Recent French Writings in the Social and Economic History of Modern France Author(s): Paul Leuilliot Source: The

Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1948), pp. 61-72 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Economic History Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2590005 Accessed: 28/10/2010 07:43
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193-204. E. Gallois).4 have of the of and We also to record the loss of S.to deplorethelossofmanyteachers:above all. is Historique cited below as R. 170 maps and plans in the text. PP. 1946). PP. admittedly. Cf. PP. vol. Ch. and. i62). I940). The Annales Giographie cited below as A. I946) and Marcel Marion (d. Hauser. 460. historian publicand notofprivate of finance.pt. ibid. p. ibid. agrarian systemsand the agriculturalpopulation. whoseGiographie humaine dconomiquela France3 et de has since appeared. I946). D. I948. and Jules Sion (d. on l THERE I For bibliographical purposesthislist should be used in conjunctionwith Mr P. Principallyconcerned with agriculturaleconomy and rural life and with the major regions. in some cases of very but highquality. Vidal de la Blache and L.Vol. listofarticleson medieval economichistory 2 Recently(April 1948) a sixthsectionforEconomic and Social Science has been formedat of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes-Etudesde Paris.133 plates and a colour map.6 In thesewords are summedup the presentstate and the recenttendencies workon social of and economichistory France. RECENT FRENCH WRITINGS IN THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF MODERN FRANCE1 in France is social and economichistory taught. Marcel Fosseyeux(d.5Pierre de Vaissiere (d.it is true.A. H.We have. Renaudet. (1946). 498-506. 241-55 and J. I945).has describedMarion as 'a jurist ratherthan an the economist. I (Paris: Armand Colin. W BY PAUL LEUILLIOT 6i . C. paid insufficient he attention the economicaspect and comparative to method'. ioo-I i . ROBERT. I942). two geographers who demonstrated thepossibilities combining disciplines geography history. cf. I940). also of A. (1945). 484-7. 2. I944). GeorgesLefebvre has posed in the Revue Hiftorique (January-MarchI947.H.of Henri Hauser (d.G. de years. PP. On H. ii should appear thisyear (1948). PP. Charlkty(d. La France. I940).ESSAYS IN BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISM XI. vi. agricultural 4 Probidmes Glographie humaine Colin. ofwhichit forms continuation. I942).who succeeded Marc Bloch in the Chair of Social and Economic Historyat the Sorbonne. in are Certainof the books and articlesin whichconclusions stateddo in fact giveriseto reflexions thequestionofmethodin social and economichistory. xiv. under the direction Lucien Febvre. Demangeon(d. 3 Glographie (ed. 'Le fenildans is de du les Alpes francaises Nord'. outsidethe Sorbonne?' The searching questionwhichM. P. The Revue 6 R. 408) is a collectionofthe principalstudies (A. FAUCHER. (I942). Labrousse. Gaston Roupnel (d. 95. Wolff's a below. PP. Universelle P. de 'Evolution des typesde maisonsrurales'. that of Marc Bloch (d. whose colleagues and pupils in France were touched by the tributeto him in these pages (ante. PP. lastly. (1940). Seignobos.H. especiallyin the in human geographypublished by Demangeon over a period of thirty on Annales Giographie. 57) might perhapsbe suitably answered drawing by attention recent to developments2 and theconsiderable volumeof workappearingduringthewar and especially since the Liberation-workof unequal value.ibid. I See Andr6 Siegfried'sobituary notice of Seignobos in' the Revue Historique(I942-3). i6 i.

and more recentlyTroisEssais sur Histoire Culture HistoricalCon(Cahiers Annales. founded I929. Cited below as Annales Milanges. Esmoninhas used records ofpre-Revolution approachin modern history.62 THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW combining theydo synthesizing withcare forfactualaccuracy.and thethirdto man's struggle againsthis environit a on ment. 8I-IoI. (Le Paysanetla Terre. 328-36. et de sociale. mention workson such subjectsas rural. A. and two volumes of Hommages Marc Bloch. 87. bears the significant sub-title: Economies. pp. E. treatise foodsupplyand of a sketch a medicalgeography. de humaine.Essai d'une1cologie l'Iomme(A. ' Melanges(1943). In the same order of et Lucien Febvre's La Terre l'Evolution du ideas is a veryoriginal article by J. V.industrial and financialhistory. pp. on the occasion of the i848 Centenary des ii). I (I939-4I).4 gress. Annales (I 947). Braudel. I. 22-43. According to F. to under which. I943). (Paris: 5 La Statistique 6 de PressesUniversitaires France. 346. Annales since i946 (Paris: Armand above. (January-June 3 de Cf. IO vols.3 vols. vols.G. DALAMAS. 'La regression paludisme en France'. to century). A. 191. 2 Annales 1941). A. II. vii and viII of the Melanges d'histoire separate pagination. 1943). 5-19. Simiand Melanges(1942). 25.Annales. after and practice echec: Essai surla methodede F. and La France bourgeoise (eighteenth twentieth de in In a paper read at the seventh Semaine Internationale Synthese I935. pp.5 Francetoillustrate statistical the limitsofhuman geography to Max Sorrehas exceedednormaland traditional is discusshuman ecology. thesecondto man's naturalenvironment how of he has exploited forfood. 440. I61 -79. not since Vidal de la Blache's Principes Geographie offered Humaine'(ibid. It is at once a study humanclimatology. MEYNIER. Annalesd'histoire et Annalesd'histoire Melanges d'histoire sociale. 26-37). VI. (1945). pp. 1944. xvi+220 and diagrams. pp. pp. 'not fora long time have we been and humaine de work of this quality. and 'Problemes de structureagraire et de l'economie rurale'. 9 Gallimard (1941). fasc.' Among in I946. 'La Commune ruralefrangaise'.3has combinedtheory in successivepublicationsof an Introduction d l'Histoire (Collection economique et Armand Colin. pp. with i6 plates. and in La Statistique (applicationsand problems).Annales of soci I and economic history 4 (IP943) - (1945). 8 PressesUniversitaires de France (1942).G. B.The same writeragain takes up the question teachingin France in 'La crisede l'6ducationfrancaise'. lastly. (1929-38). 2.after variouschangesof name to evade the periodicalcensorship Annales was restored the occupation. 1944). 120-7.) Cf. whichhas ever in thenProfessors the University Strasburg. A. ibid. Colin (1946). 2I9. CALLOT.The brilliant and exciting reviewwhichMarc Bloch and Lucien Febvre. a or Colin). 'La sensibilite l'histoire'and 'Propos publishing legond'un 'La d'initiation: vivre1'histoire'*2 CharlesMoraz6. on and has been remarked by Lucien Febvre. pp. are two otherwritings methodology on which have appeared in the Annales et suggestive articlesby Lucien Febvre. originality out of the approachis evident. The of worked bya realgeographer. CHOLLEY.8 in rural but synthesis Le regime del'ancienne is D'AlbertDauzat's Le village lepaysan France9 a bookforthegeneralreader. L'auvre scientifique F. (1942-4). . IV. Colin. de Les fondements biologiques la Glographie pp. Lizerand has made a premature useful France. in of of and sincecontinuously appeared in spiteof thevicissitudes recenthistory. dconomique sociale. Societes.the originaltitlein the abbreviatedform Civilisations. comprising annualvolumes 6 with two sociale(1945)-forming vols.7 Before givingdetailsof recent workunderthe separateheads ofmodernand shouldalso be made ofvariousgeneral contemporary periodsofhistory. Simiand'. His book6 is in threeparts: the first devotedto the and influence climateon man. 88.breaking as aims down rigiddepartmental barriers and advocatingtheapproachby comparative study. and Milanges(1943). III. (1946).

Coornaerthas added a criticalbibliography an appendix to in the 4th editionof ET. 6 Les Postes jusqu'a la RPvolution-Les Postes depuis RPvolution la (PressesUnifranfaises franfaises versitaires. pp. pp. Vaille.Henri Cavailles' book on La route as (history functions) and belongs. GEORGES CHABOT.Annales (1947). Napoleon the and theJews. Principes d'unegeographie humaine e'conomique et (PressesUniversitaires. Histoire corporationsmetiers des de (I94I). (1943).2 'A Frenchmasterpiece'is the expression used by Ch. ' (A. Pose. I94I). pp. (April-June 1941).8 RobertSchnerbhas completedpublicationof Henri See's important Histoire economique la France.dealingwiththe Renaissanceand the modernperiod. Colin. 'Villes de Bretagne'. 8 (Laurens. 4 (Sirey. Des origines 1789 a (Arthaud. vol. etude de geographie urbaine'.12 THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Anyoneinterested this period would be well advised to look throughthe in reviewHumanisme Renaissance et (vols. 336. MEYNIER. LettersPatentof Io July I784 fortheJewsofAlsace. (B. 12 Also to be noted is the most valuable expositionby PIERRE GOIJROU. ibid.3 A specialist thebanking by on history of the eighteenth century.H.'History FrenchExpansionand '. 306.11And specialattention international seriesofcolonialdocuments whichare beingpublishedunderthe directionof Ch. pp. 'Angers. Sources manuscrites (Letouzey et Ane. (1946). J. 'Geographyof the Colonies and the French Union' and 'Art and Literature'. 1946 and 1947). Melanges (I943). E. pp. le premierEmpire colonial fransais'. 1947). E.They are accompaniedby a veryample bibliography. vii+947. A. 490. Les villes (Collection A. Andre Julien. III. 'Un siecle et demi de hausse des prix agricoles'. J. 'A propos d'un manuel. Les Pays tropicaux. Keeper of the Musee Postal at Paris.4 au du whileRobertAnchelhas devotedto I thejuifs deFrance medievaland modernstudieson thefollowing topicsamong others:the economiclifeof theJewsof Metz in theseventeenth eighteenth and centuries. 504. 9 Vol. 1947). Milanges (1943). each 127 pp. pp. 1946).xhix+459. 53-70.7A secondvolumeof PierreLavedan's Histoire l'urbanisme de has appeared. DE SAINT LEON. (I940).I (I939)10 I. pp. Lucien Febvrehas followed his important up book on Le probleme l'incroyance de I Of lastingvalue. RobertBigo presents mostusefulgeneralview of a Les Banquesfranfaisescour XIXe siecle. 'Les etapes de l'evolutiondu Havre de 1789 'a nos jours'. Colin. PP. et and embracing 'Colonial Studies 'Classics ofColonization'.G. is M. Janin. on the other hand. R. (1940). I789-I914 (1942).'Emile Coornaert's CorporationsFrance Les en avant 1789is a definitive workwhichhas alreadybeen praisedby such discerning critics as Emile Jordan and Lucien Febvre. 1941). 205-13. v and vi appeared in I945 and I946). FOUGERES (Marc Bloch). spiteofitssub-title. " I. A. pp. 2 vols. LABROUSSE. . PP. 'Les plans cadastraux de l'Ancien Regime'. entitledColonies Empires. 1948). (PressesUniversitaires. MEARY.. See also a shortnote by C. 1940). 224. pp. theory and technique). See P. Cf. Cf. in moreto history franfaise thangeography.H. 20-32. ibid. pp. II. de includinghis bibliographical references. 400 and 7 maps. SOULAS. 296.304.HISTORY OF FRANCE 63 too often elementary. 178-87. has undertaken history the postal a of services. See the reviews in R. pp. and Annales (January-February1941).I946). 489. of Colonization'. 472. 29-40. pp. 300 and i6 illustrations. 2 (Gallimard. Severalvolumesofthefirst three series have alreadyappeared. Moraze to welcomethe appearance ofLa Monnaie ses institutions et (history. whichhe has outlined twosmallvolumesoftheseries'Que sais-je? 6 in ' Offered 'a studyof human geography'. pp. pp. A.9 Abbe Victor Carriereand his collaborators have also completedtheirIntroduction etudes aux d'histoire eccldsiastique locale. Cf. 468-76. 1942). LEUILLIOT.E.10 first The volumeofHenriBlet'sHistoire la colonisade tion has mustbe drawn to the new franfaise appeared. 1946). III. and are noticedbelow.

9-23. pp.2 thata society not is factualhistory whichillustrates Mme de Stael's observation expressed itsliterature by alone. 6 (Paris. A. pp. ibid.64 THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW au XV[? siecle:La Religion Rabelaislby drawingattention the subjectof de to mobiliers: la Renaissance de 'Ce qu'on peuttrouver dans une seried'inventaires exampleoflively. 7 Annales 946). 433-9. pp. Evolutionis shownby theheadings: (I 'Society and Sponsorship the I6th century'. Cartierand Roberval (withan introduction Ch. Nobles. See the important reviewby MARCEL BATAILLON. " (PressesUniversitaires. 'La Plaza Major en Espagne et en Amerique espagnole: Note pour une etude'. Julien. A. pp.'Divorce betweenpeople in 'Esquisses and noblesin the I8th century'. 349-54. pp. BERTHET. Julien). pp. V. pp. 129-43. pp. ibid. 9 Most important forthe fiscalpolicy of the Valois. 4 Ibid. I943). i28. (1944). F. 225 and 2 maps. In Etudesd'Histoire moderne contemporaine et between French royaltyand Deals with Georges Obrecht and Israel Minckel 'intermediaries German finance'. LIII of the series 'L'Evolution de l'HumanitW'(Albin Michel. 533. 'En lisantles "Novellas". the same writer's de Sociologie fransaises:deux villages du Jura francais' (also about Chiteau-Chalon. 396-4i I.9 to et referred above: The following have appearedin theseries Colonies Empires et e'tablissements Ch. Verrazano. . pp. see Ibid. and Les Rousses). pp. ibid. "ala Contre-Refotme. Deals withChateau-Chalon.Les voyages dicouvertesles premiers de (XVe-XVIe the de et franfaises. and ROBERT PICARD. pp. historiques. (Societe d'Histoire moderne. (Publicationsde la Faculte des Lettres 1946). i ofClassiques la Colonisarecordedaccountsof the voyagesof Gonneville. tion. Un drame 3 mediterraneen. Mousnier. 4I-55. pp. (1947).'Un reactif ABBE~ social: le parrainage XVIe sikcle I la Revolution.I. Belles (Les Lettres.12and a magnum I Vol. du '. pp.ruinednobles'. Braudel byArmand Colin) on theMediterranean has publishedthefollowing articles: 'Monnaies et civilisation: l'or du Soudan 'a 'argent de d'Amerique. Ginealogie lafamille Boutheroie-Desmarais6 history a middleclass family duringfourcenturies since 1500). Conflits refus civilisation. 12 (PressesUniversitaires. 1943). 3 Ibid. 1946). pp.'in the I7th century'.. 1948). I 78-83. lii+780. i65-217. XXXii+548. It seems clear that the directions which theyemployedtheircapital were in dictatedby religiousmotives. pp.bourgeois paysansd'un bourgperchedu Jura et du GASTON ZELLER. Cf. III. (1946).'I siegces). Le XVIIe-siecle (CollectionClio). 'Deux capitalistes strasbourgeois XVIe siecle'8 and 'Aux originesde notre systemedouanier: les premierestaxes d'importation' (sixteenth century). thesis(to An experton Mediterranean history and authorof an outstanding be published underPhilipII. 43-5 1. Tapie.1' containing by J.. On Spanish history also FRAN9OIS CHEVALIER. 5-27. I947). first volumeof a Histoire 1'expansiondela colonisation of particular for importance the colonial policyof FrancisI. enAmerique la du pendant premiere moitie' XVIe siecle. and Les Franfais de vol. Melanges 2 Annales (1941).'5 of There have been severalcontributions the history the social evolution to and thefinancial and commercial history France: of de (the of MURGEY. La opus:R. Etudes (I '? (PressesUniversitaires.' au 'Misere et banditisme XVIe siele. (I947).'Rich peasants. la vie a Seville au Siecle d'or'. de Strasbourg). THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY We may begin by noticinga reference book: Edmond Preclinand Victor L. Melanges 945). 5-I4. changements climats an excellent de '. 1943).'4 et de 'Espagnols et Morisquesau XVIe siecle.

La Societe' la monarchie I..His uncompleted war.8useful witha calendar de a collection documents of of the minutesfromi650 to I757.5 de One of H. PP. on cornprices.7 de des JosephFournier. Cf. PP. On the influence the economists see AMBROISE JOBERT. De Montesquieu Robespierre). Revolution idiesetle diclin l'Ancien des Rigime 7I5-I 788).we mustnoticetwovolumesofa seriesby Ph.thoughoften in the fieldofeconomicideas it was Richelieuwho was theman ofgeniuswith a visionof thefuture. xxxii+630. Lavauzelle. 1942). Turgot (Ch. 94. 4 Etudes Melanges (I944). 7(Bloud et Gay. 1946). Chappoulie. La petite metallurgie l0 Regime.6 H.13 en si'clehas dans moitie' de et ParlementDauphine lesaffairespubliques la deuxieme duXV[11e (Rouen: Magnard.'2 des 'L'Histoire des prix des cerealesen France dans la secondemoitiedu XVIIe authorities. 304. 356. 1945. 9(Rouen: Imprimerie Laine. PP. x+ I36. Aux origines Rome les Missions au et d'Indo-Chine XVIIe sie'cle. PP. 1946). 2 R. pp. 429. be takenup by Colbert.12 (I de THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY des volumeofMaxime Leroy'sHistoire idies Incisiveness graspmarkthefirst and a JeanEgret'sthesison Le sociales France(I. I40. vol. PP.H. V.HISTORY OF FRANCE 65 des IV venalitd offices Henri etLouisXIIII (dealingwithsocialas well as institusous tionalhistory). '? (Paris: Clavreuil. " Collection d'histoire sociale(Domat-Montchretien. of Magnatspolonais et physiocratesfrancais (1767-1774) (Dijon: Imprimerie I94I). civ and Io6o columns. The following noteworthy: are L'inventaire Archives la de Chambre CommerceMarseille. I 85. (I and from Richelieu'spapers.at once a theoretical a practicaleconoof failedin face of two main obstacles:the necessity waging mist. 8). 6 (Lyons: Imprimerie (Plon. (cf. 64. ALENGRY. pp. and 9 plates. Express. 3I9 and 8 plates. d'Histoire moderne p. I943). PP. I947). Hauser's last and best books was La pensee l'action et eiconomique 'thatColbert must havelearnedhiseconomics Richelieu 944). 442. embodying de interesting appendixes:La formation results recentresearch of and containing la Societifranfaise et absolue (I66 I-I7I5). Richelieu. I. F. 240 and pp. 2 vols. and PIERRENIGREUX. Meuvretcontinues research prices.'3 (Sourcesand secondary 'Circulationmonetaire utilisation et economiquede la monnaieen France aux XVIe et XVIIe siecles. and a deplorablefiscal for less vigorously and less intelligently. n." rurale HauteNormandie l'Ancien en sous the Lastly.he says. La moderne.' on In thisperiodcolonizationwas an incidentof missionary enterprise. PP. 27-45. PP. Turgot(Selections and Preface). I 86.nevertheless taskwas to a continental system. I940). PierreDardel's well-managed studyof Le account maritime Rouen XVIIe etXVIIIe sieles. Jean Vidalenc. I 945). and Sdminaire Missions des eitrangeres. Durantdere. 13 (Gallimard.especially his articles include: 'Les mouvements prixde I66 I 'a I7I5 et leursrepercussions. 8(Marseilles: Chambre de Commerce. Sagnac. x+ I56. I5-29. PP.) siecle. pp. 'We feel'.9 Pinsseau'shistorical de aux Trafic of the Canal HenriIV (ou canalde Briare).his recent J. 454. . pp.'4 d'agriculture et There has been a new editionof Olivier de Serres'Le Theatre des Mesnage Champs. 1941). 249 pp. this subjectour information been enlargedby two books of exact scholarship: has du de d'Henri d la fondation Guillaumede Vaumas. I 12 (PressesUniversitaires. 1943). Collection grands des economistes (Dalloz.946). II.I942). L'eveilmissionaire la France IV d'uneEglise. pp. I946). (I 945).

pp.-Domingue. 226. See PIERRE DARDEL.6 There are twouseful bookson colonialhistory: Conan. P. 1947). 12 14 (Cairo: Imprimerie l'Institutfransaisd'ArcheologieOrientale. 86. La dernie're J. 2 vols. Cf. I20. xxx+ 332 and pp. PP. (I946). pp. THOMAs-LACROIX. ibid. 273. IS Ibid. F. 1942). 4 (M. PP. 420. PP. 5 Bulletin.7 sur des au Golfe Guinde. Riviere. (I944-5).. Riviere. 272. PP.2 succeededin making d'un has In pointsand drawingconclusions widersignificance.1943).'15 I (Grenoble: Imprimerie Allier. 1943). . XXVI. nos.'13 215.'9 a 'Le peuplement Antilles XVIIe siecle: les engagespartisde la Rochelle au des les 'Autour de l'expedition Saint-Domingue: espoirsd'une famille de d'anciens 'Le plan et les debutsd'une caf6ierea Saint-Domingue:la plantation Mesla 'Le commerce nantaiset la pertede Saint-Domingue d'apresunecorrespondance esclaveset troupeauxde deux sucreries St. 136. 1941). I940). 1946). Les manufactures de toiles et further a et aux peintes deserges imprimees Rouen a' Bolbec XVIIe et X1IIIe sieles (Rouen: Desvages. 159HERVE Haiti.'12 de la maison Lerebourg (i784-I8oo). de (By the same publishers).66 THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW into naturally made incursions thefield social and economic of history. PP. 9 10 DU HALGOUET'S well-documented article. pp. 3. (I944). (PressesUniversitaires. Les origines la grande of de industrie metallurgiqueFrance3 en BertrandGille has drawn attention the conto centration industry of which was takingplace at the end of the eighteenth century. 137-2 i8 (based on the inquiry en by the Controleur-general Desmaretsin 1708). region rouennaise(I785-I802)' de 7 (M.4 The Bi-Centenairel'Impression itofe Alsace(1745-1946) sur en was theoccasionforan issueby theSocieteIndustrielle Mulhouseofa volume de of commemorative materialof high interest the origins and documentary for and the evolution-in particular. pp.'14 'Comptes. " (Port au Prince.) See also Franfaisd'Afrique 2 (i683-I75). Extractfromthe Revue de la Societed'Histoire et Glographiede Ibid.In spiteofthelimitations whichitstitle wouldsuggest. 20. Vii+ 390. comptoirfranfais Le de deJuda (Ouidah)au XVIIe si'cle. 8 (Larose. 122. 6 (Domat-Montchretien. III-IV (I946). based on the correspondence eighteenth-century of Nantes traders. 'La guerre de coursedans les portsdes Amirautesde Vannes et Lorient (1744-1763)'. (1945).and P. I90. PP. PP. 'Etat de l'industrie textile France' (Bibliothequede l'Ecole des Chartes. vol.'Au tempsde Saint-Domingueet de la Marde tinique' (Mem.. PP. (Mimoires l'Institut de Noire. de 'A Saint-Domingue. the technicalevolution-of calico manufor facture Alsace. pp. PP.5 AndreColomeshas made a good contribution thehistory in to of theworking du class in Les ouvriers textile la campagne dans troyenne (173o-1852). 1941). 20. Mon les village sousLouis XV d'apres memoires paysan. 3 Collection d'Histoire sociale(Domat.Etudes la traite noirs franfaise Indes(1785-1875). PAULM. I943). Leonard. 486-9I.' 10 planteurs (I80I-I804). EvRARD. PP.'In what purports be no more than a simplevillage history to Emile G. 193. Cf. 128. Cf. (I943). pp. pp. iio. 69. 1942). BONDOIS. xxiII). Compagnie des and Simone Bertain. LEUILLIOT in Annales(i 947). AndreRemond's John Holker. '3 Ibid.no. PP.8 In a number Notes of d'histoire coloniale GabrielDebien has preparedtheground fora definitive workon Saint Domingowhichis awaited withinterest: la Une plantation Saint-Domingue: Sucrerie Galbaud du Fort(i692-i802). 333-53.'11 veillere aux Anses a Pointe a Pitre (I789-I792). manufacturier etgrandfonctionnairefranfaise sille (1719y1786) au XVIIIe is a studyof wide significance which frequently draws -parallelsfromBritish de industrial history. Ibid. PP.profits. avec deux jeunes economesde plantation(1774-I788). 'Les ouvriersdu textile dans la in Annales historiques la RivolutionFranfaise (1947). 1942). de la Sociti d'Histoire d'Archeologie Bretagne et (I943).

pp. MAXIME GLANSDORF. I69-202. and 'Toponymie et geographie: les toponymesderives de la vigne en' Bourgogne'.-Dominguea la findu XVIIIe siecle. was the resultof bourgeois it Extract fromthe Bulletin la Societe de contemporaineHafti (I 945-6). Riviere. thesame writer's 'La ventedu bon vin de Volnay au XVIIIe siecle' (extractfromthe Annales Bourgogne de (I947). pp. pp.Annales Bourgogne de (194I). Annales (1939). (1946). (M.6 manieurs Les financie'res d'argent Paris d la findu XVIIIP siecle7 a and La Compagnie Eaux de Paris et des l'entreprise1'rvette de *8 (1788-1793) One of the last writings the late Andre'E. Esquisse mouvement prixetdesrevenus France XVIIIe si cle (I933) witha no lessremarkable en au thesis forthe doctorat d e's-lettresthe Sorbonne. who is working a thesis ruralBurgundy. 4 Extractfrom the Bulletin la Socidtt de et de et ArchlologiqueHistorique Nantes de la LoireInferieure (1946). pp. which is both an introduction and a guide. i85. whichhas some relevanceto the history Frenchfinance.'2 a 67 'Gouverneurs. 424-9. magistrats colons. 1940. pp. pp. 237-50. 2 Extractfrom the Revue d'Histoire Colonies des (I940-6). In a regionalstudyon EasternFranceJ. 1941). La Bourgogne (Collection A. Millot has carriedon and completed his previousbook. iII (943). 6 Originally published in part in the AnnalesHistoriques de la Rivolution franfaise(1940). i6o."1 It is. Annales (1940). (I943). 'Etudes sur l'ancienne communauterurale de Bourgogne'. 12 Presses Universitaires (i94A). I941.9 of France. on on has drawnattention newmaterialin 'La propriete XVIIIe siecle. See especially P.who has followed doctorat droit du des his en thesis. I appeared in 1939. 53-6. pursuingthe example of C. pp. 'Les travaux d'Andre E.10 de Saint-Jacob. ge'ndraux. 28. I941). 8 (M. L'oppositionparlementaire coloniale a et et St.G. I. -Cf. Before workingout his thesis Labrousse publishedpreparatory studieswhich include 'Le prix du froment (1782-1796)' and 'Comment controlerles mercuriales? Le Test de Concordance'. fasc. his 'Observations sur la lecture des courbes economiques'. 664 and 55 diagrams. meithodes. (M. PP. with map. Colin. Vol. pp. I73-84. pp. La of objectifs. pp. 1937). 286. Cf. Riviere.4 Jean Bouchary5 illustrated has financial development theend ofthe ancien at in regime Les Compagnies d Paris d la findu XVIIIe sizecle. Cf.on the contrary. II7-3I. Sayous was his account of the of 'Principales phases de l'histoirede la banque a Geneve pendant le XVIIIe siecle'. pp. DE SAINT_ JACOB. 224. Sayous sur l'histoire economique'.La Crise l'6conomie in de franfaise la finde l'Ancien Reigime au debut la Revolution i. 49. 7 Bibliothtque d'histoire economique Riviere). Aperfus et de (vol. pp.havingcompleted inquiry his into 'Les archives quelques familles de de planteursantillais'3 Debien presents instructive viewson 'Les archivesde plantations Antilles des '. 10 (Besan~on: ImprimerieMillot. 36. vol. pp. 330-4I. E. A. Annales (I939). Franfaise . (I943).12 Michelet. 2IO and vol. Revue Economique Internationale (May 1935). 1942.the revolution I789 was a de For reactionto misery. Une source to au meconnue:Le controle actes et centieme des denier'. I67. pp. de historiques la Revolution (1937).forJaures.HISTORY OF FRANCE 'Une indigoterie St.3 vols. sources. pp. 5 Earlier ones include Le marche changes Paris a' lafin du XVIIIe siecle(1778-1800) (Hartdes de mann. pp. 2I2 and I74). pp. Cf.X1 Finally. Le regime seigneurial Franche-Comte' en au XVIIIe sie'cle (I937). was mainlya country peasantson theeve oftheRevoluof tion. 315 and map. 133-41. by L'abolition droits des seigneuriaux le dipartementDoubsetla region dans du comtoise. pp. Labrousse. CHABOT. 3 Annales (September I938). however. 4). crise la viticulture). ii (1940). i62-7.-Domingue (I763-I769). 50 and de d'histoire pp. pp.however. 'I Annales (I946). I1946).. 382-40I. P. pp. themovement pricesthathistorians theorigins the on of of of FrenchRevolutionhave laid particularstress. pp.

the same ends. PP. 472.H. I.which he of describedas 'the turning-point the period'.5 originally publishedbefore FirstWorld War.2it should be added that Labroussemeans to carryon his economicinterpretation the Revolution. See H.6Lefebvre the authorof a workofsynthesis. with certaincritics.8he has thus completed Albert Mathiez' La Rivolution Franfaise.68 THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW prosperity and tendedto the profit the rich.is thetragicparty struggle. reviewed important articles. 8 (1946). Pp. 'Manants d'Alsace. I04) (MelangesI945). PP. I73-99 Annales Historiques la Revolution de (January-February I9401. as Georges Lefebvre. and of a volumein the CollectionArmandColin. 85 and a map).has published a new and amplified editionof his Manuel pratique pourl'itudede la Revolution the franfaise. 289-329. pp. 324. The two pointsof view. (I947). On thesubjectoftheDirectorate's (p.. de Etatdespeches maritimes lescotes sur occidentalesla France debut XVIIIe siecle de du au (I941). (April-JuneI944). too.he well showsthe perfect continuity betweenthe men of the and the Thermidorians-'thesame men. R. Bibliotheque la Revuedu Tarn. 252. Annales 6 7 Annales (I939).3In conclusion shouldbe recalled of it that the late Leon Cahen had discussed 'Quelques aspects de l'economie '.the same Directorate means The Marxist-not to say.thereare someinteresting comments G. 5I I and pp.I946). derniers manantsde France' (Publications de la Faculte des Lettres de Strasbourg. 4 historiques. pp.fasc.in the Congress in organized I939 by the Commissionfor researchand publicationof documentsrelatingto the is economiclifeof the Revolution. bourgeois 'bras nus' (1795-1797). and especially G. Pp. 'As always. 22I-37.yet it was of minorimportancecompared with the collapse of the financial currency' 79). whose important paper on Le mouvement prixet les origines la Revolution de des I has Labrousse'sthesis no lessthanthree in Franfaiseshouldbe recalled. ERIC DARDEL. Vingt . 'Une histoire nouvelle" " de la Revolution fran~aise'. Annales de historiques la RevolutionFranfaise (I937). (Maison du Livre Fran~ais. I I I-2 I.4 fran~aise la veillede la Revolution a THE REVOLUTION AND THE EMPIRE on PierreCaron. he has emphasized thatthe increasedscope of his manual. I 948. PP. is due to theworkof Labrousseand others. EMILE APPOLIS. (Editions Picard. PP. I939). Annales de (January-March I946). I 59-I 90.what has attracted of in the attention mosthistorians. overof in narrow themselves. I947). shouldbe considered complementary. La construction routes des en royales Languedoc au XVIIIe siecle(Albi. EtudesAlsatiques (Les Belles Lettres. I946).whois a veteran expert therevolutionary period. 238-51. Lefebvre. Annales Historiques la Revolution The following deal with more specialized subjectsin French eighteenth-century social and economichistory: GASTON ZELLER. (I947). In thelatter and the abolitionof the maximum the consequentmonetary crisis. R. a written sequel to hisown Thermidoriens Lefebvre dwelton (I 937).. . Reference may also be made to the presentwriter'scriticalbulletin on the eighteenth centuryand the FrenchRevolutionin the Revue Synthese de ('SyntheseHistorique'). 9 (Gallimard. theThermidorian period. CALVET. by whose du la book on Les Paysans Nord pendant Revolutionfranfaise was seen to have (I 27) a markedan epoch. pp.ifnotfounded school. In thisconnexion. 200. Pp. Le DirecNeuf Quatre and toire. pp. policyand ofthe and the ' class' apprehension whichdominated history formed pretext the its for i8th Brumaire. LEFEBVRE. I941.H.. 2 vols. to coversocial and economicdevelopmentsbetweenI 789 and I 799.9 which has already 2 Franfaise (April-June I947). Trotskyist-interpretation of Daniel Guerin'sinvolvedand elaborateLa lutte classes sous history permeates de la Premiere et Ripublique.

I7-30. 342.H. pp. du Hambourgeois A. with index to vols. pp. La crise bidd Arras lafindu XVIIIe du pp. ouvriers l'Etat. On the very eve of the Revolution newmethods agriculture of werealreadycompeting withtraditional ones. (1946). 'La criseouvrieredans la seconde moitiede I830'. to its historians have givenparticularattention working-class history.7 The blockade (and contraband the of activities). Le regime l'industrie France en de an contribution thesocial and economic whichforms important to 1814 a 1830.4 R. I947). 385-408. pp. pp. 8 (Istra. spiteof thetitle.H. 269. SCHNERB. I943). pp.10 i8I5-i848 lettres travail (1806-181o) from the Correspondance Napolion. V. pp. I-iII. in (December I825 to July 1830).11 of history the earlynineteenth century.8 Thanks to A. PP. writer Milanges in 7(Editions de la Toison d'Or.6 Bertrand de de de A wide and thoughtful selection MaximilienVox is assembledin Six cents by ot This was the period whichsaw the development industrial and machinery. I56. Cf. 6 (Gallimard. textile industry Mulhouseand the commercial and industrial crisisat the fall of the Empire are discussedin over two hundred pages devoted to economic life in Fernand L'Huillier's sur Recherches l'Alsace Napoleonienne. (January-May I940). GEORGES SANGNIER. (October-December 1945).H. . 'La vente des biens nationaux en Belgique '. BOURGIN. pp. Nemnich 9 Vol. viii+ 290. Artz has written en technique France in pendant re'volutionnaire l'Vpoque the (covering. I939).1 for which he has drawn largelyupon archive sources. the freedom fromtraditional routineswhich it introduced soon had to encounter of apprehensions famine.3 J. 1947 (1948)). 463. i and ii appeared in 1912 and 1921.HISTORY OF FRANCE 69 received sharpand pertinent correction from competent historians-'bourgeois'. 10 R. 2 (M. 12 305-22. See also 203-I5. Riviere. Octave Festycontributes long book to the questionof L'agriculture a pendant la Revolution: Conditions productionde recolte cereales Les de et des (1789-1795). 1945). pp.Les Patrons. pp. moderne 4Revue d'histoire IAnnales (I947). 'Les vicissitudes de I'impot indirect (de la Constituante a Napo- leon) '.La 'mine de auxmineurs' Rancief (1789-1848).Two otherbooks and two articles mustbe noted: JEANBOUCHARY.5 to Jouvenel givenattention Napoleon l'economie has et Le dirigee. sous Faux monnayeurs la Revolution. I947). vol. pp. (Domat-Montchretien. I942). le (1788-1796)(Fontenay Comte:Lussaudfreres. will the history L'Enseignement of FredericB. R. EDOUARD DOLLEANS in R. Les Prix (Librairie de Medicis. Napoldon l'industrie franfaise. " Champion (1941). 265. et La See ODETTE VIENNET. 373.I o8-I5 pp. P.George the and final and HubertBourgin have published third volumeoftheir collection les et de of sources. I1946). periodto i8I5) . xxiv+ 574. Blocus Continental. 7I0. G. I943). DELATTE. I95. 257-87. and Uneenquete (1809) (Plon). crisede dans le impiriale: voyage economique la France i8io-i8u (Plon. pp. xi+ 376.Festysuppliesall necessary information on the questionsof labour and of agricultural techniques. Cf. (I947). See thereviewby thepresent ( I944). siecle Vols. accordingto Guerin. Chabert'sEssai surle mouvement prixet des revenus France des en de1798 d 1820 economicevolution regainitsplace in thetradecycle. pp.12 d I (Gallimard.9Lastly. I. pp.2 RENE GARMY.

vol. 1939).the scales and of of movements wages. pp. The workerhad no intention becominga social outcast. 76I (Collectiond'Histoiresociale. (1947). EditionsDelmas. vol. The problem here.GeorgesDuveau has combinedthe studyof social psychology and economichistory. Revue d'histoire iconomique etsociale(I 940-7). de Synthise 5 For the Second Republic.2 studyof La classeouvriere Alsacependant monarchie en la de juillet3by Mme Kahan-Rabecq appeared in I939. 385). 2 1 (Domat-Montchretien. Cf. pp. 1944). pp. it was notat thetimea matter hunger of riots. Colin. 'On theone hand. 1946).In particular. 3 (Les Presses modernes. it has enabled him to trace. in whichthe writer bringsout the relationof politicsto economicdevelopment. 1945. DOLLEANS in R. is of especiallyone of influences-theinfluence ideas on eventsand of eventson of ideas. xix+605. His investigations of cover not only the in distribution the-workers France. II (i871-1936). 62-79. pp. I (i840-71). histoire mouvement du ouvrier la chapellerie dans (1941). vi). a They relate the workers' movement beforei848 to the ideologies. . and tell the and theheroicage of Frenchsyndicalism storyof the FirstInternational under Pelloutierand Griffuehles. La Coutume Chapeliere. 20-48. the on otherthe outlookand workshop traditions the skilledworker-such are the of essential characteristics themassesunderthe Second Empire: characteristics of which ratherbalance than oppose each otherand make comprehensible both the varietyand the unityof the workingclasses' (fromthe Prefaceby Ed. 'La fabriquede soie lyonnaise du (I830-I848)' in 1848et lesRivolutions XiXe siecle(summer1947). 403 (Prefaceby Lucien Febvre). witha livelycare for'the psychological SECOND EMPIRE 5 sous In La vieouvriere le Second a Empire.6Duveau has describedhis methodelsewhere7 'an as intensive of the comparative use method'. of Dolleans). Vol. See also CLAUDE LEVY.and this E. 4-55 (particularly the imp'tof45 centimes). 4 A. the movement social evolution.and thestandardoflivingimpliedin theworker's of budget and moralsof theworkers. I1-22.1947). but also themanners an he has refrained from pressing antithesis betweentheskilled and theunskilled worker. a but The Lyons workers' containsimportant conclusions. 'Les hommesde i848 et l'imp6t'. Edouard Dolleans' two volumeson the Histoire Mouvement du ouvrier4 include of the Chartist experiment which he has previously alreadywritten history.H. Class and consciousness even class struggle began to appear at the end ofthe Second In the same seriesshould be mentioned JEAN VIAL. pp. of broughtout. Here may be noted ROBERT SCHNERB. 6 (Gallimard.70 THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW Fernand Rude's Mouvement ouvrier Lyonde 1827 d 18321is over-long. Dolleans has well truth livinghistory'. 1939 (2nd ed. as the Prefaceemphasizes. 1946).JEAN VIDALENC. theirconditions work. For the finaltragedy bad faithon the part of the employers A was responsible. pp. simply but an attempt forcethe employers a new system engaginglabour by colto to of lectivecontract. 1947). thepeasant character and theruralorigins. 7 'Comment 6tudierla vie ouvriere: les methodesd'investigation'. ALBERT CHARLES. The origins the workers' movements in factto be soughtbothin are and in the influence historical of theories facts. La Rivolution 1848 et la Seconde de Republique Bordeaux dansle dipartementla Gironde et de a (Bordeaux: Publicationsde l'Universit6. pp. 1848 et les Revolutions duXIXe sicle (spring. ED. ibid.stepby step. 426. pp. 400 and pp. which has already been the occasion of numerousarticlesand books. for 'L'Eure au debut de la Seconde Republique'. and real wage. workwhichwill proveof lastingvalue forthisperiod. 1936 (3rd ed. see the presentwriter'scritical review in La Revue ('Synthese Historique') (1948). (winter1946-i947). risingof Novemberi83I had no politicalaims. dealing with recentwork published beforethe celebrationof the centenaryof i848. pp.

8 Iiiaes (i 946). 9. PP. B. GELLY.5 Cartographiepaysage Louis PAPY. 'Le chemin de ferde Paris L. 2 and 'Les Sources des idees sociales et coloniales de Napoleon III THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD '. (I (i In Revue d'Alger 945). I 84-2 i 8. Cf. pp. the following are the AIME'PERPILLOU.9 PIERRE GOUROU. 3 Extractfrom the Revue africaine 943). pp. 7 (PIill.4 principalones: Material is chieflyto be found among geography theses.17 rural. 528.15 MARCEL ROUJF. no.1940). 14I). Survivances de communautairesl'agriculture dans limousine. viii+ 105. of psychology sociology. (Colin. etude geographique'. 224. 342-- 7- . 'D'une version de l'affaire des "chemins de fer" belges (I868-i869) '. PP. (July-September1944). 9 (Les Belles Lettres. (1940). Etuded'histoire et economique sociale(I94I). 218-34. 1940). 6 Ibid. L'homme la mer). 'La population rurale de la Cochinchine'. 288 -3(t. (1945).8 MAURICE LE LANNOU. PP. 1. MARCEL BLANCHARD.tinder the heading 'France' in the regionalsection. PP.(Iq. 274-93. (1942). 219-33. Duveau's masterly than infeormed intelligence. PP.18 19 ANTOINE PERRIER. 5 (Chartres:Imprimerie Durand. 2 Used fromI850 by Louis Blanc (Annales.1940). naturels. by study.A. TtIls[I):rn1-NioIL u c1 St . 302 and PP.Uneindustrie la couture e'volue. (Same publisher. L'artisanat ses actuels. By the same writer.Editions Delmas.10 HENRI LABOURET. 'Le chemin de ferde Paris A Toulouse. II. 214. Bailliere. A. DUCHEMIN. 1941). ISNARD. Shows that the Sahel is a regionof human and not of naturalgeography. haute parisienne. 1939 Bibliobgrple)hi gcoapral)hilue graphie hurmainc in thfie gcmral section. 8 (J. Paysans d'Afrique Noire. . 7-25. problemes PAUL COUTIN.13 H.' 'Sur le mot "capitalisme.6 et ERIC DARDEL.-48 and 154 plates.'6 L.A. 220. Pdtres paysans la de et A. PP. 10 (A. 133. La Gare du Nord(in Paris). ( s I bid. and Otherwise onlya fewarticles farless importance of need be noticed: E. PP.1 SILBERNER. BLACHE. headed 'geointeriiationiale. 1941). 6 (Bordeaux Publications de la Faculte des Lettres. en La Terre l'Homme Extreme et Orient. La notion de d'exploitation agricolefamiliale: l'exemple la Limagne. L'Ile dePdques.7 RENE' CLOZIER. PP. La Tunisie orientale etBasse (Sahel Steppe). 'La question pastorale en Afriqueoccidentale'. Vigne colonisationAlgerie et en (I88o-I947).H. JEAN DESPoIs. a Lyon et les problemesferroviaires la Monarchiede Juiilet'. PP. 1940. See also J.G. " (Gallimard.14 WEULERSSE.I94I)./) pp. on railway history GUENEAU. PP.ibid. Le PaysdesAlaouites. i940). 12 (Tours: Arrault. 308 and i6 plates. pp.G. jurlt ds iiateaux pp. sous PP. PP. For further see consultation. Cf.HISTORT OF FRANCE and contributed themyths the 87 Commune.'2 Sardaigne. 14 (Gallimard: CollectionL'Espece humaine.G. PH.not less painstaking exhibits felicitous a combination history. (i946). 134). ME'TRAUX. pp. I I 7' MARCEL EMERIT 'Les methodes coloniales de la France sous le Second Empire '. with an atlas of 2I plates. (I d IJ6) PP* 13)-13 PP. pp. Colin. 6i6 (Faculte des Lettresd'Alger). La pdche en harenguiereFrance. the I and 1940-1944 (I947). n 1S11."' JACQUES du rural limousin. It willbe seenthat to of Empire.pp. pratiques 1 R. viii+364. 294. Ili-Iss. 25-44. 36 plates and one map. 16-33' l/WU/Cv (947i .I1940). 1(d [4[) d dc I itoini Se (G. 1940). La coteatlantique la Loirea la Gironde Les aspects de (I.(. (1942). IO2-.

and LEON LEMMONIER.I38-4I 4 Ibid. pp. I4I-7. I945). 3 Ibid. (I947).'7 for l'orenCalifornie (Gallimard. Histoire du catholicisme social en France(de l'encyclique Rerum novarumd l'encyclique Quadragesimoanno).G. LUCIEN FEBVRE. PP. Pp. 2 Preface by Andre Siegfried(Delagrave. 6 Ibid.428 and pp. Cf.'6 'Recherches et enquetes demographiques:les migrations fran~aisesvers le 'Les fondements d'une geographic sociale de la bourgeoisie fran~aise. Etudesde Sociologie Nationaledes Sciences dlectorale (Cahiersde la Fondation Politiques. 5 Annales (I947).to whomwe owe an engaging studyofpublic opinion in France in which social and economicevolution.72 GEORGES THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW HOOG. (1947).1 ROGER THABAULT. routes. (1947). I53-70. hommes. PP. 350.we mustmentionthe revivalof the studiesin electoralsociology and at d'Etudes politiques theUniversity Paris. 455-63. Cf.'3 et 'Les leconsd'un denombrement: i846 en Anjou. Louis CHEVALIER.'8 'Demographiedu grandtroncferre Sud-EstParis-Lyon-Mediterranee. La rue'e I. PP. 'Ce grand personnage historique? L'ecole primaire'. Cf. (I945). PP I 39-43. PP. vers nouveau monde aux XIXe et XXe siecles. are not neglected.capital ofa cantonin the department Deux-Sevres). the same writer's 'Les Bretons en Anjou'.2 of In closingwe should like to draw attentionto the articlesin which Abel 9Chatelain combineddemographic has studieswithsocial history: 'Archiveset demographic: initiative individuelle migration. 90. pp. 252. I27-72. 6i-6. (I946). I944). PP. PP. 12 La politique sous despartis la IIIe Republique.'9 sur 'Influencede l'apportetranger les densites populationdu Midi mediterde raneen."'on in of geography the Institution of theinitiative FrangoisGoguel. PP. 35-82. 266-71I ' Ibid.edited by G. i) (A. 8 Annales (1947). and II(I933-9) (Editionsdu Seuil. PP. Colin.'4 'Un typede migration temporaire actuelle: la migration viagere.I (I87 I-1932). (I946). (I946). 'L'emigration fransaise au XIXe siecle' moderne in the Etudesd'histoire above-mentioned. xiii+376. Annales (1945). A."5 'Cette nouvellevenue: la geographic sociale. Dolleans (Domat-Montchretien. Monvillage. Bourgin and Ed. 9 Les Etudes rhodaniennes "' Ibid. PP.5-3I. I947). ecole ses son ses (deals with Mazieres en Gatine. includingunpublisheddocuments the chapterson French emigration.) . PP.4I I-I6. 11 Cf. especiallyforthe 12 period I 914-39."10 Lastly. I942). Paris 1 Collection d'Histoire sociale.

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