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 Cigarettes
The most commonly thought of form of tobacco when you hear the word
“smoking.” Cigarettes include tobacco leaves, nicotine, and many cancer-
causing chemicals. The smoke from a cigarette is inhaled into the lungs.
 Cigars

Cigars are another form of tobacco, they are tightly rolled, cured tobacco
leaves in a leaf wrapper. Although cigars are usually not inhaled into the
lungs, they still contain harmful, cancer-causing ingredients. They can also

lead to a nicotine addiction.

 Electronic Cigarettes (e-cigarette)
A newer kind of tobacco, this device is shaped like a cigarette, cigar,
or pen and does not contain tobacco. E-cigarettes contain nicotine,
flavoring, and other chemicals which may be harmful, and uses
batteries to heat and create a vapor. The amount of nicotine in
individual e-cigarettes varies, although no tobacco smoke is produced. It is not yet known
whether e-cigarettes are safe.
 Shishas or Hookahs and Mouassal
A hookah is a different form of tobacco — but is still just as
It is used to smoke flavored tobacco, which contains nicotine and
cancer-causing chemicals. It is heated, then cooled by passing through
a bowl of water, and the smoke is then inhaled through a mouthpiece.
It can lead to addiction, and is not safer than smoking cigarettes.
 Chewing tobacco
This comes in the form of loose tobacco leaves, plugs, or twists. It can
come sweetened and flavored, and is placed in the mouth between the
cheek and lower lip. It can also be chewed. Although it is commonly
thought that chewing is not as harmful, like the others, it contains nicotine
and cancer-causing chemicals, and can also cause other health problems.
The Philippines ranks second in number of smokers, and has the highest number of
female smokers in the 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The World
Health Organization estimates that 10 Filipinos die every hour due to cancer, stroke, lung
and heart diseases brought on by cigarette smoking.
Many governments impose restrictions on smoking tobacco, especially in public
areas. The primary justification has been the negative health effects of second-hand smoke.
Laws vary by country and locality. Bhutan is currently the only country in the world to
completely outlaw the cultivation, harvesting, production, and sale of tobacco and tobacco
products under the Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010.
However, small allowances for personal possession are permitted as long as the
possessors can prove that they have paid import duties. The Pitcairn Islands had previously
banned the sale of cigarettes, but it now permits sales from a government-run store. The
Pacific island of Niue hopes to become the next country to prohibit the sale of tobacco.
Iceland is also proposing banning tobacco sales from shops, making it prescription-only and
therefore dispensable only in pharmacies on doctor's orders. New Zealand hopes to achieve
being tobacco-free by 2025 and Finland by 2040. Singapore and the Australian state of
Tasmania have proposed a 'tobacco free millennium generation initiative' by banning the
sale of all tobacco products to anyone born in and after the year 2000. In March 2012, Brazil
became the world's first country to ban all flavored tobacco including menthols. It also
banned the majority of the estimated 600 additives used, permitting only eight. This
regulation applies to domestic and imported cigarettes. Tobacco manufacturers have 18
months to remove the noncompliant cigarettes, 24 months to remove the other forms of
noncompliant tobacco. Under sharia law, the consumption of cigarettes by Muslims is
prohibited. In the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant the consumption and even its
possession is illegal.
Smoking cigarettes is a risk factor for many physical and mental diseases. About five
million people die of smoking every year. Understanding the concept of cigarette smoking
can help people develop their knowledge with regard to smoking. A qualitative research
seems essential to detect these concepts. Therefore, the present study aims to take into
account the experience of adult smokers with regard to the concept of smoking.
Toxic chemicals are not the only human health concern to take into considerations;
the others are cellulose acetate and carbon particles that are breathed in while smoking.
These particles are suspected of causing lung damage. The next health concern is that of
plants. Under certain growing conditions, plants on average grow taller and have longer
roots than those exposed to cigarette filters in the soil. A connection exists between cigarette
filters introduced to soil and the depletion of some soil nutrients over a period time. Another
health concern to the environment is not only the toxic carcinogens that are harmful to the
wildlife, but also the filters themselves pose an ingestion risk to wildlife that may presume
filter litter as food. The last major health concern to make note of for marine life is the
toxicity that deep marine topsmelt and fathead minnow pose to their predators. This could
lead to toxin build-up (bioaccumulation) in the food chain and have long reaching negative
effects. Smoldering cigarette filters have also been blamed for triggering fires from
residential areas to major wildfires and bushfires which has caused major property damage
and also death as well as disruption to services by triggering alarms and warning systems.
When you smoke, the poisons from the tar in your cigarettes enter your blood. These
poisons in your blood then:
 Make your blood thicker, and increase chances of clot formation
 Increase your blood pressure and heart rate, making your heart work harder than
 Narrow your arteries, reducing the amount of oxygen rich blood circulating to your
Together, these changes to your body when you smoke increase the chance of your arteries
narrowing and clots forming, which can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Smoking damages your heart and your blood circulation, increasing the risk of conditions
such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (damaged
blood vessels) and cerebrovascular disease (damaged arteries that supply blood to your
Carbon monoxide from the smoke and nicotine both put a strain on the heart by making it
work faster. They also increase your risk of blood clots. Other chemicals in cigarette smoke
damage the lining of your coronary arteries, leading to furring of the arteries.
In fact, smoking doubles your risk of having a heart attack, and if you smoke you have twice
the risk of dying from coronary heart disease than lifetime non-smokers.
The good news is that after only one year of not smoking, your risk is reduced by half. After
stopping for 15 years, your risk is similar to that of someone who has never smoked.

Smokers have an increased chance of getting stomach cancer or ulcers. Smoking can
weaken the muscle that controls the lower end of your gullet (oesophagus) and allow acid
from the stomach to travel in the wrong direction back up your gullet, a process known as
Smoking is a significant risk factor for developing kidney cancer, and the more you smoke
the greater the risk. For example, research has shown that if you regularly smoke 10
cigarettes a day, you are one and a half times more likely to develop kidney cancer
compared with a non-smoker. This is increased to twice as likely if you smoke 20 or more
cigarettes a day.

Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen that gets to your skin. This means that if you
smoke, your skin ages more quickly and looks grey and dull. The toxins in your body also
cause cellulite.
Smoking prematurely ages your skin by between 10 and 20 years, and makes it three times
more likely you'll get facial wrinkling, particularly around the eyes and mouth. Smoking
even gives you a sallow, yellow-grey complexion and hollow cheeks, which can cause you
to look gaunt.
The good news is that once you stop smoking, you will prevent further deterioration to your
skin caused by smoking.
Smoking can cause your bones to become weak and brittle. Women need to be especially
careful as they are more likely to suffer from brittle bones (osteoporosis) than non-smokers.

If you smoke, you are more likely to have a stroke than someone who doesn't smoke.
In fact, smoking increases your risk of having a stroke by at least 50%, which can cause
brain damage and death. And, by smoking, you double your risk of dying from a stroke.
One way that smoking can increase your risk of a stroke is by increasing your chances of
developing a brain aneurysm. This is a bulge in a blood vessel caused by a weakness in the
blood vessel wall. This can rupture or burst which will lead to an extremely serious
condition known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is a type of stroke, and can cause
extensive brain damage and death.
The good news is that within two years of stopping smoking, your risk of stroke is reduced
to half that of a smoker and within five years it will be the same as a non-smoker.

Your lungs can be very badly affected by smoking. Coughs, colds, wheezing and asthma are
just the start. Smoking can cause fatal diseases such as pneumonia, emphysema and lung
cancer. Smoking causes 84% of deaths from lung cancer and 83% of deaths from chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
COPD, a progressive and debilitating disease, is the name for a collection of lung diseases
including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. People with COPD have difficulties
breathing, primarily due to the narrowing of their airways and destruction of lung tissue.
Typical symptoms of COPD include: increasing breathlessness when active, a persistent
cough with phlegm and frequent chest infections.
Whilst the early signs of COPD can often be dismissed as a ‘smoker’s cough’, if people
continue smoking and the condition worsens, it can greatly impact on their quality of life.
You can slow down the progression of the disease and stopping smoking is the most
effective way to do this.
Mouth and throat
Smoking causes unattractive problems such as bad breath and stained teeth, and can also
cause gum disease and damage your sense of taste.
The most serious damage smoking causes in your mouth and throat is an increased risk of
cancer in your lips, tongue, throat, voice box and gullet (oesophagus). More than 93% of
oropharyngeal cancers (cancer in part of the throat) are caused by smoking.
The good news is that when you stop using tobacco, even after many years of use, you can
greatly reduce your risk of developing head and neck cancer. Once you've been smokefree
for 20 years, your risk of head and neck cancer is reduced to that of a non-smoker.

Reproduction and fertility

Smoking can cause male impotence, as it damages the blood vessels that supply blood to the
penis. It can also damage sperm, reduce sperm count and cause testicular cancer. Up to
120,000 men from the UK in their 20s and 30s are impotent as a direct result of smoking,
and men who smoke have a lower sperm count than those who are non-smokers.
For women, smoking can reduce fertility. One study found that smokers were over three
times more likely than non-smokers to have taken more than one year to conceive. The
study estimated that the fertility of smoking women was 72% that of non-smokers.
Smoking also increases your risk of cervical cancer. People who smoke are less able to get
rid of the HPV infection from the body, which can develop into cancer.
Smoking while you are pregnant can lead to miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth and
illness, and it increases the risk of cot death by at least 25%.