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Wildlife is important natural resources that can be put to various uses by man. These
include ethical, cultural, commercial, recreational and environmental uses. Wild animals
are intimately connected with our society, tradition, cultural education, economy,
recreation and ecology. They made our planet a place of joy, environment , peace and
On the other hand there are a number of negative aspects of wildlife. Both positive
and negative values of wildlife.
Positive value:
Ethical value, cultural value, ecological value, scientific value, aesthetic and
recreational value, commercial and economic value and game value.

Negative value:
Damage to agriculture, competition, human damage and land use pattern
Distinctive characters of plants and animals:
Plants are rooted in the soil, lack the power of locomotion, and manufacture their
own food by photosynthesis. Animals have the power of locomotion but cannot
manufacture their food. They have to depend on plants or other animals for their nutrition.
However, there are some lower life forms like Chlamydomonas and Euglena which
can manufacture their food like plants and can perform locomotion. They represent an
early stage of life before living organisms diverged into plants and animals. Also, fungi
which come under the category of plants lack chlorophyll and depend on organic matter
like animals for their nutrition.

Geological Time Scale with Notes on Events in the Evolution of Animals with changes in Environments

1 2 3 4 5 6

Era Peirod Epoch Time of Beginning Geological and Animal Life

of period in million Climatic conditions and Dominance
of years (approx.) of particular group

Quaternary Recent 0.025 Forest and deserts; Age of modern man, development
Warm climate; of human cultures
end of last glaciation Rise of world civilization

Pleistocene 1 Periodic glaciation Age of primitive man; extinction

resulted in destruction, of many large mammals
unusual solar activity

Pliocene 12 Coolar and temperate Evolution of Man, Abundant

climate, lce age, rise of mammals; Elephants; horses
mountains of America and camels like modern forms,
Decline of some mammals

Miocene 28 Some areas dry and arid; Numerous mammals in their

some areas cooler height of evolution; first man like
and water apes, moder carnivores

Oligocene 39 Pleasant and warmer Arochic mammals extinct. Modern

climate low land; mammals appeared
continents * to have
concen weather later
This system brings out the evolutionary relationship between animals and hence known as
natural classification.

Animal kingdom

Invertebrates Vertebrates

Animal kingdom

Protozoa – Acellular animals Metazoa – Cellular animals

Parazoa Eumatozoa – Cells organized into tissues and organs

controlled by a nervous system

Phylum: Porifera Division: Radiata Division-Bilateria - Bilateral

No digestive tract or mouth. Radially symmetrical: symmetry Triploblastic
Body perforated with pores Gastrovascular cavity
and canals. Eg. Sponges Present: diploblastic

Phylum: Coelenterata
E.g: Hydra and corals

Acoelomata Pseudocoelomata Eucoelomata

Lack body cavity (coelom) False body cavity Have body
Body cavity filled up by
Parenchymatons tissue
Aschelminthes Have notochord
Eg. Rotifers Phylum chordata

Phylum Phylum
Platynelminthes Nemertinea
Flat worms Flat forms with
E.g. Tape worm extensile body
Live fluke modtly marine
E.g. Lineus

Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca Echioderamata Chordata

Earth worm Insects Oysters Star fish (65,000 spp)


Phylum chordata
It has approximately 65,000 known living animals – many extinct forms also
Phylum Chordata

Acranita or Protochordata (6 classes) Vertebrata or Craniata (10classes)

(Lacking cranium – Primitive fish like animals) (Have cranium)

Sub - phylum Division

Hemichordata Urochordata Caphalochordata Agnatha Gnathostomata

Eg.Balanoglossus Eg.Herdmania Eg. Amphioxus (No true jaws and (with true jaws and
Paired appendages) paired appendages
Eg. Hag fishes

Super class: Pisces Super class: Tetrapoda

(Paired fins: gills and skin with scales) (Paired limbs: lungs; cornified skins; bony skelecton)

Class Class
Elasmobranchii Holocephali Dipnoi Teleostomi Amphibia Reptilia Aves
Skin has placoid scales: Adult lack scales: Skin has Exoskeleton bony Moist soft Dry skin with Skin with Skin
endoskeleton Operculum is cycloid Operculum skin lack scales feathers Fore hairs
cartilaginous present. scales. present. scales Eg. Snakes limbs modified blooded
Eg. Shark: Ray Eg. Chimaera Single gill Eg. Fishes into Wings Suckle
eleft on warm blooded their
either sides Eg. Birds Eg. Man
Eg. Neo ceratodus
 Warm bloused feathered birds and hairy mammals evolved from the reptiles. Which
are ruling the world?
 There are many features which are erosion to both reptiles and birds.
 Some authors called the birds as "feathered reptiles".
 Huxley called them "Classified reptiles" and placed them in the group sanropsida.
 The birds are maintaining the glory of the past reptilian age, - hot in the earth, but in
the air
Earliest (fossil) birds
 Scarcity of birds fossils
 Earliest from (specimans) Jurassric of Bavaria (Germany)
E.g. 1. Archaerpteryx lithographiex
2. Hrcheornis siemensi

 They are supposed to the connecting lance between reptiles and birds.
 Since, they posses and no features, they levered have between classified as reptiles.
Characters of Archaeopteryx (Possessed)
 The body areas was elongated and leaved like
 Fore birds modified as kings and body covered with feathers
 Absence of bill
 Presence of teeth on both the jaws
 Simple amphieoclous vertebrae
 A fixed rather than tree quadrate (A cartilage been at the kind and of the upper Jan)
 Presence of Interclavicles in most verticals
 Lack of differentiation between cervical and other vertebrae.
 Several vertebrae few in numbers (5-6) and cervical vertebrae (9 or 10)
 Hum elongated and pubis directed back wards.
 Public symphysis present unlike birds.
 A long tail with 20 vertebrae
 Presence of ventral ablomind ribs
 Humans longer
 Sclerotic bone present around the eye ball
 Bones heavy not pneumatic
 Fingers with claws
 Weak and classified sternum
 A short shium present
 Fibula is loag
 Carp metacarpus absent and separate metatarsals.
 Absence of uncinate process of the ribs.
 Source scales are also present on body and limbs.
 Thus, the fossil birds possessed more reptilian than * characters.
 But the most important Avian characters are

1. Presence of feathers
2. Presence of feet.
 Heilman – has named them as "warm blooded reptiles rather than birds
 Warm blooded (endotharmal) bipedal creatures.
 Bones are light and have air spaces and prismatic foremen.
Anemically Specialization:
Birds are animals that care fly, and every feature of a bird shows that it is highly
adapted for this purpose. A typical bird has a streamlined shape, format by its feature –
covered body and wings.
- Short, strong and compact
- The internal organs being protected by the breastbone and the pelvis.
Bird and flattened, 6 carry large flight muscles.
Legs & feet:
1. Strong and springy, and at the point where they join the body. They must phoride the
push for take off, and cushion the shock on landing – bare, scale – covered.
2. Wings - Carry the large fans of feather that are used in flight, but folded away when at
rest. – short and berry.
3. Anatomindly, a birds wings correspond to human hands, but most of the 'finger' bones
are absent is birds.
4. Bill – It is adapted for all feeding (line hand) – it is covered by hard sheath.
It has evolves into a short row of bones carrying the large, adjustable for of tail
feathers – short and bony.
It has a thinner structure and is lightly made to aid flight.
Feather types (4 types)
(A) 1.Cusitour: Small and cover the body
2. Down: form a layer underneath providing extra insulator
(B) Flight feathers: (Long and stiff)
i. Tail feathers : which are often symmetrical
ii. King feathers: which are unevenly shaped?
Shape and movement
The shape of a bird, and of its various parts, is clues to the way in which is lites.
1. Bill
Eg. Cormorant – sharp bill of a fish eater.
2. Sun bird: down curved – for probing flowers for hector
3. Gold fish : Strong bill – seed eater
4. Horn bill : Reaches get for fruit
5. Duck bills: filter fond from water.
6. Flesh eater: sharp, hooked bill.
II. Wavy of flying, standing or moving on the ground.
E.g. whether it hopes or walks are related to its way of life.
Class: Mammalia
A slow and gradual charge in the genetic compositions of population lands of
process / stages / types of evaluation.
1. Micro, Macko and 3. Mega.
Population genetic:
The study of mechanisms of evaluation.
Micro – evaluation:
 Relatively continues, and gradual small charges in the interbreeding population –
result of the interaction of some elemental farm of evaluation (material, recombinant,
 It brings sub-specific desertification with in the species – but new species or higher
categories of animals can not be pendent.
 Produce very small evolution differences.
 It is a sequential evolution (sewage, 1965) i.e. The defended the basic pattern
evaluator into. I. Sequential and Divergent evolution
 The existing gene pool modification.
 Can't produce new population, temporary changes.
 Changes in gene combinations are non adoptions
Induction of venations
Can; be introduced in the genotype of the individuals by the process of interbreeding.
Where recombination of genes take place.
Eg. ME – in invertebrate fossils – changes observes in the subsequent germinations.
Eg. Some species of Echinoids, brachiopods)
- M.E. – evolution of subspecies or geographic races.
2. Macro – evolution:

- Also known as adaptive radiation

- Different habit, habitat and environmental changes to a successful group to animals
divide into small groups by adaptive radiator.
- Divergent evolution (Sewage, 1969), (refuted in * divergence)
- Few populations originate from the old ones.
- Production of new adaptive types takes place through a process of population
fragmentation and genetic divergence.
- Large changes take place in the body form and there is marked increase in the size
of the individual.
- Organisms become well adapted to changed environments.
- "Quantum evolution" - sudden change
- Evolution of new species and genera tacro place
Eg. Evolution of horse.
Genus Eohippus (upto 11ht) – Horses (Equus equus)
Changes teak place: 1) Structure of limbs
2) Length of the neck
3) Structure of teeth

- The produced organism should cope with the changed environment.

III Mega Evolution:

- Evolution of new types of animal from the predecessors (ie) gives size to higher
taxonomic categories (under classes etc)

New systero of animal organization during adaptive radiation)

Fishes (Pisces)
Amphibians (Amphibia)
Reptiles (Reptilia)

Birds and mammals

(Areas) (mammalia)
Post adaptations:
Development of more specialized adaptation.
Evolution of mammals
- Traced from a series of fossil synapsid reptiles of the group therapsida
- During this process of evolution, the structure of many posts of the body changed in
Mammalian directed.
Important directed
1. False palate.
2. Differentiation of teeth into incisors, canines, pre-*
3. Modification of limbs so as to bending roof of the mouth in mammals, formed by
flat eretensione of the maxillae meating in the middle and separating the buced from
the rural existing.
A cartilage bone at the kind end of the upper jaw in most vertebrates – much reduced
and becomes the incurs or anvil of the ear.
- Mammal = mammary glands.
- Body is covered with hairs which are epidermal in origin.
- Warmplooded animals
- Glands (sebaceoue, sweat, sent, mile glands)
- Mammary glands are present in all the mammals for feeding the young ones.
- Two occipital condyles in the skull.
"A rounded prominence on the occupital bone with which the skull of a vertebrate articulate
with the atlas vertebra"
o Two pairs of Pentadaotyle limbs (A limb having five digits)
o Toes are produced with having claws, nails, hoofs of fleshy pads.
o I n the lower jaw, a single bone denary is present which articulates with the
seasonal (paired membrane bones on each side of the skull).
o The external ear of pinna is present (most cases)
o (small or redimanating pinna – in aquatie mammals aid easy movement).
o Three ear ossicles
o Malleus, incus and stapes – present in the middle ear.
o Teath : heterodont – (most mammals – types of directs, incisors, eanins, molor, be
Thecodont – (having teeth in soekets)
Diphyodont – (having two sets of teeth)
Viviparous animals.
o A larynx with vocal cord is present ( the voice box) (voice producing past)
- Internal fertilyation placenta is formed between the uterus and the developing
- Corpora quadzigemina tour optic lobes of brain.
o 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
o Males (penis)
- Life occurs in all habitats (high mountains to deep-sea areas (10000m) (200001)
- All the animals are not present in all habitates
- Confined to certain particular areas over the globe.
- Range – The area of distribution of a species.
Two aspects
 Distribution of animals in space.
 Distribution of animals in time.
1. Distribution of animals in space:
- Distributed over the surface of the earth (land and water)
ie. Fuorizontal distribution of animals in different
- Continents and Islands.
- Zoogeography – They study of geographical distribution of animals.
(Zoogeographical reasons)
- Vertical distribution (Bathymetric)
- Both in land and water (it includes)
1) Holobiotic (marine) – fishes
2) Linnobiotic (fresh water) – Rhinocesae, sengai
3) Geobiotic (Tesrestrial) – Dearb, elephant etc.
2. Distribution of animals in time (geological distribution)
- Covers the evolutionacy history of the animals a distribution of animals in the past,
based on fossil records.
Pattern of animal distribution
1. Continuances distribution:
- Cosmopolitan having wide range of distribution
- Found all over the world.
Eg. Bats, rats, cuckors etc.
Eurytopic : Uniform distribution
(generalised adaptation) - snakes
Stenotopic: Confined to particular areas
(specialised adaptation) – hill tops tahr

2. Discontinuous distribution
- no confincenty in the distribution of the individuals of the same species or related
species over the globe.
- Found to inhabit same
Eg. Ostriches (Africa and Arabia)
3. Biplar distribution
- location to polar regions (North and South poles)
eg. Sardina and Botrynema (Coelenterates)
oncorhynechus - (fishes)
Factors – affecting normal distribution of animals
1. Physical barriers
a) Repographical : Himalayan range in India, Alps in Europe.
b) Large bodes of waters and land massers , salinity of water
c) Vegetation barriers, large distances.
2. climatic barriers:
Temperature, moisture, and account of light.
3. Biological barriers:
Food, and enimines, sedentary habit and territorial weekness.
Alyine pear (Height ht)
Abyssal depth of sea
(This sbyssed some recives no light)
verbial distribution : conditions – Needed

1. Air or water medium

- Need a specific conditioned for breathers air alone, or water alone. But, Rana tigrina
(both air and water breathers)
- Temperature of water controls phytoplantation and zoroplantation densities.

2. Presence or absence of light:

- Presence or absence of light affect the animal population through the food supply.
- Rest rhythm to the altered times of light and darkness.
- Fauna of a particular zone depends on the nature of the food available.

3. Presence or obscene of substratesson

subtraction (ecological factor) – in sea
- Fauna and flora influenced by the nature of bottom eg hardness, rebbles, gravel, sand
or soft bud etc.
II Secondary conditions
Eg. Fresh or salty water
- water pressure - presence by depth affected
sensitive eyes or receptors
- exhibit bioluminescence in the dark surrounding.
Evolved during mesozoic and cenozoic eras

Subarders Simiae


- Without nose leather

- Having nose leather
- eg. Prosimians eg. 1. Tarsoers 2. All monkeys and apes
- lemurs
- lorises

Characteristics of promates

1. Body length : 11cm (mouse lemur) – to 185 cm (Gorilla, humans)

2. Tail length : 0-110cm; weight : 50g 275kg cm gorilla)
3. Reproduction:

- Throughout the year

- Gestation (or) Pregnancy 60 days (mouse lemur) – 266 days cm an)
- Mossly are young / birth
- Invanably close mother – child bond in early life

4. Life cycle :
Weaning 2 months – 4 years ; sexual maturting 9- months to 9 years (later in humans)
– life expecting 40 years.
5. Food
- Predominantly vegetable fare – (few are animal food) – Goninne.
6. Habit and Habitat

- most of the animals active in the day
- natural (south Amarican monkeys, prosimians)


- Tropical and sub tropical latitudes between about 25o N and 30oS.
- Tropical rainforest, arid forest, finging forests, castal forests, tree and bash savmnas,
rocky or mountainous terrain, human settlements.
o Originally fully adopted to arbored life territories
o Mostly excellent climbers, leapers, - highly second with marked community behavior
and strict ranking., - lines in pairs, family groups richly expressive behaviour, sound,
scents, mine, and gesture).
o Occupancy of territories or tract, demarcatam and defense of territory. (by the above
o Capability of learning by experience, ability to solve problems.

II Infra order: Lorisiforme

Genera 10 species – 12-37cm long, 60-1600g weight

- longe eyes, directed forward – comparatirely short murzzile) antinor part of lover
jaw forms a tooth (comb) – kind legs much prolonged – thumb and great toe – spread
wide and opposable .
- Second finger and toe redweed (Lorises)
- External ears give very large and membranous.
- Gestated 110-193 days – 1 young / birth – 10-50g
- Life spaw - 12-15 years.
- Food: Vegetables and source time small animals.

Single (or) groupe, territoral behavior
Tree dividers, rainforests, tree savannas etc.
eg: 1. Slendar lons ( Logis tardigradus)
2. Eastern needle – clasred bush
galage inustas
Found in :
Loris India, Srilanka, South east Asia
Galoge East Africa, Ethiofica, mozambique
Sub order:
Anthropoides / 9 Families
- Includes primates with flattered base faces.
- Eyes are small
- The cranial cavity is large.
- Terrestrial, atboreal and diurnal
- Teats are urtricted to thoracic area
- Teath are 32-36 in number
- Fingers and toes are provides with flat nails.
- New world monkeys :
- Less intelligent, check pover is not present – Nostrils are directed out wards.
Broader nosal septum.
- Old world monkeys:
- Nostrils are directed down words, check pouch is present except in apes and some
other member, some what intelligent than new world monkeys.
eg: 1. Gibbons – (Hylobates lass)
- Arboreal
- Walk upright in the ground
- Have rang long arms
- Fingers are hooked in words
- Slander and swift moving animals
- Produce long voice, page 329.

New world monkeys

- Burma, Thailand, Indo-china, Java, Bornes and Sumatra (page 125)
Eg: Night monkeys, squirrel monkeys Titis, saki spider monkeys, Howler monkey.
Forms of locobnotum
Four – footed progress through the treetops
1. slow climbing eg. Potto
2. East running eg. Monkey
3. Markes prolongation of the legs produces leapers (sifalea)
4. Longthening of the arms leads to swinging land – over – hand – eg. Gibbon.
5. Terrestrial quadroped forms (baboon)
6. Terrestrial locomotion (chimpanzae, gorilla)
1. Progrmians
- Nose leather resembles that of most mammals . eg. Lemuss
2. New world monkeys – Nostril openings bunded, and are set very for apart. The nose
tip area is haired. Eg. Goeldis monkey
3. Old world monkeys- Nostril openings are directed for ward and are close together,
separated only by a narrow septum. Eg. Macaqut and gorilla.
Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)
 They are very strongly built and they hare trememdus strength.
 Ears small and their eyes are deeply senle
 The body is so heavy that it ear not lead an arboreal life.
 The face is nailed and black.
 Limbs are move local human is proportions.
 Cameroun, Gobon, congs, kiru, uganda
Chimpanzae (pan satyrus)

 Less arboreal than gibbons

 Ears are large
 They tens towards man in its brain, dentictum, and size of the limbs
 Arms and legs are almost of the second size.
 Similar blood reactions and acceyotance of grafted tissues – show that they are close
to man.
 They are less bulkey
 Africa
Pongo, (or) Organg, utan (Porgo pygmaeus)
- The head has developed upwards producing a high arehes forehead.
- Arms are longer than gorilla and chimpanzae
- They live in swampy forests
- The size of the casine is larger
- Bornes and sumetra
Old world monkeys
1. Old world monkeys – 14 genera
2. mecaques and allies – 69 species
3. Lungures and colobi
Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)
- In North India and South east Asia.
Bonnet macaque (Macaca rediata)
China, Japan, India, Burma, Malaya, North Africa
Pig tailed mauque (M. nemestrina)
Assam, Burma, Malaya, Thailand, East India
LTM: M. silenus. India
I. The baboons Brea genera
1. Yellow baboon (papis cynocephalus) page 238
2. Guinea bals (P. papio)
1. Papis
2. mandrillus – page 256 Mandrillus sphinx
3. Theropithecus
1. Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) page 297
Blacla face, white hair

2. Nilgiri luguer (P. johnii)

Face white, - Body black

3. Golden langur (P. goeil) rare and endanged

Colobus (colobus gucreza) page. 319
Nigeria, Africa
- White mane at the sides of the body to tail

Importance of light on wildlife:

Main source of natural light is sunlight or isolation. Other sources area moon light
and light from stars and light from luminescent organisms.
Effects of light on wildlife
a. Metabolism
b. Reproduction
c. Growth
d. Locomotion
e. Photosynthesis
Effect on plants
a. Long day plants, short day plants and day neutral plants
b. Effects on animals:
c. Migration
d. Diapause
e. Food storing behaviors
f. Increased gonadac activity
g. Lunar periodicity
h. Bioluminescence
Effect of Water
Around 73% of our earth surface is constituted by water and it is readily available medium
for life.
Unique properties of water:
It act as universal solvent
Many gases minerals dissolved are essential for life process
Oxygen exchange requires the medium of water.
Aquatic environment
Aquatic environment can be divided in to marine, estuarine and fresh water habitats. Various
animals are adopted in different ways to thrive in environment.
Effect of temperature on wild life
One of the important environmental factors- directs impacts and growth of wildlife. It
 Distribution of behavioral characters
 Reproduction and rate of embryo development
 Metabolic process
 Migration
Minimum temperature:
Freezing of tissues then it will reflects in metabolic activity and withdrawal of water from
Maximum temperature:
Having their own morphological and physiological modification eg is camel
Optimum temperature:
Vital process goes on at an optimum level
For most of plants and animals is 15 to 25 degrees Celsius
Lecture 22, 23&24:

- What an organisms goes in and environment
- For external factors



In note (inherent) Learned behavior

(External stems is responsible for the animals to elite the response)

1. Reflexes:

- Simplest – Fixed responses to stimulus

- Eg. Construction of the pupil of eye to intense light
- Repeals depend upon the reflex are.
- Operate as long as the stimulus are present.
- Reflex behavior affects only a small perform of the body of the organisms.

A. Physic reflexes – (small movements)

- small know jerk – So quick adjustments for the animal.

B. Tonie reflexes : (long lasting adjustment)

Like maintaining the body posture

2. Orientation behavior
- Change of an organisms position in relation to an external stimulus
- If subject to a potentidly unsuitable and harmful situation. Eg: fish

A) Kineses
- An animal respond to a change or alteration in the stimulus intensity by changing its
land of activity.
- It the stimulus intensity is altered, two different effects each be observed
(i) Orthokinesi : Actual tale of movement gets altered.
(ii) Klinokinesis : an alteration in the frequency of turning carriedout by the organism
during its random movements.

B. Taxes
- Movement which is oriented in relation to the direction of a particular stimulus
Types : (Based on the seasoning system of the organisms)
Taxis : Whole organized is involved
Reflex : actions pertains to only a part of the organisms
i) Positive : If the orientation is in the direction of this stimulus.
ii) Negative : If the movement mores away from the stimulus source

3. Instinct : (Many mysterious actions of animals)

- complex patterns of behavior which are in born in animals.
- Species specific, innate and adaptive
- Intuits are of tremeridous valece to animals for their adaptations in nature, for a
successful life.
- Elaborate actions may be involves.
- Eg. Nest building activity in birds.
 Weaver bairal – so typical of its species.
 Spider spinning a web

 Specious specific behavior is inherited and internal conditions of an animal.

 Higher vertebrates courtship and mathing behavior do not * unless the sex hormones
start appearing in the blood stream of the animal – thunting of birds.
Releasers : Signals which trigger the instinative acts.
- Ethnologists believe the presence of and in-born rural centre (or) the innate releasing
mechanizing (IRM) – which specific way to the releases, so that the environmental signals
are decoded in the narrows system of the animal concerned.

Biological rhythms
- All living organisms have the capacity to measure the passage of time.
- The metabolism and behavior and controlled rhythminlly in * as well as
Animals – Various environmental * and their receptor, physiological effects – periodic
* exist in an environment due to the * positioning of the moon, sun and the earth.

Cireadian rhythms:
- Cyetical variation in the intensity of a physiological process on a pattern of behavior
with a periodicity of about 24 hours – behanimal activities – in a day.
- Diurnal and noctumal organism possess the rhythms eg. Flying squirrel (No eternal)
may remain in its nest during the daylight but active in the night. – If this animal is
caept under constant darkness artpully then the daily rhythm emtinues – but the insert
of activity gets shift and slightly every day.
- Endogenous rhythm – adaptation to a environment
- It reflects the ability of animals to perform certain tasks during the day and night

Any Netivity that allow the behaviour of other wganisms (Wallace, 1929)
- Signaler as well as the recipients – benefited
eg. Sambar, rutting call – saw from production.

Communication structure (Jolly, 1972)

1. Signal : Constitute the form of the ect. Walking on four legs, screaming,
2. Motivation : Mental state of the animal
3. Meaning : Determined by the maeton of the animal which receives the
4. Function : Adaptiousness (or) the evolutionary advantage of the signal.

Methods of communication
1. Usual communication
- Birds, lover life forms (reptiles and fishes diurnal ones)
- Visual signals can be stated or stopped at will. eg. A bird may suddenly spot a
predator and may freeze.
- Pheasants permanent future
- Others it is a temporary ones.
- Large mammals / animals resort to certain threatening postures. Eg. Elephants
- Disadvantage : If the sensor is not detected by the other animals.
- Based on the distance
- The head region appears to be particularly important in visual communication (eg.
Alarmed antelopes – gazing in a group.
- Wild bags and wolves, which live in groups, facial expressions are extremely
2. Acoustical communication
- Sound communication – Arthopodes and vertebrates
- Fish – frictional devices / Air bladder
- Land dwelling vertebrates : vibrating special membrane
Non-vocal sound : wild have may thump the ground / bird may be drumming its wings.
- frogs / toads – mating and in territoriality
- reptiles : parly developed sound system
- Snakes : substratum vibratom
- Tortoises : bound sounds.
- Birds and mammals – Complication sound production
- Mammals : earns -
eg: Alarm call, vary in their dimensions
Mobbing call like frequency, volume
Breeding call and timing
Digging and burrowing animals : soil
Type of vegetation and natural features
- Birds animal sound – to precent the nests from safe from predators.
- Distance plays role – disseminating
3. Chemical communication
- Small and taste – pheromones – (chemical sections)
- Insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles etc.
- Mammals : have tremendoco reproductive value.
- Long time persistent
- Effectiveness of a chemical in communication is dependent on the animal movement
in the vicinity.

i) Procuring ford very effective – not a possible to modify
ii) Finding mate them at short notices be sound signals.
iii) Making territories Making an escape

Eg: Tigers: aminer fixed in lipids – relemns during breeding season – not by
water - for reproduction.

Adeptiveness of communication

1) Recognition
- species – making mistakes -

2) Reproduction
- Interspecific interactions – common in wildlife propels blue the same sox
- To keep the terrotoing in the unlife – by forewarning.
- Sppursito sex – plumage colour, pastimes, deuces – courtship behavior.

3) Parental care
- Definite post natural care – for funding
- Young seagulla direct their perks towards a particular spot on the mother's beak for
getting food.
4) Inter – specific communication
- Mammals – birds
- Learned behavior patterns, in-born patterns,
- Define signals
LECTURE 26 to 30:

Sampling enumeration:
This enumeration is done only in a representative portion of the whole forest. The
data can be analysed to investigate the population.
Total enumeration:
The enumeration of desired species above the specified limits is carried over the
entire area of the forest unit under consideration
Objectives of samplings in wildlife:
 To estimate the abundance
 To estimate various population parameters like age and sex ratio, young adult ratio
and female to young ratio.
Sampling units:
The sample area is further divided in to smaller known as sampling unit
Subjective sampling:
Here the investigator selects a number of sampling units which he consider as
representative of the entire population.
Probability sampling:
If every unit in a population has got some chance of being selected in the sample and
probability of selection is also known, then method is known as probability sampling.
Random selection is an example.
Main steps in sampling:
a. Specification of various objectives
b. Constructing of frame of units
c. Choice of sampling design
d. Field work organization
e. Analysis of data
f. Preliminary survey

Wildlife census may bring out the following type of data or information:-
 Population size of actual numbers.
 Number per unit of the habit viz population density. These figure may be for the
whole area or a part of the protected area such as near water holes and salt licks.
A total count or census involves estimation of the population in the entire area of the
reserve or protected area. It involves a thorough search of the entire tract and all
animals/marks seen are tallied. However this does not mean that all animals in the area have
been or are to be counted in totality though this is usually the inference/assumption that is
Total counts have the following draw backs or disadvantages.
1. It is a very difficult method census particularly if it has to be carried out in a large
2. When census is being carried out for a small animal it is very difficult to search
and count them viz hog dear, porcupine or jungle fowl etc.
3. The time and manpower required for total count is extraordinarily high. This may
lead to the problem of under/over counting dues to the movement of animals
during the census operations.
4. Interpretation of the results of total counts may pose a problem as there is usually
no way in which it can be accurately determined whether all animals of a
particular species have been counted.

Road side index for population trends:
This is simple technique for monitoring the population trends of animals such ad
deers, antelopes, goats and sheep. It is designed for a preliminary population survey by
vehicles on motorable roads and on foot/ cycle on small tracts and trails. A combination of
both vehicle and foot / cycle survey may be used for more detailed results.
Dung surveys:
Another reliable indicator of the presence of animals is their dung or droppings. This
had frequently been used for estimating their population or as a an index of population
The following steps are involved in dung surveys for census:
 The observer must be able to correctly recognize the dung of different species.
Individual pellets of species like sambhar, nilgai and cheetal are akin. The best way for
correct identification is by keeping sample of pellets of differents species likely to be found
in the area being survyed in plastic bags. The pellets found on the ground may then be
compared with the samples for correct identification.
Waterhole survey:
This method is based on the assumption that in dry areas all animals come to drink
water at waterholes which are usually limited in number. The large animals are counted from
a hide. The waterhole survey method is best suited for dry and open areas e.g. Sariska
Ranthambor and Gir protected area.
Calls for census:
Calls of birds and sounds emitted by other animals are used for estimation of their
population. Sounds indicate the presence of a particular animal in the locality. However, it
cannot be said that if there is no sound, there are no animals in the areas or locality. This
technique is primarily used for the estimation of the population of bird species though it is
also helpful in the census of other animals. A minimum estimate of the number of individuals
of a particular species of birds in an area may safely be arrived at by this method.
Pug mark count method:
This is a widely accepted method for the census of large carnivores in India. This
technique has largely been developed in India during the seventies. It involves the use of
pug marks to identify individual members of the cat family so as to ascertain their actual
population in a given area or reserve.
Single team block census:
This technique is based on the sample count of animals using actual sightings. The
entire area is divided into blocks and actual counting is done in only a few sample blocks
which may be a aforest compartment or unit that is defined by distinctive physical or
vegetative features. The area of the sample block should not usually be more than 2 sq. kms.
The total area of the sample blocks may be upto 5 to 10% of the total area of the reserve.
Beat or line drive count
In this method a sample block or area is systematically covered by a group of people
walking abreast in a line. The sample area is selected and earmarked as described for the
single team block census method. However one essential pre-requisite of this method is that
the start line should be clearly defined and should be along the long axix of the counting
King’s census method:
This is a simple, flexibale and relatively unbaisased method for determination of
population density. The advantages of this techniques are outlined below:-
 It has a considerable flexibility.
 It can be adopted in almost all types of terrain except perhaps in the steep mountains
where visibility and movement along a fixed transect is restricted.
 This method is best suited for determining and population density of any animal
which does not hide in order to avoid detection.
Ratio method:
This is a simple method for calculating the population of one animal species based
on the reliable population data of another species of similar size and ecology. The number
of cattle in a forest area is usually known. This can be used for determining the population
of an animal like nilgai in the same area.
Total count:
This pertains to a detailed to a detailed count of each and every individual of the
target species in the entire reserve and not in a sample block.
Aerial survey or census:
The population of many animal species is being monitored by aerial survey in the
developed countries.


Zoo-geography : Ecological and historical aspects
Historical – cum – geographical factors
Philiplutlay Scholar (1825-1913) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)
World - B. Zoo – geographical regions

Region Area
Neoaretie North America and Greenland
Palacaratic Eurasea, canary Islands, Korean, Japan,
Northern Africa
Ethiopian Africa, South of the Sahara
Oriental India and Indochina
Australian Australia, New guinea, and Islands
Neotropical South and Central America


The faunal distribution of India is divided into three major Ecological sub divisions.
(comes under oriental)
I. The Himalayan mountain systems:
Some of the animals the bears, wild pigs, rigers, snow leopards are found on both
sills of the Himalaya in the palearitie and oriental regions. There and mostly regrated from
palearative. It is having three sub segrum namily

2. Himalayan foot hills (Kashmir to Assam)

3. Higher altitudes in the western Himalayas from Kashmir to Ladakh and Kumash

4. Eastern Himalayan sub region.

II. The peninsular – Indian sub region
- Having woodland savannah – Ethioperm region & North Africa.
- Animals are lion, cheetah, leopard, Hyena, Jackal and Antelopes

III. The tropical Evergreen forests (or) Indo – Malayan

Sub region:
- Natural Rain – forest vegetation. (Pliocene)
- It has both Indian and Malayan, Indo-elinese fauna.
- Has a wealth of species of flora and fauna (ie) Western ghates)
- Animals such as Redpanda, Gibbon, tree shrew, tapir, Giant squirrel, flying lemur.

I. The Himalayan mountain system

- Altitude however influme the distribution of flora as well as fauna
- Every 1000 act size in altitude is equivalent to a 10o increase in latitude.
- Aretie conditions (3500 mt) elevation
- Western Himalayas – region – low rainfall – more snow, temperate conditions
- Eastern Himalaya region more rainfall, snow fall is confound to very high altitudes
and at lower altitudes conditions reasonable the tropical rain forest.

I. 1. The Himalaya foothills

- Characterized by shaper of tarai formatives and the siwelit sauges is the south.
- The dominant flora sp is sal.
- Tarai is characterized by tall grassing meadows with savannah vegetation.
- Richest area for the tropical big mammals of Northern India.
- Animals Elephant, sambar, swamp deer, cheetal, Hog deer, Earking deer. Wild boar,
- Co-predators : Panther, wild dog.
- Camp followers : Haryana, Jackal
- South the block, sloth bears are found rodents porcupine.
- The great one harmed (Trichvan) Rhinoceris. But now it is conformed to a few
pockets in Assam and Nepal tarai.
- Another which shares the hebetate with Rhizomes is Gaur. (Bovid) wild buffalo.
- Other habitat: * catchment (mp, Orissa, A.P)
- Wild buffalo is considered a threatened species.
- The brow – antlered deer (kaibul lanjo sanctuary in Manipur) (Threatened deer in the
- In tarai – The major cause in due to Agriculture. Hydro electric generation – project
to wild animals.
- II Project Areas (Corbett park) & manes sanctuary.
- This is the most vulnerable ones for is wildlife
- The gangetic gharial only found in the region (or) Tributaries of river Ganga.
- Manes sanctuary (1950s) E.P. Gee establish a new sp of monkey namely Golden
lungur which is heaved after him as Presbotis geer. Golden chestnet colour in winter
and paler during the hot season. But the young are practically white. Exist some
Iscelised patches on either side of the manes river (India and Bhutan)

I. 2. The high altitude region of western Himalayas (Kashmir of western ladakh to

- Flora is mainly pine forests (from 1500 net to 2500 net of altitudinal routs). The
Rhododendron, went hill bamboo and Birch forests mixed with alpine. Pastures extend
above the pine belt upto the snow desert of Ladakh exists in the north east.
- Pine belt act as a transition zone for the such fauna of the alpine zone in the higher
- Survey winter (since cold) animals move down and vig.
- Animals : wild ass, common in Rapshu, chargthag, and chang – cheno of Ladakh
wild goats, sheep. The largest Bird (yak). They are black with long black horus and
a little white on the muzzle.
- Wild boats and 1) Thar, on sucky slopes and cliffs above the tree line. (2) Markhor.

- Where forage is more plentiful. They even elimats along the branches of ever green
oaks to browse the leaves.
- (3) The 3rd goat is Ibex, has much winter large inhabiting mountainous regions all
over central Asia from the Himalaya to the Altai and extending westwards as far as
- Live mainly above the tree line growing bellow rocky coasts and on meadows gust
below the snow live.
- Wild sheep Nayan largest species wild sheep.
- Has 15 races (or) sub species of Argali sheep from the Himalaya to Siberia.
- Marco Palo- which saw and described, so the is marcopolos sheep (Horns which
curve round in a huge sweep, awaking more than a capiplate word
- The blue sheep (or) Bharal sikkum to Nepal.
- Shapu (or) urial smallest in the wild sheep
- Antelopes chiru Tibetan gazelle
- All these animals are adapted to gold & harsh conditions. Their coat is thick winter,
thinner summer, and is rock climbers.
- The Hangul (or) Kashmir stage (European red deer)
- The show (or) the sikkim stag is another deer.
- The musk deer (musk pods) collected from make and used for perfumes. Musk-deer
Breeding project was launched by Up. Marmot’s woolly flying squirrel, neoure hares,
birds, Golden eagle, snow cocks, snow partridges, and little Tibetan weasel. Snow
leopard in a Beautiful mammal.
- Predator’s wild, fore, smaller cats, bears, scavengers and griffon vultures,
lammergiers, choughs, ravens.
I. 3) The Eastern Himalayan sub-zone :

- Flora dense evergreen and semi evergreen vegetation of the foothills.

- The character of vegetation changes at altitudes of 1525 mt to 1830m. oaks,
magnolias, faurels.
- Binches lovered with aross and ferns replace the sal, silk cotton trees, and giant
Bamboos of the foot hills.
- About 2745 to 3660 mt (coniferous) pine, fir, yew, and Junipers
- Under growth of scrubby Rhododendens and dwarf bamboos. The bounding below
the temperate and tropical is not sharply defined.
- Due to high humidity and much higher sanfall. Hichens mosses, urchids, epiphytes
urea the tree trunks.
- The animal life in the temperate region in different from the western Himalaya and
is characterised by the presence of Indo-Chinese fauna.
- Famine Real panda, hog badgers, ferret badgers, erestless poreupores, serow (goat),
Goral (sudler goat), Takins (largest goat).
- In summer large herds grate above the timber line, (or) winter the animals break up
into smaller groups and migrate to grassy valleys lower down the mountains.

II 1) Peninsular India and the drainage Basin of the Ganga:

- Forest Tropical moist deciduous to tropical dry deciduous and scrub vegetation
depending upon the rainfall and Humidity
- The Northern of Eastern parts having flora – sal due to high rainfall.
- The southern plateau – has Teak (promople species)
- Western ghat and central belt - high sound fall Evergreen vegetation
- The flora and fauna being akin to the evergreen rain forests of North – Eastern India.
- Dicer North – western porlious boarding the Rajasthan desert, Aravalli hills scattered
trees, thorny scrub species.
- Open savannah habitat, and five preiming areas.
- Water holes (or) pereminal posts of water are the common feature of the deciduous
- Fauna ungulates, herbivorous, Elephants, Muntjak, Urifagous sambar deer,
Ubiquitous wild bear, Gaur. Mouse deer, cheetel (or) the Axis deer, meadows of
kanha (or) the chaurs of Corbett National park. The deer is both a grazier and a
browser and has a high breeding potential. Hoq deer, swamp deer (or) Barasinga. A
such sp hard ground barasinga – confined to the kanha sesame (EP).
- Preditors regor, leapaid, wild dog, low whole. Checlah (or) hunting leap and lion.
- The lion once had a wide sarge distribution in western and central India across into
persina, the Middle East. But now confined to a small pocket of forest in the Gir
National pase of Gujarat.
- Cornivores - Striped hyena, Jackal.

II 2) The Indian Desert:

- In Rajasthan, just east of the Indus valley, lies the Thar (or) The Indian desert.

Flora - Thorny trees with highly seduced leaf surface

- Deep root, modified stem, leaf surface because thick and gily.
- Cacti and screenlands are the principal plant species in the desert.

Fauna - Rodents (largest group) desert gerbils.

- The largest mammal of the Indian desert is the Asiatic wild ass, which lives in the
south-west of the Thar desert on the little Rana of kutch.
- Bird Great Indian Bustard

III The tropical Rain forest regions

- This region consists of the heavy rainfall zones.

- Comprises the north – eastern India, khasic Jaintta hills and the lower Himalayan
slopes embracing areas of Arunachal pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya. Nagaland,
Tripura) and the western ghats region in the south including the malabar coast.
- In Nilgiris grassy down evergreen vegetations (scholar) Annamalai, Palani hills,
Eastern ghat

- Dense and lofty trees with a multitude of species mosses forms, epiphytes,
orchids, lianas, vines, herbs, shrubs, fungi, these make a dense habitat.
- Dipterocarpus spp pre dominate in these forests and this type of vegetation is
often called dipterocarp forests.

- Elephants, Gaur, Barking deer, (most of all tree divellers) Non human primates.
North east region of Ap of Assam hoolack gibbon (only Ape). Golden langur, leaf monkey,
pig tailed macaque loon tailed macaque Nilgiri larger, slender loris, Bats (flying mammals).
Nilgiri mongoose strope – necked mongoose, Malabar the spiny mouse (flying squirrels).
This zone is the richest gene pool resources of flora and fauna in the country.
Especially interesting habitats:
The wildlife in the Andaman & Nicobar Islamic.
The water birds in the Baratpur sanctuary.
The mangrove forest of the lunderbans
1) Climate of this island is tropical - receive rainfall both the since and NEM. (2750-
4550mm/annum )
Flora : Dipterocarpus, Terminalias, Andaman padaki,
2) - Fresh water swamp – (Keoladed ghana Baratpur)
Flora kadam trees, Acacia
- 328 species of birds, in which 110 are anigratory birds of large equate
- There propose aquatic vegetation - Micro and macro living forms – flood water of
the Gambhiri and Banganga.
- Earlier it was famous for shorting presence of the maharaja of Bharatpur – later
- Acacia nilotica
- All kind of birds
- Some vegetation eg. Water sedge (Cypress rotundus)
- The tuberous root – food for Siberian crane.
- Place to study the migration pattern

3) Mangrove swamps of sundarbans