You are on page 1of 3

WEIGHING TECHNOLOGY

Applying
Coriolis feeder with feed gate

he Coriolis measuring principle was


Coriolis
T developed by carefully studying the
science of particle acceleration and
its resultant forces. The Coriolis
force is the force that acts upon a particle
accelerating radially outward in a rotating
by Kevin C Boyle, Schenck Weighing Systems
Accurate weighing and feeding of pulverised coal, petcoke, and other addi-
tives is essential for the production of high quality cement. High accuracy,
repeatability, reliability, and simplicity are some of the requirements of
these weighing and feeding systems. A mass flow measuring system
system. This force acts perpendicular to
the direction of motion of the particle and utilising the Coriolis principle is now available for these tasks. Practical
is directly proportional to the torque applications of this technology for the cement industry will be discussed
required to accelerate that particle to the and data from several installations will show the benefits realized.
circumferential velocity of the rotating
system. As seen below and in Figure 1, the
Coriolis force is also directly proportional Figure 2 shows an internal Load Cell
Motor reaction force
to the mass flow rate of a continuous view of the Coriolis mass flow Inlet
stream of such particles. It is also signifi- meter, which consists of a
cant to note that the relationship of the rotating measuring wheel with
Coriolis force and the mass flow rate of the several vertical guide vanes Drive shaft

particles is independent of most process surrounding a central deflec- Enclosure


Deflection
variables including the bulk density, tion cone. The measuring cone
friction coefficient, and moisture content wheel is mounted on a drive Measuring
wheel
of the particles. shaft, which extends upwards
from the deflection cone. single particle moving across the
Coriolis mass flow meter These components are housed Outlet vanes of the rotor, exerting Coriolis
force on the rotor vane which
The Coriolis measuring principle provides a in a dust-tight enclosure. The produces a measurable
torque on the floor
simplified solution to mass flow measure- shaft is driven by a swivel-
Figure 2: Coriolis mass flow meter
ment in industrial process applications. mounted electric motor

Figure 1: Coriolis measuring principle located above and outside the enclosure.
This motor is connected to an electronic
force measuring system (load cell) capable
of determining the instantaneous torque
delivered to the drive shaft. An off-centre
feed inlet above one side of the wheel and
a central outlet below the wheel provides
the flow path for the bulk solid to be mea-
sured.
In operation, the motor of the mass
flow meter drives the shaft causing the
measuring wheel to rotate at a constant
angular velocity. Material flows downward
through the inlet into the top of the wheel
and the deflection cone diverts the parti-
cles outward in the radial direction. As the
particles move along the vertical guide
vanes, they are accelerated in the circum-
ferential direction. As shown in Figure 1,
the rotation of the measuring wheel causes

INTERNATIONAL CEMENT REVIEW / FEBRUARY 2003 ?


WEIGHING TECHNOLOGY

proportional to the mass dust, lime powders and hydrates,


flow rate P. Thus, by pulverised coal and petcoke, ground slag,
measuring the torque, silica, and marl. Present designs can han-
the Coriolis mass flow dle feed rates between 0.5 to up to
meter accurately mea- 300tph.
sures the mass flow rate.
This measuring tech- Continuous flow rate
nique assures that fric- measurement
tional forces between the The Coriolis mass flow meter can be
material and the measur- installed in a material flow path to contin-
ing wheel or between uously measure flow of a dry bulk solid. A
different layers of mater- typical installation would be between the
ial do not influence the outlet of a storage silo and the inlet of a
Figure 3: Coriolis feeding system – pre-feed devices
mass flow measurement. blender, mixer or mill. The Coriolis meter
In addition, the physical can continuously indicate the instanta-
three forces – centrifugal, frictional, and properties of the material, including den- neous material flow rate, monitor a
Coriolis – to act on the particles as they sity, friction and impact coefficients, parti- process, and trigger alarms such as min
move along the guide vanes. cle size, and moisture content do /max flow rate and devia-
Figure 4b: Coriolis coal
• the centrifugal force acts in the radial not influence the accuracy or sensi- feed system with tion. Other feeders can be
direction tivity of the meter. Variations in horizontal star feeder slaved to the mass flow
• the frictional force acts in the opposite flow rate within a specified range meter to realize
direction with a magnitude equal to the have no influence on the measure- proportional additive (mas-
centrifugal force ment, ensuring that the measuring ter/slave) control and
• the Coriolis force acts in the tangential results are highly repeatable. The blending.
direction and produces a measurable reac- measuring system is also immune
tion torque in the measuring wheel’s rota- to external influences such as Totalling and
tion that is directly proportional to batch control
the mass flow rate Microprocessor- The Coriolis mass flow
based electronics analyse this meter can be utilised to
torque signal and continuously total material flows for
compute the instantaneous material batch control and load-out
flow rate. A speed sensor is also applications. Figure 4c
incorporated into the system to shows a Coriolis mass flow meter
precisely monitor the angular veloc- used at a load-out blending station.
ity of the measuring wheel. A loss-in-weight feeder is also used
The following discussion1 illus- in this application to portion a
trates the mathematical relation- minor ingredient.
ship of the relevant system As a side benefit, the Coriolis
variables: meter provides excellent homogeni-
The drive input into the drive sation of the two materials.
shaft is equal to the energy
imparted to the material as it Continuous feeding
passes over the guide vanes: Figure 4a: Coriolis feeding system with feed screws for additives and blending
E = ∫ M * ω * dt = ∫ dE Combined with a suitable variable-
Where E is the energy imparted to the wind, vibration, and physical contact with speed pre-feeding device (such as a screw
material, M is the drive torque, ω is the the housing, leading to simple installation feeder, rotary feeder, position-controlled
angular velocity, dt is time, and dE is the requirements and high reliability. The feeder, or horizontal star feeder – see
change in energy. system is completely dust-tight and is Figure 3), the Coriolis mass flow meter can
The energy required to move a particle virtually maintenance-free. also be used as a precise mass flow feeding
with the mass dP out of the measuring system. In this application, the flow rate
wheel is: Practical applications measured by the meter is compared to a
dE = dP * ω2 * R2 Coriolis measuring systems have been demand set point, and a variable speed
Where R is the radius of the measuring successfully applied to the feeding of pre-feed device is continuously adjusted to
wheel. pulverised coal and petcoke to cement kiln match the demand. By separating the pre-
From these equations, it follows that burners, feeding additives and dusts to feed and measuring devices, the optimum
the drive torque M can be measured as: cement mills, and measuring, feeding, and feeding device can be selected for the spe-
M = P * ω * R2 blending at load-out stations. The technol- cific material. Figure 4a shows a Coriolis
Where P is the mass flow rate. ogy can be applied to almost all kinds of mass flow feeding system with an inclined
As these equations show, M, which pulverised materials, dusts, meals, and screw feeding an additive to a cement
depends on the Coriolis force, is directly granules including cement, fly ash, filter process. Figure 4b shows a Coriolis mass

? INTERNATIONAL CEMENT REVIEW / FEBRUARY 2003


WEIGHING TECHNOLOGY

Pulverised fuel
feeding system
Short-term pulverised fuel
feeding accuracy is
critical for the economi-
cal and ecological opera-
tion of a cement kiln and
for the production of high
quality cement. Figure 7a
shows the feed rate of a
Coriolis mass flow
pulverised fuel feeding
Figure 5: Coriolis flow accuracy system compared to the
plant set point over a
Figure 4c: Coriolis loading station five-minute period. A
total of 300 samples are
flow feeding system with a horizontal star included at one-second
feeder feeding pulverised coal to a cement intervals. Statistical
kiln burner. analysis of this data
shows that the standard
Accuracy of the Coriolis deviation of samples is
mass flow meter less than 0.45 per cent
Typical accuracies of the Coriolis mass flow resulting in extremely
meter are better than +/- 0.5 per cent of high short-term feeding
the actual feed rate over a defined measur- consistency of the fuel.
ing range. The following tests results show Figure 6: Coriolis kiln feed accuracy Figure 7b shows long-
actual performance of the Coriolis system term kiln performance
in the laboratory and in the field. Laboratory test results over an eight hour period. As can be seen,
Accuracy of the Coriolis mass flow meter the level of the material feed bin does not
Figure 7a: pulverised fuel feeding data – can be determined in the laboratory be influence the accuracy of the feeding
short-term accuracy either pre-weighing (feed bin on load system. Even at O2 levels below two per
cells) or post-weighing material cent at the kiln inlet, the CO level does not
(gain-in-weight check scale). exceed 0.2 per cent.
Accuracy test results2 using dry
quartz sand are shown in Figure 5 Conclusion
that plots the error in the mass The Coriolis measuring principle has been
flow measurement (per cent of successfully applied to provide accurate
the actual flow rate) versus the measurement and feed rate control of
actual flow rate in the range of pulverised coal, petcoke, kiln feed, fly ash,
1-10tph. As can be seen, the and many other bulk solids in cement
accuracy of the Coriolis meter is process applications.
better than 0.5 per cent of the The Coriolis flow meter is a direct mass
actual flow rate, and the percent- flow measuring device that is not influ-
age error diminishes as flow rates enced by variations in material properties
are increased. or outside forces. It can be used for
Figure 7b: pulverised fuel feeding data – long-term continuous flow rate measurement,
performance Field test results totalling, batch control, and continuous
Kiln feeding feeding. It is simple to install, reliable,
Accurate kiln feeding is essential and virtually maintenance-free._______ r
to produce consistent high qual-
ity clinker. Figure 6 shows the References
error in feed rate calculated from 1. Boyle, Kevin C: Mass-flow meter:
10 consecutive 30-second sam- Measuring material flow rates the gravimet-
ples observed on a Coriolis kiln ric way, Powder and Bulk Engineering,
feeding system running at February 1996.
160tph. The standard deviation
of these consecutive samples is 2. Tests conducted at Schenck Process,
less than 0.2 per cent thus Darmstadt, Germany. Contact the author
achieving the desired goal of +/- for more information about the test set-up
0.5 per cent. and results.

? INTERNATIONAL CEMENT REVIEW / FEBRUARY 2003