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DIPED-2003 Proceedings 177


Eugenia Yakovenko
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine

In'the presented work the modeling of electromagnetic field from mobile phone
distributed in the human head phantom was carried out. The modeling was done by
integral equations method with unknown polarization currents induced by the mobile
phone radiator. The currents and SAR distribution was defined in inhomogeneous
environment with complex dielectrical permittivity. As axsource the model of vibrator
was used. The experimental verification of mathematica1'modeLwascarried. out.

Increasing a number of mobile.communication abonents deteriorated the ecological
situation in the electromagnetic radiation domain. 'From 2001 the certification for
every mobile phone with the information about radiation level is required. These levels
must correspond to existing standards [ 1,2].
The level of microwave radiation is estimated as specific absorption rate (SAR):

where E is induced-electric field (Vlm), p is the density of tissue (kg/m3) and (3 is

the electrical conductivity of tissue ( S/m). As we can see from formula (I), for SAR
computating is nessessary to know electromagnetic field, distributed in the human
head. This was the reason of mathematical method progress for modeling
electromagnetic field in the human body. Most of researchers used the finite difference
time domain (FDTD) method because of its flexibility and algorythm transparency.
But this method required to evaluate six components of electromagnetic field, what
demanded the powerfoot computer and long time to computating.The attempt to
increase the accuracy of computation by increasing of cells number collided with
convergence problem. Some researchers for overcoming this problem used the hybryd
methods, but they were not such universal as FDTD.
For investigations of EM-field from mobile phone, distributed in the human head,
the mathematical model was elaborated. For creating of this model the approach, used
by authors [2] for solving hyperthermia problems, has been modified.
The model, used in [3], was changed according to specific radiation source. The
human body electrodynamical properties were described by complex dielectrical
permittivity changing' from point to point. After that the problem of dielectrical
inhomogeneous body energization by radiation source was solved. For solution of
integral equation with unknown polarization currents the numerical method was used.
178 DIPED-2003 Proceedings

As initial the integral equation (2) was used.

J=i.w(%-&).E is the polarization current, G is the Green’s function, E’“ is an incident
EM-field strength.
Using the grid method and the presenting of polarization currents as a superposition
of trial functions enable to transform integral equation (2) into linear equations system.
For 3-dimensional problem the distribution of polarization currents in the human
body, energized by radiation source, is described by equation (3).

- y’).Hr)(k. r) .dS’= E’”(x, y). (3)

For using of the grid method the body section was divided on parallelepiped cells
with constant step Ax, Ay and Az.
Using Krylov-Bogolubov’s numerical method and designation

gives an equation (5):.

k2 N M L-
G(n AX, m a Ay, h -Az).J(n .AX,m.Ay, h -Az)--. ccc J(i AX, j. Ay, 1. Az)x
4 i=lj=ll=l

The investigation of electromagnetic field in human head phantom from dipole

antenna (DA) is important, because this type of antennas is mainly used in mobile
phones. The analysis of integral equations done in 141 allowed to write with taking into
consideration the wire radius the expression for currents distributed in dipole. In this
case the right part of equation (5) was written as
DZPED-2003 Proceedings 179

Ii* (z) =

180 DIPED-2003 Proceedings

U, is the source voltage, a is the dipole radius, 2L is the dipole length, 6 is the
driving point of dipole antenna wire (fig. 1).


- I .
Fig.1. Symmetrical dipole antenna.
Expression (6) described the current's resistance and reactance part, distributed in
the dipole. Reactance part of currents testified the temporal delay of dipole elements
energization by source. For far-field zone problems this part is usually neglected and
only amplitude distribution is taking into consideration. In our case, when human head
was situated in near-field zone of dipole, taking to account the phase distribution
allowed to increase the accuracy of field distribution modeling.

The human head phantom consisted of polymethacrylate cubes. The cell size was
1=30 mm, what satisfied the condition of necessary accuracy :I eN6, where A is the
wave length in dielectric. This phantom was chosen for verification because its
geometry exactly coincides with data of modeling and electrodynamical parameters of
material were defined with high accuracy.
The human head phantom consisted of 8 slices with 25 elements in each of them
(fig.2a).The field distribution was defined for 2"dand 4"slices (fig.2b and 2c).

Fig.2. Human head phantom and their slices.

Because in this work the physical aspect of mathematical modeling was co-ncemed
with distribution of polarization current density, the magnetic field strength was
decided to measure (fig.3). The measuring system taking into account requirements,
written below, was elaborated.
DIPED-2003 Proceedings 181

- a position of magnetic field probe was defined with error less then cell
- possibility of separately measuring for every field component and
independence of signal from electric field strength in each point of phantom;
- minimization of electromagnetic field perturbation by elements of
measuring system;
- minimization of electromagnetic field disturbances influences.
The used measuring system consisted of radiation source, human head phantom,
coordinates counting system (positioner), magnetic field probe and field indicator.

Fig.3. Measuring system structure.

As a radiation source an oscillator (1) in amplitude modulation mode (f=1000Hz),
and half-wave dipole with quarter-wave insulator (2), situated on 16mm from right
surface of phantom, were used. Dipole center was on eye’s level. Human head
phantom (3) for decreasing the perturbations was placed on foamed polystyrene
support. Positioner (4) enabled the possibility to move magnetic field probe(5) in 2
orthogonal directions and coordinates were counted with error less k 0.5 mm, what
satisfied set conditions. Positioner elements were made from polymethacrylate and
probe -from foamed polystyrene to decrease the perturbations. As field indicator the
frequency selective voltmeter was used. To decrease the influence of extemal
disturbances and reflected waves the measurements were carried out in camera,
covered inside by absorpting material.
The results of modeling in 2& and 4” phantom slices were shown on fig.4a and 4b
accordingly. On horizontal axes are shown the cell number, on vertical-normalized
magnetic field strength.

Fig.4. Magnetic filed distribution in 2”d (a) m 4* (b) slices.

182 DIPED-2003 Proceedings

For convenient verification of proposed model the magnetic field in 2d and 4"
slices was modeled. The results of modeling (continuous line) and experiment results
(dotted line) were shown on fig.5a and 5b.

0 0

-0,s -0,s

-l,o -1.0

-1,5 -1,5

-2,o -2.0

-2,5 -2,5

0 50 100 150,mm 0 50 100 I50.m

Fig.5. Magnetic field distribution for 2ndand 4h slices.

During the experiment the probe was moved from radiated surface to opposite
surface of phantom with step 10 mm and field was measured in every point.
The errors sources in mathematical modeling: error of electrodynamical parameters
definition (for E - 3%, for U - 5.3%) ; error of evaluation of currents, distributed on
dipole ( on data from [4] -3.5%); error of currents discretization 4 . 7 % ; error on
iteration method 4 . 1 3 % . Resulting error with probability 0.997 was equal to 7.1 %.
The sources of errors in experiment: frequency selective voltmeter error - 4%; error
of probe position - 1.6%; error from disturbances - 0.1%; error, reasoned by
surrounding objects - 2%. Resulting error of experiment was equal to 7.1%.
The results of modeling and experiment, shown at fig. 5, confirmed the adequacy of
model for evaluation of electromagnetic field distribution from mobile phone in
human head phantom.
1. American National Standard Safety Levels with Respect to Exposure to Radio
Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz. - ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992.
2. European Prestandard ENV 5D 166-2: Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields
- High Frequency (10 kHz to 300 GHz). - CENELEC, 1995.
3. A.Khzmalyan,A.Chaplin. Electromagnetic Model of Hyperthermia - Moscow,
Nauka, series Radio Engineering and Electronics, 1989 ( in Russian). .
4. R.King, G,Smith. Antennas in Matter, Moscow, Mir, 1984.(in Russian).
5. E.Yakovenko. Improved method for measuring of comyosite material
electrodynamical parameters. - The bulletin of Lviv Polytechnic National
University. Radioelectronics and Telecomunication. 2002. 4 s 443. p. 1 19-123 (in