Chapter 1.
Learning Objectives
Introduction
1. Electromagnetic Model
2. Electromagnetic Spectrum
3. Demands from Wireless Communications;
4. SI Units, Universal Constant, and Numeric Precision;
5. Review of Complex Numbers and Phsors
T.H.HUang
We are immersed in Electromagnetic (EM) fields.
Light
Forces between charges measured by Charles Coulomb
Hans Christian Oersted finds current produces magnetic field.
Forces between current carrying wires found by Andre Marie Ampere.
Michael Faraday finds that timevarying magnetic fields create electric field.
James Clerk Maxwell formulates Maxwell’s Equations
Heinrich Hertz detects electromagnetic waves.
James Clerk Maxwell (18311879) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He served as a professor in London and Cambridge. At the age of 24, Maxwell translated and verified Faraday’s theories in mathematical formulations known today as the Maxwell equations. He also showed that these equations implicitly require the existence of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light.
Ref: Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Technologies, by Frank Ellinger, Chapter 1, 2007 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Guglielmo Marconi (18741937) was born in Italy. Based on the insights of Hertz, Marconi succeed in transmitting radio signal over a few kilometers at Bologna in 1896. He is a worldwide famous person. When he died, all radio transmitters were shut down for minutes of silence.
Illustration of Marconi’s experiment
1903 Marconi Transmission Station
Electromagnetics : the study of the effects of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Two approaches to develop a scientific subject:
the inductive (歸納) and the reductive (演繹) approaches.
Inductive
Reductive
Observations of experiments or phenomenon
Postulation,
Axioms
Theorems
and
Laws
Verifications,
and further predictions
Reductive
* to postulate a few fundamental relations for a ideal model.
* the postulated relations are axioms, from which particular law and theorems can be derived.
* The validity of the model and the axioms is is verified, by their ability to predict consequences then check with experimental observations.
First : to define the basic quantities of electromagnetics; Second : the rules of operations, vector algebra, vector calculus, and partial differential equations; Third : the fundamental postulates will be presented and then if possible be verified experimentally.
This textbooks is based on the reductive approach.
A field is a spatial distribution of a “some quantity”, which may or may not be a function of time; A field is defined by the “electrical”or “magnetic”action force.
Ex: explode.jpg
The source of electric field : charges (electrons / holes); The source of magnetic field : current Fields & waves is essential in the explanation of action at a distance. (超距力)
E
q’
E
Electric potential
E
H
Action at a distance
Media is not necessary; A model which states the energy translation without media.
Example :
light : from the sun and the stars…
Gravitational field : between you and earth, moon and earth, …
Electric / Magnetic fields : interaction between magnet…
A timevarying electric field is accompanied by a magnetic field, and vice versa.
The spirit of EM wave. Maxwell’s Equations
Faraday’s Law
B
E
t
H
t
Two examples tell the inadequacy of circuit theory concepts and the needs for electromagnetic field concepts.
Simulators : Sonet, HFSS, IE3D, ADS Momentum, and so on…
Example:
EField
HField
[source]: IE3D simulation of cell phone antenna, provided by Prof. H.R. Chuang.
An electromagnetic Wave carries Energy;
Energy Propagation (direction rule: E x H)
Sunlight EM Energy Heat ;
© 2003 MIT
Xray : causes damage (not use);
Fiber optical communication :
ultraviolet & visible light.
1~100GHz : wireless communication. Atmosphere attenuation windows:
<18GHz, 2640GHz, and 94 GHz.
Commercial Bands:
* GSM (900M/1800MHz)
* ISM (2400MHz/5GHz)
Frequency Band Naming :
Ex. DTVB : 48 MHz ~ 860 MHz, 6 MHz / channel
Frequency Band Naming :
[汽車測速雷達規格]
Automotive Speed Detector Type 
Operation Frequency 

Xband 
10.525 
GHz 
Kband 
24.150 
GHz 
Kaband 
34.300 
GHz 
Ex. Sangean SG622 12 波段收音機
AM : 535 –1605 KHz FM : 88 –108 MHz
(GSM/PCS)
GSM Spectrum
Frequency 
(TX) Range (in MHz) (RX) 

450.4 –457.6 
460.4 
–467.6 

GSM 400 
478.8 –486.0 
488.8 
–496.0 
GSM 850 
824 –849 
869 –894 

GSM 900 
880 –915 
925 –960 

GSM 1800 
1710 –1785 
1805 
–1880 
GSM 1900 
1850 –1910 
1930 
–1990 
Siliconbased technology IC operated up to ~6GHz (Ex. WLAN 802.11a)
Siliconbased technology IC operated up to ~60GHz (WPAN)
In vacuum, the speed of light , c (m/sec),
c f
Where λ is the wavelength, and f is the frequency.
c = 2.998x10 ^{8} m/sec, (in vacuum)
Question:
the wavelengths of 900MHz / 1800MHz / 2.45GHz / 5.25GHz signals in the free space?
Ans: for reference :1 GHz λ= 30 cm;
From the communication viewpoint, the higher frequency operation, the larger amount of information (data) can be translated.
From the viewpoint of antenna size,
the higher frequency used, the smaller size of
antenna size could be.
(efficiency issue)
From the viewpoint of circuitry, the higher frequency used, the higher power consumption could be.
P 
= cV ^{2} /2 * f 
(logic circuitry) 
U 
= h f, U is the energy of a photon, h is Planck’s constant (= 6.63x10 ^{}^{3}^{4} Jsec) 
Circuit Theory vs. EM Theory
Free Space:
1. As a sine wave with 900MHz, λ= 33.3 cm;
2. As a sine wave with 5GHz, λ= 6.0 cm
PCB Level
scale = mm ~ cm
IC Level
scale = um ~ mm
Other issues: bond wire inductance (1 mm 1 nH); Chip applications: correct microstrip line / interconnect line models; parasitic capacitances.
Wave Propagation on the PCB:
•EM wave propagation speed slows down on PCB the wave length is reduced.
•υ = f ‧λ
•Glass Epoxy substrate (FR4, ε _{r} ~ 4.8);
•Wave speed reduction 1/(4.8) ^{0}^{.}^{5} = 0.45; •Wave length reduction 1/(4.8) ^{0}^{.}^{5} = 0.45;
•1 GHz λ _{e}_{f}_{f} = 30 cm x 1/(4.8) ^{0}^{.}^{5} = 13.7 cm
•Question : in Silicon, ε _{r} ~ 11.8, _{e}_{f}_{f} @ 10 GHz = ?
Circuit theory deals with lumpedparameter systems using the components of resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C).
Wavelength the dimension of the circuitry; In lumpedcircuit model: circuit transient behavior is independent of space coordinates.
Hints: transmission line equations are both time and distancedependent.
The solutions V( ) and I( ) of transmission line equations are:
V(z;t) = Re[V(z) e ^{j}^{ω}^{t} ] and I(z;t) = Re[I(z) e ^{j}^{ω}^{t} ]
As V(z),I(z) =constant, independent of z, Circuit theory
Modern Cellular Phone: Phone service + GPS + PDA + Games
Hexagonal Cells for Base Stations : smaller amount of carrier frequencies (7 f _{o}_{s}_{c} ’s); no overlap among the cells using the same carriers.
Cells noted as “1”could use the same frequency.
Electromagnetics plays in
(RF IC)
(PCB’s)
(Antenna)
(Fiber)
Electromagnetics plays in
1. 
Waves propagate in space and through material media; 
2. 
Waves are radiated and received by antennas; 
3. 
Waves propagate in transmission lines such as coaxial cables; 
4. 
Efficient signal handling requires impedance matching of transmission lines; 
5. 
RF components, such as those in the RF frontend and in the tower’s box, are typically designed and understood via electromagnetics; 
6. 
Communications between towers may employ fiber optics and optical components; 
7. 
Noise and interference between electronic components impact system performance; 
Electromagnetics plays in the phone unit :
PCB : microstrip line effect (scale: mm~cm) Packages : parasitics (cap. & res.) / pin inductance (scale: mm)
IC’s : interconnects parasitics* (scale: um~mm)
http://mst.tuberlin.de
Example : Silicon Lab.
4133T,
bondwire
inductors
for VCO.
SI units (MKSA system)
Six Basic Quantities : Length, Mass, Time, Current, Temperature (Kelvin) Luminous intensity (Candela)
Unit in MKSA system:
E
B
kg．m / A．s ^{3} ; kg / A．s ^{2} ;
Other Derived Factors:
Relations in free space:
D
B
εE
μH
o
o
Significant digits : 600, 60, 60.0, and 60.000;
Adding (or subtracting) : 60 + 0.001 = 60;
60.0000 + 0.001 = 60.001
multiplying (or division) : 60 x 0.5 = 30;
60.0 x 0.5 = 30.0
For lengthy calculation, using more significant digits than desired until the calculation is completed.
The pure integers or counted quantities are known to infinite precision.
Multiple and submultiple prefixes:
Prefix 
Symbol 
Magnitude 

Exa 
E 
10 
^{1}^{8} 
Peta 
P 
10 
^{1}^{5} 
Tera 
T 
10 
^{1}^{2} 
Giga 
G 
10 
^{9} 
Mega 
M 
10 
^{6} 
Kilo 
K 
10 
^{3} 
Prefix 
Symbol 
Magnitude 

milli 
m 
10 
^{}^{3} 
micro 
u 
10 
^{}^{6} 
nano 
n 
10 
^{}^{9} 
pico 
p 
_{1}_{0} 
12 
fento 
f 
_{1}_{0} 
15 
atto 
a 
_{1}_{0} 
18 
Review of Complex Numbers
A complex number z,
z
x
j y (rectangular form)
z e
jθ
where
(polar form)
, x
Re[z], and y
Im[z]
e
jθ
cos θ jsin θ (Euler's identity)
Relation between rectangular and polar representations :
Complex Conjugate :
*
jθ
jy
z
and the magnitude of
z e
x
z
Also imples,
z
z
*
2
Re[
z
],
z
z
*
2
is 

Im[ 
z 
] 
Equality :
z 
1 
x 1 
j y 
1 
z 
1 
e 
j 1 and 
z 2 

x 
2 

j y 
2 
z 
2 
e 
j 
2 



x 
1 
x 2 
, 
y 1 
y 2 
, 
z 
1 

z 2 
, 
and 
1 2 

Addition : 

z 
1 
z 2 
( x 
1 
x 2 
) 

j 
( 
y 1 
y 
2 
) 

Multiplication : 

z z 1 2 

( 
x 1 

j y 1 )( 
x 
2 
j y 2 
) 


( 
x x 1 2 
y y 1 2 ) j ( 1 2 ) 
j ( x y 1 2 

x 2 y 
1 
) 


z 1 
z 2 
e 
Division : for z
2 0
z 
1 x 1 j y 
1 

( x x 1 
2 
y y 1 2 
) 
j ( x 2 
y 
1 

x y 1 2 
) 
z 1 z 2 
j ( 1 2 
) 

z 
2 x 2 j y 
2 
x 
2 2 
y 2 2 
e 

Powers : for any positive integer n, 

z 
n z n e j n 
z n 
(cos n 
sin n ) 

1/ 2 z z 1/ 2 
e 
j 
/ 2 

Useful relations : 

j e jπ/2 , jπ/2 j e 
j
e (e jπ/2 jπ/21/2 ) e jπ/4 (1 j)
2
,
j
e jπ/4
(1
j)
2

Review of Phasor Expression
•Engineering Problems like RC, RL, and LC network analyses, Wave Equations (in Magnetism);
•The forcing function (excitation source) varies sinusoidally with time;
•Arbitrary function be expanded into a Fourier series of sinusoidal components.
•Adopt either a cosine or sine reference. (Re[ ], Im[ ])
Phasor expression :
Any cosinusoidally time varying function z(t) can be
expressed as
z(t)
~
Re[ Z e
jωt
]
where
z(t) is named as a instantaneous function;
~
Z is named as a phasor expression, which
is a time  independent variable.
Transformation from the instantaneous expression to the phasor expression :
~
( )
z t
t
Z
A cos
A cos (
A sin
in
A
0
)
 j
t
t
x
/2
A e
x
)
~
0
j
Z
1
As
d
dt
d
dt
z
1
(
t
( )
t
[A cos (
t
x
0
)]
Ae
j
(
x
0
)
Ae
j
(
x
0
/ 2)
j
Ae
j
(
x
0
)
z
1
( )
t
dt
As
in
(
t
1
j
~
Z 1
x
0
)
dt
1
j
Ae
j
(
x
0
/ 2)
[the end]
For a fun!
http://www.falstad.com/vector/
•Preunderstand what is “divergence”and “curl”…
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