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ARTERIAL CATHETERIZATION

To cite this article: Kh. S. Mekheimer & M. A. El Kot (2010) SUSPENSION MODEL FOR BLOOD

FLOW THROUGH ARTERIAL CATHETERIZATION, Chemical Engineering Communications,

197:9, 1195-1214, DOI: 10.1080/00986440903574883

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gcec20

Download by: [Birla Institute of Technology and Science] Date: 03 October 2017, At: 04:46

Chem. Eng. Comm., 197:1195–1214, 2010

Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

ISSN: 0098-6445 print=1563-5201 online

DOI: 10.1080/00986440903574883

Arterial Catheterization

1

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

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2

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal

University, Suez, Egypt

This article is concerned with the analysis of a dusty model for the axi-symmetric flow

of blood through coaxial tubes such that the outer tube with an axially nonsymmetreic

but radially symmetric mild stenosis and the inner tube have a balloon (assumed that

is axi-symmetric in nature). The mild stenosis approximation is used to solve the

problem. To estimate the effect of the stenosis shape, a suitable geometry has been

considered such that the axial shape of the stenosis can be changed easily just by vary-

ing a parameter (referred to as the shape parameter). The model is also employed to

study the effect of the volume fraction density of the particles C, the maximum height

attained by the balloon d2, the radius of the inner tube, which keeps the balloon in

position j, and the axial displacement of the balloon xd. Flow parameters such as

velocity, the resistance to flow (the resistance impedance), the wall shear stress

distribution in the stenotic region and its magnitude at the maximum height of the

stenosis (stenosis throat) have been computed numerically for different shape para-

meters n, C, d2, j, and xd. It is shown that the resistance to flow decreases with

increasing values of the parameter determining the stenosis shape n and the axial

displacement of the balloon xd, while the resistance to flow increases with the volume

fraction density of the particles C, the radius of the inner tube, which keeps the balloon

in position j, and the maximum height attained by the balloon d2. The magnitudes of

the resistance to flow are higher in the case of a dusty fluid model than in the case of a

Newtonian fluid model. The wall shear stress distribution in the stenotic region and its

magnitude at the maximum height of the stenosis possess a character similar to the

resistance to flow with respect to C, d2, j, and xd. Finally, the effect of the volume

fraction density of the particles C, d2, and xd on the velocity profile are discussed.

Introduction

One of the leading causes of death in the world is heart diseases, and the most

common types are ischemia, atherosclerosis, and angina pectoris. Ischemia is the

deficiency of oxygen in a part of the body, usually temporary. It can due to a

constriction (stenosis) or obstruction in the blood vessel supplying that part. Athero-

sclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. It comes from the Greek words athero (meaning

Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: kh_mekheimer@

yahoo.com

1195

1196 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin (clothing material in the

blood) in the inner lining of an artery. The buildup that results is called plaque,

and it may partially or totally block the blood flow through an artery. Two things

that can happen where plaque occurs are (i) bleeding (hemorrhage) into the plaque

and (ii) formation of a blood clot (thrombus) on the plaque surface. A symptom

complex of ischemic heart disease characterized by paroxysmal attacks of chest pain,

usually substernal or pre-cordial, is referred as angina pectoris. The deposition of

cholesterol and proliferation of the connective tissues in the arterial wall form pla-

ques that grow inward and restrict blood flow. Stenosis or arteriosclerosis, which

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means narrowing of any body passage (tube or orifice), is thus an abnormal and

unnatural increase in the arterial wall thickness that develops at various locations

of the cardiovascular system under diseased conditions.

The study of fluids with solid particles has been the object of scientific and

engineering research for a long time. The theoretical description of this system of

fluids is very useful in understanding various engineering problems concerned with

powder technology, rain erosion of guided missiles, sedimentation, atmospheric

fallout, combustion, fluidization, electrostatic precipitation of dust, nuclear reactor

cooling, acoustics batch settling, aerosol and paint spraying, aircraft icing, flows

in rocket tubes where small carbon or metallic particles are used, lunar ash flows,

environmental pollution, and many other practical problems. This subject is also

used in medicine, where erythrocyte sedimentation has become a standard clinical

test, and in oceanography as well as other fields. Some of the studies consider that

blood is a two-phase fluid, where the particulate phase is the red blood cells and

the fluid phase is the plasma, which is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The particu-

late suspension theory of blood has recently become the object of scientific research

(Srivastava and Srivastava, 1989). The investigation treated blood as a single-phase

Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid and thus failed to provide an estimate of red cell

concentration on the blood flow characteristics. It is well accepted that blood can no

longer be treated as a single-phase Newtonian viscous fluid, so we can consider that

blood is a two-phase fluid, where the particulate phase is the red blood cells and the

fluid phase is the plasma (Srivastava and Srivastava 1983; Saxena and Srivastava,

1997; Markatos, 1986).

A number of researchers have studied the flow of blood through stenosed

arteries (Pralhad and Schulz, 2004; Srivastava, 1995; Srivastava, 1985; Chakravarty

and Mandal, 2000; El-Shahed, 2003; Jung et al., 2004; Ang and Mazumdar, 1997;

Liu et al., 2004; Liu and Tang, 2000; Haldar, 1985; Mandal, 2004). Srivastava and

Saxena (1997) considered that blood is represented by a two-fluid model with central

(core region) layer of suspension of all the erythrocytes assumed to be a particle (red

cell)-fluid (plasma) mixure and studied the blood flow through stenotic arteries with

a cell-free plasma layer. Recently, Politis et al. (2007) carried out a comparative

study of simulated blood flow in different configurations of simplified composite

arterial coronary grafts (CACGs) for three-dimensional, laminar, and steady flow

and a Newtonian fluid. Also, computational fluid dynamics techniques were applied

for the simulation of multibranched CACGs under physiologically realistic inflow wave-

forms by the same authors (Politis et al., 2008).

Cardiac catheterization (also called heart catheterization) is a diagnostic

procedure that does a comprehensive examination of how the heart and its blood

vessels function. One or more catheters is inserted through a peripheral blood vessel

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1197

in the arm (antecubital artery or vein) or leg (femoral artery or vein) with X-ray

guidance. This procedure gathers information such as adequacy of blood supply

through the coronary arteries, blood pressure, blood flow throughout chambers of

the heart, collection of blood samples, and X-rays of the heart’s ventricles or arteries.

Typically performed along with angiography, a technique of injecting a dye into the

vascular system to outline the heart and blood vessels, catheterization can aid in the

visualization of any blockages, narrowing, or abnormalities in the coronary arteries.

If these signs are visible, the cardiologist may assess the patient’s need and readiness

for coronary bypass surgery, or perhaps a less invasive approach, such as dilation of

a narrowed blood vessel either surgically or with the use of a balloon (angioplasty).

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In recent times, with the evolution of coronary balloon angioplasty, there has

been a considerable increase in the use of catheters of various sizes. These include

the guiding catheter, whose tip is positioned in the coronary ostium through which

the angioplasty catheter over the small guide wire is advanced, and also the Doppler

catheter, if used in the procedure with the tip positioned proximal to the coronary

lesion. The insertion of a catheter in an artery will alter the flow field and increase

the resistance. Therefore the pressure or pressure gradient recorded by a transducer

attached to the catheter will differ from that of an uncatheterized artery, and it is

essential to know the catheter-induced error. Even a very small angioplasty guide

wire leads to sizable increase in flow resistance (Sankar and Hemalatha, 2007).

Back (1994) and Back et al. (1996) studied important hemodynamic characteris-

tics like the wall shear stress, pressure drop, and frictional resistance in catheterized

coronary arteries under normal as well as the pathological situation of a stenosis

present. The effect of catheterization on various flow characteristics in a curved artery

was studied by Karahalios (1990) and Jayaraman and Tiwari (1995). Dash et al. (1996)

studied the changed flow pattern in narrow artery when a catheter is inserted into it

and estimated the increase in friction in the artery due to catheterization using a Cas-

son fluid model for steady and pulsatile flow of blood. Also, Muthu et al. (2003) stud-

ied the model of arterial catheterization by considering the effect of elastic wall motion

on oscillatory flow of micropolar fluid through an annulus. Sankar and Hemalatha

(2007) studied pulsatile flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid through catheterized arteries.

The purpose of this invistigation is to study arterial catheterization (widening of

arteries by a balloon in the presence of mild stenosis), when blood is represented by a

two-fluid model of particle-fluid suspension. The effects of resistance to flow, the

wall shear stress distribution in the stenotic region, and its magnitude at the

maximum height of the stenosis are discussed numerically and explained graphically.

Let (r, h, x) be the cylindrical polar coordinate system. Consider the axi-symmetric

flow of blood through coaxial tubes such that the outer tube with an axially nonsym-

metric but radially symmetric (power-law form) mild stenosis having a length L and the

inner tube have a balloon (angioplasty) on its wall and assume that the balloon model

is axi-symmetric in nature. The stenosed wall and the balloon model are defined by the

functions R(x) and h(x), respectively, as shown as in Figure 1, and can be described by

ð1Þ

¼ do otherwise

1198 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

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ð2Þ

¼ kdo fotherwiseg

where d0 is the radius of the artery in the non-stenotic region, b is the length of the

stenosis, n ( 2) is a parameter determining the shape of the constriction profile and

referred to as the shape parameter (the symmetric stenosis occurs for n ¼ 2), and a

indicates its location (as shown in Figure 1). The parameter g is given by

d1 nn=ðn1Þ

g¼ ð3Þ

do bn ðn 1Þ

b

where d1 denotes the maximum height of the stenosis located at x ¼ a þ n1=ðn1Þ , d2 is

the maximum height attained by the balloon at x ¼ xd þ 0.5, jdo is the radius of the

inner tube, which keeps the balloon in position, j << 1, and xd represents the axial

displacement of the balloon.

It is assumed that blood is represented by fluid of suspension of all the erythro-

cytes assumed to be a particle (red cell)-fluid (plasma) mixture. The equations

governing conservation of mass and linear momentum for both the fluid and particle

phase using a continuum approach are expressed as (Srivastava and Srivastava,

1983, 1989; Srivastava and Saxena, 1997):

Fluid phase:

@uf @uf @ð1 CÞp

ð1 CÞqf uf þ vf ¼ þ ð1 CÞls ðCÞr2 uf þ CSðup uf Þ

@x @r @x

ð4Þ

@vf @vf @ð1 CÞp

ð1 CÞqf uf þ vf ¼ þ ð1 CÞls ðCÞr2 vf þ CSðvp vf Þ ð5Þ

@x @r @r

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1199

@ 1 @

fð1 CÞvf g þ fð1 CÞvf g þ fð1 CÞuf g ¼ 0 ð6Þ

@r r @x

Particle phase:

@up @up @Cp

Cqp up þ vp ¼ þ CSðuf up Þ ð7Þ

@x @r @x

@vp @vp @Cp

Cqp up þ vp ¼ þ CSðvf vp Þ ð8Þ

@x @r @r

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@ 1 @

fCvp g þ fCvp g þ fCup g ¼ 0 ð9Þ

@r r @x

with

2 1@ @ @2

r ¼ r þ 2 ð10Þ

r @r @r @x

where (uf, vf) are axial and radial velocities of fluid, (up, vp) are axial and radial

velocities of particle, qf and qp are the actual densities of the materials constituting

fluid and particulate phase, respectively, (1 C)qf is the fluid phase density, Cqp is

the particulate phase density, p denotes the pressure, C denotes the volume fraction

density of the particles, ls(C) is the particle fluid mixture viscosity (also the effective

viscosity of the suspension ls(C) ¼ lo when C ¼ 0), lo is the fluid (plasma viscosity),

and S is the drag coefficient of interaction for the force exerted by one phase on the

other. The expression for the drage coefficient of interaction, S, and the empirical

relation for the viscosity of the suspension, ls(C), for the present problem is selected

as (Srivastava and Saxena, 1997)

9 lo 0

s¼ k ðCÞ ð11Þ

2 a2o

4 þ 3½8C 3C 2 1=2 þ 3C

k0 ðCÞ ¼ ð12Þ

½2 3C2

and

lo

ls ¼ ls ðCÞ ¼

1 cC

1107

c ¼ 0:070 exp 2:49C þ expð1:69CÞ ð13Þ

T

Relation (12) represents the classical Stokes drag modified to account for the finite

particulate fractional volume through the function k0 (C), obtained by Tam (1969).

1200 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

The viscosity of the suspension expressed by Equation (13) and obtained by Charm

and Kurland (1974) has been found to be reasonably accurate for the value of C up

to 0.6. Charm and Kurland tested relation (13) with a cone and plate viscometer and

found it to be in agreement within 10% in the case of blood.

The boundary conditions that must be satisfied by the fluid on the walls are the

no-slip condition:

uf ¼ 0; up ¼ 0 at r ¼ RðxÞ ð14Þ

uf ¼ 0; up ¼ 0 at r ¼ hðxÞ ð15Þ

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x r uf bvf up bvp R

x0 ¼ ; r0 ¼ ; u0f ¼ ; v0f ¼ ; u0p ¼ ; v0p ¼ ; R0 ¼ ;

b do uo uo d1 uo uo d1 do

h p

h0 ¼ ; p0 ¼ ð16Þ

do qu2o

into Equations (4)–(10) and dropping the dashes. The appropriate equations

describing

the steady flow of a particle-fluid suspension in the case of a mild stenosis

d1

do << 1 , subject to the additional conditions (Srivastava and Saxena, 1997; Young,

1968)

1

d1 nn1

ðiÞ Re << 1 ð17Þ

b

1

do nn1

ðiiÞ Oð1Þ ð18Þ

b

may be written as

2

@p @ uf 1 @uf

¼ ls ðCÞ þ þ CMðup uf Þ ð19Þ

@x @r2 r @r

@p

¼0 ð20Þ

@r

qf @p

ðuf up Þ ¼ ð21Þ

ð1 CÞNqp @x

o o f u d q

where uo is the velocity averaged over the section of the tube of width do, Re ¼ ð1CÞl

o

o f sd 2 q

o f Sd 2 q

is the suspension Reynolds number, M ¼ ð1CÞl , and N ¼ ð1CÞq l are the suspen-

o p o

sion parameters.

The corresponding boundary conditions are

uf ¼ 0; up ¼ 0 at r ¼ RðxÞ

uf ¼ 0; up ¼ 0 at r ¼ hðxÞ

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1201

where

¼1 otherwise ð22Þ

with

d1 nn=ðn1Þ d1 a

g ¼ ; d1 ¼ ; r¼ ð23Þ

ðn 1Þ d0 b

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and

" 2 #

ðxd þ 0:5Þ

hðxÞ ¼ k þ d2 exp p2 b2 x rxrþ1

b

¼k otherwise ð24Þ

Noting the fact that p is a function of x only from Equation (20), Equation (19) is

rewritten in the form

@ 2 uf 1 @uf 1 dp

þ ¼ ð25Þ

@r2 r @r ð1 CÞls dx

r2

uf ¼ þ A logðrÞ þ B ð26Þ

ð1 CÞls

where A(x) and B(x) are the constants of integration. By using the boundary

conditions, we get

( !)

dp

dx 0 r2 logðRh Þ þ h2 logðRrÞ þ R2 logðhr Þ

uf ¼ l ð27Þ

4ð1 CÞlo logðRh Þ

( ! )

dp

dx r2 logðRh Þ þ h2 logðRrÞ þ R2 logðhr Þ

0 4ð1 CÞl2o

up ¼ l ð28Þ

4ð1 CÞlo logðRh Þ Sdo2

where l0 ¼ llo . The dimensionless flow rate q0 ¼ pdq2 uo (q0 being the flux in the

s o

moving system) is thus calculated as

q ¼ qf þ qp ð29Þ

( !)

dp

dx 0 4 4 ðh2 R2 Þ2

qf ¼ l R h þ ð30Þ

8lo logðRh Þ

1202 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

( ! )

dp

C dx ðh2 R2 Þ2 8ð1 CÞl2o 2

qp ¼ l0 R4 h4 þ þ ðR h2 Þ ð31Þ

8ð1 CÞlo logðRh Þ d02 S

and

( ! )

dp

dx 0 4 ðh2 R2 Þ2

4 2 2

q¼ l R h þ þ bðR h Þ ð32Þ

8ð1 CÞlo logðRh Þ

RR RR

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8Cð1CÞl2

where qf ¼ 2ð1 CÞ h ruf dr, qp ¼ 2C h rup dr, and b ¼ d 2 S 0 :

0

We can write Equation (32) in the form

dp

dx 1

q¼ ð33Þ

8ð1 CÞlo F ðxÞ

where

logðRh Þ

F ðxÞ ¼ ð34Þ

l0 fðR4 h4 Þ logðRh Þ þ ðh2 R2 Þ2 g þ bðR2 h2 Þ logðRh Þ

sections x ¼ 0 and x ¼ L is obtained from Equation (33) as

Z L Z L

dp

Dp ¼ dx ¼ 8ð1 CÞlo q F ðxÞdx ð35Þ

0 dx 0

Resistance Impedance

The resistance to flow (resistance impedance) is obtained from Equation (35) as

Z a Z aþb Z L

Dp

k¼ ¼ 8ð1 CÞlo F ðxÞjR¼1;h¼j dx þ F ðxÞdx þ F ðxÞjR¼1;h¼j dx

q 0 a aþb

ð36Þ

Z aþb

k ¼ ð1 CÞ ðL bÞI þ F ðxÞdx ð37Þ

a

where

logðkÞ

I¼ ð38Þ

fl0 ðð1 k4 Þ logðkÞ þ ðk2 1Þ2 þ bð1 k2 Þ logðkÞg

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1203

The shear stress in our problem is calculated as (Srivastava and Saxena, 1997)

@uf

sR ¼ ls ð39Þ

@r

By using Equation (16) and letting s0R ¼ slR udoo we can find the expression for the

o

dimensionless wall shear stress by

1 @uf

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sR ¼ ð40Þ

l0 @r r¼h

( )

dp

dx 2R2 logðRh Þ þ R2 h2

sR ¼ ð41Þ

4ð1 CÞlo R logðRh Þ

dp

¼ 8ð1 CÞlo qF ðxÞ ð42Þ

dx

Hence we have

( )

2R2 logðRh Þ þ R2 h2

sR ¼ 2q F ðxÞ ð43Þ

R logðRh Þ

We can note that the shearing stress at the stenosis throat (i.e., the wall shear at the

maximum height of the stenosis located at x ¼ ab þ n1=ðn1Þ

1

), i.e., ss ¼ sR jR¼1d1

8 9

<2ð1 d1 Þ2 log ð1d

h

Þ þ ð1 d1 Þ2 h2 =

ss ¼ 2q 1

J ð44Þ

:

ð1 d1 Þ log ð1d h

;

Þ 1

where J is defined by

J ¼ F ðxÞjR¼1d1 ð45Þ

We can find the final expressions for the dimensioless resistance to k, the wall shear

stress sR , and the shearing stress at the throat ss by

Z

b 1 aþb

k ¼ ð1 CÞ 1 Iþ F ðxÞdx ð46Þ

L L a

2R2 logðRh Þ þ R2 h2

sR ¼ F ðxÞ ð47Þ

R logðRh Þ

1204 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

2ð1 d1 Þ2 log ð1dh

þ ð1 d1 Þ2 h2

1Þ

ss ¼ J ð48Þ

ð1 d1 Þ log ð1d

h

Þ 1

where

k sR ss

k ¼ ; sR ¼ ; ss ¼ ;

ko so so

k0 ¼ 8lo L; so ¼ 2q ð49Þ

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and ko, so are the resistance to flow and the wall shear stress for a flow in a normal

artery (no stenosis).

However, in the limit d2 ! 0, Equations (46)–(48) reduce to the case that repre-

sents the flow of suspended-particle fluid through an annulus.

b

k ¼ð1 CÞ 1 I

L

Z ! #

1 aþb

logðRk Þ

þ dx ð50Þ

L a l0 fðR4 k4 Þ logðRk Þ þ ðk2 R2 Þ2 g þ bðR2 k2 Þ logðRk Þ

2R2 logðRk Þ þ R2 k2

sR ¼ ð51Þ

l0 RfðR4 k4 Þ logðRk Þ þ ðk2 R2 Þ2 g þ bRðR2 k2 Þ logðRk Þ

h n

k

ss ¼ 2ð1 d1 Þ2

log

2

þ ð1 d1 Þ k 2

l0 ð1 d1 Þ ðð1 d1 Þ4 k4 Þ

ð1 d1 Þ

k 2 2 2

log þ ðk ð1 d1 Þ Þ

ð1 d1 Þ

1

k

þbð1 d1 Þðð1 d1 Þ2 k2 Þ log ð52Þ

ð1 d1 Þ

Srivastava, in the absence of the peripheral layer (i.e., a ¼ 1) as (Srivastava and

Saxena, 1997)

Z

1 b=L 1 aþb dx

k ¼ ð1 CÞ þ ð53Þ

l0 þ b L a l0 R4 þ bR2

2

sR ¼ ð54Þ

l0 R3 þ bR

2

ss ¼ ð55Þ

l0 ð1 d1 Þ3 þ bð1 d1 Þ

symmetric stenosis. In the absence of the particle phase in the core region (i.e.,

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1205

C ¼ 0), the results obtained in the present analysis reduce to the case of Newtonian

fluid as (Young, 1968)

Z

1 b 1 aþb dx

k¼ 0 1 þ ð56Þ

l L L a R4

2

sR ¼ ð57Þ

l0 R3

2

ss ¼ ð58Þ

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l0 ð1 d1 Þ3

To observe the quantitative effects of volume fraction density of the particles C, the

maximum height attained by the balloon d2, the axial displacement of the balloon xd,

the radius of the inner tube, which keeps the balloon in position j, and shape para-

meter n, computer codes (Mathematica program) were developed for numerical

evaluations of the analytic results obtained for k, sR , and ss Equations (46)–(48)

for parameter values r ¼ 0; b ¼ 1; L ¼ 1, 2, 10; C ¼ 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6;

xd ¼ 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6; d2 ¼ 0; 0:1; 0:15; 0:2; n ¼ 2, 6, 11; T ¼ 25.5 C;

lo ¼ 1.24 cp (Haldar, 1985); j ¼ 0.001,0.01,0.03,0.05,0.1; ao ¼ 0.05 mm (Srivastava

and Saxena, 1997). The variations of the dimensionless resistance to flow k with d1

for various values of C, d2, xd, j, and the shape parameter n are displayed in

Figures 2–5. The wall shear stress distribution sR in the stenotic region for different

values of C, d2, xd, j, and the shape parameter n are displayed in Figures 6–9. Also

Figure 2. Variation of dimensionless resistance to flow, k, with d1 for different values of C and n.

1206 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

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Figure 3. Variation of dimensionless resistance to flow, k, with d1 for different values of k and L.

Figures 10 and 11 represent the variations of the shearing stress at the stenosis throat,

ss , with d1 for different values of C, d2, j, and xd. The variations of dimensionless

resistance to flow, k, and the shearing stress at the stenosis throat, ss , with C for dif-

ferent values of stenosis size d1 and d2 are displayed in Figures 12 and 13. Finally, the

effect of C, d2, and xd on the axial velocity profile uf are displayed in Figures 14–16.

Figure 4. Variation of dimensionless resistance to flow, k, with d1 for different values of d2 and n.

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1207

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Figure 5. Variation of dimensionless resistance to flow, k, with d1 for different values of xd and n.

In Figures 2–5 we observe that the resistance to flow, k, or the impedance

experienced by the streaming fluid distribution over the whole arterial segment

increases with the volume fraction density of the particles C, the maximum height

attained by the balloon d2, radius of the inner tube, which keeps the balloon in

position j, and also with the stenosis size d1 , while it decreases with the axial

Figure 6. Dimensionless wall shear stress, sR , distribution in the stenotic region for different

values of C and n.

1208 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

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Figure 7. Dimensionless wall shear stress, sR , distribution in the stenotic region for different

values of d2 and n.

displacement of the balloon xd, the stenosis length L, and the shape parameter n and

attains its maximal in the symmetric stenosis case (n ¼ 2).

In Figures 6–9 we notice that the wall shear stress distribution sR decreases in the

converging region as the shape parameter, n, increases, while it increases in the diver-

ging region in a similar situation for any given n. For any given stenosis shape n the

wall shear stress, sR , steeply increases in the upstream from its approached value (i.e.,

Figure 8. Dimensionless wall shear stress, sR , distribution in the stenotic region for different

values of xd and n.

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1209

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Figure 9. Dimensionless wall shear stress, sR , distribution in the stenotic region for different

values of k and n.

at x ¼ 0) to the peak value at the throat (sR ¼ ss ), then decreases in the downstream of

the throat and assumes its approached magnitude at the end point of the constriction

profile (i.e., at x ¼ 1). The rate of increase (with respect to the axial distance) of sR in

Figure 10. Variation of the dimensionless shearing stress at the stenosis throat, ss , with d1 for

different values of C and k.

1210 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

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Figure 11. Variation of the dimensionless shearing stress at the stenosis throat, ss , with d1 for

different values of d2 and xd.

the upstream of the throat decreases with the increasing values of n, whereas the rate

of decrease of the same in the downstream of the throat increases with n.

The wall shear stress distribution sR and its value at the throat, ss , possess the

variations similar to the flow resistance, k, with respect to C, d2, j, and xd, where

Figure 12. Variation of dimensionless resistance to flow, k, with C for different values of d1

and d2.

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1211

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Figure 13. Variation of dimensionless shearing stress at the stenosis throat, ss , with C for

different values of d1 and d2.

ss is independent of the shape and thus assumes the same magnitude for any value of

n; see Figures 6–11.

In Figures 12 and 13 we study the variation both of resistance to flow, k, and the

shearing stress at the stenosis throat, ss , with the volume fraction density of the par-

ticles C for different values of d1 and d2. We observe that resistance to flow, k, and

shearing stress at the stenosis throat, ss , increases with increasing the stenosis size d1 ,

1212 K. S. Mekheimer and M. A. El Kot

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the maximum height attained by the balloon d2, and the volume fraction density of

the particles C.

Finally, Figures 14–16 show the effect of the volume fraction density of the

particles C, d1 , and d2 on the axial velocity profile. It is observed that as C, d1 ,

and d2 increases the axial velocity uf decreases.

Suspension Model for Blood Flow 1213

Concluding Remarks

This problem is concerned with the analysis of a dusty model for the axi-symmetric

flow of blood through coaxial tubes such that the outer tube with an axially non-

symmetric but radially symmetric mild stenosis and the inner tube have a balloon

(assumed that it is axi-symmetric in nature). The effect of the stenosis shape has been

considered such that the axial shape of the stenosis can be changed easily just by

varying a parameter (referred to as the shape parameter). The model studies the

effect of the volume fraction density of the particles C, the maximum height attained

by the balloon d2, the radius of the inner tube, which keeps the balloon in position,

and the axial displacement of the balloon xd on the flow characteristics, such as the

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axial flow velocity, the resistance to flow (the resistance impedance), the wall shear

stress distribution in the stenotic region, and its magnitude at the maximum height of

the stenosis (stenosis throat).

Graphical results for the flow characteristics are presented and the main findings

can be summarized as follows:

. The magnitudes of the flow characteristics (k; sR ; ss ) are higher in particle-fluid

suspension than that in particle-free flow (C ¼ 0).

. The magnitudes of the flow characteristics (k; sR ; ss ) are higher in arterial catheter-

ization analysis than those in artery without catheter.

. Although the effect of a mild stenosis on the gross flow characteristics (k; sR ; ss ) is

small, the present particle-fluid suspension analysis still shows that even a mild

stenosis increases the flow resistance significantly with an increase in the particle

concentration, and, hence, there would be a marked reduction in the flow to the

particular vascular bed supplied by the stenotic artery and there would be a

chance of abnormal cell proliferation.

. The increasing value of the shape parameter would cause a considerable increase

in the flow.

. The wall shear stress distribution in the stenotic region and its magnitude at the

maximum height of the stenosis possess a character similar to the resistance to

flow with respect to C, d2, j, xd.

. The axial velocity for a particulate phase decreases with C and d2 while it increases

with xd, and we notice a non-axi-symmetry for the axial velocity as d20.

. The results of Srivastava and Saxena (1997) in the case of one fluid model (a ¼ 1)

have been recovered by taking d2 ¼ 0 (no catheterization).

References

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through a tapered artery with stenosis, Chin. J. Phys., 42, 401–409.

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arteries with a stenosis, Int. J. Non-linear Mech., 40(1), 151–164.

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propellants, Int. J. Multiph. Flow, 12(6), 913–933.

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