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Student ID No : 16.6480

Title:

Objective:

To demonstrate the application of the momentum equation as applied to the impact of a jet of

water on to 3 defectors of different angles of deflection.

Introduction:

The impact of water jet experiment is carried out to demonstrate and verify the integral

momentum equation by calculating and comparing the force produced by a jet of water as it

strikes to 60°, 90° 𝑎𝑛𝑑 130° deflector. The study of this equation is necessary to apply it to

hydraulic machinery tools which use liquid power to do simple works such as Pelton wheel

and impulse turbine. The total kinetic energy and momentum should be conserved if there is

no energy loss in the system.

Newton’s second law state that

𝑑 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑠𝑦𝑠

∑𝐹 = = ∑ṁ0 𝑣0 − ∑ṁ𝑖 𝑣𝑖

𝑑𝑡

∑𝐹 = −𝐹𝑥 𝑖 − 𝐹𝑦 𝑗

ṁ𝑖 𝑣𝑖 = ṁ𝑣0 𝑗

𝐹𝑦 = 𝜌𝑄𝑉𝑦2 − 𝜌𝑄𝑉𝑦1

The negative sign means the Applied Force is opposite to the direction of the inlet jet stream

Nozzle diameter = 8 mm

Nozzle-impact distance = 15 mm

Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. By allowing fluid

under pressure to strike the vanes of a turbine wheel, mechanical work can be produced.

Rotational motion is then produced by the force generated as the jet strikes the vanes. One of

the common types of water turbines is Pelton wheel. In this type of water turbine, one or more

water jets are directed tangentially on to a vanes or buckets that are fastened on the rim of the

turbine disc. The impact of the water on the vanes generates a torque on the wheel causing it

to rotate and to develop power. To predict the output of a Pelton wheel and to determine its

optimum rotational speed, understanding on how the deflection of the jet generates a force on

the buckets and how the force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet are

needed. This experiment aims at assessing the different forces exerted by the same water jet

on a variety of geometrical different plates. Under this experiment, the force generated by a jet

of water striking a deflector is measured.

Quantity estimation

Item Description *Item category (e.g. per set/group of

student)

Impact of Jet Apparatus E 1

Jockey Weight (4×20 g, 3×50 g, and 2×

W 1

100g)

Target plates 36 mm diameter flat, 120°

W 1

cone, 180° hemisphere nylon

Hydraulic Bench LS-1801 E 1

*Item category

SP Sample or specimen

C Consumable

CH Chemical

components

E Equipment

S Software

Procedures:

3. The top cover was replaced and the wing nuts was tighten to secure the cover tightly on to

the impact jet chamber.

4. The pointer on top of the cover was adjusted so that it is pointing to the central groove on

the side of the base plate that is used to hold the weights.

5. The 0.5 N weight was applied on top of the base plate. The base plate is now lower than

the pointer.

6. The main input water flow valve was fully opened; the bypass water valve was adjusted to

control the volume flow rate until the pointer points to the central grove at the edge of the

base plate.

7. The volume flow rate reading was taken and entered into the spreadsheet in the computer

provided for the purpose.

8. The procedures were repeated with applied loads of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 N.

9. The steps 1-8 for deflector cup were repeated with angles = 130 degrees.

10. The steps 1-8 for deflector cup were repeated with angles = 60 degrees.

Data and Results: As shown in spreadsheet

Table 1: Ɵ = 60°

Cone q = 60o

d 0.008 m

p 3.142

r 1000 kg/m3

q 60 o

1.047 radians

Area 5.03E-05 m2

Gal/min -> m3/s 0.0000631

g 9.81 m/s 2

Nozzle -Impact Dist 0.015 m

Load Q Q V1y V1impact Fy =-r*Q*V1y *(1-cos(q)) Load/Fy Fy =-r*Q*(V1y -V1impact* cos(q)) Load/Fy

N gal/min m3/s m/s m/s N N

0.00 0.00 0.00

1 0.50 3.500 2.21E-04 4.39E+00 4.36 0.48 1.03 0.49 1.02

2 1.00 5.000 3.15E-04 6.28E+00 6.25 0.99 1.01 0.99 1.01

3 1.50 6.000 3.79E-04 7.53E+00 7.51 1.43 1.05 1.43 1.05

1.60

y = 0.956x + 0.0079

Theoretical applied force (N)

1.40

R² = 0.9991

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00

Actual applied force (N)

Table 2: Ɵ = 90°

d 0.008 m

p 3.142

r 1000 kg/m3

q 90 o

1.571 radians

Area 5.03E-05 m2

Gal/min -> m3/s 0.0000631

g 9.81 m/s 2

Nozzle -Impact Dist 0.015 m

Load Q Q V1y V1impact Fy =-r*Q*V1y *(1-cos(q)) Load/Fy Fy =-r*Q*(V1y -V1impact* cos(q)) Load/Fy

N gal/min m3/s m/s m/s N N

0.00 0.00 0.00

1 0.50 2.000 1.26E-04 2.51E+00 2.45 0.32 1.58 0.32 1.58

2 1.00 3.000 1.89E-04 3.77E+00 3.73 0.71 1.40 0.71 1.40

3 1.50 4.250 2.68E-04 5.33E+00 5.31 1.43 1.05 1.43 1.05

4 2.00 5.000 3.15E-04 6.28E+00 6.25 1.98 1.01 1.98 1.01

5 2.50 5.750 3.63E-04 7.22E+00 7.20 2.62 0.96 2.62 0.96

6 3.00 6.250 3.94E-04 7.84E+00 7.82 3.09 0.97 3.09 0.97

3.50

y = 1.0819x - 0.173

Theoretical applied force (N)

3.00 R² = 0.9904

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

-0.50

Table 3: Ɵ = 130°

d 0.008 m

p 3.142

r 1000 kg/m3

q 130 o

2.269 radians

Area 5.03E-05 m2

Gal/min -> m3/s 0.0000631

g 9.81 m/s 2

Nozzle -Impact Dist 0.015 m

Load Q Q V1y V1impact Fy =-r*Q*V1y *(1-cos(q)) Load/Fy Fy =-r*Q*(V1y -V1impact* cos(q)) Load/Fy

N gal/min m3/s m/s m/s N N

0.00 0.00 0.00

1 0.50 2.000 1.26E-04 2.51E+00 2.45 0.52 0.96 0.52 0.97

2 1.00 2.750 1.73E-04 3.45E+00 3.41 0.98 1.02 0.98 1.02

3 1.50 3.250 2.05E-04 4.08E+00 4.04 1.37 1.09 1.37 1.10

4 2.00 3.750 2.37E-04 4.71E+00 4.67 1.83 1.09 1.82 1.10

5 2.50 4.250 2.68E-04 5.33E+00 5.31 2.35 1.06 2.34 1.07

6 3.00 4.500 2.84E-04 5.65E+00 5.62 2.63 1.14 2.63 1.14

7 3.50 5.000 3.15E-04 6.28E+00 6.25 3.25 1.08 3.25 1.08

8 4.00 5.500 3.47E-04 6.90E+00 6.88 3.93 1.02 3.93 1.02

4.50

Theoretical applied force (N)

4.00

y = 0.9402x - 0.0054

3.50 R² = 0.9944

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

-0.500.00 2.00 4.00 6.00

Calculation:

(cone Ɵ = 60°)

𝜌 = 1000𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

3.142𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝜃 = 60° × = 1.047𝑟𝑎𝑑

180°

𝜋𝑑 2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = = 5.03 × 10−5 𝑚2

4

𝑔 = 9.81𝑚/𝑠 2

= 2.209 × 10−4 𝑚3 /𝑠

2) Calculate 𝑉1𝑦

𝑄 = 𝐴𝑉

𝑉1𝑦 =

(5.03 × 10−5 𝑚2 )

= 4.392 𝑚/𝑠

3) Calculate 𝑉1𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡

𝑣 2 = 𝑢2 + 2𝑎𝑠

𝑣1𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡 = √4.3922 + 2(9.81)(0.015)

4) 𝑉1 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑉2

𝐹𝑦 = −𝜌𝑄𝑉1𝑦 (1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃)

= −0.49𝑁

= 0.57𝑁 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑)

5) 𝑉1 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑉2

= −0.48𝑁

= 0.48𝑁 (downward)

6) Percentage error

|𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 − 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙|

% 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙

|0.49 − 0.50|

= × 100%

0.50

=2%

Discussion:

In this experiment, 3 different deflector plates have been used to study the impact of water jet.

The deflector cup of 60° has a lower calculated force compared to the actual. As for the 90°

flat plate, the calculated force for the first 4 results showing a lower value than the actual. But,

the last 2 shows higher value than the actual force. Finally, for the 130° deflector cup, all of

the results except for the first one showed a lower calculated force compared to the actual force.

These errors may be caused by several factors. One of them is human errors. Human tend to

make mistakes, for example when reading the gauge, we have to make assumptions out of the

scale. The pointer may also not right in the middle when the readings were taken.

All three of the graphs of load/ 𝐹𝑦 have a positive gradient. Among these three graphs,

60° 𝑎𝑛𝑑 90° deflector have shown a clear deviation if compare to 130° deflector. By making

an assumption, 𝑣1 equals to 𝑣2 have neglected the friction force across the solid surface.

Therefore, the deviation happens in the graph. The collision between water to the deflector is

not perfectly elastic. Besides that, the upflow stream created by 60° 𝑎𝑛𝑑 90° deflector towards

the top cover could be another factor lead to deviation.

Energy Equation:

2 2

Piv P v

i zi o o zo (Po & Pi = 0, atmospheric pressure)

2g 2g

2 2

vo v

i s (Let zi zo s )

2g 2g

vo vi 2 gs (Proved)

2

When vo ≠ vi :

Fy rQ(v1 v2 cos q )

When vo = vi :

Fy rQv1 (1 cos q )

Based on the findings of the experiment, less flow rate required for the larger angle of deflector

under same applied force. The result show that the higher the angle of deflector, the higher the

impact produced under same flow rate. The experiment efficiency (Load/Fy) increases when

the angle of deflector is also increased. Therefore, the deflector of 130° is the most suitable for

impulse hydraulic machinery compared with the other two due to the efficiency and the impact

produced.

A few precaution steps were taken while conduction the experiment. Firstly, to avoid

errors, the readings were taken several times. Besides, the reading was done by one of the

members in order to keep the readings consistent.

Conclusion:

As conclusion, the impact of a jet on 3 types of deflectors can be calculated by the application

of the momentum equation. The calculated applied forces are just a fraction out of the actual

applied force. They are acceptable as the error percentage is no more than 10%.

Reference:

https://www.tecquipment.com/impact-of-a-jet

H. C., L. C., T. T., & N. A. (2013, July 16). A numerical study on high-speed water jet impact.

Retrieved August 16, 2018, from

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801813002588

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