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# 5.2.

160

140

120

100
voltage

80

60

40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
current

5
voltage

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
current
For the open circuit test the graphs the current increases as the voltage increases . However, at
voltages higher than the rated voltage, for an small increase in voltage there is a large increase in the
current.

For the short circuit test the graph voltage is directly proportional to the current. This is so since the
short circuit test is the equivalence of putting a very small resistance at the output which has a linear
I-V characteristics

𝐼𝐼𝑁 = 𝐼𝑁𝐿

𝐼𝑁𝐿 = 𝐼0 + 𝑗𝐼𝑚

## 𝑃𝑂𝐶 = 𝑉1 𝐼𝑁𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

𝑃𝑂𝐶
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =
𝑉1 𝐼𝑁𝐿
22
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = = 0.28
120 × 0.66

𝜃 = cos−1 0.28
𝜃 = 73.87
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 0.96
𝑉1 𝑉1
𝑋𝑚 = =
𝐼𝑚 𝐼𝑁𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
120
𝑋𝑚 = = 189.39
0.66 × 0.96

𝑉1 𝑉1
𝑅𝑜 = +
𝐼𝑜 𝐼𝑁𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
120
𝑅𝑜 = = 649.35
0.66 × 0.28
1.) Short circuit Test

𝑃𝑆𝐶 = 𝑉1 𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

𝑃1 = 𝐼1 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞

𝑃1
𝑅𝑒𝑞 =
𝐼1 2
48
𝑅𝑒𝑞 =
82
𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 0.75 𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠

𝑉𝑠𝑐
𝑍𝑒𝑞 =
𝐼𝑠𝑐

6.2
𝑍𝑒𝑞 = = 0.775
8

## 𝑋𝑒𝑞 = √0.775 − 0.75

𝑋𝑒𝑞 = 0.158

5.2.3
5.2.4

𝑉1
𝑅′𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅𝑒𝑞 ( )2
𝑉2
120 2
𝑅′𝑒𝑞 = 0.75( )
240
𝑅′𝑒𝑞 = 0.19

𝑉1
𝑋′𝑒𝑞 = 𝑋𝑒𝑞 ( )2
𝑉2
120 2
𝑋′𝑒𝑞 = 0.775( )
240
𝑋′𝑒𝑞 = 0.19
5.2.5

a)

𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 1𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 1000𝑉𝐴

𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 =
𝑉𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑_𝑝𝑟𝑖
1000
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 =
120
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 = 8.33

𝜃 = cos−1 (𝑝. 𝑓. )
𝜃 = cos−1 (1)
𝜃=0

## 𝐸1 = 120 < 0o − ( 8.33 < 0o ) × (0.75 + 𝑗0.158)

𝑉1 = 𝐸1 = 113.76 < −0.66o
𝑁2 𝑉2 240
= = =2
𝑁1 𝑉1 120
𝑁2
𝑉2 = 𝑉
𝑁1 1
𝑉2 = 2 × 113.76 < −0.66o
𝑉2 = 227.52 < −0.66o
𝑉𝑁𝐿 − 𝑉𝐹𝐿
%𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑉𝐹𝐿
240 − 227.52
%𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100 = 5.49%
227.52

b)

𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 1𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 1000𝑉𝐴

𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 =
𝑉𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑_𝑝𝑟𝑖

## 250 < cos−1 (0.8)

𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 =
120
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 = 2.08 < −36.87

𝜃 = cos −1 (0.8)
𝜃 = cos −1 (0.8)
𝜃 = 36.87 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑙𝑎𝑔

## 𝐸1 = 120 < 0o − (2.08 < −36.87o ) × (0.75 + 𝑗0.158)

𝑉1 = 𝐸1 = 118.56 < 0.33o
𝑁2 𝑉2 240
= = =2
𝑁1 𝑉1 120
𝑁2
𝑉2 = 𝑉
𝑁1 1
𝑉2 = 2 × 118.56 < 0.33o
𝑉2 = 237.11 < 0.33o
𝑉𝑁𝐿 − 𝑉𝐹𝐿
%𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑉𝐹𝐿
240 − 237.11
%𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100 = 1.22%
237.11

c)
𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 1𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 1000𝑉𝐴

𝑆𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 =
𝑉𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑_𝑝𝑟𝑖

## 500 < cos−1 (0.8)

𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 =
120
𝐼1_𝐹𝐿 = 4.17 < 36.87

𝜃 = cos −1 (0.8)
𝜃 = cos −1 (0.8)
𝜃 = 36.87

## 𝐸1 = 120 < 0o − (4.17 < 36.87o ) × (0.75 + 𝑗0.158)

𝑉1 = 𝐸1 = 117.92 < −1.18o
𝑁2 𝑉2 240
= = =2
𝑁1 𝑉1 120
𝑁2
𝑉2 = 𝑉
𝑁1 1
𝑉2 = 2 × 117.92 < −1.18o
𝑉2 = 235.84 < −1.18o
𝑉𝑁𝐿 − 𝑉𝐹𝐿
%𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑉𝐹𝐿
240 − 235.84
%𝑅𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100 = 1.76%
235.84

5.2.6

## a.) Full load unity power factor P=1000W

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂=
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + ∑losses
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂= × 100
𝑉2
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐼1 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞
𝑂

1000
𝜂= × 100 = 93.09%
1202
1000 + + 8.332 × 0.75
649.35

Pout
 *100
Pout   losses

Pout
 *100
V2
Pout  s  I IN 2 Req ∑
Ro
1000
 *100
1202
1000   8.332 *0.713
649
  93.3%

𝟏
b.) Full load 0.8 power factor lag P = 0.5*0.8 *1000=150W
𝟒
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂=
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + ∑losses
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂= × 100
𝑉2
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐼1 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞
𝑂

𝐼1 = 𝐼𝐼𝑁 − 𝐼𝑁𝐿
500 < −36.87o 120
𝐼1 = − = 4 < −37.76
120 649.35 + 𝐣189.39
400
𝜂= × 100 = 92.13%
1202 2
400 + + 4 × 0.75
649.35

Pout
 *100
Pout   losses

I1  I IN  I NL
250  53.1 120
I1  
120 649  190 j
I1  1.94  56.233

Pout
 *100
Vs 2
Pout   I1 Req
2

Ro
150
 2
*100
120
150   1.942 *0.713
649
  85.77%

𝟑
c.) 𝟒Full load 0.8 power factor lag P=0.75*0.8*1000=300W

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂=
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + ∑losses
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂= × 100
𝑉2
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑆 + 𝐼1 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞
𝑅𝑂

𝐼1 = 𝐼𝐼𝑁 − 𝐼𝑁𝐿
750 < 36.87o 120
𝐼1 = − = 6.15 < 38.19
120 649.35 + 𝐣189.39
600
𝜂= × 100 = 92.23%
1202
600 + + 6.152 × 0.75
649.35

Pout
 *100
Pout   losses

I1  I IN  I NL
500  53.1 120
I1  
120 649  190 j
I1  4.026  54.61

Pout
 *100
Vs 2
Pout   I1 Req
2

Ro
300
 2
*100
120
300   4.0262 *0.713
649
  89.88%

V2 / V1 / I1 / P2 / P1 / Efficiency/% Regulation/%
I2 / Amps
Volts Volts Amps Watts Watts

## 230 0 120 0.5 0 20 0 4.3

228 1.05 120 2.3 239.4 260 92 5.3
224 2.1 120 4.3 470.4 500 94.08 7.1
222 3.1 120 6.05 688.2 710 96.9 8.1
220 4.1 120 8 902 950 94.9 9.1
5.2.7

10

6
regulation

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
current
10

6
regulation

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
current

5.2.8
120

100

80
efficency

60

40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
current

reg vs efficency
120

100

80
regulation

60

40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
current
5.2.9

For efficiency- load current graph: the efficiency increases to a peak and then stop increasing as nd
the efficiency remain steady as the load current increases. The efficiency until the iron core loses are
equal to the copper loses. The efficiency stop increasing after that point since increasing the current
cause the copper loses in the system to increase.

For the regulation-load current graph: the regulation increases as the load current increases. This is
because as the load current increases the voltage across the equivalent resistance increases cause a
smaller amount of the source voltage to be dropped across the primary coil.

5.2.10

## For maximum efficiency copper loses=iron loses

𝑃𝑖 = 𝑃𝐶

𝑉𝑆 2
= 𝐼2 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑠
𝑅𝑂

𝑉𝑆 2
𝐼2 = √
𝑅𝑂 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑠

1202
𝐼2 = √ = 2.72
649.35 × 3

𝑁2
𝐼1 = 𝐼
𝑁1 2
𝐼1 = 2 × 2.72 = 5.44
240 − (2.72 × 3)
𝑅𝑙 = = 83.1 𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠
2.72

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂=
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + ∑losses
2.722 × 83.1
𝜂= × 100 = 93.27
1202
(2.722 × 83.1) + 2( )
649.35
Therefore, maximum efficiency is 93.27% and it occurs at a load of 83.1Ω.

## For maximum efficiency copper loses=iron loses

𝑃𝑖 = 𝑃𝐶

𝑉𝑆 2
= 𝐼2 2 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑠
𝑅𝑂

𝑉𝑆 2
𝐼2 = √
𝑅𝑂 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑠

1202
𝐼2 = √ = 2.72
649.35 × 0.1875

𝑁2
𝐼1 = 𝐼
𝑁1 2
𝐼1 = 2 × 2.72 = 5.44
240 − (2.72 × 0.19)
𝑅𝑙 = = 88.04 𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠
2.72

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂=
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + ∑losses
2.722 × 88.04
𝜂= × 100 = 93.6
1202
(2.722 × 88.04) + 2( )
649.35
Therefore, maximum efficiency is 93.6% and it occurs at a load of 88.04Ω.