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"FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY" A TEXTBOOK BY PROF. DR.


HUSSEIN H. KARIM

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FUNDAMENTALS OF
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
First Edition

With 773 Review Questions and Problems; 63 Illustrative Worked Examples;


and 295 Figures

Prof. Dr. HUSSEIN HAMEED KARIM


Professor of Engineering Geophysics

Building and Construction Engineering Department


University of Technology
Baghdad- Iraq

2016

Printed by the University of Technology Printing Press Department


This book is dedicated to the memory of my parents

ii
Preface
The motivation to write this textbook stemmed from a course of engineering geology
given by the author to undergraduate students in the Department of the Building and
Construction Engineering at the University of Technology. The course has changed,
and I hope improved, during the fifteen years since I was first involved with it. It was
essentially a scaled-down version of an introductory course to science undergraduates.
In my opinion, I dissatisfy with the introductory texts in engineering geology that
have been available about the last decade, the period in which I have teaching this
subject at the University of Technology.
My main thought was to meet the special interests and professional needs of civil
engineers. The book deals with both descriptive and quantitative aspects of the
subject. My specific complaint was the minor amount of computational material
contained in most textbooks in engineering geology, thus we try serious attempts to
apply science and mathematics to highlight specific problems in this subject. My
experience in teaching indicates that the relevance of subject matter to the desire of
those taught usually increases their interest. For example, civil engineers must have an
insight into how geologists reach conclusions in making a geological map, in order to
evaluate the finished map. Similarly, they should appreciate how and why geologists
differentiate between different rocks, not because these differences are important for
most engineering purposes but so that they can read a geological report sensibly and
with the ability to examine the relevant from the irrelevant information.
This book is essentially an introductory text in the fundamentals of Engineering
Geology for civil engineers, rather than geology, which is adequate for the needs of
their later careers, and on which further courses of engineering geology, soil
mechanics or rock mechanics can be based. I have, however, extended the scope of
the book beyond what is geology in the strict sense to include engineering applications
of geology. This is partly to demonstrate the relevance of geology to engineering, and
partly in the expectation that the book will also serve as a useful handbook of facts
and methods for qualified engineers and other professionals who use geology, and that
I was not the only teacher of geology who felt the need for a textbook tailored to them.
Obviously, students of geology will have done much more reading on geology than
the basic geological material covered in this book. They presumably will have done or
will do some reading on soil mechanics and rock mechanics. On the other hand, those
with an engineering background will have read some soil and rock mechanics, but
need some basic geology, hopefully, this book will meet their needs. Moreover, any
book will reflect the background of its author and his or her view of the subject.
No single textbook can cover all the needs of the variety of readers who may use
it. However, the author has attempted to give a balanced overview of the subject; we
hope that you will find it useful and readable. This textbook is written for
undergraduate and post-graduate students of engineering geology. It is hoped that this
will also be of value to those involved in the profession, especially at the earlier stages
of their careers. However, it is aimed at not just engineering geologists but also at
those in civil engineering, building and construction engineering, petroleum and
mining engineering, water engineering, quarrying and, to a lesser extent, architecture,

iii
planning, and surveying. In other words, those who deal with the ground should know
something about it.
The topics covered in 16 chapters are: an introduction to geology and Civil
Engineering; earth structure; minerals; rocks; weathering, erosion and soil formation;
structural geology; topographic and geologic maps; physical and engineering
properties of rocks; surface water and rivers geologic work; subsurface (ground)
water; site investigation and geophysical techniques; geology of tunnels, highways,
railways and bridges; geology of dams sites and reservoirs; geological materials used
in construction; geologic resources and energy resources; and finally natural
geological hazards related to Civil Engineering. There are 773 review questions and
problems: in which 354 as general review questions; 147 true or false and 188 MCQs;
84 mathematical problems with 42 answers. Also some chapters contain several
worked-out examples with total of 63 in all. These have been selected to be neither so
simple as to be virtually valueless, nor so hard as to discourage the reader. The topics
covered as those that most undergraduate books on engineering geology cover in at
least a semi-quantitative fashion, even if no problems sets are included.
The author is greatly indebted to express his special thanks and gratitude to the
President of the University of Technology (UOT) Prof. Dr. Amin D. Thamir, UOT
Vice President for Administrative Scientific Affairs Assist. Prof. Dr. Alaa A. Atiyah
and UOT Vice President for Administrative Affairs Assist. Prof. Dr. Sami A. Ajeel, for
adopting this text as a formal textbook in Civil Engineering and the necessary action
for printing the book. Deep gratitude and sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. Namir K.S. Al-
Saoudi and Prof. Dr. Riyadh H. Al-Anbari, respectively the former and current Head
of the Building and Construction Engineering Department at the University of
Technology, for their real supports and facilities given to me in completing this book.
My thanks to Prof. Dr. Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon, the Deputy Head of Department for
Higher studies & Scientific Research, for his support. The author gratefully
acknowledges Prof. Dr. Mazin Y. Tamar-Agha and Prof. Dr. Moutaz A.S. M. Al-
Dabbas of the University of Baghdad for their review of the text and the many
constructive suggestions that have led to major changes of content and arrangement.
My appreciation to all colleagues and friends in the Highway & Bridges Engineering
Branch and in the Department for their many opinions that have kindly given to me. I
would also like to thank the UOT Printing Press Department, especially Mr. Abbas M.
Al-Anbari, the Director, and all the staff for their assistance in bringing out the book in
its present form. The author also acknowledges all those who have given permission
to publish materials from other sources. It is my pleasure to introduce this textbook
and I hope that you will find it useful and readable.
At the end, I would like to thank all my family members, especially my dear wife
Dr. Nada Hussein Mohammad Ali Al-Khafaji of the College of Science/ University of
Baghdad and my dear son Zaidoon and my dear daughters Rand and Dina for their
patience and continuous encouragement. It is a pleasure to be indebted to my family,
so for all of them I dedicate this textbook.

Hussein Hameed Karim


Baghdad, Iraq
February, 2016

iv
CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1: Geology and Civil Engineering 2
1.1 The Science of Geology 2
1.2 Branches of Earth Sciences 3
1.3 Development of Engineering Geology 4
1.4 Aims of Engineering Geology 5
1.5 Attaining the Aims 7
1.6 Materials and Mass Fabric 8
1.7 Professional Development in Engineering Geology 9
1.8 Relevance of Geology to Civil Engineering 10
Review Questions 13

CHAPTER 2: Earth Structure 14


2.1 Earth Envelopes 14
2.2 Solid Earth Envelopes 14
2.2.1 Earth Crust 16
2.2.2 Earth Mantle 18
2.2.3 Earth Core 19
2.3 Variations of Physical Conditions with Depth 19
2.4 The Rock Cycle (or Geologic cycle) 21
Review Questions 24

CHAPTER 3: Minerals 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Formation of Minerals 27
3.3 Classification of Minerals 28
3.4 Crystal Forms of Minerals 32
3.5 Identification of Minerals 36
Review Questions 45

CHAPTER 4: Rocks 47
4.1 The Nature of Rocks 47
4.2 Igneous Rocks 48
4.2.1 Formation of Igneous Rocks 49
4.2.2 Igneous Structures 51
4.2.3 Classification of Igneous Rocks 54
4.3 Sedimentary Rocks 57
4.3.1 Introduction 57
4.3.2 Major Processes for Sedimentary Rocks Formation 58
4.3.3 Description of Sediments 59
4.3.4 General Properties of Sedimentary Rocks 61
4.3.5 Factors Affecting Variety of Sedimentary Rocks 61
v
4.3.6 Textures and Kinds of Deposition of Sedimentary Rocks 62
4.3.7 Sedimentary Rock Structures 64
4.3.8 Classification of Sedimentary Rocks 68
4.3.9 Sedimentary Rocks and Environment 70
4.4 Metamorphic Rocks 70
4.4.1 Introduction 70
4.4.2 Agents of Metamorphism 71
4.4.3 Types of Metamorphism 72
4.4.4 The Bases of Classification of Metamorphic Rocks 73
4.4.5 Classification of Metamorphic Rocks 75
4.4.6 Locations of Metamorphic Rocks 77
4.5 Comparisons among Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks 77
Review Questions 78

CHAPTER 5: Weathering, Erosion and Soil Formation 86


5.1 Introduction 86
5.2 Weathering 87
5.2.1 Types of Weathering 87
5.2.2 Rate of Weathering 91
5.2.3 Depth of Weathering 91
5.3 Soil and Soil Formation 92
5.3.1 Types of Soils 93
5.3.1.1 Residual Soils 93
5.3.1.2 Transported Soils 94
5.4 Mineral Composition of Soils 95
5.4.1 Clay Minerals and their Groups 95
5.5 Classification of Soils with respect to Salts 99
5.6 Some Engineering Difficulties Problems Associated with Soils 99
5.7 Soil Improvement 106
5.8 Soil of Iraq 106
Review Questions 108

CHAPTER 6: Structural Geology 111


6.1 Introduction 111
6.2 Rock Deformation 112
6.3 Structural Configuration (Geometric Pattern) of Strata 112
6.3.1 Stratum (Bed) and Bedding Planes 113
6.3.2 Outcrop of the Bed (Layer) 114
6.3.3 Strike of the Bed (Layer) 115
6.3.4 Dip of the Bed 115
6.4 Folds and Faults 116
6.5 Folds 117
6.5.1 Process of Folding 117
vi
6.5.2 Components of Folds 119
6.5.3 Classification of Folds 121
6.5.4 Types of Folds 123
6.6 Faults 125
6.6.1 Process of Faulting 126
6.6.2 Components of Faults 128
6.6.3 Types of Faults 129
6.6.4 Importance of Faults 136
6.6.5 Field Criteria for the Recognition of Faults 137
6.7 Joints 139
6.7.1 Definitions 139
6.7.2 Formation of Joints 140
6.7.3 Classification of Joints 140
6.7.4 Effects of Joints on Rocks strength 141
6.7.5 Economic Advantages of Joints 142
6.8 Importance of Structural Geology in Civil Engineering 142
Review Questions 143

CHAPTER 7: Topographic and Geologic Maps 146


7.1 Introduction 146
7.2 Topographic (Contour) Maps 146
7.2.1 Importance of Topographic Maps 146
7.2.2 Components of Topographic Maps 147
7.2.3 Contour Lines and their Characteristics 148
7.2.4 Determining Elevations 149
7.2.5 Topographic Profile 149
7.2.6 Gradients 130
7.3 Geological Maps 153
7.3.1 Importance of Geologic Maps in Civil Engineering 155
7.3.2 Engineering Geological Maps 156
7.3.3 Components of the Geologic Maps 156
7.4 Stratigraphy’s Principles 160
7.4.1 Geologic Principles for Relative Dating 161
7.4.2 Types of Strata 165
7.4.3 Types of Unconformity 166
7.5 Determination of Strike and Dip of a Layer 168
7.5.1 A Procedure for Determination Strike and Dip of any Layer 168
7.5.2 Procedures for Dip Calculation of any Layer and Drawing 171
Geological Section
7.5.2.1 Mathematical Method for Dip Calculation 171
7.5.2.2 Graphical Method for Dip Calculation 173
7.5.2.3 Finding True and Apparent Thickness of a Layer 174
Review Questions and Problems 177
vii
CHAPTER 8: Physical and Engineering Properties of Rocks 185
8.1 Introduction 185
8.2 Physical Properties 185
8.2.1 Phase Relationships 185
8.2.2 Bulk Density 186
8.2.3 Unit Weight 186
8.2.4 Particle Specific Gravity 186
8.2.5 Porosity 187
8.2.6 Void Ratio 188
8.2.7 Dry and Saturated Unit Weights 189
8.2.8 Multimineral Rocks 191
8.2.9 Water Content 192
8.2.10 Degree of Saturation 192
8.2.11 Other Relations among Different Physical Properties 193
8.2.12 Rock Physical Relations 198
8.2.13 Typical Physical Properties of Rocks 201
8.3 Rock Deformation and Mechanical Properties 201
8.3.1 Rock Deformation 202
8.3.1.1 Hooke’s Law 203
8.3.1.2 Volumetric Strain 204
8.3.1.3 Elastic Moduli 205
8.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Rocks 207
8.3.3 Earth Stresses 211
8.4 Engineering Aspects of Rocks 214
8.4.1 Engineering Aspects of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks 214
8.4.2 Engineering Behavior of Sedimentary Rocks 216
Review Questions and Problems 224

CHAPTER 9: Surface Water and Rivers Geologic Work 227


9.1 Introduction 227
9.2 Water Movement in Rivers 227
9.3 Factors Affecting River Erosion and Deposition 229
9.3.1 Velocity 229
9.3.2 Gradient 230
9.3.3 Channel Shape and Roughness 231
9.3.4 Discharge 232
9.4 Relation between River Discharge and other Hydraulic Parameters 233
9.5 Determination of River Discharge 234
9.6 Mechanism of Rivers Geologic Work 238
9.7 River Deposits 242
9.8 Stages of River Development 246
9.9 Drainage Patterns 248
Review Questions and Problems 249
viii
CHAPTER 10: Subsurface (Ground) Water 252
10.1 Sources of Groundwater 252
10.2 Occurrence of Groundwater 253
10.3 Vertical Classification of Groundwater 253
10.4 Water Table 255
10.4.1 Characteristics of Water Table 256
10.5 Classification of Rocks with Respect to Groundwater Studies 257
10.6 Aquifers, Aquicludes, Aquitards and Aquifuges 258
10.7 Types of Aquifers 259
10.7.1 Unconfined Aquifers 260
10.7.2 Confined (Artesian) Aquifers 261
10.7.3 Geological Structures Causing Artesian Conditions 262
10.8 Porosity, Hydraulic Conductivity and Permeability of Rocks 263
10.8.1 Porosity 264
10.8.1.1 Factors Affecting Porosity of Rocks 265
10.8.1.2 Aquifer and Porosity (Specific Retention and Specific Yield) 266
10.8.1.3 Specific Retention and Specific Yield 267
10.8.2 Permeability and Hydraulic Conductivity 268
10.8.2.1 Factors Affecting Permeability of Rocks 269
10.9 Darcy’s Law 270
10.9.1 Unconfined Aquifer Case 273
10.10 Effect of Type and Nature of Rocks on Groundwater 276
10.11 Types of Groundwater Movements 277
10.12 Effect of Geological Structures on Groundwater 277
10.13 Springs 279
10.14 Quality of Groundwater 282
10.15 Problems Associated with Groundwater Usage 283
10.16 Features Associated with Groundwater 283
10.17 Hydrogeological Subdivisions of Iraq 283
10.18 Investigation of Groundwater 286
10.19 Groundwater and Engineering 286
10.19.1 Groundwater Inventory 286
Review Questions and Problems 288

Chapter 11: Site Investigations and Geophysical Techniques 291


11.1 Site Investigations 291
11.1.1 Introduction 291
11.1.2 Stages of Site Investigations 292
11.2 Applied Geophysical Techniques 293
11.2.1 Introduction 293
11.2.2 Electrical Methods 297
11.2.2.1 Basic Theory 297
11.2.2.2 Types of Arrangements (Configurations) 299
ix
11.2.2.3 Applications of Resistivity Methods 302
11.2.3 Seismic Methods 304
11.2.3.1 Introduction 304
11.2.3.2 Types of Waves 304
11.2.3.3 Moduli from Wave Velocities 307
11.2.3.4 Seismic Techniques 310
11.2.3.5 Applications of Seismic Refraction Technique in 310
11.2.4 Ground Probing (Penetrating) Radar (GPR) 317
11.2.4.1 Basic Theory 317
11.2.4.2 Ground Penetrating Data and Soil Surveys 321
11.2.4.3 Applications of GPR in Civil Engineering and Limitations 322
11.2.4.4 Other Examples of Jobs Performed 323
11.2.5 Electromagnetic Methods 326
11.2.5.1 Basic Theory 326
11.2.5.2 Applications of EM Methods in Civil Engineering 326
11.2.6 Gravity Method 327
11.2.6.1 Basic Theory 327
11.2.6.2 Applications of Gravity Method 331
11.2.6.3 Application of Microgravity in Civil Engineering 331
11.2.7 Magnetic Method 331
11.2.7.1 Basic Theory 331
11.2.7.2 Applications of Magnetic Method 334
Review Questions and Problems 335

CHAPTER 12: Geology of Tunnels, Highways, Railways and Bridges 338


12.1 Tunnels and Tunneling 338
12.1.1 Introduction 338
12.1.2 Geological Considerations in Tunnel Construction 340
12.1.3 Geological Studies Required in Tunnel Construction 340
12.1.4 Effect of Geological Structures to Tunnel Excavation 341
12.1.5 Water in Tunnels 350
12.1.6 Gases in Tunnels 350
12.1.7 Temperatures in Tunnels 351
12.1.8 Design Process and Evaluate the Stability of a Tunnel 352
12.1.8.1 Single Opening in Massive Rocks 352
12.1.8.2 Openings in Massive Rocks: Two-Dimensional Case 352
12.1.9 Stress Measurements around an Underground Excavation 354
(Tunnels)
12.1.9.1 In Situ Stress Field 354
12.1.9.2 Man Induced Stresses 355
12.1.9.3 Stress around a Circular Opening 355
12.1.9.4 Stress Analysis for a Circular Opening in a Linear, Elastic, 357
Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium
x
12.1.10 Analysis of Tunnel Support 360
12.2 Highways 363
12.2.1 Highways Factors Affecting the Location of Highway 364
12.2.2 Soil Stabilization and Road Construction 367
12.3 Railroads 368
12.3.1 Factors Affecting Railroad Construction 369
12.4 Bridges 370
Review Questions 373

CHAPTER 13: Geology of Dams Sites and Reservoirs 375


13.1 Introduction 375
13.2 Dams and Dam Sites 376
13.2.1 Introduction 376
13.2.2 Types of Dams 376
13.2.3 Forces Affecting Dams 381
13.2.4 Analysis of Forces on Dams 385
13.2.5 Factors of Safety against Sliding 387
13.2.6 Preliminary Geological Studies on Dam Site 389
13.2.7 Detailed Studies for Dam Site 390
13.2.8 Geological Characteristics of the Material Foundations and 391
Pillars Side
13.2.9 Determining the Depths of the Rocks 392
13.2.10 Geology of the Earth Fill Dam Site 393
13.2.11Geology and Dam Sites 394
13.2.12 Construction Materials for Earth Dams 397
13.3 Reservoirs 397
13.3.1 Introduction 397
13.3.2 Factors Affecting the Feasibility of Reservoir Site 398
13.3.3 Investigation of Reservoir Sites 399
13.3.4 Geological Considerations and the Stability of the Sides of 400
Reservoirs
13.3.5 Water Persistence in Reservoir 401
13.3.6 Sedimentation (or Silt Deposition or Siltation) Problem in 401
Reservoirs
13.3.7 Leakage from Reservoirs 403
Review Questions and Problems 407

CHAPTER 14: Geological Materials Used in Construction 409


14.1 Introduction 409
14.2 Rocks Excavation 409
14.3 Types of Stone Quarrying 410
14.3.1 Open Pit or Shelf Quarrying 411
14.3.2 Underground Mining 411
xi
14.4 Rocks as Aggregates 412
14.4.1 Types of Aggregates 412
14.5 Factors Affecting Building Rocks 413
14.6 Damages in Rocks 415
14.7 Methods of Quarrying Building Rocks 417
14.8 The Main Building Rocks 417
14.9 Uses of Rocks 418
14.9.1 Roofing and Facing Materials 418
14.9.2 Armourstone 419
14.9.3 Crushed Rock: Concrete Aggregate 420
14.9.4 Road Aggregate 421
14.9.4.1 Aggregate Tests 422
14.9.4.2 Aggregate Properties 423
14.9.4.3 Aggregate Impurities 424
14.9.5 Gravels and Sands 424
14.9.5.1 Gravel 424
14.9.5.2 Sand 425
14.9.6 Lime, Cement and Plaster 425
14.9.7 Clays and Clay Products 426
14.9.7.1 Evaluation of Mudrocks for Brick Making 426
14.10 Iraqi Geological Materials 427
Review Questions 432

CHAPTER 15: Geologic Resources and Energy Resources 435


15.1 Introduction 435
15.2 Resources and Reserves 436
15.3 Energy Sources 437
15.3.1 Nonrenewable Energy Resources 438
15.3.2 Renewable Energy Resources 439
15.4 Petroleum and Natural Gas 439
15.4.1 Oil Reservoirs Conditions 442
15.4.2 Hydrocarbon Traps 443
15.4.3 Oil Extraction 447
15.4.4 Unconventional Oil Reservoirs (Oil Sands and Oil Shale 438
Reserves)
15.5 Metallic Resources 449
15.6 Mining 451
15.7 Nonmetallic Resources 452
Review Questions 453

CHAPTER 16: Natural Geological Hazards Related to 455


Civil Engineering
16.1 Introduction 455
xii
16.2 Earth Movements 455
16.2.1 Types of Earth Movements (Down-slope Movements) 456
16.2.2 Forces Causing Landslides 461
16.2.3 Classification of Landslides 463
16.2.4 Types of Failure of Natural Rock Slopes 464
16.2.5 Engineering Aspects of Landslides 466
16.2.6 Prediction and Prevention of Landslides 468
16.2.7 Principal Geological Factors Affecting Engineering Projects 468
(Stability of Slopes and Cuttings)
16.3 Erosion and Deposition 469
16.3.1 River Channel Engineering 469
16.3.2 Erosion and Deposition by Wind 475
16.3.3 Erosion and Deposition by Ice 477
16.4 Groundwater 480
16.5 Effect of Geological Structures on Engineering Projects 484
16.5.1 Effect of Joints on Engineering Projects 484
16.5.2 Effect of Faults on Engineering Projects 486
16.5.3 Effect of Folds on Engineering Projects 488
16.6 Volcanoes 493
16.6.1 Introduction 493
16.6.2 Prediction Volcanic Activity 495
16.6.3 Reduction of Hazards Related to Volcanoes 496
16.7 Earthquakes 497
16.7.1 Causes of Earthquakes 497
16.7.2 Global Distribution of Earthquakes 498
16.7.3 Locating and Measuring Earthquakes 499
16.7.4 Locating the Epicenter 502
16.7.5 What Mechanism Does Produce a Destructive Earthquake? 504
16.7.6 Measuring the Size of an Earthquake 506
16.7.6.1 Intensity of an Earthquake 506
16.7.6.2 Magnitude of an Earthquake 506
16.7.7 Tsunami (Seismic Sea waves) 510
16.7.8 Behavior of Soils and Rocks during Earthquakes (Liquefaction) 510
16.7.9 Structures Destruction Caused by Seismic Vibration 512
16.7.10 Prediction of Earthquakes 513
16.7.11Seismological Engineering 515
16.7.11.1 Seismic Risk and Problems for the Engineer 515
16.7.11.2 Earthquake Engineering and Earthquake Zoning 517
16.7.11.3 Seismological Studies and Building Designs 518
Review Questions and Problems 521
References 527
Appendices 535
Index 546
xiii

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