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You are on page 1of 13

1.0 Introduction

In discussions that you will have in the next few weeks, you will

make reference to the power system diagram of Fig. 1, where G

denotes generators and C denotes consumers.

Fig. 1

You will use the notation

• qA, qB, and qC to denote MW delivery (generation) into buses A,

B, C by the generators and

• xA, xB, and xC to denote MW consumption (demand, or load)

from buses A, B, C by the consumers.

1

FAB = ( q A − x A ) − 1 ( q B − x B ) ≤ 16

3 3

where the left-hand-side is the flow on the line from region A to

region B. Our goal for this presentation is to clarify for you the

source of this kind of equation and to enable you to write them

down for more general networks configurations.

First note that what is inside the parentheses of each term in the

above equation is the power injection at nodes A and B,

respectively. Let’s make the following assumptions:

1

1. The impedance of each line is j1 pu.

2. Node C has no active injection but rather is short circuited to

ground.

3. We may treat power just like we treat current.

network of Fig. 1 to obtain the flow on line A-B.

• Flow from A to C along line A-B:

-------------------------------------------------------Node A Injection

Path A-C Impedance+Path A-B-C Impedance

1

= ( qA − xA )

3

-------------------------------------------------------Node B Injection

Path B-C Impedance+Path B-A-C Impedance

1

= ( qB − xB )

3

from flow computed in (1).

Question:

On what basis can we make our assumptions 2 and 3?

2

We mention at the outset that there are conventions and

nomenclature used in the previous page are generally

unfamiliar to the power engineer.

in Fig. 1, but the conventional diagram uses lines for nodes,

circles for generators, and arrows for loads. Fig. 2 is the

one-line diagram that is equivalent to Fig. 1.

Fig. 2

Nomenclature: Economists like to use q for supply and x

for demand, of anything, including electric power. Power

engineers like to use P for any real power quantity: supply,

demand (load), or flow, with the only distinguishing

difference being (sometimes) the subscripts, e.g., PD1, PG1,

P12. In these notes, we will

• Use q and x for supply and demand, but we will use

numerical subscripts instead of A,B,C, e.g., qk,xk, k=1,3.

• Use Pk to denote the injection into bus, i.e., Pk=qk-xk.

• We will also use Fkj to denote the real power flow across

q1

the circuit connecting buses k and j.

We do note, however, that use of xk for load presents some

problem, because x is universally used to denote line

3

reactance. We will deal with this by using xjk to denote

reactance of the line between buses j and k, and xk to denote

the consumption at bus k.

(a phasor) at bus k, | Vk| the magnitude, and θk the angle.

Consider a single transmission line connecting two buses,

as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3

A very basic relation for power system engineers, which

EEs learn in EE 201, expresses the real power flow across a

transmission circuit as:

F12 = V1 I 12 cos (φ) (1)

Here, φ is the angle by which the voltage leads the current and is

called the power factor angle.

real power flows in the network, then φ≈0 (φ will not be exactly

zero because of line reactance). In this case, eq. (1) is:

F ≈V I

12 1 12 (2)

deviate significantly from their nominal value. Under a system of

4

normalization (called per-unit), where all voltages are normalized

with respect to this nominal voltage, it will be the case that |V k|

≈1.0. As a result, eq. (2) becomes:

F =I

12 12 (3)

In other words, the numerical value of the real power flowing on

the circuit is the same as the numerical value of the current

magnitude flowing on that circuit (under the system of

normalization).

If, again, the electric load is purely resistive, then all currents will

have almost the same angle, and one can treat the current

magnitude as if it were the current phasor (and in phase with

voltages, so that if we assume any one voltage or current is at 0

degrees, then all voltage and currents will be at zero degrees).

and all loads are purely resistive, then whatever rules we have of

dealing with currents also work with real power flows!

electric circuit. To do that, we will model the generation q1, q2, q3,

and the loads, x1, x2, and x3, as power injections (a similar notion as

a current injection).

We will use the circuit symbol for current source, which is , to

model these power injections (which makes sense because, as

concluded in Section 3.0, we can treat real power just as we treat

currents).

Noting that Fig. 2 shows 3 different buses, the circuit drawing will

need the same number of nodes with an additional one for ground.

5

Each generator appears as a power source from ground, like this:

Fig. 4.

Fig. 4

Since the two power “sources” at each node are in parallel, we can

“net” them to get a single power source corresponding to what we

have previously defined as the power injection: Pk=qk-xk. Note

that the power injection is

• Positive if generation qk is larger than load xk

• Negative if generation qk is smaller than load xk.

6

Fig. 5

6.0 Accounting for power balance

the total net power injection must be zero, i.e.,

P +P +P =0

1 2 3 (4)

This means that power injections may only be specified at 2

nodes, and then power injection at 3rd node is determined.

determined is node 3. Therefore:

P = −( P + P )

3 1 2 (5)

F

It is common in power system engineering to refer to node

3 as the “swing bus” or “slack bus.”

order to account for eq. (5), is to make it a short circuit.

One can easily see that this is the case by writing a KCL

equation at the ground node of our circuit, as in Fig. 6.

P1 7

P1 + P2 + P3 = 0

Fig. 6

Note, however, that P3 is now a short circuit, with current

determined by the network, and not a source (with current

specified). Two comments are in order here:

• Our assumption that all voltage magnitudes (including

the “ground”) are 1.0 means that the node 3 voltage

magnitude is not zero.

F12

• The fact that voltages are phasors and thus have a

magnitude and an angle, means that the voltages may

differ at the various nodes, even though their magnitudes

are the same (see Section 8 below for “Ohm’s Law for

real power flow for more on interpretation of angles).

circuit results in what was used in previous notes, which

was eq. (1), repeated here for convenience:

1

jx

FAB = ( q A − x A ) − 1 ( qB − x B ) (1)

3 3

There are several ways we could analyze the circuit of Fig. 6. For

example, we can write 2 KCL equations at nodes 1 and 2 as a

P1 8

function of voltage variables at those nodes (and we will do so

later). For now, let’s take a simpler way: superposition, where we

compute flows from each source one at a time, and then add the

results for a given circuit from each calculation.

Fig. 7

Using current division, it is immediately apparent from Fig. 7 that:

jx13

F12(1) = F23(1) = P1 (6)

jx12 + jx23 + jx13

jx12 + jx 23

F13(1) = P1 (7)

jx12 + jx 23 + jx13

where we have used notation F to denote flow from node j to

(i )

jk

Fig. 8. F1

9

Fig. 8

Again, using current division, we see that:

jx23

− F12( 2 ) = F13( 2 ) = P2 (8)

jx12 + jx23 + jx13

jx12 + jx13

F23( 2 ) = P2 (9)

jx12 + jx 23 + jx13

The total flows will then be the sum of the individual flows from

each source. Therefore (and canceling the j’s):

x13 x23

F12 = F12(1) + F12( 2 ) = P1 − P2 (10)

F1

x12 + x 23 + x13 x12 + x23 + x13

x13 x12 + x13

F23 = F23(1) + F23( 2 ) = P1 + P2 (11)

x12 + x 23 + x13 x12 + x 23 + x13

x12 + x 23 x 23

F13 = F13(1) + F13( 2 ) = P1 + P2 (12)

x12 + x 23 + x13 x12 + x 23 + x13

1 1

F12 = P1 − P2

3 3

(13)

1 2

F23 = P1 + P2

3

3

(14)

2 1

F13 = P1 + P2

3 3

(15)

We see that eq. (13) is the same as eq. (1)

1

FAB = ( q A − x A ) − 1 ( qB − x B ) (1)

3 3

10

with P1=qA-xA and P2=qB-xB.

Fig. 3

Another fundamental relation for power flow F12 (learned

by EE students in EE 303) is:

V1 V2

F12 = sin (θ1 −θ2 ) (16)

x12

We will derive this equation later in the course. Here, θ1

and θ2 are the angles of the voltage phasors at buses 1 and 2

respectively.

of these was that |V1|=|V2|≈1.0 under a special system of

normalization, i.e., all voltage magnitudes are unity. We

will apply this approximation here as well.

that θ1-θ2, the angular separation across the transmission

q1

circuit, is relatively small. This means that the sin function

of eq. (16) has a small argument. The situation is illustrated

in Fig. 9.

11

x1

Fig. 9

One observes from Fig. 9 that the vertical distance denoted

by the dark, small line segment, which is the sin of the

corresponding unit circle, is almost exactly the same as the

radial distance around the corresponding circumference of

the circle. This radial distance is exactly the denoted angle,

when we measure the angle in radians. In other words,

sin( θ 1 − θ 2 ) ≈ ( θ 1 − θ 2 ) (17)

Applying eq. (17) to eq. (16), and using |V1|=|V2|≈1.0, we get:

θ1 − θ2

F12 = (18)

x12

Consider thinking of the left-hand side of eq. (18) as current

(which we have already been doing). This means that, if we think

of the angles (when measured in radians) as voltages, then eq. (18)

is “Ohm’s Law for Real Power Flow” !!!

With this, let’s go back to Fig. 6, repeated here for convenience.

P1 + P2 + P3 = 0

Fig. 6

12

9.0 Relation between real power injections and

angles

and 2 as a function of voltage variables at those nodes, using

“Ohm’s Law for Real Power Flow.” It will be:

θ1 − θ 2 θ1

Node 1: P1 = F12 + F13 = + (19)

x12 x13

θ θ − θ2

Node 2: P2 = F23 − F12 = 2 − 1 (20)

x 23 x12

Collecting terms with common angles in both (19) and (20), we

get:

1 1 1

P1 = θ1 + − θ 2 (21)

x12 x13 x12

1 1 1

P2 = −θ1 + θ2 + (22)

x12 x12 x23

Writing eqs. (21) and (22) in matrix form, we get:

1 1 −1

+ θ 1

P1 x12 x13 x12

P = − 1 1

1 θ 2 (23)

2 +

x12 x12 x23

The matrix of eq. (23) has a special name. It is called the B’ matrix

and represents the relation of power injections to the angles of the

bus voltage phasors in our 3-bus network.

We can now specify a procedure to get the real power flows based

on eq. (23). This is called the DC Power Flow Procedure.

1. Given power injections, solve (23) for angles.

2. Use angles to compute power flows on branches (see eqs. (19)

and (20).

13

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