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IMPORTANCE OF COOLING WATER TREATMENT WITH RESPECT TO WATER

CONSERVATION THROUGH VARIOUS TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE FOR


LOW AND HIGHER COC(CYCLES OF CONCENTRATION) WITH COST EFFCTIVE
PERFORMANCE,MONITORING AND CONTROLS.

Looking into the present scenario of increasing demand of water and the
depleting water tables we as a prudent human being really need to work
extensively so that we take care of our present demand and the progenies in
the future. As the water is the necessity of all the industries specially the Power
industry. We can use water in a more cost effective manner means of output
with lesser inputs. The higher Cycles of operation in the circulating water which
not only saves water but also reduces the effective cost of cooling water
treatment and in turn water usages. A few case studies are being given
hereunder discussing various problems and their solutions regarding the water
chemistry with successful implementation.

With the latest developments in the field we can operate the cooling water at
very high cycles of concentrations without any impact on performance.

1. CASE STUDIES ON A BRACKISH WATER SYSTEM OF STATE ELECTRICITY BOARD WITH


EFFECTIVE CONDENSER PERFORMANCE BY HIGH STRESS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
AND LATEST OXIDATIVE ALTERNATIVES FOR THOROUGH MICROBIOLOGICAL
CONTROL.

High TDS load in brackish water cooling system is a major concern in all
industrial cooling water system, particularly in power plants where the
condenser utilizes large quantities of such water. The performance of the
condenser is affected by the fouling /deposition in the cooling water tubes
causing reduced heat transfer rates and drop in vacuum, leading to plant
load limitation. This has an adverse impact on the overall operating costs apart
from adding to the damage caused by an already precarious power situation
in the country. Appropriate mechanical design and application of advanced
high performance polymer treatment minimizes the deposition and improves
the condenser performance, there by reducing the cost of operation. This
case study in a 75x3MW power plant in Western India where proper program
selection as well as effective application, monitoring and control, helped in
improving the condenser performance restoring power generation.

Background

Deposition and fouling in the condenser were major problems faced by the
75x3MW power plant using brackish water for condenser cooling. Each unit is
catered to by a dedicated cooling tower ie, three cooling towers for the three
units. Improper water treatment had caused deposition in the condenser,
leading to a drop in the vacuum and eventually affecting the plant load. This
necessitated the use of two cooling towers with an additional pump to run one
unit, there by increasing the cost of operation. In this arrangement, condenser
vacuum in a single running unit was around 0.78 kg /cm2 and the plant load
was about 68MW.

After evaluating the water quality, Ashland Drew’s computer aided program
evaluation software –On Guard TM” model was used to identify the limiting
factors and select the proper chemistry required to address the issue.
Chembond Drewtreat Limited, a joint venture between Chembond Chemicals
Limited (India) and Ashland Speciality Chemicals, USA, was entrusted with
package treatment program to improve the condenser performance and
monitor the treatment program.

Effectively Controlling Deposition Chemical Treatment Methods

The traditional method of using a regular Phosphonate- compound with


chlorine to control the deposition was found to be ineffective for the brackish
water quality as make up to the cooling water system. Awareness about the
importance of using advanced high- performance polymer in a total
treatment package becomes necessary as:

• Traditional polymers with phosphate are unable to restrict the


precipitation of dissolved solids on the heat transfer surfaces, in spite of
the noble- metallurgies employed.
• Chlorine on its own in unable to prevent the formation of biofilm in the
absence of a biodispersant. This results in fouling in the system and
affects heat transfer
• Proper control and monitoring of the water parameters enhances
system cleanliness

Consequently, Chembond Drewtreat Limited utilized Ashland‘s computer –


aided program evaluation software – On Guard TM to identify the limiting
factors and select a proper treatment program to overcome them. The On
Guard TM results indicated that the brackish water quality being used as
make up to the cooling tower required the use of advanced high-
performance polymers to address precipitation of dissolved solids, especially
iron and CaCO3.

The results are as follows:

• The formation of carbonate alkalinity leads to the deposition of calcium


and magnesium carbonate in the cooling water system. This is more
predominant in brackish water where the concentration of calcium and
magnesium is very high. Hence, it is desirable to control the pH of the
circulating water in the range where potential for carbonate alkalinity is
minimized, which in this case is less than 7.8pH

Based on the modelling, the On Guard TM, which recommends the use of
specific technologies for selected water chemistry, the program identified the
use of advanced organophosphonate in combination with high-performance
polymers to be used for the brackish water treatment.

The program selected consisted of:

• Antiscalant: advanced organophosphonate – based product to


maintain residual as per the computer modelling of 0.3ppm to control
calcium carbonate scale.
• High performance polymer 1: the high performance co-polymer residual
requirement for calcium phosphate and CaSO4 dispersion/Scale
control, as per the computerized modelling when used alone is around
0.7.
• High performance polymer-2: the high-performance Ter-polymer residual
requirement to control deposition of silica and iron fouling, as per the
computerized modeling when used alone is around 0.2.
• Copper inhibitor oxidant-stable Azole- based product to maintain a
residual of 0.7ppm is used to control copper corrosion.

Enhancing the efficiency of chlorine


A bio- dispersant should be added in combination with high performance
polymer program to assist in penetrating the exoploymer protective coating of
the biofilms. This allows efficient diffusion of micro biocides like chlorine in to the
biomass.

Monitoring and control parameters


The monitoring of circulation water parameters on a regular basis and control
within the parameters guidelines generated through the On Guard TM
modeling is important. for the circulating water were finalized based on the
brackish water quality being used as make up.

Result
A baseline date was generated for monitoring the effectiveness of treatment
performance it was decided that the plant performance in the period before
the initial cleaning and start up would be used as the baseline.

Parameter Unit Range


Ph - 7.2-7.6
Conductivity Micromhos <65,000
M-Alkalinity PPM, CaCO3 <150
Chloride PPM,CL <30,000
Total Hardness PPM, CaCO3 <15,000
Calcium Hardness PPM,CaCO3 <10,000
Silica PPM,SIO2 <100
Sulphate PPM,SO4 <5,000
COC - 2.5
Status before implementation of treatment

Of the three units, two units were under shutdown (R& M) and only one was
under operation. The initial status of the unit running before implementing the
treatment program was:
• Average vacuum = -0.78kg/cm2
• Average load = 68MW
• Average exhaust steam temperature = 68*C
• Number of cooling water pumps in operation =3
• Number of cooling towers in operation =2

Remarks
• In spite of operating an additional cooling tower and cooling water
pump, the condenser vacuum was low and the plant was forced to
operate at a reduced load.
• The system had adopted organophosphonate treatment and
chlorination. However, condenser scaling was frequent and had to be
cleaned with acid and high-pressure hydro jetting regularly.
• The condenser cleaning frequency was once in two months.

Implementation of the advanced treatment program


Specially formulated dispersants were used for initial cleaning of the system
under controlled conditions. Immediate improvement was observed in the
plant operation after the initial cleanup. The plant performance improved and
the key operating parameters of the running unit were as under:
Sl. Before CW Treatment in After CW Treatment in Remarks
No. Aug 2005 Aug 2005
1 Avg. Vacuum= 0.78 Avg. vacuum= 0.84 Improvement in
kg/cm2 kg/cm2 vacuum by 0.06 kg/cm2
2 Total unit gen = 44000 MW Total unit gen = 50000 Improvement in gen =
MW 6000 MW
3 Avg. Generation=1500MW Avg. Generation = 1700 Improvement in gen
/day MW/day =200 MW/day
4 Aux power consumption = Aux power Reduction in power
1572 MW consumption= 1073 MW consumption = 499 MW
5 Aux power consumption in Aux power consumption Aux power reduction in
Rs. 3442000/- in Rs. 2349000/- Rs. 1093000/-
6 Heat rate =3474 Kcal/Kg. Heat rate= 3175 Reduction in heat
kcal/Kg. rate=299 Kcal/Kg.
7 Lignite consumption= Lignite consumption = Reduction in lignite
1.17MT/MW 1.05 MT/ MW consumed 0.12 MT/MW
8 Turbine efficiency =24.755% Turbine efficiency Improvement in Turbine
=27.086% Efficiency =2.33 %
a) Vacuum = 0.84kg/cm2 c) Exhaust steam temp.=
b) Load =75MW 61*C
d) Number of cooling towers
in operation = 1
These parameters were maintained with the continuous treatment program.
After the other two units were brought online they operated at their rated
output with optimum vacuum in the condenser generating rated power on a
continuous basis.

2. CASE STUDY FOR IMPROVEMENT ON PERFORMANCE OF COOLING TOWER


FILLS THROUGH CHLORINE-DI-OXIDE TECHNOLOGY IN A NORTH INDIA
POWER PLANT.

Background
In one of the power plant in North India the tower fills were getting chocked and
hence causing difficulty in the cooling tower operations be way of low cooling effect
and causing fills to fall due to weight.

Cause and the sequence of choking


This was due to the reason that the tower was induced counter flow type and fills
were used to enhance the cooling by increasing the surface area of the droplets
dripping down. Various steps of the development of chocking were observed to be:

1. Sucking air, dirt and dust from the bottom


2. Water was traveling from the top to bottom through the fills.
3. The thin tubular structures of fills were causing the dust /dust accumulation.
4. This was giving rise to bacterial muck/sludge causing fills to be heavy.
5. Water was getting dried up on the upper portion of these fills
causing CaCO3 deposition.

Based on the detailes of the analysis of the deposit and thickness on the upper layer
the cause for this was attributed to “no treatment in the cooling towers” and
concluded that this accumulation was there since the period of no treatment in the
system.
Non functioning of Oxidizing biocide
The cooling water treatment was implemented in the tower in a later stage but still the
chocking in the tower was the cause of worry, however the condenser performance
improved.
Chlorine was not working well due to its limitation on the Biofilm penetration and
efficiency reduction in the high pH operation.

Hence Chlorine Di-Oxide was used alongwith the biodispersant to enhance the
efficacy of the microbiological control programme. As analysis for the Chlorine di-
Oxide measurement on hourly basis was not feasible alternate method of ORP
(Oxidation and reduction potential) measurement was selected.

1. HOCl- + H++2e- -Æ Cl- +H2O with 1.48 volts


53.5 gms
2. HOBr- + H++2e- -Æ Br- +H2O with 1.48 volts
97 gms
3. 2Cl2 +2e- -Æ 2ClO2 with 0.95 volts
135 Gms.
K Refinery Fouling versus ORP
I
L
650.00 200
L

R
150
A 600.00
T
E
100
550.00

ORP 50
G
FOULING
R 500.00
O
ORP

W 0

T
450.00
H
-50
R
A 400.00
T -100
E

- - 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 350.00
-150

300.00 -200
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Time

By successful implementation of Chlorine –Di-Oxide and the biodispersant really


worked and an improvement in the tower efficiency was visible.

Case studies by
ChembondDrewtreat Limited
EL 71, MIDC Mahape
Navi Mumbai