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Introduction of Computer:

Computer is an electronic device, which Receive data from the input device(s),
Process it Store it, and then display information on the output devices.
Data
Data: The fact and figure is called Data. OR
The raw material things is called Data. For example Name and Address etc.
The Computer cannot take any decision directly on data.
Information
Information: The process form of data is called Information, OR
Meaningful thing are called Information. i. e Ali, khan, Mardan , etc
Computer can take any decision directly on Information.
Types of data.
1) Numeric data.
It consist of Numbers/Digits from 0,1,2…9.
2) Alphabetic data. clean
It consist of letters from A,B,…….Z Or a,b,……z.
3) Alphanumeric data.
It consist of Numbers/Digits from 0,1,2…9 and letters from A,B,…….Z Or a,b,
…………z. i.e. House Number A/10;

History of Computer.
Abacus was the 1st recognized calculating device about 5000 years ago. Abacus
marked the 1st step on the road to the computer. In 1617 John Nipper's invented
logarithmic device called Nipper's Bone. This device gives a quick and accurate
multiplication and division of large numbers. In 1642 Blaise Pascal invented the Ist
mechanical calculator, called pascaline.

After pascaline William's Libnitz completed his machine in 1694 called Libnitz
Machine. Pascalline could only add and subtract but Libnitz's Machine could also
multiply, divide and find the square root. The French Manufacturer Joseph jacquard
developed a system in which punch card were used for the 1st time.
In 1823, a British Mathematician 'Charles Babbage' developed a steam power
calculator called difference engine. In 1937, Howard H. Aiken began a project with the
support of IBM Corporation in Howard university, and he completed a machine called
Mark-1 in 1944. The Mark-1 was 8-feet high and 55 feet long and sounded like a room
full of old ladies. It was an 1st electromechanical device.
Generation of Computer:
There are six Generation of computer:
First Generation of Computer :(1945 -1950)
The Generation of computer were based on vacuum tube technology.
The first Generation of computer were large in size slow in speed.
And expensive. ENIAC Stand for Electronic Numerical Integrated and computer.
Mark –I, Mark – II
ADVANTAGES:

Vacuum tube technology made possible the start of electronic digital computers. Fastest
calculating devices of their time. Computations/Processes were done in milliseconds.

DISADVANTAGES:

 Too big in size and has more weight. Size of ENIAC was 1500 square feet, and weighed
30 tons.
 Unreliable (A vacuum tube failure occurred on average once every 7minutes and it took
about 15minutes to find and replace the faulty tube.
 Heat Problem (due to thousands of Vacuum tubes).
 Air-conditioning required.
 Manual assembly of individual components into a function unit.
 Non-portable – these computers were fixed on their place.

Second Generation (1950-1959).

The computers of this Generation were based on Transistor technology. (Vacuum tube
replace by transistor). The transistor was small in size, fast in Operation and less
expensive then Vacuum tube. The Speed of these Computer was high. E,g IBM _1401.
ADVANTAGES

♦ Computers were small in size. The first transistor was one-hundredth of the size of a
vacuum tube.♦ More reliable.♦ Less heat generated.
♦ Computational times were reduced from milliseconds to microseconds.

DISADVANTAGES

♦ Air-conditioning required.

♦ Commercial production was difficult and costly.

Third Generation (1960-1969).


This Generation of computer were based on Integrated Circuits (ICs). (Transistor replace
by ICs). Also this Generation of computer were high in speed, Accuracy and less Price.
e, g IBM-360.

ADVANTAGES

♦ Smaller in size, even more reliable, and lower heat-generated as compared to previous
generations.

♦ Easily portable.

♦ Less power required.

♦ Commercial production was easier and cheaper.


♦ Computer memory became volatile.

DISADVANTAGES

♦ Air-conditioning required.

♦ Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of IC chips.

♦ Time sharing and multiprogramming problem.

Forth Generation (1970_1980).


The Computer of this Generation were based on Large Scale Integration (LSI). (ICs
replace by LSI) .Micro Processor was used in This Generation. For example IBM-PC.

ADVANTAGES

♦ Smallest in size and very reliable.

♦ Heat generated is negligible and thus no air-conditioning required.


♦ Much faster in computation than previous generations.

♦ Easily portable.

♦ Use of microprocessor.

♦ Totally general purpose.

♦ Cheapest.

DISADVANTAGES

♦ Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of LSI, VLSI, and ULSI chips.

Fifth Generation (1980-1990)


In the fifth Generation on Computer are used Artificial Intelligence (A I). Artificial
Intelligence Is that area of computer science which one or more characteristics of human
beings. That is Robotics, Computer learning etc
ADVANTAGES

♦ Increased internal memory and fast processing speed.

♦ Robots and Expert Systems help human beings in many problems to solve.

♦ Computers were made possible to adopt some human qualities.

DISADVANTAGES

♦Highly sophisticated software and hardware technology required

developing such machines with humanlike qualities.

Six Generation (From 1990 to Onward).


The computer of this Generation are based on the principles of Artificial Neural Network
System and decides for solving different problems. e,g Character recognition etc
Types of Computer.
There are three types of computer,
(1) Digital Computer (2) Analog Computer (3) Hybrid Computer
Digital Computer: Digital computer are process the discrete data. Digital computers
are used for counting purposes. The speed of digital computers is slow but more accurate.
Like Pentium I, Pentium II, Pentium III etc.

 Uses

 Scientific operations

 Business operated jobs

Examples are Accounting machines, calculators, digital watches

and other digital machines, etc.

(2) Analog Computer

Analog computers are process continues data. Analog computer used for measurement
purposes. The speed of analog computer is fast but not accurate. Analog computer can
find Speed, weight, and temperature etc.
 Uses

 Engineering and scientific works


 Oil refinery
 Examples are speedometer, thermometer, barometer and analog
clocks.

Hybrid Computer:
Hybrid computer is having the best features of both analog and digital
computers.
 The speed of analog computer
 The accuracy of digital computer
 Different measurements are converted into digits and are processed by
the computer.

 Uses
 Air defense system
 Petrol pump (New)

Advantages of computer.
Speed: Computer can calculate every problems very high Speed.
Accurate: The most advantage of computer along with Speed the Accuracy.
ELCETROIC MACHINE:
It is not a manual machine. Rather it uses electricity to run.
NO FEELINGS:

Computers have no emotions and feelings because they are machine. No computer processes

the equivalent of a human heart and soul. They are only as good as man makes and uses them.

NO I .Q:

I.Q. stands for Intelligence Query. Computer has no intelligence of its own.

Huge Storage: Human being forget any thing or information. But Computer never
forgets any information. Computer store the information in large amount.
Tireless
Computers never tire. They can do every task with out delay.
Obedient
Computer is obedient machine of the user. They perform every function
Units Of Computer/ Components of computer.
There are three main units of computer.
Input Unit.
Central Processing Unit (C.P.U):
Output Unit.
Input Unit/ devices.
It is that part of the computer with the help of which we can enter data to the computer. It
consists of keyboard, Mouse, Joy Stick, Track Ball, Scanner, etc.
Central Processing Unit:(C.P.U)
It is known as the administrative section of the computer. Central Processing Unit
(C.P.U) is the machine of the computer. It Process the data, and Control the whole
operation of the Computer. It Consist of :
Arithmetic and Logic unit.
Control Unit.

Control Unit (CU):


Control unit is known as the Nerve section of the computer. It is used to control the
whole operation of the computer. Simply we can say that the control unit manage and
coordinate all parts of computer.
Arithmetic and Logic unit :(ALU)
This unit of computer is used to perform arithmetic and logical operation on the data. The
arithmetic operation are addition, subtraction, Multiplication, and division etc, while
logical operation are some logical decisions which are the job of ALU.
OUT PUT UNIT.
The combination of out put devices is called out put unit.
Out put unit are used to Display the result. E.g. Monitor, Printer and Speaker.

Input Devices
 Input devices are the hardware components that allow users to enter data or instructions
into a computer.

 If the CPU is the computer’s brain, then the input devices are its eyes and ears.

 Popular input devices include the keyboard, mouse, digital pen, microphone, digital
camera, scanner and joystick.

THE KEYBOARD

 Keyboard is an input device that converts letters, numbers, and other characters into
electrical signals readable by the processor.

 Keyboards consist of keys that are pressed by users to enter data into a computer.

 Desktop computer keyboards typically have from 101 to 105 keys.

 In Desktop computer keyboards often attach via a cable to a serial port, a keyboard
port, or a USB (Universal Serial Bus) port on the system unit.

Pointing Devices (Mouse and other):

A pointing device is an input device that allows a user to control a pointer on the screen. In a
graphical user interface (GUI), a pointer is a small symbol on the screen.

MOUSE

 Mouse is an input device that is used to manipulate objects viewed on the computer
display screen.
 With the mouse, users control the movement of the pointer, often called a mouse pointer
in this case.

 The top and sides of a mouse have one to four buttons; some also have small wheel. The
bottom of mouse.

 Two types of mouse are:

 A mechanical mouse – has a rubber or a metal ball on its underside and you place it on a
mouse pad. Movement of ball is necessary to move the pointer.

 An optical mouse – has no ball; rather it uses devices that emits and sense light to
detect the mouse’s movement.

TRACKBALL

 Similar to a mechanical mouse, but it has a ball on its top.

 You rotate the ball with your thumb, fingers, or your hand to move the pointer.

 A trackball usually has one or more buttons just like mouse buttons.

 Requires less space than mouse, because here you rotate only the ball not the whole
device.

TOUCH PAD (TRACK PAD)

 A small stationary, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and
motion.

 To move the pointer, simply slide your fingertip across the surface of the pad.

 Most often used with notebook computers.

JOYSTICK AND WHEEL

 Users running game software or flight and driving simulation software often use a
joystick or wheel as pointing devices.

 A Joystick is a vertical lever mounted on a base. You move the lever in different
directions to control the actions of the simulated vehicle or player.

LIGHT PEN

 Light pen is a hand-held input device that can detect the presence of light on the specially
designed monitor, or a standard monitor.

 To select object on the screen, a user presses the light pen against the surface of
the screen or points the light pen at the screen and the presses a button on the pen.

TOUCH SCREEN
 A touch-screen is a touch-sensitive display device.
 Users interact with these devices by touching areas of the screen with a finger.
.

Voice/Audio Input Devices (Microphone):


An audio input device records analog sound such as speech, music, or other sound effects, and
translates it for digital storage and processing.

MICROPHONE

 Microphone is the most commonly and may be solely used audio input device.

 Some external microphones have a cable that attaches to a port on the sound card on
the computer. Others communicate using wireless technology.

 Voice recognition, also called speech recognition, is the computer’s capability of


distinguishing spoken words. Voice recognition programs do not understand speech. They
recognize a vocabulary of pre-programmed words.

Video Input Devices (Video cameras):

Video input is the process of capturing full-motion images into a computer and storing them
on a storage medium such as a hard disk or DVD.

VIDEO CAMERAS (Cam-Corders)

 Video Camera is the most commonly or may be solely video-input device. In some cases
a television may be used for video input.

 Two types of video cameras are used.

DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS

 The new generation of Video Cameras is called a Digital Video (DV) camera.

 A digital camera records video as digital signals instead of analog signals.

 Many DV cameras have the capability of capturing still images (frames), as well as
motion.

 Web Cam is a video camera that displays its output on a Web page (Web browser).

A Web Cam attracts web site visitors by showing images that change regularly.

Scanners and Reading Devices


These are devices that capture data directly from a source document, without human
intervention. Source documents, for examples, are time cards, order forms, invoices,
paychecks, advertisements, photographs, or any other documents that contains data to be
processed.

Three types of Scanning Devices are:

OPTICAL SCANNER

 An optical scanner, usually called a scanner, is a light-sensing input device that read
the printed text and graphics (drawing and photos, and the like); and then translates the
results into a form, the computer can process.

.OPTICAL READERS

 An optical reader is a device that uses light source to read characters, marks, and
codes and then converts them into digital data that a computer can process.

 Three types of optical readers are OCR, OMR and Bar Code Reader.

 OCR – (Optical Character Recognition) is used to read typewritten, computer-printed,


or hand-printed characters from ordinary documents and translating the images into a form
that the computer can process.

 OMR – (Optical Mark Recognition) is used to read hand-written marks such as small
circles or rectangles. A person places these marks on a form, such as a test, survey, or
questionnaire answer sheet.

 Bar Code Reader – An optical reader that uses laser beams to read bar codes. A bar
code is an identification code that consists of a set of vertical line and spaces of different widths.
The bar code represents data that identifies the manufacturer and the item. Each industry
uses its own type of bar code. The most familiar type of bar code is UPC (Universal Product
Code). Using a Bar Code Reader, you can also observe the original price of the item.

MICR READERS

 MICR (Magnetic Ink character Recognition) is a technology that reads text printed

with magnetized ink.

 A MICR reader converts MICR characters into a form the computer can process. .

Classification Of Computers.
Computer can be classified into four main groups:
• Main Frame Computer.
• Mini Computer.
• Micro Computer.
• Super Computer.
This classification is based on the processing power and other capabilities a computer
possess.

Supercomputer:-
Most expensive and ultra fast computer is known as super computer.
Supercomputers are significantly different from the Mainframe because they are designed
to execute programs in parallel mode rather than sequential mode. The processing speed
of supercomputer is more than mainframe and minicomputer. Supercomputers are used
in complex mathematical computations, weapons system and image processing.
Examples of supercomputers are GRAY-1, CYBER 205 etc.

Super computers
 Super computer refers to the most powerful scientific computer at a
given time.

 Fastest, most powerful, most expensive and may be largest in size.

 Number of simultaneously connected users is from hundreds to


thousands.

 General Price is from 500,000 dollars to more than 85 million dollars.

 Physical size is usually full room of equipment.

Super computer in the world has the following features.

 8,192 processors

 Can process 12.3 trillion operations per second

 Weighs 106 tons

 97,000 times the memory of 64MB microcomputer

 16,000 time the secondary storage capacity of a 10GB microcomputer


hard disk.

 83 miles of wiring

 Cost 85 million dollars


 Applications/ Uses

 Controlling missile guidance systems

 Weather forecasting

 Oil exploration

 Simulating nuclear weapons tests

 Examples are ASCII White, cray-1, and CYBER-205.

Main Frame computer.


The largest, quickest and expensive computer is known as mainframe computer.
Mainframe computer have the facilities to process large amount of data and support
several input output devices. Now a day's typical mainframe computer cost is more than
20 million rupees. Mainframe computer serve as much as 150 users. Mainframe
computers are Summit, IBM 3090 e.t.c.

Large, expensive, very powerful computer that can handle hundred or thousand of
connected users simultaneously.

 Each user accesses the mainframe’s resources through a device called a terminal or some
times PCs.

 Mainframes have usually very large memory. They can store tremendous amount of
data, instructions and information.

 Physical size is limited room to a Full room of equipment.

 General price ranges from 300,000 dollars to several million dollars.

 Large companies such as Airlines, banks and insurance companies use mainframes.

 Examples are IBM 4381, ICL 2900, and NEC 610.

Mini computer:
Mini computer are smaller than mainframe computer both in size and
facilities it provide to users. The facilities include processing
speed, Storage capabilities. However mini computer are versatile
computer and is used by small organization. DEC Vax 8800, IBM 8370 are
mini computers.
 Released in 1960.

 Smallest of their time, that is why they were called Mini computers.

 Medium-size, medium-power, and medium cost computers. Medium


means – their size, power and cost fall between mainframes and Microcomputers.

 Physical size is about a small cabinet.

 General price ranges from 5,000 dollars to 850,000 dollars.

 Examples: HP 3000, PRIME 9755, and IBM System-36.

Micro computer:
Microcomputer was introduced in early 1970's. Micro computer is smallest computer
having less processing speed as compare to main frame and mini computer. Purchasing
cost of micro computer is very low as compare to mini and main frame computer. IBM
AT, IBM XT, Apple are microcomputers.

Released in 1970 onwards when CPU was designed on a single chip.

 PCs are those computers that can perform all of its input, processing,
output, and storage activities by itself.

 A personal computer contains a processor, memory and one or more


input, output, and storage devices.

 Uses

 Small businesses

 Large businesses

 Home and offices

 Popular examples are:

 PC-Compatible  Apple

 PC- compatible was originally designed by IBM and used Windows


as its operating system software.

 Apple was designed by Apple Company and used Macintosh


operating system software.
 According to their specific uses, PCs are divided into the following
different types.

DESKTOP COMPUTERS

♦ Those in which the case or system unit sits on a desk, with keyboard in front and
monitor (screen) often on top of system unit.

NOTEBOOK COMPUTERS

♦ Also called laptop computers, are lightweight, portable computers with built-in monitor,
keyboard, hard-disk drive, battery and Ac adapter – that can be plugged into an electrical
outlet.

♦ Notebook means that you can fold and shut them just like a notebook.

♦ Laptop means that they are small enough to fit on your lap.

TABLET PC

♦ Tablet PC combines the features of a traditional notebook computer with the


simplicity of pencil and paper.

♦ Moreover, they usually do not fold shut and haven’t a keyboard – they usually are
touched with finger or special digital pen.

Mobile Devices/ Computers


 Very small devices usually designed to allow wireless access to the Web and E-mail.

 Popular types of mobile devices are hand-held computers, PDAs, and Smart phones.

HAND-HELD (Palmtop Computers)

♦ They are small enough to fit in one hand while you operate it with the other hand.

♦ They have small keyboards.

♦ A stylus uses pressure to write and draw.

♦ PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) provide personal organizer functions


such as a calendar, appointment book, address-book, calculator, and
notepad.
♦ PDAs also provide facilities such as messaging, electronic mail, word
processing and spreadsheet software and games.

SMART PHONES

♦ Smart phones are web-enabled telephones offering the convenience of


one-hand operation.

♦ Smart phones are usually designed to allow wireless access to the Web
and E-mail, in addition to their regular telephone and paging capabilities.

 Some higher priced models have color screens and play music.

Computer Storage Devices (Memory Unit):

The device with the help of which we can store data in computer is known memory.
Memory is measured in Bit, Bytes, Kbytes, Mbytes, Gbytes. Bit is smallest unit of
memory and is equal to (o) or (1).

The other units is the multiple of bit and bytes and is given below:
1 Byte = 8 bit.
1 Kbyte = 1024 Byte.
1 Mbyte = 1024 Kbyte.
1 Gbyte = 1024 Mbyte.
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Memory is generally divided into two types:


1) Primary Memory.
2) Secondary Memory.
1) Primary Memory:
The memory fast in operation, expensive and is of low capacity is known as primary
memory. The memory Internal to the computer is known as primary memory. It is also known
as main memory and Internal memory of the computer. Main memory is further divided into:
a) Random Access Memory (RAM).
b) Read Only Memory (ROM).
a) Random Access Memory (RAM).
Random Access Memory (RAM) is known as Read/Write memory. It means that we
can write on RAM as well as we can Read from RAM. It is volatile memory, anything that we
can write on it will vanish if computer is off or power failure occurs. RAM plays very
important role in the processing speed of computer.
b) Read Only Memory (ROM).
b) Read Only Memory (ROM) as the name suggests that we can read from ROM but cannot
write on it. ROM is used to store program permanently and programs are stored by computer
manufactures. Program stored in ROM make computer ready for operation.

2) Secondary Memory:
The memory external to the computer is known as secondary memory. It is also called external
memory, backup memory and Auxiliary memory. Hard disk, Floppy Disk are the most
commonly used secondary memory.
TYPES OF SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES (SECONDARY MEMORY).
Secondary memory is generally divided into:
• Magnetic Disk.
• Magnetic tape.
• Magnetic Drum.
• CD ROM.
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Magnetic Disk: -
Magnetic disk is direct access storage device (DASD). The magnetic disk consists of number
of metal platter that are stacked on top of each other on spindle. The surface of magnetic disk is
coated with ferromagnetic particles. The surface of each plotter is divided into tracks. Each
track is further divided into sectors that are the addressable storage unit. Track varies in size
but they store same amount of information. Therefore the recording density of inner track is
equal to the recording density of outer track. Information is transferred to or from disk through
read/write heads. There are two types of magnetic disk.
• Hard disk (Fixed disk).
• Floppy disk (Exchangeable disk)

Magnetic tape:
Magnetic is made of plastic material coated with iron oxide substance, which is easily
magnetized. Several thousand feet of tapes are wounded and information is encoded on tape
character by character. Information is read from or written on magnetic tape through the use
magnetic tape drive. In certain section of tape information is neither read nor written upon,
these section are called inter record gap (IRG). The greater the number of IRG the smaller
storage capacity of tape. The limitation of magnetic tape is that record must be processed in
Sequential order. Therefore accessing of records requires the scanning of all records that
precedes it.

Magnetic Drum:
Magnetic drum is a metal cylinder from 10 to 36 inches in diameter. The outside
surface of drum is coated with a magnetic recording material. The cylinder surface is divided
into a number of parallel bands called tracks. The track is further divided into sector that is
addressable area of a drum. The data can be write/read through read/ write heads. Read/Write
head may be:
Fixed read/write head.
Moveable read/write head.
Drum with fixed read/write head provide fast accessing to the data as compare to the drum
having moveable read write head.
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CD ROM:
CD ROM Stands for compact disk read only memory. It is an optical disk storage device and is
used with microcomputer. Each CD ROM can store upto 600 MB that is equivalent to 400
(1.44MB) floppy disk. The data are stored by LASER TECHNOLOGY. The only disadvantage
of CD ROM is that one cannot delete/change the contents of CD ROM.

COPMPUTER SOFTWARE:
Computer programs are known as software. Software can be classified into two types:
1. System Software:
2. Application Software.
System Software are those program packages that control the Computer systems and
make different parts of the hardware available for users, while application software are the
programs which are used for particular functions (Task).:

APPLICATION SOFTWARE:
It is divided into two types.
General Purpose Application software. It includes Word processors, Spreadsheets,
Presentation software (MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point. Etc)
Special Purpose Application software consist of Tutorials, Entertainments programs
Computer games, AutoCAD and CAM etc,

SYSTEM SOFTWARE:
System software is divided into three types.
System Management Programs: are Operating System, Database Management system and
Telecommunication Programs.
System Support Programs are Utilities (Drivers) and Security Programs.
System development Programs are language translators, Editing and debugging tools.
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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM:


The operating system can be defined as:
Operating system is collection of programs that manage and maintain the operation of
computer.
The operating system is resource Manager.
The operating system is resource Allocator.
The operating system is system software that control and control and manage the overall
operation of a computer system. It is just like a Government that does nothing by itself but
control and co-ordinate all departments.
Type of Operating System.
Operating system is generally divided into two types.
1. Single user operating system.
2. Multi user operation system.
Single user operating system.
The system software that fulfills the requirements of a single user is known as single user
operating system.
DOS (Disk Operating System) Window 3.11, Window 95 are single user operating system.
Multi user operating system. The operating system that fulfills the requirements of
More than one user is known as Multi user operating system. Multi user operating system has
more facilities than single user operating system. Windows 2000, Windows NT, UNIX,
LINUX are the examples of multi user operating system.

Functions of Operating System.( Services of an Operating


System.)
The facilities that an operating system provides to the user is known as functions (or Services)
of Operating system. Most operating system provides the following functions.

1. Program Execution.
2. Errors detection.
3. Input/Output (I/O) Operation.
4. File System.
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5. Protection.
6. Scheduling.
7. Resource Allocation.

Program Execution:
By program execution we means to run the user program in order to get the results. The
Operating system provides this facility to execute (run) programs. The results are displayed
either on monitor or printed on printer.

Error Detection:
It is impossible to write error free program each time. Error detection is process in done by the
operating system to tell about hardware or software problems. This process is also known as
fault monitoring. When ever error occurs the operating system display suitable information to
help the user to find the source of error. For example:
"Printer is not ready" if printer is out of paper are not properly attached
" Drive A is not ready" if there is no diskette in drive A.

Input/Output (I/O) operation:


The operation in which we input some data to the computer and get results from the computer
is known as input/output operation. The operating system is responsible for input/output
operation. The user enters data in human readable form but operating system helps in
changing the same data to machine readable form, process it and then results are given to the
user in same form as were given to computer.

File system.
The system in which user program are stored in storage devices by having unique name is
known as file system. The operating system store these file in the form of directories. File
system is the important function of operating system. Some of the operations of file system are:
Create and delete a file.
Create and delete a directory.
Back up of files on Non Volatile memory.
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Protection:
In Multi user environment operating system must be able to protect one user files from the
activities of other user. Thus each user find his files and data in secure form.

Scheduling:
The sharing of C.P.U time is known as Scheduling. In multi user environment C.P.U. time is
divided among several users. Each user file is executed for a specific time period. The
scheduling is one of the important function of operating system.

Resource Allocation:
In multi user environment resources are shares by many users. The operating system decides
which device is to be allocated to which user.
COMPUTER LANGUAGES:
A computer language is a means of communication between user and computer. The
language which computer can understand is known as computer language. Some of these
languages are directly understandable by computer while other requires intermediate
translation steps. There are three general types of computer languages.
1) Low-level language.
• Machine language.
• Assembly language.
2) High-level language.
Machine language.
Machine language is the earliest, lowest and most elementary level of programming language.
Machine language is the 1st type of programming language to be developed. It is also known
as binary language the language of '0' and '1'. It is the only language that the computer
understands directly without any translation. Machine language are difficult for programmers
because binary code are difficult to memorize. It is also very difficult to debug program
written in machine language.
Assembley language.
Assembly language uses English like abbreviations rather than binary code in machine
language. Assembly language is one step higher than machine language. Assembly language
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is also known as low level language. Program written in assembly language is not directly
understandble by computer. It must be translated into machine code by translater software. A
computer program which translate an Assembly language program into its equivalent machine
code is known as Assembler.

High level languages


Advanced type of programming languages is known high level languages. These languages are
easier to learn and understand. To write and debug program written in High level language
require less time and efforts as compare to machine language and assembly language.
High level languages are not directly understandable to computer. The programs
written in high level language are translated into machine language by translator known as
compiler and interpreter.

Translator software:
The program which translates instructions into machine code is known as translator
software. We know that computer can only understands and execute the machine code
instructions. Therefore any program presented to the computer must be translated to machine
code. For this purpose translator programs are used, which translate program written in a
language other than machine language to machine code.
There are three types of translators.
• Assembler
• Compiler.
• Interpreter.

Assembler:
Translator software which translate program written in Assembly language to
equivalent Machine code.
Compiler. Compiler is translator software that translates programs written in High level
language into binary code. This process is known as compilation. In compilation the whole
program is 1st Translated in binary code and then executed.
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Interpreter.
An Interpreter is a translator software that translate program written in a high level language
into binary code. An interpreter translate source program into object program statement by
statement.
It means that it take one statement translate it before taking the other. Interpreter are slower
than compiler.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (A-1)


Artificial Intelligence (A.I) is that area of a computer science, which enable machine
(Computer) to duplicate one or more characteristics of human beings.

ROBOTICS:
Robotics is that branch of science, which deals with the study of Robots.
ROBOT:
1.A Robot is a machine that attempts to duplicate one or more of the physical characteristics of
a person.
2. A Robot is a computer with the purpose and capability of motion.
Robots are then machines (computer) that have the ability to move and perform All the tasks
just like a man can do it. The first Robot was introduced by KAREL CAPEK.

EXPERT SYSTEM:
An expert system is an intelligent computer program which consists of knowledge
about a particular field and inference procedure to provide answers to the questions asked by
non expert.
We know that some one is expert in science, others in playing games, etc. It means that
he knows much more about his particular field, than any other person.
An expert system 1st acquired knowledge about any particular field than it is able to provide
different answers using some procedure about that particular field. Hence we can say that
expert system uses inference procedures and knowledge base to give answers to the questions
asked by non-expert.
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COMPONENTS OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM (STRUCTURE OF EXPERT


SYSTEM)
An expert system consists of the following three parts.
• Knowledge Base.
• Inference Engine.
• User Interface.
Knowledge Base.
The knowledge base of an expert system consists of facts about particular fields. The expert
system uses this knowledge base to meet queries of a non-expert.
Inference Engine.
The inference engine is the collection of procedures and rules to provide answers to the
different questions. It is also known as driver of an expert system.
User Interface.
A user interface is a tool by which the user and Expert system can communicate with each
other.
The user enters data (Facts and Figure) to knowledge base and receives answers of different
questions using this part.
The user interface ranges from simple input/output (I/O) devices to sophisticated natural
language dialog commands.

COMPUTR AIDED DESIGNING. (C.A.D.)


Computer aided designing (CAD) is the technology and is used to assist the design of a
product which is to be manufactured. CAD consist of hardware and software, the hardware
includes computer, graphic terminals and software are special computer programs.
CAD is used to design everything including from complex structures of buildings and bridges
to small parts. It is most used by engineers to design different structure of buildings and
bridges. Once the design is enterd into the computer the engineers can remove weak points by
using CAD software. It is also used by manufacturing companies to design the shapes of their
products. CAD is 1st used in Aerospace industry in 1960
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Advantages of CAD.
Designing with the help of computer has many advantages over traditional designing.
Designing with computer needs less staff and one can create many designs in short time.
Hence cost will be reduced and production will be increased.
The chances of errors in designing with computer are negligible as compared to traditional
designing.
The design prepared using computer is more standard than other designs. Thus the quality of
products will be improved using CAD.
Design prepared with computer can be stored for future requirement in secondary memory.

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING: (C.A.M.)


Computer aided manufacturing is technology which assist the production of the product
which are designed with C.A.D. CAM is used today in many factories in order to increase the
productivity of firm, because computers are much faster than human workers. There are special
computer controlled machines, which takes the specification from the design database and than
manufacturers the products. CAM is used to control the manufacturing process by having an
interface with manufacturing plant.
COMPUTER VIRUS:
A virus is a program code that is written intentionally to destroy or disturb the normal
operation of computer. The virus was 1st used in 1984. Computer virus halt/hang the
computer system and continue to replicate itself. Normally virus corrupts the control of File
Allocation Table (FAT) and therefore operating system is unable to find location in the disk. A
virus (program code) can be transferred form one computer to another by infected disk or
networks.
PROTECTION FROM COMPUTER VIRUS:
Different methods are used to protect computer from virus, which are:
Install Anti virus program in autoexec.bat file.
Never boot your computer from floppy disks.
Do not use floppy disk before checking the virus.
Run latest Anti virus program if virus is detected.
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ANTI VIRUS:
Anti virus is a computer program that detects and remove computer virus from
computer system. There are thousands verities of computer viruses, so if it is found that a
computer is infected by some virus then run latest version of anti virus software. There are
many companies that produce anti virus programs. Most commonly used anti virus software
are Toolkit, Norton Doctor, and Virus-Scan etc.
Information technology.
Information technology.
The combination of computer and telecommunication is called
Information technology.
Information technology means to connect the Internet for
different purpose (Downloading ,converts the massage to each
other).
There are six element of I.T
There are six element of I.T.
1) People: People are required for the Operation of all
Information of I.T.

2)Procedure: The set of Information Technology instructions is


called Procedure. For example Data entry Procedure, Mistake
correction Procedure and data receiving and sending Procedure.
3) Data: The fact and figure is called Data.
OR
The raw material thing is called Data.
Data can take many forms Numeric, Alphanumeric and Alphabetic
etc.
4)Hardware:
Hardware are the Physical devices which we can touch and seen.
That is Keyboard, Printer, floppy etc
5)Software: software is the collection of instruction.
OR The Computer programs are called Software.
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All programs which are used for solving Problem and to


communicate with computer .For example Operating System, and
word processor.
6)Network:
Computer Network link two or more Computer with each other are
called Network, I.e Internet, intranet and extranet.

DATA PROCCESSING SYSTEM

 The system that process data and produce information is


called data processing information processing system.
Input processing Output

Data storage

DATA VERSES INFORMATION.


DATA. INFORMATION.
1. Data are raw facts and observations. 1. when the data is processed
then it become Information.
2. Management can not make their decision 2. The case is not so.
using data.
3. The unorganized facts, which we enter to 3. The organized facts which
the computer. Computer can produce after processing

MDP EDP

1. 1. All performed by human himself 1. Performed by electronic machines


2. 2. Faster method 2. Slow method
3. 3. Less or no error chances 3. More error chances
4. 4. Reliable results 4. Un Reliable results
5. 5. Expensive system 5. Cheap system
6. 6. Easy to perform 6. Difficult to perform
7. 7. Time saving 7. Time consuming
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