these agreements, filter down to the parishes" they maybe subject to individual biases.

Other sects recognize the need topromote responsible parenthood among members of their congregations, Among.Muslim Filipinos, family planning ]8 allowed to spacepregnaocies, prevent heeltbproblemaarisingfiom pregna:ncy, and prevent the risk of fetal OF' maternal death, Permanent sterilization and abortion, however, are strictly forbidden,

The Catholic Church also recognizes that the state can intervene in matters related to population, providedit aHo"WS freedom of conscience, acknowledges the reproductive responsibility of parents, and respects theprinejples ofsexual and familymorality,

What do people think oftbecontroversybetween the, church hierarchy and the state 0]1 the issue of contraception?

According to a 1995 surveyofthe Social Weather Stations, 66% ofFiliplnos believe government is right inpromotlng a pmgmm. that allows married couples to choose a family planning method, The rest believe the Catholic Church is right in promoting 111lt:wa] wvniJy planning as fle oruy.mornJny acceptable method.


Stories Waiting to beWrUten

From the foregoing discussions, we can. see thatin practically every area of reporting. there are stories that have beenwritten before but can be told again. this time more meaeingfully, The me~:rul way is to put them in the context of populatioIilmd developmenr.

Consider the following story ideas:

., tile rush of Ue\V students .aI: the beginning of every school year,

accompanied by the p erennial sho,rtage of classrooms and teachers ., the decline in ehe quality of education .

., the rise in criminality

• the worsening, seemingly inso]uble trafficproblem .. the shortage of rice and other basic food items

.. declining fish harvests

.. destruction of forests and coral reefs .. the housing shortage

• floods

., garbage

• the pollutionoflekesandri vel'S

., the high incidence of abandoned babies and children • incidence of abortion

., the abuse 0 f'overseas contract workers ., local unemployment

The possibilities are endless. And what journalists write about them mayor may not have an impact,

In the end, it is people-s- not the government or the church -that will make thedifferenee, The key liesinhow theyas indJividu.als andmembers offamilies win decide.and whether they will cany out their decisions, and how.


The challenge to journalists is how to help people reach rational and wellconsidered decisions on matters that affect them, their families and their futiLM"e .

. Putting life into population and d,eve/opm'ent "eporting

PQPulat~onand deve!lopmenl repor!iing is nota mew concept in journal ism. tt mere1y focu ses on a typ€: of reporf ng that j oumalists, :8 hou Id be doin g, accorein g to the late Britis h-tu rned-Aslian lourn a~ lst Alan 19. C haikley ,

Mr, Challday W'aS the fOllnd~l"iIg 9c:liIl'Cr of IDE:.PTHnews, the p~oneering news and featares service on po,pUl~atiionand development o,i ~he Pre-ss Foundatic)n of Asia {PFA} .

.A.ccord i tlIg to him, this type of rep oll'tir!g seeks not 'Only to inform readers, and ilnterpret events for ilem; i1i also spurs them into 9!ctlono:r sf rnu I ates them to til in k, AJboul whal?lIhe "v lelous citd)e oI povedy~ that keeps m illiensof psopl e poor.

Mr_Chalk~ey saki tlhe circle ,goes this way; These people 'GO not have eneugll'ii income, so not enough savings, So net enougf1 ~t'ilV€stment in better prod uctlon. So not enQugh income.

''This is the dev-elopme:nt preble m - how~o pun en a hoje in that eirel € somewhere, Th at is Where you {lhede'Velopment joumalist) come in," he p·oi nted out

Developm€nt,. gov€mmenl sSJYs, should benefit everyone, But do es in Mr. Che'l kley suggested that you, the jjounlalist, shou rd as.k; Ne til 6S,e benefits (I ike water, I uve'l i hood, IlIBalth care ,. schools" peace ill nd order, crecm and markets) availlable? If they are, what is their qua~ity? How equitabry awe they distriblolled? HoW' ~roessiblealre they?


Then tell YOIUIr readers" viewer:Si. or [listeners so, particulany 'Uhosewho can or stH)uld ad on the problem. Or who can learn from a soiuti:on '!hat actually wonks.

Here are some practical :sugge!stions th·at should make rtilpo:rting on population and development come alive:

1. Don't just rep 0 rt. Point out 1he net effect etan event, action or

deelsien .

.2. Don'l be lbeglU I'led by the sensational. F OCIU:S on the .sIgnificant ·3. Make your story 'Interesting a rid hellp'wl to decis ion-making.

4. Report on people, not things.

5. Write the way readers tal'k.

'6: liiv€! w~th jar'90n but, lif pOs.sib'le.,. do not use it, If yo,u have 'to use jargon, telll your reeders what it means lin plain langluage.

7. Focus onsmall as well as big people, communmes and

organ lzatr.ons. 8, loce'l ize stertes.

9. IF ocus on SU ccesses as weill as failltil res.

10. IDo not oomplartmerl~a'l ize· issues, Instead .aeek QUrt and Mtablish 'their Irelattionsh i ps.

11, Exami~e motivations: Who decides? Who b,enefHs? Who


12. Be balanced" fair and ac-clJrrat'E!.

13. [llilustrate y.our story. Maika lit more VilsuaL

14. When workingl with numbers compare figures todetel"lTline change; report on thE!ulIsignificance and humanize them. Focus. on the people behin d the- staUs.tlcs ..

15. Explain. explain, expllai n, G iiv,~ th ~ reason. Andl ~he reason for th e rsssen,


Joseflna ValeJ'a·Cahig~['I .• Ph_D_ TranspllirenCcLeij, for a,pftscIlt~horn (E[lPhi~ippjne Po:p!!llatiQ!l:

Facts, Trends and .P:rospeC<t~,. l 998-

AlanB, Chalkley, A Maillual of.Develo;pmenllQumalisnm. PreS1S,Fwrlcia:tio:l1J ofA;s,iaiL1l~ Philnpp:ine Pre-8S r nstiwte_ 1969 j 1 ~nQi ..

O;immlssionoll Popll~atjon, in ~o{!peffitiQn with USAID. JOfuns Hopkins Uiniversityl PoplllatiQ~ Coltmmn~catlon Services .and Mte United Nations PQP!ll~atiQtI Fund, Mor-e drum Numbersr A .Primer en FO]l1!laUo,n ~o'r th,e Local, Governme:nts. Untla,tcd ..

GOtrl.!ll1 i ssicnon Popu I <!itjQn_ The PhlUpplll!ll POIl~~atillolli f\,1allJagC'.mellJ~ Pl1IiE;I::.\Ulll ,. Mal'i~ng LJru Deuer (!I'r 011 r P,~o'P!c Today :alt~ l'o',mormw. 1993.

COmrlmi.ssiolfl 0<t1 Population. The .PIli~I~ppLne Po~:mJlltl!l," l\1l:anfllgcme[IJ~Prrogram. (PPMP). 1997,

Commi ssi en o't! Pcpu latioll,. In Q lI~stl(lIlS :al!Jd Altswers o<n ~1I e .P,h iUppln.e Pop,u,hlti.o[l[l MlIIIagem~ltt .P:rogrn In. Uilda!oo.

Department ofHelllilih, in coopt:r~l:iqn with~he Unik:d SI:iIIt(;;5 Ag¢.11Cyfm ~nkm1l!tiol:l.ill Developmenr, A lliml. i.nto Ph iruiIPpil1LePoiPtuJlItioJl and :S>!llc~o':.Eronom:ic R.e3~i.ties. l 9950.

Eliseo de Guzmaa, Traf}spl1lreJ],ci,~ for a present~ian onPhi.lippine pO];lllbtklll: Facts, Treads and I'lr~pect~, 1993.

Joe<elyn [lagan, M.D. Transpareneies for a brlef~liIg OI! the P!hiliPiPin,~s Family P.~aIUniIlg Program, Depal'tmnent of Health, ~ 99g.

InsW:ute for Sodal Studies and Action, fOil' the Commiss~an 011 Popul ation, Uo:iJderstln.dJi:ng RCI)rod~cti.vc- He~UIiI and Gender ISSU,llll and CQrn.c;errn;~" Fa.c~ Sheet No, 3 [Fertility M~nagemefH)- Und~~ed.

Natio-nal :Stati sties 6.ffice (NSO), Department of Health (DOH) and Matrn Jnrem..'lJticmal Inc, N!!ltional Demlifgraplili.i: .~lJJd Heamtlil Survey 1998. Manila, January' 1999.

Aurora E_ Perez, Ph.D, Transparencies fora. presen:hltiofiOll Plrlihppil1~ POp~]M"lotl: Facts, Trends and Pro3pects.1 '998:.

Pl3nllin~ and Monlt.o<l'il1,g rHVLsion, Cot1m:l!ission Qn PQP1,llatn.QI1L Ph.i~i,~rullli5-P@fllJ.I:Ui.o.11 Im;pac.tsoD D~,w"Clopment. SeptefWber ]994,

Popu],~tion RefeJe,nce Bureau, '(be, PopiLlIDaMoiOJ Reference Bureau's I'IIiip!ula.tiil]in HandbQilIk. ]Iltemaholial &I if ton. ] 991 .

O;mlzon RaymIlndo, PhJJ Transp:~ren.cies ['Or .apre5Mt~hon. on Philippine POiP!J~.!ltio:n: Facts, Teends and PI"Q$pect~,1998-

R:!lll1on A. Tagle, Jr- ,'h,e Pop1!!Jatioill O(l~lrovtnyalld Us ResO<.luloll. Pamprn 1 et produced by the PhWpp/joe NOO ConcH onPlopulaholl, Heflilth a1:'la Welfare.. lJl1dated.

Mario M . .ragl1ijwa~o. Ul1pubHsned notes i~ outline form th~ed"ne C';athio1ic Churoh a:sa Lobby Group ain the PotpulatiQU Isrue.M Undated.

United Nations Population .fLlndl. UNFPA i~ ~:he Ph:mppi~es - Balanced G~ow~b. for 3 B~'I1/eT Quality oflLiJe.. Undated.

ZeMa C. ZaiDlal1l., Ph.D. Ttansperenctes for a pre!>eil~IliI:LM 0111 Phll~pp:lrn,e Populaticn: Blc:t~, Trends !lind. Prespects, 1998.


Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.