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ISLAM and SCIENCE

“Never judge a religion by its people, judge a religion by its scripture”

WHAT IS ISLAM?
Islam is the belief in the total submission to one only
and true Allah and Hazrat Mohammad (S.A.W) is the
messenger of Allah.

What is Science?
The systematic knowledge which is obtained through
observation and experiment is called science.

“If the Holy Quran is not the book of Allah then it is impossible to explain how a text
produced 1400
years ago could have contained ideas that have only been discovered in
modern times.”

DISCOVERIES IN NATURE & EARTH


Creation of the Universe
The formation of the universe is described in the Quran in the following verse:
“He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth.” (6:101)
The information given in the Quran is in full agreement with the findings of modern
science. The conclusion that astrophysics has reached today is that the entire
universe was created as a result of great explosion that occurred in no time. This
event, known as “The Big Bang” proved that the entire universe was created from
nothingness as a result of the explosion of a single point. Modern scientists agree
that the Big Bang is the only rational and plausible explanation of the beginning and
how the universe came into being. Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as
matter. So, we come to the conclusion that matter, time, and energy were created and
didn’t exist since infinite.
“Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke,
and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both
of you, willingly or not. They said: We come,
obedient.” (The Quran, 41:11)
Didn’t the Quran say that the Heaven was smoke before its creation? Modern
science has every reason to maintain that the universe was formed from a gaseous
mass principally composed of hydrogen and a certain amount of helium that was
slowly rotating. We, therefore, see no contradiction in the Quranic use of the Arabic
word “dukhan” (translated smoke) and a modern interpretation of that word as “a
gaseous mass with fine particles” when speaking of the formation of the universe.
“Have they not who disbelieve seen that the heavens and earth were joined together
(as one piece), then We parted them.” (21:30)
The Quran describes the phenomenon of the creation of the universe by using two
specific words:
“Rataq” translated as: mixed in each; blended.
“Fataqa” is the verb in Arabic and implies that something comes into being by
tearing apart or destroying the structure of “rataq”.
As the earth and the heavens above (the sun, the moon, stars, planets, galaxies, etc.)
have been formed from this same ‘smoke’, we conclude that the earth and the
heavens were once a connected entity. Then out of this homogenous ‘smoke’, they
evolved into different forms and separated from each other.
Hence, the verse reveals that the heavens and earth at the beginning were joined
together, and that subsequently they were separated. Recent advance-ments in
astronomy especially the Big Bang theory of the creation of the universe corroborate
with this statement in the Quran. The Big Bang theory holds that about
20,000,000,000 (twenty billion) years ago the universe began with an explosive
expansion of a single extremely condensed state of matter. This is what the Quran
states in this verse: “the heavens and earth were joined together”. The Noble prize
for Science in 1977 was awarded for this discovery.

These facts, only recently discovered by modern science, were disclosed in the
Quran 1,400 years ago.

The expansion of the universe


According to the Holy Quran:

“And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We
who are steadily expanding it.” (51:47)

The word “heaven”, as stated in this verse, is used in various places with the
meaning of space and universe. Here again, the word is used with this meaning.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian physicist Alexander Friedmann and
the Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre theoretically calculated that the universe
is in constant motion and that it is expanding.
From the moment of the Big Bang, the universe has been constantly expanding at a
great speed. Scientists compare the expanding universe to the surface of a balloon
that is inflated. Observing the sky in 1929 with a telescope also proved this fact.
Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer, discovered that the stars and galaxies were
constantly moving away from each other. These observations tell us that when
everything in the universe moves away from each other, it is considered to be a
constantly expanding universe. This fact was revealed in the Quran when no one
knew about the expansion of the universe 1,400 years ago. This is because the Quran
is the word of Allah, the Creator and the Ruler of the entire universe.

Sky, without any support


Due to lack of knowledge, Arab society, 1400 years ago, had many superstitious
beliefs regarding the earth and the sky. \
They thought that the earth was flat and that the mountains were supporting the sky
above. They thought that there were high mountains at both the ends of the world,
working as pillars and those pillars held the sky hanging above. However, all these
superstitious beliefs were eliminated with the advent of the Quran. The Quran says:

“God is He who raised up the heavens without any support…..” (Surah ar-rad, 2)
Thereby invalidating the belief that the sky remained suspended above because of
the mountains. How did the author of the Quran know about this fact 1400 years ago?
Indeed, Quran is the book of Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth.

Different nature of the sun and the moon


“Allah is the One who made the sun a shining object and the moon as a light, and
measured out (their) stages, that you may know the number of years and the count
(of time), Allah did not create this but in truth; He (thus) explains His signs in detail,
for those who understand.” (The Quran, 10:5)

“We have built above you seven strong (heavens) and placed therein a blazing
lamp.” (78:12-13)

“Do you not see how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another; And
made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun a lamp.” (71:15-16)

“Blessed is He who made constellations in the skies and placed therein a lamp (sun)
and a moon giving light.” (25:61)

The Quran uses two different words for the sun and the moon. When it refers to the
moon, the word is “NOOR” (light) and when it refers to the sun, the word is “SIRAJ”
or “ZIA” (lamp). We also learn from the second verse given above that the sun is the
only source of light for our solar system. The Quran also tells us that the moon only
reflects the sun’s light. These facts are in perfect harmony with discoveries made in
astronomy in not very distant past. The Quran had disclosed these facts 14 centuries
ago.

The Mountains
Allah says in the Holy Quran:

“Have we not made the earth as a bed, and the mountains as pegs?” (78:6-7)

Geologists tell us that mountains have underlying roots. These roots are deeply embedded in
the ground, thus, mountains have a shape like a peg. Geologists have proven that mountains
have deep roots under the surface of the ground and that these roots can reach several times
their elevations above the surface of the ground. So, the most suitable word to describe
mountains on the basis of this information is the word ‘peg’. Didn’t the Quran use the word
‘peg’ in the verse above?

The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains having deep roots was
introduced only in the latter of the 19th century. The modern geology has thus
confirmed the truth of the Quranic verse.

The seas not mingling with one


another
“He has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier between them.
They do not transgress.” (The Quran, 55:19-20)

Modern science has discovered that at places where two different seas meet, there is
a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each has its own
temperature, salinity and density.
But when the Quran speaks about the divider between the fresh and salt water, it
mentions the existence of a “forbidding partition” with the barrier. Allah says in the
Quran:

“He is the one who set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and palatable, and the other salty
and bitter. And He has made between them a barrier and a forbidding partition.”
(25:53)

One may ask, why did the Quran mention the partition when speaking about the
divider between sweet and salt water, but did not mention it when speaking about the
divider between the two seas??
Modern science has discovered that in estuaries [where fresh (sweet) and salt water
meet] the situation is somewhat different from what is found in places where two
seas meet. Scientists have discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt
water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity
separating the two layers. This partition (zone of separation) has a different salinity
from the fresh water and from the salt water. This information has been discovered
only recently, using advanced equipment to measure temperature, salinity, density,
oxygen dissolubility, etc. The human eye cannot see the difference between the two
seas that meet. Likewise, the human eye cannot see the division of water in estuaries
into three kinds: fresh water, salt water, and the partition (zone of separation).
The interesting side to this is that during a period when people had no knowledge of
physics or oceanography, this fact was revealed in the Quran.

Presence of sub-atomic particles


Recent discoveries in Physics have shown that an atom can be broken into smaller
units. According to the Holy Quran:

“The unbelievers say: Never to us will come the Hour (the day of Judgment); Say:
Nay! By my Lord! It will surely come upon you by Him, who knows the unseen, not an
atom’s weight, or less than or greater (than atom), escapes Him in the heavens
and/or in the earth, but it is in a clear record.” (34:3)
The Arabic word used in this verse is “Zarrah”. Abdullah Yousef Ali, Mohsin Khan,
and Marmaduke Pickthal have translated Zarrah as an atom. At the time this verse
was revealed, a Zarrah was the smallest known particle to mankind. The Quran
testifies to the presence of particles smaller than Zarrah or an atom. The discovery of
splitting of an atom into smaller units does not relate to a very distant past while the
Quran had acknowledged this fact 1400 years ago.

“We shall show them our signs on the farthest horizons and within themselves until
it becomes clear to them that this is the truth” (Quran 41:53).

DISCOVERIES IN HUMAN BEINGS


The part that controls our movements

“No indeed! If he does not stop, We will grab him by the forelock, a lying, sinful
forelock.” (96:15-16)
Why did the Quran describe the front of the head as being lying and sinful? Why
didn’t the Quran say that the person was lying and sinful? Is there a relationship
between the front of the head and lying & sinfulness?

The expression “the lying, sinful forelock” in the above verse is most interesting.
Research carried out in recent years revealed that the prefrontal area, which is
responsible for the management of particular functions of the brain, lies in the frontal
part of the skull. What does physiology tell us about the functions of this area? A
book entitled, “Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology”says about this area:
The motivation and the foresight to plan and initiate movements occur in the anterior
portion of the frontal lobes, the prefrontal area. This is a region of association cortex

The book further says:


In relation to its involvement in motivation, the prefrontal area is also thought to be
the functional center for aggression….
So, this area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivation and initiating
good and sinful behavior, and is responsible for telling lies and speaking the truth.

It is clear that the statement, “the lying, sinful lock” corresponds completely to the
above explanations. Allah in the Quran stated this fact, which scientists have only
discovered in the last 60 years, centuries ago.

Fingerprints:
While it is stated in the Quran that it is easy for God to bring man back to life after death,
people’s
fingerprints are particularly emphasized:

“Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay, We are able to put
together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers.” (The Quran, 75:3-4)

This emphasis on fingerprints has a very special meaning. It is now an established


fact that each human being has his own unique fingerprints. Everyone who is alive or
has ever lived in this world, including identical twins, has a set of unique fingerprints.
This is why fingerprints are used as a source of identification around the world. In
other words, people’s identities are coded at their fingertips. This coding system may
also be compared to the barcode system that is used today.

Before the discovery of the fingerprints people thought of them as ordinary curves
without any meaning or importance. In the Quran, Allah points to the fingertips and
calls our attention to their significance. This is yet another miracle of the Quran that
was only finally understood in our days.
 OTHER DISCOVERIES

Living-things and water:


The scientists tell us that billions of years ago primeval matter in the sea began to
generate protoplasm out of which came the amoeba; and out that mire in the sea
came all living things. In one word ALL LIFE came from the sea, i.e., Water!!

When we ask them that no man of learning, no philosopher or poet could ever have
guessed your biological discovery fourteen centuries back, could he?? They tell us
“No, never!”. Well, then, just see what the Quran has to say:

“And we made from water every living thing; will they (the unbelievers, the atheists,
and the agnostics) then not believe?” (The Quran, 21:30)

The above statement is further elaborated in the Quran as:


“And Allah created every animal from water, of them there are some that creep on
their bellies, some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four legs; Allah
creates what He wills, for verily Allah has power over all things.” (The Quran, 24:45)

It is clear that this fact could not have been scientifically known when the Quran was
revealed. This testifies to the fact that the Quran is the book of Allah, most gracious,
most merciful.

Opposite pairs in creation:

“Glory be to Him who created all the pairs; from what the earth produces and from
themselves and from things unknown to them.” (The Quran, 36:36)

Although the concept of “pair” or “couple” commonly stands for male and female,

Recent advancements in science have shown that not only all animals, plants, and
matters but bacteria also have an opposite pair or strain. In plants, now we know,
there are male and female seeds and male and female trees. A male date tree looks
different from a female tree.

This verse, which clearly states a fact about “pairs of unknown” that was not known
to previous generations, and has been recently discovered, could have only come
from the All-Knowing Allah.