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Electromagnetics (一)
Electromagnetics (一)

Chapter 1.

Learning Objectives

Introduction

1. Electromagnetic Model

2. Electromagnetic Spectrum

3. Demands from Wireless Communications;

4. SI Units, Universal Constant, and Numeric Precision;

5. Review of Complex Numbers and Phsors

Overview
Overview

We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields.

Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light
Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light
Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light

Light

Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light
Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light
Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light
Overview  We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields. Light
Historical Events in Electromagnetics
Historical Events in Electromagnetics
600B.C. 1st record of electric and magnetic behavior by Thales of Miletus 1785 1819 1820
600B.C.
1st record of electric and magnetic behavior
by Thales of Miletus
1785
1819
1820
1831
1873
1887
1901
Marconi transmits and receives radio waves
across the Atlantic Ocean.

Forces between charges measured by Charles Coulomb

Hans Christian Oersted finds current produces magnetic field.

Forces between current carrying wires found by Andre Marie Ampere.

Michael Faraday finds that time-varying magnetic fields create electric field.

James Clerk Maxwell formulates Maxwells Equations

Heinrich Hertz detects electromagnetic waves.

Major Inventors
Major Inventors
Major Inventors James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He served as a professor

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He served as a professor in London and Cambridge. At the age of 24, Maxwell translated and verified Faradays theories in mathematical formulations known today as the Maxwell equations. He also showed that these equations implicitly require the existence of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light.

Ref: Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Technologies, by Frank Ellinger, Chapter 1, 2007 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Major Inventors
Major Inventors
Major Inventors Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy. Based on the insights of Hertz, Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Italy. Based on the insights of Hertz, Marconi succeed in transmitting radio signal over a few kilometers at Bologna in 1896. He is a worldwide famous person. When he died, all radio transmitters were shut down for minutes of silence.

radio transmitters were shut down for minutes of silence. Illustration of Marconi ’ s experiment 1903
radio transmitters were shut down for minutes of silence. Illustration of Marconi ’ s experiment 1903

Illustration of Marconis experiment

were shut down for minutes of silence. Illustration of Marconi ’ s experiment 1903 Marconi Transmission
were shut down for minutes of silence. Illustration of Marconi ’ s experiment 1903 Marconi Transmission

1903 Marconi Transmission Station

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Electromagnetics : the study of the effects of electric charges at rest and in motion.

Two approaches to develop a scientific subject:

the inductive (歸納) and the reductive (演繹) approaches.

Inductive

Reductive

Observations of experiments or phenomenon

Postulation,

Axioms

Theorems

andObservations of experiments or phenomenon Postulation, Axioms Theorems Laws Verifications, and further predictions

Laws

Verifications,

and further predictionsInductive Reductive Observations of experiments or phenomenon Postulation, Axioms Theorems and Laws Verifications,

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Reductive

Electromagnetic Model Reductive * to postulate a few fundamental relations for a ideal model. * the

* to postulate a few fundamental relations for a ideal model.

* the postulated relations are axioms, from which particular law and theorems can be derived.

* The validity of the model and the axioms is is verified, by their ability to predict consequences then check with experimental observations.

First : to define the basic quantities of electromagnetics; Second : the rules of operations, vector algebra, vector calculus, and partial differential equations; Third : the fundamental postulates will be presented and then if possible be verified experimentally.

This textbooks is based on the reductive approach.

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

A field is a spatial distribution of a some quantity, which may or may not be a function of time; A field is defined by the electricalor magneticaction force.

----- +++++
-----
+++++
 A field is defined by the “ electrical ” or “ magnetic ” action force
 A field is defined by the “ electrical ” or “ magnetic ” action force

Ex: explode.jpg

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

The source of electric field : charges (electrons / holes); The source of magnetic field : current Fields & waves is essential in the explanation of action at a distance. (超距力)

E

q

E q
E
q

E

Electric potential

E

H

I’ I H Magnetic potential
I’
I
H
Magnetic potential
Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Action at a distance

Media is not necessary; A model which states the energy translation without media.

Example :

light : from the sun and the stars

Gravitational field : between you and earth, moon and earth,

Electric / Magnetic fields : interaction between magnet

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

A time-varying electric field is accompanied by a magnetic field, and vice versa.

The spirit of EM wave.   Maxwells Equations

Faradays Law

B

 

E

t

H

t

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Two examples tell the inadequacy of circuit theory concepts and the needs for electromagnetic field concepts.

open Not in a straight line. circuited
open
Not in a straight line.
circuited
EM Simulator Nowadays
EM Simulator Nowadays

Simulators : Sonet, HFSS, IE3D, ADS Momentum, and so on

Example:

E-Field

H-Field

IE3D, ADS Momentum, and so on … Example: E-Field H-Field [source]: IE3D simulation of cell phone

[source]: IE3D simulation of cell phone antenna, provided by Prof. H.-R. Chuang.

Electromagnetic Wave
Electromagnetic Wave

An electromagnetic Wave carries Energy;

Energy Propagation (direction rule: E x H)

Sunlight EM Energy Heat ;

carries Energy;  Energy Propagation (direction rule: E x H )  Sunlight  EM Energy

© 2003 MIT

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum X-ray : causes damage (not use); Fiber optical communication : ultraviolet & visible light.
Electromagnetic Spectrum X-ray : causes damage (not use); Fiber optical communication : ultraviolet & visible light.

X-ray : causes damage (not use);

Electromagnetic Spectrum X-ray : causes damage (not use); Fiber optical communication : ultraviolet & visible light.

Fiber optical communication :

ultraviolet & visible light.

1~100GHz : wireless communication. Atmosphere attenuation windows:

: wireless communication. Atmosphere attenuation windows: <18GHz, 26-40GHz, and 94 GHz. Commercial Bands: * GSM

<18GHz, 26-40GHz, and 94 GHz.

Commercial Bands:

* GSM (900M/1800MHz)

* ISM (2400MHz/5GHz)

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Frequency Band Naming :

Electromagnetic Spectrum  Frequency Band Naming : Ex. DTV-B : 48 MHz ~ 860 MHz, 6

Ex. DTV-B : 48 MHz ~ 860 MHz, 6 MHz / channel

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Frequency Band Naming :

Electromagnetic Spectrum  Frequency Band Naming : [ 汽車測速雷達規格 ] Automotive Speed Detector Type

[汽車測速雷達規格]

Automotive Speed Detector Type

Operation Frequency

X-band

10.525

GHz

K-band

24.150

GHz

Ka-band

34.300

GHz

Spectrum in KHz
Spectrum in KHz
Spectrum in KHz Ex. Sangean SG-622 12 波段收音機 AM : 535 – 1605 KHz FM :

Ex. Sangean SG-622 12 波段收音機

AM : 535 1605 KHz FM : 88 108 MHz

Spectrum in KHz Ex. Sangean SG-622 12 波段收音機 AM : 535 – 1605 KHz FM :
Spectrum in MHz
Spectrum in MHz
* Wireless Mouse (AMPS)
* Wireless Mouse
(AMPS)

(GSM/PCS)

Spectrum in GHz (I)
Spectrum in GHz (I)
(WLAN)
(WLAN)
Spectrum in GHz (II)
Spectrum in GHz (II)
(ISM band)
(ISM band)
GSM Spectrum
GSM Spectrum

GSM Spectrum

Frequency

(TX)

Range (in MHz) (RX)

 

450.4

457.6

460.4

467.6

GSM 400

478.8

486.0

488.8

496.0

GSM 850

824

849

869

894

GSM 900

880

915

925

960

GSM 1800

1710

1785

1805

1880

GSM 1900

1850

1910

1930

1990

Silicon-based technology IC operated up to ~6GHz (Ex. WLAN 802.11a)

Silicon-based technology IC operated up to ~60GHz (WPAN)

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

In vacuum, the speed of light , c (m/sec),

c f

Where λ is the wavelength, and f is the frequency.

c = 2.998x10 8 m/sec, (in vacuum)

Question:

the wavelengths of 900MHz / 1800MHz / 2.45GHz / 5.25GHz signals in the free space?

Ans: for reference :1 GHz λ= 30 cm;

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

From the communication viewpoint, the higher frequency operation, the larger amount of information (data) can be translated.

From the viewpoint of antenna size,

the higher frequency used, the smaller size of

antenna size could be.

(efficiency issue)

From the viewpoint of circuitry, the higher frequency used, the higher power consumption could be.

P

= cV 2 /2 * f

(logic circuitry)

U

= h f,

U is the energy of a photon, h is Plancks constant (= 6.63x10 -34 J-sec)

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Circuit Theory vs. EM Theory

Free Space:

1. As a sine wave with 900MHz, λ= 33.3 cm;

2. As a sine wave with 5GHz, λ= 6.0 cm

PCB Level

scale = mm ~ cm

IC Level

scale = um ~ mm

Other issues: bond wire inductance (1 mm 1 nH); Chip applications: correct microstrip line / interconnect line models; parasitic capacitances.

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Wave Propagation on the PCB:

EM wave propagation speed slows down on PCB the wave length is reduced.

υ = f λ

Glass Epoxy substrate (FR-4, ε r ~ 4.8);

Wave speed reduction 1/(4.8) 0.5 = 0.45; Wave length reduction 1/(4.8) 0.5 = 0.45;

1 GHz λ eff = 30 cm x 1/(4.8) 0.5 = 13.7 cm

Question : in Silicon, ε r ~ 11.8, eff @ 10 GHz = ?

Electromagnetic Model
Electromagnetic Model

Circuit theory deals with lumped-parameter systems using the components of resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C).

Wavelength   the dimension of the circuitry; In lumped-circuit model: circuit transient behavior is independent of space coordinates.

Hints: transmission line equations are both time- and distance-dependent.

The solutions V( ) and I( ) of transmission line equations are:

V(z;t) = Re[V(z) e jωt ] and I(z;t) = Re[I(z) e jωt ]

As V(z),I(z) =constant, independent of z, Circuit theory

Demands of Wireless Communications
Demands of Wireless Communications

Modern Cellular Phone: Phone service + GPS + PDA + Games

Hexagonal Cells for Base Stations : smaller amount of carrier frequencies (7 f osc s); no overlap among the cells using the same carriers.

3 2 4 1 1 7 5 6
3
2
4
1
1
7
5
6

Cells noted as 1could use the same frequency.

Demands of Wireless Communications
Demands of Wireless Communications

Electromagnetics plays in

(RF IC)

(PCBs)

(Wave in Air)
(Wave in Air)

(Antenna)

(Fiber)

Demands of Wireless Communications
Demands of Wireless Communications

Electromagnetics plays in

1.

Waves propagate in space and through material media;

2.

Waves are radiated and received by antennas;

3.

Waves propagate in transmission lines such as coaxial cables;

4.

Efficient signal handling requires impedance matching of transmission lines;

5.

RF components, such as those in the RF front-end and in the towers box, are typically designed and understood via electromagnetics;

6.

Communications between towers may employ fiber optics and optical components;

7.

Noise and interference between electronic components impact system performance;

Demands of Wireless Communications
Demands of Wireless Communications

Electromagnetics plays in the phone unit :

PCB : microstrip line effect (scale: mm~cm) Packages : parasitics (cap. & res.) / pin inductance (scale: mm)

ICs : interconnects parasitics* (scale: um~mm)

mm) IC ’ s : interconnects parasitics* (scale: um~mm) http://mst.tu-berlin.de Example : Silicon Lab. 4133T,

http://mst.tu-berlin.de

parasitics* (scale: um~mm) http://mst.tu-berlin.de Example : Silicon Lab. 4133T, bondwire inductors for

Example : Silicon Lab.

4133T,

bondwire

inductors

for VCO.

pad
pad
SI Units and Constants
SI Units and Constants

SI units (MKSA system)

Six Basic Quantities : Length, Mass, Time, Current, Temperature (Kelvin) Luminous intensity (Candela)

system) Six Basic Quantities : Length , Mass , Time , Current , Temperature (Kelvin) Luminous
SI Units and Constants
SI Units and Constants

Unit in MKSA system:

E

B

kgm / As 3 ; kg / As 2 ;

Other Derived Factors:

C  A.s
C  A.s

Relations in free space:

D

B

εE

μH

o

o

SI Units and Constants
SI Units and Constants
1 c  m s  o o
1
c
m s

o
o
SI Units and Constants
SI Units and Constants

Significant digits : 600, 60, 60.0, and 60.000;

Adding (or subtracting) : 60 + 0.001 = 60;

60.0000 + 0.001 = 60.001

multiplying (or division) : 60 x 0.5 = 30;

60.0 x 0.5 = 30.0

For lengthy calculation, using more significant digits than desired until the calculation is completed.

The pure integers or counted quantities are known to infinite precision.

SI Units and Constants
SI Units and Constants

Multiple and sub-multiple prefixes:

Prefix

Symbol

Magnitude

Exa

E

10

18

Peta

P

10

15

Tera

T

10

12

Giga

G

10

9

Mega

M

10

6

Kilo

K

10

3

Prefix

Symbol

Magnitude

milli

m

10

-3

micro

u

10

-6

nano

n

10

-9

pico

p

10

-12

fento

f

10

-15

atto

a

10

-18

Review of Complex Numbers
Review of Complex Numbers

Review of Complex Numbers

A complex number z,

z



x

j y (rectangular form)

z e

jθ

where

(polar form)

j  -1
j
-1

, x

Re[z], and y

Im[z]

e

jθ

cos θ jsin θ (Euler's identity)

Review of Complex Numbers
Review of Complex Numbers

Relation between rectangular and polar representations :

Review of Complex Numbers  Relation between rectangular and polar representations :
Review of Complex Numbers
Review of Complex Numbers

Complex Conjugate :

*

jθ

jy

z

and the magnitude of

  z e

x

* z   z z
*
z
 
z
z

z

Also imples,

z

z

*

2

Re[

z

],

z

z

*

2

is

Im[

z

]

Review of Complex Numbers
Review of Complex Numbers

Equality :

z

1

x

1

j y

1

z

1

e

j

1 and

 

z

2

x

2

j y

2

z

2

e

j

2

 

x

1

x

2

,

y

1

y

2

 

,

z

1

z

2

,

and

 

1

2

 

Addition :

 

z

1

z

2

(

x

1

x

2

)

j

(

y

1

y

2

)

Multiplication :

 

z z

1

2

(

x

1

j y

1

)(

x

2

j y

2

)

(

x x

1

2

y y

1

2

)

j (



1

2

)

j

(

x y

1

2

x

2

y

1

)

z

1

z

2

 

e

Review of Complex Numbers
Review of Complex Numbers

Division : for z

2 0

 

z

1

x

1

j y

1

(

x x

1

2

y y

1

2

)

j

(

x

2

y

1

x y

1

2

)

 z 1 z 2

z

1

z

2

 

j (



1

2

)

z

2

x

2

j y

2

x

2

2

y

2

2

e

Powers : for any positive integer n,

 

z

n

z

n

e

j n

z

n

(cos

n

sin

n

)

1/ 2

z 

z

1/ 2

e

j

/ 2

Useful relations :

 

j

e

jπ/2

,

jπ/2

j

 

e

j
j

e

(e

jπ/2

jπ/21/2

)



e

jπ/4

(1

j)

2
2

,

j
j



e

jπ/4

 (1  j) 2
(1
j)
2
 
Review of Phasor Expression
Review of Phasor Expression

Review of Phasor Expression

Engineering Problems like R-C, R-L, and L-C network analyses, Wave Equations (in Magnetism);

The forcing function (excitation source) varies sinusoidally with time;

Arbitrary function be expanded into a Fourier series of sinusoidal components.

Adopt either a cosine or sine reference. (Re[ ], Im[ ])

Review of Phasor Expression
Review of Phasor Expression

Phasor expression :

Any cosinusoidally time- varying function z(t) can be

expressed as

z(t)

~

Re[ Z e

jωt

]

where

z(t) is named as a instantaneous function;

~

Z is named as a phasor expression, which

is a time - independent variable.

Review of Phasor Expression
Review of Phasor Expression

Transformation from the instantaneous expression to the phasor expression :

~

( )

z t

t

Z

A cos

A cos (

A sin

in

A

0

)

- j

 

t

t

x

/2

A e

x

)

~

0

j

Z

1

As

d

dt

d

dt

z

1

(

 

t

( )

t

[A cos (

 

t

x

0

)]

Ae

j

(

 

x

0

)

Ae

j

(

 

x  

0

/ 2)

j

Ae

j

(

 

x

0

)

z

1

( )

t

dt

As

in

(

 

t

1

j

~

Z 1

x

0

)

dt

1

j

Ae

j

(

 

x  

0

/ 2)

[the end]

 For a fun! http://www.falstad.com/vector/ • Pre-understand what is “ divergence ” and “ curl

For a fun!

 For a fun! http://www.falstad.com/vector/ • Pre-understand what is “ divergence ” and “ curl ”…

http://www.falstad.com/vector/

Pre-understand what is divergenceand curl”…