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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BELGAUM

Sponsored Organization: “Karnataka State Bio energy Department Board


and Karnataka State Council for Science and technology”
A PROJECT REPORT
ON
“EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE
BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL”
Biofuel Projects Sanctioned under 41st Series of Student project
Program: 2017-18. Project proposal reference NO: 41S_B_BE_026
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
For the academic year
2017-18

By

Nouman Talha Adil Nafeez Khan


(1HK15ME412) (1HK14ME065)

Syed Mursaleen Qazi Taufeeq Ahmed


(1HK13ME092) (1HK15ME421)
Under the guidance of
Mr. YOUNUS PASHA
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
H.K.B.K.C.E, BENGALURU

Department of
Mechanical Engineering
HKBK college of Engineering
S.NO. 22/1, Opp Manyatha Tech Park, Nagavara, Bangalore-560045
H.K.B.K COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
22/1, Opp Manyatha Tech Park, Nagavara, Bangalore-560045
Department of Mechanical Engineering

CERTIFICATE

Certified that the project work entitled “EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF


FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED
OIL AS BIOFUEL” is a bonafide work carried out by Nouman Talha Adil
(1HK15ME412), Nafeez Khan (1HK14ME065), Syed Mursaleen Qazi (1HK13ME092),
Taufeeq Ahmed (1HK15ME421) in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Technological
University, Belagum During the year 2018. It is certified that all correction/ suggestion
indicated for the Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the report. The project
report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirement in respect of project
work prescribed for Bachelor of engineering Degree.

Signature of the Guide Signature of the HOD Signature of the Principal


(Asst.Prof.Younus Pasha) ( Prof.Mahaboob Tabriz Basha) (Dr. Muzzamil Ahmed S)

External Viva Signature with Date


Name of the examiners

1.

2.
DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the project work embodied has been carried out by us
and no part of it has been submitted for any degree or diploma of any
institution.

Signature of student
Nouman Talha Adil (1HK15ME412)

Nafeez Khan (1HK14ME065)

Syed Mursaleen Qazi (1HK13ME092)


Taufeeq Ahmed (1HK15ME421)

DEPARMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERIG


H.K.B.K .K COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING BENGALURU -560045

Date:

Place:
ABSTRCT
The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuels resources and the environmental
pollution caused due to the extensive use of these fuels creating a serious requirement in
replacing the fossil fuels by the biofuels. The biofuels has an environmental benefits
compared to any other renewable forms of energy resources. Since it creates the product of
non toxic and biodegradable material it creates an opportunity to clean the polluted
environment caused due to fossil fuels. The products such obtained from the biomass that we
are concentrating on no edible vegetable oils (karanja oil) to use directly in most diesel
engine without requiring extensive engine modification, however the availability of oil to
meet the demand is over a major issues and also the cost of the karanja oil is a major hurdle
to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum based diesel fuel. The high cost of oil
is primarily due to the seasonal availability of fresh seeds, the processing and the
transportation costs; however the cake produced after the extraction of oil is used as
fertilizers.

The karanja oil in its crude from will have organic sticky and wax materials which in turn
results in high viscosity, density and also flash point. To reduce this property the karanja oil
is blended with various proportion of petrol, such as 88% Pongamia + 12% petrol, 86%
Pongamia + 14% petrol, 84% Pongamia + 16% petrol and one more sample is taken which is
100% pongamia. Since petrol is highly solvent in nature the karanja oil can be blended
easily with any proportions required for the study. The sample prepared are subjected for
series of tests to check the quality characteristics by determining some of the
parameters such as kinematic viscosity, density, dynamic viscosity are tested at the
temperature of 35, 40 and 45°C to check its variation in the behavior of each parameters
with temperature and also parameters like flash point, calorific value are tested and
compared with the properties with the diesel fuel.

Running the diesel engine with one of the most desirable proportionate sample and testing the
engine to determine the performance parameters with the same sample and comparing it with
the properties of the diesel fuel. The performance parameters like IP, BP, FP, BSFC ƞ bth,
ƞith, ƞmech are calculated for both diesel and selected Pongamia oil blend sample and the
respective graphs are plotted.

The same engine setup is subject to determine emission characteristics like Hydrocarbon,
C02 , C02, 02, N0X and the respective graphs are plotted to compare with the petroleum
diesel emission.

An outcome of the project will be a fuel which is to be used in C I Engines with minimum
processing cost for fuel and least modification in C I Engine. The fuel produced can be used
successfully as straight fuel in stationary and as well as locomotive C I Engine.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have been fortunate in having received the unstinted co-operation and guidance of many
people in completing the technical seminar. I consider it as a privilege to acknowledge here
the help and guidance extended by each and every one of them.

First of all, we would like to thank Almighty God for the blessing showered and mercy
shown in guiding me through in giving a final shape to the project.

We are grateful to the chairman, Mr. C.M. Ibrahim, for having provided us an opportunity
to emerge as responsible citizens with professional engineering skill and moral ethics.

We are grateful to our director, Mr. C.M. Faiz Mohammad, for having provided us with
excellent facilities in the college during our course.

We are grateful to Dr. S.G. Sreekanteswara Swamy, Executive secretary, KSCST for the
acceptance of this project proposal under 41st series of student project program- 2017-18.

We are indebted to our principal, Dr. Muzzamil Ahmed S, for facilitating a congenial
academic environmental in the college.

We are grateful to our HOD, Mr. Mahaboob Tabriz Basha, for his kind support, guidance and
motivation during the B.E degree course and especially during the course of our project work.

We are immensely indebted to our guide Mr. Younus pasha, for being an ever continuing
source of inspiration and motivation to me in each step of our project.

We are grateful to our lab instructor Mr. Nawaz Ahmed for continuous support and
guidance throughout our project.

We thank our parents, for their valuable support, suggestion and encouragement throughout
our project work.

We also thank all the staff members of the department of mechanical engineering and all
those who have directly or indirectly helped us with their valuable suggestions in the
successful completion of this Project.

-Project Associates

Nouman Talha Adil (1HK15ME412)

Nafeez Khan (1HK14ME065)

Syed Mursaleen Qazi (1HK13ME092)

Taufeeq Ahmed (1HK15ME421)


INDEX
Sl. No. Title Page
No.
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. LITERATURE SURVEY 6
2.1 DIESEL ENGINES 12
2.2 CARNOT CYCLE 12
2.3 DIESEL CYCLE 14
2.4 FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE 15
2.5 PARTICULATES 16
2.6 OXIDES OF NITROGEN 16
2.7 ENERGY CONTENT 16
2.8 EMİSSİON 17
2.9 HEATING OF OIL 17
3. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY 18
3.I OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 18
3.2 METHODOLOGY 19
4. TESTING OF SAMPLES 23
4.1 VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT 23
4.1.1 VISCOSITY DEFINITION 23
4.1.2 KİNEMATIC VISCOSITY 24
4.1.3 DENSITY 31
4.1.4 DYNAMIC VISCOSITY 33
4.2 FLASH POINT TEMPERATURE 35
4.3 CALORIFIC VALUE 38
5. SELECTION OF FUEL AND RUNNING THE ENGINE 51
6. PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR THE STATED ENGINE 55
SETUP
7. EMISSION TEST 70
7.1 EMISSION 70
7.2 EMISSION-TESTİNG 70
7.3 EMISSION MEASUREMENT 71
8. EFFECT OF COMBUSTION ON ENGINE 77
9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 83
10. SCOPE, EXPECTED OUTCOME AND APPLICATIONS 84
11. CONCLUSION 85
12. REFERENCE 96
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. Sl. No. Title Page No.

2.2.1 P-V diagram of Carnot's cycle 12


2.2.2 T-S diagram of the Carnot's cycle 12
2.3 PV and TS diagram of diesel engine 14
2.4 Cross section of diesel engine combustion chamber 15
4.1.2 Saybolt Viscometer 24
4.1.3 Samples used for testing kinematic viscosity 26
4.1.2 Graph of Kinematic viscosity v/s Temperature 29
4.1.3 Density v/s Temperature 31
4.1.4 Graph of Dynamic viscosity v/s Temperature 33
4.2.1 Cleveland (open cup) apparatus 35
4.2.2 Samples prepared for testing flash point 36
4.3.1 Bomb arrangement. 39
4.3.2 Bomb lid with electrode and crucible 39
4.3.3 Bomb calorimeter apparatus 39
4.3.4 Samples prepared for CV testing 43
4.3.5 Test report for 100% Pongamia oil 44
4.3.6 Test report for 88% Pongamia oil + 12% petrol 45
4.3.7 Test report for 86% Pongamia oil + 14% petrol 46
4.3.8 Test report for 84% Pongamia oil + 16% petrol 47
4.3.9 Test report for petrol 48
4.3.10 Test report for petroleum diesel 49
4.3.9 Calorific value v/s type of oil samples 50
5.1 Engine used to test the oil sample 53
5.2 The same engine running with Pongamia oil blend 53
6.1 The engine setup with an alternator and circuits 59
6.2 Engine and alternator 59
6.3 Brake Power v/s Load 65
6.4 Brake thermal efficiency v/s load 66
6.5 Indicated power (IP) v/s load 67
6.6 Indicated thermal efficiency v/s Load 68
6.7 Brake specific fuel consumption vi's load 69
7.1 Gas Analyser 71
7.2 Diesel combustion test report 72
7.3 Pongamia oil 84 % + petrol 16% emission test report 72
7.4 Percentage of Carbon dioxide v/s Emission test results 73
7.5 PPM of Carbon monoxide v/s Emission fest result 74
7.8 Percentage vis Oxygen Emission 75
7.9 PPM v/s Hydro carbon Emission 76
LIST OF TABULAR COLUMN
Table Sl. Title Page No.
No.
4.1.2 Tabular column for Kinematic Viscosity 28
4.1.3 Table for Density of samples 31
4.1.4 Table tor Dynamic viscosity 33
4.2 Flash and fire Point Temperature 37
4.3.1 Calorific Value of samples 43
5.1 Specification of the Engine 52
6.1 Specification of the Engine setup 60
6.2 Table of Readings 64
6.3 Table of Calculations 64
7.1 Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine 71
8.1 Comparison of Pongamia oil blend with Petroleum Diesel 77
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTION
A fuel is defined as a substance that reacts with oxygen to release heat energy. Fossil fuels are
hydrocarbons, primarily petroleum and coal. It forms from the fossilized remains of organic
debris exposure to high pressure in the absence of oxygen beneath the earth cover over
several million years.

Fossil fuels are considered as conventional and non-renewable sources. These are depleting at a
very faster rate because of continuous usage and the use of fossil fuels in any form pose
environmental issues. To reduce pollution, to deal global warming, to save cost involved in the
production, to reuse waste and finally to have more choices alternate fuels are established.
Biofuels are such kind of alternate source of energy produced from modern biological processes.

Biofuels are resulted from plants or from agricultural, industrial wastes and domestic wastes.
Pongamia is one of those biofuels which is considered as prominent alternate fuel for diesel.
Biodiesels can be derived from plant oils and animal fats. Plant oils may be edible or Non-edible.
There are many methods used to convert the raw plant oil into biodiesel.

In India, Jatropha and Pongamia are the leading biodiesel crops. Pongamia oil is extracted from
Millettiapinnata seeds. Millettiapinnata otherwise known as Pongamiapinnata and
Pongamiaglabra are well suited in the tropical and temperate climatic regions of Asia.

In the countries like India usage of edible oil for biodiesel production causes problems such as
the competition with edible oil market which increase cost of oil and biodiesel. Pongamia is a
non-edible type of oil. It is recorded that non-edible crops can be grown in waste land and cost of
cultivation is much lower because these crops can still sustain reasonably high yield without
intensive care.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

Based on global crop production statistics, the country will require tenfold increase in ag-
ricultural production if its total energy demands are to be met using biofuel crops. This will
cause deforestation in some countries and slowdown food production. The waste land areas are
considered as potential niches for promotion of perennial non-edible crops for biofuel, that aid in
restoring afforestation, conservation and environmental friendly energy production.

Approximately 68.35 million hectares’ area of the land is lying as wastelands in India as
reported by Government of India Ministry of Rural Development Department of Land Resources
New Delhi, India. It is estimated that, India has the potential to produce about three million tons
of vegetable oil from nontraditional oil seeds, minor oil seeds and oil seeds of tree origin.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

India is a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol and bio‐fuel is an instrument of clean Development
Mechanisms (CDM) India also can profitably trade carbon credits which may be generated from
using bio‐fuel with the developed countries, apart from curtailing emission of carbon dioxide in
to the atmosphere.

Ethics [a]

1. Biofuels development should not be at the expense of people’s essential rights (including
access to sufficient food and water, health rights, work rights and land entitlements)

2. Biofuels should be environmentally sustainable.


3. Biofuels should contribute to a net reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions and not
exacerbate global climate change.

4. Biofuels should develop in accordance with trade principles that are fair and recognise the
rights of people to just reward (including labour rights and intellectual property rights).

5. Costs and benefits of biofuels should be distributed in an equitable way.


6. If the first five principles are respected and if biofuels can play a crucial role in mitigating
dangerous climate change then, depending on certain key considerations, there is a duty to
develop such biofuels.

Biofuel policy of India [b]

To meet the increasing energy needs of the country and to provide Energy Security, National
Policy on Biofuels was announced in December 2009. The major goals of the policy are
Development and utilization of indigenous non-food feed stocks raised on degraded or waste
lands, thrust on research and development on cultivation, processing and production of biofuels
and a blending mandate of 20% Ethanol and Bio-diesel by 2017.
The government proposes to encourage farmers and landless laborers to plant non-edible oil
seeds to boost the production of bio-diesel and bio-ethanol.The government looks to solve
several problems in the environment, agriculture, and economic domain. Apart from curbing
air pollution from the transportation sector, the government plans to increase employment
opportunities for farmers, especially the ones with little financial means.
To expedite the proliferation of bio-fuel and bio-ethanol across the country, the government will
enhance the incentives for processing and production activities.
The Motors Vehicles Act already allows “conversion of an existing engine of a vehicle to use
biofuels.” Engine manufacturers will be required to make the necessary changes to the engines to
ensure compatibility with biofuels.
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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

Policy Statement of Karnataka [c]

 Only non-edible oil seed would be harnessed for the purpose of producing bio-diesel so
that the edible oil is left for cooking purposes for the people.

 Cultivation of non-edible oil seeds required for bio-diesel would be promoted on dry
land, marginal land, and waste land and degraded forest land, owned by private or
government, including “Block Plantation”. Use of food crop land to grow non-edible oil
seeds will be not encouraged, so as not to compromise food security.

 The state will encourage de-oiled cake, a by-product of non-edible oil, to be used as
organic manure.

 The government will encourage public-partnership models in this regard. E.g. long-term
lease of wastelands to private agencies to promote growing of plant species producing
seed will be envisaged.

 The conversion to oil will be encouraged in a time bound and decentralized manner,
where oil seeds collection and processing are promoted in rural areas and small terms.

 Traditional communities involved in oil seeds collection and or oil extraction activities
in rural areas, self-help women groups and local user groups would be encouraged to
participate in the related activities.

 The State will facilitate organizations with suitable expertise, both governmental and
non-governmental to promote research, dissemination, and outreach activities in
promoting bio-fuel use. The State will establish required administrative and fiscal
mechanism to facilitate all the above activities.

Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production [d]

The use of edible vegetable oils and animal fats for biodiesel production has recently been of
great concern because they compete with food materials. As the demand for vegetable oils for
food has increased tremendously in recent years, it is impossible to justify the use of these oils
for fuel use purposes such as biodiesel production. Moreover, these oils could be more expensive
to use as fuel. Hence, the contribution of non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia pinnata and
soapnut will be significant as a non-edible plant oil source for biodiesel production.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

CHAPTER: 2
LITERATURE SURVEYS
P.Brahatheeswaran et al. [1] “Performance and emission characteristics of Bio Diesel
from Pongamia oil, Methanol, Koh and its effect on CI Engine ” Biodiesel is an alternative
fuel formulated exclusively for diesel engines. It is made from vegetable oil or animal fats or it is
the name for a variety of ester based fuels generally defined as the monoalkyl esters made from
vegetable oils through simple transesterification process. It is recommended for use as a
substitute for petroleum based diesel mainly because biodiesel is a renewable, domestic resource
with an environmentally friendly emission profile and is readily biodegradable. Biodiesel is
nontoxic, biodegradable. It reduces the emission of harmful pollutants from diesel engines but
emissions of nitrogen oxides are increased. Biodiesel has a high cetane number. The high cetane
numbers of biodiesel contribute to easy cold starting and low idle noise. The use of biodiesel can
extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating and furthermore, power output are
relatively unaffected by biodiesel.

Sukanta Kumar et al. [2]


“Preparation of Biodiesel from Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) Oil” Biodiesel was prepared
from the non-edible oil of Karanja by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the
presence of NaOH as catalyst. A maximum conversion of 92% (oil to ester) was achieved at
600c. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of biodiesel produced from karanja oil like
viscosity, flash point, fire point, calorific value etc., was found out and compared to the
properties of Indian standard biodiesel.

A.Prabhu et al.[3]
“Effect of Al2O3 Nano additives on the performance and emission
characteristics of Jatropha and Pongamia methyl esters in CI engine” Pongamia oil is
extracted from Millettiapinnata seeds. Millettiapinnata otherwise known as Pongamiapinnata and
Pongamiaglabra are well suited in the tropical and temperate climatic regions of Asia. Jatropha
curcas or simply Jatropha is cultivated in tropical and subtropical climatic regions of the world.
These are a non-edible type of oil. The seeds Jatropha contain about 40% of oil content that
makes them produce a quality biodiesel. Both these type of biodiesel are usable in a normal CI

Gayatri Vaidya et al [4] “Comparative Evaluation of Bioproductivity Studies of


Simarouba, Pongamia and Jatropha for Biodiesel Parameters”

Vegetable oils (triglycerides) are promising feedstock for biodiesel production, since they are
renewable in nature and can be produced on the large scale and are environmental friendly.
Several plant species like Jatropha curcas, Pongamia pinnata, Simarouba glauca, Calophyllum
Dept of mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 5
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

inophyllum, Maduca indica, Hevea brasilinsis, Azardirachta indica, Ricinus communis, Shorea
robusta, Mesua ferra, Mallotus phillippinensis, Salvador, Garcinia indica are considered as fuel
crops for biodiesel production. These species are resistant to drought, non-grazing, high seed
yield, a n d sustain their growth in a r i d a n d semiarid a g r o c l i ma t i c c o n d i t i o n s .
Preliminary evaluation of several oil seed crops for their growth, and utilization under agro-
forestry system has been recorded (14) most of these plants have multiple uses such has
commercial, pharmaceutical, pesticidal properties and have capability to grow in the arid and
semiarid regions.

Venkata Ramesh Mamilla et al. [5]


Biodiesel was prepared from the non-edible oil of Karanja by transesterification of the crude oil
with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. A maximum conversion of 92% (oil to ester)
was achieved at 600c. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of biodiesel produced from
karanja oil like viscosity, flash point, fire point, calorific value etc., was found out and compared
to the properties of Indian standard biodiesel.

Younus Pasha et al. [6] has made a thorough study on straight vegetable oils (SVOs) as the
best alternative energy options in C I engine. However, the high viscosity of SVOs often causes
blockages if it is fed at room temperature to the engine. In this work the viscosities and flash
point temperatures were found for the three most popular non-edible oils such as Pongamia oil,
Castor oil and Neem oil with 3% or 5% of Kerosene or Petrol as additives. Pongamia oil with
3% Petrol as the additives was tested in a diesel engine and found to be a satisfactory
replacement of diesel fuel requiring no further heating of the fuel mixture. Therefore the paper
addresses the task of developing an alternative fuel which can be used directly into a diesel
engine without further processing or heating. Such an engine can be suitable to use for irrigation
water pumps to run on locally obtainable non edible oil, such as Pongamia oil with small
proportion of additives such as Petrol.

Pranab K. Barua et al. [7] the biodiesel that are produced from Jatropha seeds is
comparable with the biodiesel marketed by the Numaligarh Refinery. Assam biodiesel B-100 is
of slightly higher density, of slightly lower cetane number, and of slightly lower final boiling
temperature have evaluated. Experiments have shown the superiority of Jatropha biodiesel over
conventional diesel as far as sulphur content is concerned .The carbon residue is slightly higher
than that of biodiesel. These points lead to conclude that biodiesel produced from Jatropha seeds
found in Assam is of good quality.

K. V. Yathish et al. [8] have evaluated the biodiesel recognition as a clean alternative fuel or
as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emission from CI engine and minimum cost so there is need
for producing biodiesel other than from seed oil. In this study the diary waste scum were used as
the raw material to produce biodiesel. Scum oil methyl ester (SOME) is produced in laboratory
Dept of mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 6
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

by tranestrification process. The performance parameters elucidated includes brake thermal


efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature.

VijittraChalatlon et al. [9] have evaluated the study on non-edible vegetable oil produced
from Jatropha fruits as a substitute fuel for diesel engines and its usability was investigated as
pure oil and as a blend with petroleum diesel fuel. A direct injection (DI) diesel engine was
tested using diesel, Jatropha oil, and blends of Jatropha oil and diesel in different proportions.
At low load operations, CO2 emission with blends was lower than that of diesel, whereas, at high
loads, CO2 emission became higher with a higher percentage of Jatrophaoil in the blends. CO
emission with blends was much higher than that of diesel; the higher the percentage of
Jatrophaoil in the blend, the higher the CO emission.

P. Nakpong et al. [10] has made a thorough study on optimization of biodiesel from
Jatrophacurcas oil, crude Jatrophacurcas oil which was used as feedstock for biodiesel
production by alkali-catalysedmethanolysis. The reaction in the presence of NaOH as catalyst
was carried out to investigate the optimum conditions and to study the effects of variables on the
reaction. The results reveal that all of the reaction variables in this study had positive effects on
the reaction.

Ravichandra V Koti1 et al. [11] have studied the production of biodiesel from Safflower
Oil and Milk Scum Oil meeting with international standards. The mixture of Safflower Oil -Milk
Scum Oil meeting with methyl ester was used as a new fuel. The performance and emission test
were carried out in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The HC, CO
and CO2 emissions were found to be less than that of neat diesel fuel except NOx. Break
Thermal Efficiency of biodiesel and its blends was found to be less than diesel fuel, Exhaust Gas
Temperature, Break Specific Fuel Consumption for biodiesel and its blends were found to be
higher than diesel fuel.

Alireza Shirneshan et al. [12] have evaluated the study on a 4-cylinder direct-injection
diesel engine using biodiesel as an alternative fuel and their blends to investigate the emission
characteristics of the engine under four engine loads (25%, 40%, 65% and 80%) at an engine
speed of 1800 rev/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fuelled with diesel and four
different blends of diesel/ biodiesel (B20, B40, B60 and B80) made from waste frying oil and the
results were analyzed. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of hydrocarbon (HC) and
CO and increased emissions of CO2 and NOx. This study showed that the exhaust emissions of
diesel/biodiesel blends were lower than those of the diesel fuels.

Prof. Naveen Kumar et al. [13] has made a thorough study on most versatile engine as
diesel engine, which are mostly using as main prime movers in transportation. The mixture
includes 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (v/v %) blends of Jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME)and ethanol
Dept of mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 7
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

were prepared and further compared with neat diesel and 100 %JOME in terms of performance
and emission characteristics. Transesterification process was used to produce methyl ester from
oil. From the experimental trial it has been found that Brake thermal efficiency of the engine is
higher for all the blends compare to baseline diesel fuel. At full load condition BTE of 20 %
blends of JOME and ethanol is 12.1% higher than that of neat diesel fuel. At 100 % loading
condition neat JOME showed BTE of 23.91%.Brake Specific energy Consumption (BSEC) was
highest for 100% JOME and lowest for 20 % blend.

S.M. Ashrafur Rahman et al. [14] has made a thorough study on an engine running at
low load and low rated speed is said to be subject to high idling conditions, a mode which
represents one of the major problems currently the transport industry is facing. During this time,
the engine cannot work at peak operating temperature. This leads to incomplete combustion and
emissions level increase due to having fuel residues in the exhaust. Although biodiesel blends
decrease carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions, they increase nitrogen oxides emissions
in high idling modes. Compared to pure diesel fuel, fuel consumption also increases under all
high idling conditions for biodiesel blends; with a further increase occurring as blend percentage
rises.

Amit Pal et al. [15] has made a thorough study energy source in India and preferred as
automotive fuel. In present paper the engine performance and exhaust emissions of jatropha oil
biodiesel blends, were investigated on a 39 kW multi cylinder engine, in B10 to B30 percent
blends and compared with the petroleum diesel fuel. The experimental results show that the
engine power and torque of the mixture of oil–diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from
diesel fuel and the amounts of smoke, CO and HC exhaust emissions are lower than those of
diesel fuel, except slight increase of NOx emissions at higher loads.

Mohammed E.L. Kassaby et al. [16] has made a thorough study on wasted cooking oil
from restaurants which was used to produce neat (pure) biodiesel through transesterification, and
then used to prepare biodiesel/diesel blends. The effect of blending ratio and compression ratio
on a diesel engine performance has been investigated. Emission and combustion characteristics
were studded when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B50) and
normal diesel fuel (B0) as well as when varying the compression ratio from 14 to 16 to 18. The
result shows that the engine torque for all blends increases as the compression ratio increases.
The bsfc for all blends decreases as the compression ratio increases and at all compression ratios
bsfc remains higher for the higher blends as the biodiesel percent increase.

Dr. S.V. Prakash et al. [17] has made a thorough study on bio fuel which provides a
sustainable solution to energy crisis by displacing oil use in agriculture and transport sector.
Biogas is an obvious choice and has a promising future in India due to tropical location, very
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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS O F FUEL PRO PERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIO UR WITH PO NGAMIA SEED O IL AS BIO FUEL

high population of livestock and wide variety of substrates available in abundance for biogas
generation. In addition to gas around 350 million tons of organic manure would also be
produced. If organic wastes such as sewage, municipal solid waste, waste from industrial
effluents can also be taken as feedstock to increase biogas potential further. Current study deals
with these aspects and also effective utilization of slurry which is the byproduct of bio-
gasification.

Dr. R Suresh et al. [18] has made the thorough study on crude mixed oil which was used as
feedstock for biodiesel production by Homogeneous Catalyst. The variables included methanol
to oil molar ratios, catalyst concentrations, reaction temperature and reaction times. Gas
chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of mixed oil. The optimum
conditions for mixed oil biodiesel production were a catalyst concentration of 1.0% w/w of oil, a
reaction temperature of 70 ºC, a reaction time of 30minutes 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at
400rpm. The methyl ester content under these optimum conditions was 95.10%, and all the
measured properties of mixed oil biodiesel met the ASTM standards.

Dr. A C Tiwari et al. [19] has made a thorough study on experimental investigations which
was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethanol to vegetable oil on performance and emission
characteristics of a compression ignition engine. Use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) for diesel
engine is limited due to their higher viscosity and poor volatility. In long term, SVO exhibits
injector coking, fuel pump damage and fuel filter clogging, etc. To reduce the viscosity and to
increase the volatility of the fuel, an ethanol is added to the vegetable oil so that thermal
efficiency and emissions can be improved. During investigation, blends of vegetable oil with
different proportions of ethanol are prepared. Blends BSVO-80 and BSVO-70 are prepared using
20% and 30% of ethanol with SVO respectively. It could be concluded that blend BSVO-70 can
be a good substitute for diesel.

D.K.Ramesha et al. [20] has made a thorough study on the non-renewable energy resource
which is in most demand, because of its easy availability and cheap processing methods. The
diesel engines are also in more demand nowadays because of its higher thermal efficiency,
longer engine life and more robustly built in contrast to the petrol engines. All these act as
contributing factors for the increase in demand for diesel. Non-edible oils such as Jatropha,
Neem, Pongamia, Mahua etc. The exhaust emission gas is tested for HC, CO, CO2 and UBHC
and the variation of these parameters with the variation in blend percentages and loads. The
decrease in the UBHC, CO and CO2 is seen at 50% load condition though no definite values are
observed at no load conditions.

N. P. Rathod et al. [21] has made a thorough study on vegetable oil which poses some
problems when subjected to prolonged usage in compression ignition engines because of high
viscosity as reported by different researchers. The research on alternative fuels for compression
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ignition engine has become essential due to depletion of petroleum products and its major
contribution for pollutants, where vegetable oil promises best alternative fuel. Various fuel inlet
temperatures, blending ratio, viscosity and various loading conditions are some of the parameters
that need to be analyzed for better engine performance and reduced emissions. In this study, a
review of research papers on various operating parameters have been prepared for better
understanding of operating conditions and constrains for methyl ester kusumoil and its blends
fuelled compression ignition engine.

Bobade S.N. and Khyade V.B. [22] Pongamia pinnata can be a definite source of raw
material due to its easy availability in wild. Pongamia pinnata is drought resistant, semi-
deciduous, nitrogen fixing leguminous tree. It grows about 15-20 meters in height with a large
canopy which spreads equally wide. After transesterification of crude oil shows excellent
properties like calorific value, iodine number, cetane number and acid value etc.

R. N. Singh et al. [23] has made a thorough study on SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) of
Jatropha which was de-waxed and de-gummed as per the standard procedure, and was tested in
irrigation pump set, kerosene cook stove and kerosene lamp. It was found that Jatropha oil could
be successfully used as irrigation pump fuel, however at interval of every 25 - 30 hours of
operation, fuel injection nozzle and head needs to be cleaned in spite of maintaining the Jatropha
oil temperature between 80 to 90 °C. No significant, wear and tear in the engine component such
as liner, piston, and piston rings, except bore gauge was observed. However for kerosene lamp it
can be used with a blending of 10 % Jatropha oil and 90% kerosene.

Summary of literature survey:


From the literature survey it is clear that the production of biodiesel is possible using the non-
edible vegetable oil, either by subjecting non-edible vegetable oil to chemical reaction called
transestrification process to produce biodiesel or using the straight vegetable oil to run the engine
by least modification in the chemical property of the oil and the detailed study of properties of
pongamia oil. The several studies showing the performance parameters of the engine running
with blended biodiesel with the different proportion of additives such as petroleum diesel etc,
testing and implementation of straight vegetable oil to run the engine either by adding some
additives such as petrol, kerosene etc to reduce the viscosity or by subjecting the non- edible
vegetable oil to dewaxing and degumming processes.

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2.1 Diesel engines


The concept for the first diesel engine materialized when Rudolf Diesel realized that
the weakest link of the steam engine was the boiler. The best efficiencies achievable by the
steam engine (maximum of 10%, generally 1 to 2% at the turn of the previous century) were
nowhere near the ideal predicted by the Carnot cycle. Fig 2.2.1 gives the pressure-volume
diagram of Carnot cycle and Fig 2.2.2 gives the temperature-entropy diagram of Carnot
cycle. He therefore conceived the idea of an engine that burns coal dust directly in the
cylinder itself.

2.2 Carnot cycle:

Fig-2.2.1: P–V diagram of Carnot cycle

Fig- 2.2.2: T-S diagram of the Carnot’s cycle

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

To implement the Carnot cycle, Diesel reverted to the four-stroke cycle that was considered
‘‘state-of-the-art’’ since Nikolaus Otto’s day. He believed isothermal combustion at a
maximum of 800°C would enable him to keep the thermal load in the engine low enough for
it to run without cooling. This limiting temperature required compressions of approximately
250 atmospheres which was considerably more than what was possible at that time. With a
Carnot efficiency of approximately 73% at 800°C, he expected maximum losses of 30 to
40% in real operation, which would correspond to a net efficiency of 50%. When the engine
was finally built, with a collaboration between Diesel and the engineers from the company
MAN, the maximum pressure was lowered from 250 atmospheres to 90 atmospheres and
later to 30 atmospheres, while the compound engine’s three cylinders as originally planned
by Diesel were reduced to one high pressure cylinder and coal dust was abandoned as the
fuel in favour of a waste product from the refining of petroleum for the extraction of petrol .

The first prototype of the diesel engine proved auto-ignition, which was a key selling
point later, even though the cylinder blew up because of the use of gasoline. This version
was actually motored that is the shaft was rotated using an external drive. The second started
idling by itself while the third provided the engineers with useful indicator diagrams on
loading.
The War Years saw a large number of diesel engines being manufactured in many
countries. Some engines also used locally available vegetable oils as diesel substitutes to tide
over shortages of petroleum-diesel. The diesel engine's durability, high torque capacity, and
fuel efficiency ensured its role in heavy-duty applications in agriculture, construction,
industrial, and on-highway transport for more than 50 years.

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2.3 Diesel Cycle


Diesel cycle was introduced by Rudolph Diesel, which is applicable for slow speed
compression ignition engines or diesel engines. Heat addition takes place at constant
pressure and hence the cycle is also known as constant pressure cycle. This cycle consists of
two reversible adiabatic, one constant pressure process and one constant volume process.
Heat rejection takes place during constant volume process.

Fig- 2.3: PV and TS diagram of diesel engine


Different processes are shown on the P-V and T-S diagram in the Fig-2.3: respectively.
Process 1-2: Isentropic compression.
Process 2-3: Constant pressure heat addition.
Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion.
Process 4-1: Constant volume heat rejection

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

2.4 Fuels for Diesel engines


Diesel engines are energy converters that convert chemically bound fuel energy into mechanical
energy (effective work) by supplying the heat released by combustion in an engine to a
thermodynamic cycle. They are also known as a compression ignited engines as air enters the
cylinder through the intake system and compressed to a high temperature and pressure. Then
finely atomized fuel is sprayed into the air at high velocity. When it comes into contact with the
high-temperature air, the fuel vaporizes quickly, mixes with the air, and undergoes a series of
spontaneous chemical reactions that result in a self-ignition. The power of the engine is
controlled by varying the volume of fuel injected into the cylinder. Fig 2.4 shows a cross section
of the diesel combustion chamber with the fuel injector positioned between the intake and
exhaust valves.

Fig-2.4: Cross section of diesel engine combustion chamber

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

2.5 Particulates
The heterogeneous fuel-air mixture in the cylinder during the diesel combustion process
contributes to the formation of soot particles which is one of the main issues with diesel
engines. These particles are formed in high-temperature regions of the combustion chamber
in which the air-fuel ratio is fuel-rich and consist mostly of carbon with small amounts of
hydrogen and inorganic compounds. Since they are highly oxygenated, SVOs reduce the
amount of soot produced.

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

2.8 Emission
Under ideal circumstances, CO2 and water vapour ought to be the only emissions from a
diesel engine. However, if sulphur is present in the fuel, it will be oxidized to sulphur dioxide
and sulphur trioxide (together known as SOx). SOx react with water vapour to for m
sulphuric acid and other sulphate compounds which then come down as acid rain. The
sulphates also form particles in the exhaust and elevate the exhaust particulate level. The
presence of sulphur in the exhaust is also detrimental to catalytic after treatment as sulphur is
a powerful catalyst poison and limits the options available for controlling emissions in
engines. The amount of sulphur allowed in diesel is being progressively reduced over the last
two decades although it has still not been introduced in India. On the other hand, decreasing
sulphur concentrations in petroleum-diesel results in a drastic drop in the fuel's lubricity and
requires other additives to compensate for this. SVOs contain almost no sulphur while
retaining a high lubricity which is a huge advantage that these fuels have over petroleum-
diesel.

2.9 Heating of oil

Heated SVOs retain all the advantages of biodiesel with some of the disadvantages such as
the necessity of equipment for chemical processes to produce heated fuel. This means the
production and use of these oils as fuels can be completely decentralized. This is especially
relevant in a country such as ours where a vast majority of the population (70%) lives in rural
areas, often without properly accessible roads and no connectivity to the central grid for
electricity. At present, all technologies for heating oil use inline heaters that are either
inefficient due to the high rate of heating required for inline heating, or involve expensive
heat exchangers that use waste exhaust gases but struggle to maintain the inner wall
temperature for the oil. Inline heating is however, unnecessary for most medium-speed
engine applications.

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 3
OBJECTIVES AND METHEODOLOGY

3.1 Objectives of the project:


i. To predict suitable non-edible vegetable oils as straight fuel in the compression
ignition engine.
ii. To characterize the blended vegetables oil to check the feasibility as alternative fuel
based on their properties.
iii. To establish the test facilities at 60%, 80% and full load condition.
iv. To determine the performance parameters based on which feasibility can be claimed
at 60%, 80% and full load conditions.
v. To analyze the various performance parameters with the conventional petroleum
diesel.
vi. To determine the emission characteristics of the selected fuel sample and compare
with the emission characteristic of petroleum diesel.

The main objective of the project is to predict suitable non-edible vegetable oil as a straight
fuel in the compression ignition engine without any alteration in the engine. To characterize
the blended vegetable oil to check the feasibility as an alternative fuel based on
their property to run the diesel engine. The selected oil blend was used to run the diesel
engine to check the feasibility at 60%, 80% and full load condition. From the testing the
readings are used to determine the performance parameters based on which feasibility can be
claimed at 60%, 80% and full load conditions. The diesel sample is also considered for the
testing for the comparison between the performance parameter of petroleum diesel and
pongamia oil blend. The selected sample is subjected to emission test at full load
condition and compared with the emission characteristic of petroleum diesel.

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

3.2 Methodology: Pongamia oil 100 %

Pongamia oil 88%+petrol 12%


PREPERATION OF OIL SAMPLES

Pongamia oil 86% + petrol 14%

Pongamia oil 84%+ petrol 16%

TESTING FOR THE PROPERTIES OF VISCOSITY KINEMATIC


OIL SAMPLES VISCOSITY
DENSITY
DYNAMIC
FLASH POINT VISCOSITY

CALORIFIC
VALUE
SELECTION OIL
SAMPLE AND RUNNING THE
ENGINE PONGAMIA OIL BLEND IS
SELECTED

TESTING THE ENGINE TO INDICATED POWER


DETERMINE THE PERFORMENCE
PARAMETER BREAK POWRE

BSFC
EMISSION TESTING
MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

THERMAL EFFECIECNY

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

3.2. Methodology

STEP-1: Preparation of fuel samples


In the present work Pongamia seed oil is selected to prepare the fuel samples with the varied
proportionate of Petroleum gasoline i.e Petrol. Based on the past literature it has been
concluded that C I engine can be run by vegetable oils with the blended proportion of Petrol
up to 5% [least %].

In the present work four experimental trials has to conduct for the following blended
proportion of petrol with pongamia oil.

(i). Pongamia oil [88%] + Petrol [12%]

(ii). Pongamia oil [86%] + Petrol [14%]

(iii). Pongamia oil [84%] + Petrol [16%]

(iv). Pure Pongamia oil [100%]

STEP-2: Measurement of blended fuel properties


In order to conclude the feasibility of blended vegetable oil with petrol as Diesel substitute
the following properties has to determine by using various experimental setups.

At the temperature 35℃, 40℃ and 45℃.

(a). Viscosity

(i) Kinematic viscosity

(ii) Dynamic viscosity

(b). Density

(c). Flash Point temperature

(d). Calorific Value

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

STEP-3: Selection of fuel and running the engine


 On the basis of measured properties for the stated temperatures, the blended fuel
samples has to select which exhibits more similar results as that of the petroleum
Diesel.
 Run the 10 HP Diesel Engine [4-stroke, single cylinder, water cooled] at
Different load condition with selected fuel sample for six hours.
 Run the above stated setup of engine at full load conditions with the selected fuel
sample for six hours.

STEP-4: Calculate the Performance parameters and emission


characteristics for the above stated engine setup.

The deciding performance parameters required to validate the best prepared fuel sample are
as follows

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

STEP-5: The emission characteristics evaluated for the above stated conditions are
1. Hydrocarbons (HC)

2. CO

3. CO2

4. O2

STEP-6: Results and discussions.


 Plot the characteristics curve for the optimum results.
 Plot the curve which gives the detailed comparison at two different load conditions
for the prepared samples.
 Graphical result analysis of the conventional fuel with the best prepared

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 4
TESTING OF SAMPLE

4.1. VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS


In this project experimental investigation has been carried out to develop the suitable
proportion of oil samples with petrol as a diesel substitute in CI engine on the viscosity
values. Kinematic viscosity of any fuel is an essential parameter which gives the flow
character of the fuel. Here in this project the experiment is carried in Saybolt viscometer to
determine kinematic viscosity over a different range of temperature.

4.1.1 Viscosity definition:


It is the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid
over another adjacent layer of fluid. Viscosity arises from the directed motion of molecules
past each other and the friction between them. It is the function of temperature and pressure
in the case of gasses and only of temperature in the case of liquids. Viscosity of a liquids
can be changed by varying the temperature.

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

4.1.2. Kinematic viscosity:


It is defined as the ratio between dynamic viscosity and density of fluid.
Kinematic viscosity of any fuel is an essential parameter which gives the flow character of
the fuel. Here in this project the experiment is carried in Saybolt viscometer to determine
kinematic viscosity over a different range of temperature.

Measurement of kinematic viscosity using Saybolt viscometer:

Fig-4.1.2: Saybolt Viscometer


(Courtesy: HKBKCE-EC Lab)
Determination of viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different
temperatures expressed in terms of Saybolt seconds.

APPARATUS : Say Bolt Viscometer, 60ml receiving flask, thermometers & stopwatch.

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

DISCRIPTION:
The apparatus mainly consists of a standard cylindrical oil cup surrounded with a water bath
with an immersion heater and a stirring device. The apparatus is supplied with two S.S.
Orifice jets namely Universal jet & Furol jet, which can be fitted at the bottom of the oil cup
as per our requirement. A rubber cork stopper arrangement is provided also at the bottom to
facilitate start and stop the oil flow from the Viscometer. Two thermometers are provided to
measure water bath temperature and oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask
with a 60-ml marking on the neck is provided to measure 60 ml of oil flow against time. The
oil cup with the water bath is supported on a stand with levelly screws.

PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it
dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the orifice
jet with a fine thread.
2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion.
4) Close the Orifice opening from bottom with the rubber cork provided. Pour oil to be tested
into the strainer by keeping the strainer on the oil cup until the oil fills up in the oil cup as
well as in side well. Withdraw the excess oil in the side well and position the thermometers
in water bath and oil cup.
5) Take a clean dry 60ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center it.
6) Pull the rubber cork open and simultaneously start a stopwatch and allow the oil into the
receiving flask.
7) Adjust the receiving flask (60ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet
strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil surface.
8) Wait till the oil level touches the 60 ml mark, stop the watch and record the time in sec.
9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.

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EXPERIMENT AL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERT IES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WIT H PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

SAMPLES PREPARED FOR TESTING KINEMATIC VISCOSITY:

Fig-4.1.3: Samples used for testing kinematic viscosity

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CALCULATION: At temperature of 35℃

For 100% pongamia oil kinematic viscosity (𝜗) = 0.220t- 135/𝑡 cSt where t >100
= 0.220×145.725− 135/145.725

𝜗 = 31.1331 cSt

For 88% pongamia oil +12% petrol kinematic viscosity (𝜗) =0.226t- 195/𝑡 cSt where t<100
= 0.226×70−195/70

𝜗 = 13.034 cSt

For 86% pongamia oil +14% petrol kinematic viscosity (𝜗) = 0.226t- 195/𝑡 cSt
= 0.226×61−195/61

𝜗 = 10.589 cSt

For 84% pongamia oil +16% petrol kinematic viscosity (𝜗) = 0.226t- 195/𝑡 cSt
= 0.226×49−195/49

𝜗 =7.094 cSt

Similarly, the readings are calculated for 35, 40, 45℃ and values have been tabulated in the
below table.

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

TABULAR COLUMN:

Sample Temperature Proportion of Time taken to Saybolt Kinematic


Sl. no. (°C) Pongamia oil+ run down Universal viscosity
Petrol (ml) 60ml of (sec) (cSt)
sample (t) (t×1.005)
(sec)
1 35 100% pongamia oil 145.72 146.45 31.1
88% pongamia+12% 70 70.35 13.0
petrol
86% pongamia +14% 61 61.30 10.5
petrol
84% pongamia +16% 49 49.24 7.0
petrol
Diesel 33 33.16 1.5
2 40 100% pongamia oil 104.5 105 21.7
88% pongamia+12% 56 56.28 9.17
petrol
86% pongamia +14% 55 55.27 8.8
petrol
84% pongamia +16% 47 47.24 6.47
petrol
Diesel 31 31.16 0.71
3 45 100% pongamia oil 86 86.43 17.16
88% pongamia+12% 48 48.24 6.78
petrol
86% pongamia +14% 51 51.26 7.7
petrol
84% pongamia +16% 45 45.23 5.88
petrol
Diesel 29.7 29.85 0.147

Table no- 4.1.2: Tabular column for kinematic viscosity

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

GRAPH OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY V/S TEMPERATURE:


The graph of kinematic viscosity v/s temperature has been plotted using the above values
tabulated in the table.

35

30
100 pongamia oil

25
88 Pongamia oil+12
Petrol
20

86 Pongamia oil+14
15 Petrol

84 Pongamia oil+16
10 Petrol

Diesel
5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50

Fig-4.1.2: Graph of Kinematic viscosity v/s Temperature

Conclusion for graph: From the above fig 4.1.2, it can be observed that with the increase in
temperature the kinematic viscosity of oil samples and diesel sample are reducing gradually. This
behavior of liquids can be explained using the ideal gas equation as below.

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

The relation here is PV= mRT

P= 𝑚/𝑣 RT V=Volume
P= 𝜌𝑅𝑇 where, 𝜌 =𝑚/𝑣 m=Mass
𝜇=𝜌×𝜗 R=Gas constant
T∝1/𝜌 T=Temperature

T∝1/𝜇 𝜌=Density

From the above equation temperature is inversely proportional to absolute viscosity.


In the graph it can be observed that the kinematic viscosity of the pongamia oil 100% is reducing
from the range of 31 cSt to 17 cSt over the increase of 15℃ from room temperature, where as the
samples blended with petrol as an additive with various proportions show lesser kinematic
viscosity at same temperature. The samples of (pongamia 84% + petrol 16% )&( pongamia 86%
+ petrol 14%) show much reduced viscosity at 45℃ and comparable viscosity as of diesel, hence
most desirable viscosity can be achieved by pre heating the oil or by heating the engine setup.

4.1.3 Density:

Density is defined as the ratio of mass to its volume of a substance. It is denoted as (𝜌).
i.e. 𝜌 = 𝑚𝑣 kg/m³………………………………….(eq. no.3)

CALCULATION OF DENSITY:
The volume of sample considered for testing = 40 ml = 4×10−5m³
Weight of beaker used for weighing samples = 54gm
Calculation of pongamia oil 100% density at 35℃
Weight of beaker +weight of oil sample= 86.383gm
Weight of oil =32.383 gm

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

ρ= mass of oil/volume of oil


= 32.383×10−34×10−5
= 809.575 kg/m³

TABULAR COLUMN:
Density(kg/ m³)
Temperature 100% 88% 86% 84% Diesel
(°C) pongamia pongamia+ pongamia+14% pongamia+16%
oil 12% petrol petrol petrol
35 831.67 836.67 851.33 840.83 705.67
40 808.3 828.3 829.5 837.67 691.86
45 790 821.67 819.16 807.66 668.66

Table no-4.1.3: Table for density of samples

900

850

800

750 35°C
40°C
700 45°C

650

600
100 pongamia oil 88 Pongamia 86 Pongamia 84 Pongamia Diesel
oil+12 Petrol oil+14 Petrol oil+16 Petrol

Density (kg/m3) V/S Temperature (°C)

Fig-4.1.3: Density v/s Temperature

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Conclusion: From the graph it is observed that the density of oil is reducing with the increase
in temperature; this relation can be explained using the ideal gas equation as below,
The relation here is PV=mRT
PV=m RT P= Pressure
P=𝑚/𝑣 RT V= Volume
P=𝜌𝑅𝑇 where 𝜌 =𝑚/𝑣 m= Mass
𝜌=𝑃/𝑅𝑇 R= Gas constant
T= Temperature
𝜌∝1/𝑇 𝜌= Density
i.e. density and the temperature are inversely proportional to each other.
The desired density of prepared oil samples can be achieved by increasing the temperature.

4.1.4 Dynamic Viscosity:


Dynamic viscosity is the tangential force per unit area required to slide one layer of fluid over
another. Since the viscosity is defined as the resistance offered to the flow of a fluid. The
relationship between kinematic viscosity and dynamic viscosity can be expressed as follows.

CALCULATION FOR DYNAMIC VISCOSITY:


In this experimental investigation the dynamic viscosity is calculated using the equation given
below.
Mathematically, 𝝁=𝝆∗𝒗 N-s/m²
Where, 𝝁 - dynamic viscosity
𝝆−Density
𝒗-Kinematic viscosity

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EXPRIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

TABULAR COLUMN:

Dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2 )


Temperature 100% 88% 86% 84% Diesel
(°C) pongamia pongamia+ pongamia+14% pongamia+16%
oil 12% petrol petrol petrol
35 0.0258 0.0109 0.009014 0.005964 0.00109
40 0.0175 0.00759 0.007369 0.005423 0.0004951
45 0.0135 0.00557 0.006309 0.00475 0.0000979

Table no: 4.1.4 Table for dynamic viscosity

0.03

0.025

Dynamic viscosity 100%


0.02 pongamia
88% pongamia + 12% petrol

0.015 86% pongamia + 14% petrol

84% pongamia +16% petrol


0.01
pure diesel

0.005

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Fig-4.1.4: Graph of Dynamic viscosity v/s Temperature

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ANALYSIS OF FUEL CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF DIESEL ENGINE USING PONGAMIA OIL BLENDS.

Conclusion: From the above graph it observed that with the increase in temperature the
dynamic viscosity of oil samples and diesel sample are reducing gradually. It also shows that
the prepared oil sample have close range to the desired property of diesel sample used for
testing at high temperature.
The relation here is PV=mRT
PV=m RT P=Pressure
P=RTm V=Volume
V

m=Mass, 𝜌 =Density

ߤfrom the above equation temperature is inversely proportional to absolute viscosity.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

4.2 FLASH POINT TEMPERATURE


The flash point of prepared Pongamia oil sample with different proportion of petrol by
Cleveland (Open cup) apparatus.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:

Fig:4.2.1 Cleveland (open cup) apparatus


(Courtesy-HKBKCE EC lab)
APPARATUS: Cleveland apparatus, thermometer.

PROCEDURE:

1. Keep the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5 amps. power source.

2. Clean the oil cup with a soft cloth and fill the oil to be tested into the cup up to the
mark.

3. Place the oil filled cup on heater; insert the thermometer into the clip, until the
thermometer sensor bulb just dip into the Oil surface.

4. Switch on the heater and heat the oil at a faster rate for first few min (2- 3 min) and
control the heating rate at very slow rate (10℃ rise in 60 seconds) as the oil
approaches the flash point.
5. Apply a test flame at every 2℃ rise in temperature.
6. Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the
sample oil.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

7. To obtain the fire point, continue heating at the same rate and keep applying the test
flame to the surface of oil.
8. At approximately 10℃ to 15℃ rise in oil temperature above the flash point, applying
the test flame the oil surface continue to burn for 5 to 6 seconds. Record the temperature
at this point which is the fire point of the oil under test.
9. Tabulate the readings and declare the temperature as flash point and fire point of the
oil under test.

SAMPLES PREPARED FOR TESTING FLASH POINT:

Fig-4.2.2: Samples prepared for testing Flash Point Temperature

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

TABULARCOLUMN:

Sl. No. Samples Flash point Fire point temperature (°C)


temperature (°C)
1 100% pure diesel 51 53
2 100% Pure Pongamia Oil 262 264
3 88% Pongamia oil+12% Petrol 138 146

4 86% Pongamia oil +14% Petrol 120 124


5 84% Pongamia oil +16% Petrol 95 98

Table No.-4.2: Flash and Fire Point

CONCLUSION:
From the cleave land open cup experimentation of the samples prepared. It is observed the
Pongamia 100% sample is having a flash point of 262 ℃ which is a very high temperature to
run the engine, whereas the Pongamia oil blended with petrol of various proportion the flash
point of the blend is reducing drastically. This is because the petrol is having very less flash
and fire point temperatures. When it is blended with oil the resulting sample shows much
reduced flash and fire point as shown in above table.
The sample of diesel fuel is also included in the testing it shows the flash point at 51 ℃.
From the observation and comparison with the diesel fuel flash point temperature, it is
concluded that the proportion of 84% Pongamia oil +16% Petrol lies in desirable range.
Therefore, this sample of 84% Pongamia oil +16% Petrol is selected as a feasible sample.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

4.3. CALORIFIC VALUE


The calorific value or heating vale of the fuel is defined as the energy liberated by the
complete oxidation of a unit mass or volume of a fuel. It is expressed in kJ/kg for solid and
liquid fuels and kJ/m³ for gasses.

If a fuel contains hydrogen, water will be formed as one of the product of combustion. If this
water is condensed, a large amount of heat will be released than if the water exists in the
vapour phase. For this reason, two heating values are defined; the higher or gross heating
values and the lower or net heating value.

The higher heating value, HHV, is obtained when the water formed by combustions
completely condensed.

The lower heating value, LHV, is obtained when the water formed by the combustion exists
completely in the vapour phase.

DETERMINATION OF CALORIFIC VALUE OR HEATING VALUE:


Determination of the calorific value of liquid fuel samples using BOMB CALORIMETER.

BOMB CALORIMETER INSTRUMENT SPECIFICATIONS:


MANUFACTURER: TOSHNIWAL
SL.NO: T-401
CAT. NO: CC.01/M3

BOMB CALORIMETER MICROPROCESSOR SPECIFICATIONS:


MANUFACTURER: TOSHNIWAL MICROPROCESSOR BOMB CALORIMETER
SL.NO: 135
CAT. NO: MP-100

TEST METHOD: ASTM D 240

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

BOMB CALORIMETER APPARATUS:

Fig-4.3.1: Bomb arrangement. Fig-4.3.2: Bomb lid with electrode and crucible

Fig-4.3.3: Bomb Calorimeter Apparatus

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

APPARATUS:
1. The Bomb Calorimeter mainly consists of the following:
2. Stainless steel Bomb
3. Calorimeter Vessel with Bomb support and insulating base
4. Water Jacket with outer body
5. Lid for water Jacket
6. Stirrer assembly with F.H.P. motor
7. Bomb firing unit with Electronic Digital Temperature Indicator
8. Pellet Press
9. Stand and dial pressure gauge
10. Connecting tubes (copper tubes O2 Cylinder to pressure gauge & pressure gauge to
bomb)
11. Connecting electrical leads (Firing unit to water jacket & water jacket to bomb)
12. Crucible Stainless steel
13. Gas release valve
14. Oxygen cylinder valve.

DISCRIPTION:
A Bomb Calorimeter will measure the amount of heat generated when matter is burnt in a
sealed chamber (Bomb) in an atmosphere of pure oxygen gas.
A known amount of the sample is burnt in a sealed chamber. The air is replaced by pure
oxygen.
The sample is ignited electrically. As the sample burns, heat is produced. The rise in
temperature is determined Since, barring heat loss the heat absorbed by calorimeter assembly
and the rise in temperature enables to calculate the heat of combustion of the sample.
W -Water equivalent of calorimeter assembly in calories per degree centigrade (2330 cal./°C)
T- Rise in temperature (registered by a sensitive thermometer) in degree centigrade
H- Heat of combustion of material in calories per gram
M- Mass of sample burnt in grams

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Then W T = HM
“H” is calculated easily since W, T and M are known.
Therefore, H= 𝑊𝑇/M

PROCEDURE:
1. Install the equipment on a plain flat table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps electrical power
source and 15mm tap size water source.
2. Weigh the empty S.S. crucible and record.
3. Weigh exactly 1 gm of powdered dry fuel sample, pour it into the pellet press and
press it to form a briquette (tablet / pellet), put it into the crucible and weigh it again to
get the exact weight of the solid fuel sample.
4. i.e. weight of (crucible + sample) – (empty crucible)

5. Open the bomb lid, keep it on the stand; insert the S.S. crucible into the metallic ring
provided on one of the electrode stud.

6. Take a piece of ignition wire of about 100 mm length, weigh it and tie it on the
electrode studs, in such a way that the wire touches the fuel pellet, but not the sides of the
S.S. crucible.

7. Insert a piece of cotton thread of known weight on to the ignition wire without
disturbing it.

8. Lift the Bomb lid assembly from the stand, insert it into the S.S. Bomb body and
secure it with the cap.

9. Fill water into the outer shell to its full capacity, insert a glass thermometer with
rubber cork. Keep the insulating base in position inside the shell.

10. Fill oxygen gas to about 20 atmospheres into the Bomb with the help of copper tubes
with end connectors through pressure gauge from an oxygen cylinder (Oxygen cylinder is
not in the scope of supply).

11. Fill water into the calorimeter vessel up to half its capacity and place the assembled
Bomb unit, charged with oxygen into it in position. Top up with more water to bring the
water level in the calorimeter vessel up to the Bomb lid level.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

12. Keep the entire vessel assembly on the insulated base already placed in the outer
shell. This should be carried out without disturbing the vessel assembly.
13. Connect the bomb unit to the Bomb firing unit with the electrical leads (connecting
wires) and close the shell lid.
14. Insert the stirrer unit into the calorimeter vessel in proper position through the shell lid
and secure it; connect the stirrer unit with the firing unit, also insert the thermocouple
sensor into the calorimeter vessel through the shell lid and connect it to the firing unit.
15. Connect the Bomb firing unit to an electrical source of 230v, 50Hz, 5 amps keeping
all the switches on the firing unit in “OFF” position.
16. Switch “ON” the main switch of the firing unit. Now the temperature indicator
indicates the temperature sensed by the thermocouple.
17. Switch “ON” the stirrer unit.
18. Press the “green” button on the firing unit to check the continuity in the Bomb unit,
observe the indicator glow.
19. Wait till the temperature in the calorimeter vessel, stabilize and record it as initial
temperature. Press the “red” button on the firing unit to fire the sample inside the Bomb.
20. Now the temperature of the water in the calorimeter vessel starts rising, note and
record the rise in temperature at every one-min. interval until the rise in temperature
stabilizes or starts dropping.
21. Tabulate all the readings and calculate the calorific value of the solid fuel under test.
22. To close the experiment switch “OFF” the stirrer and main switch, open the shell lid
and take out the Bomb assembly from the calorimeter vessel. Release all the flue gases
from the Bomb with the help of release valve, unscrew the cap open the lid and observe
all the fuel sample is burnt completely.
23. Clean the Bomb and crucible with clean fresh water and keep it dry.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

SAMPLES PREPARED FOR TESTING CALORIFIC VALUE:

Fig: 4.3.4 samples prepared for CV testing

TABULARCOLUMN:
Sample Sl. no. Proportion of Pongamia oil+ Petrol (ml) Calorific
value(KJ/Kg)

1 100 % Pongamia oil 34804

2 88 % Pongamia + 12 % petrol 34957


3 86 % Pongamia + 14 % petrol 35099
4 84 % Pongamia + 16 % petrol 35234
5 Diesel 45791
6 Petrol 38230

Table No.- 4.3.1: Calorific value of samples

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

CALORIFIC VALUE RESULTS:

Fig-4.3.5: Test report for 100% Pongamia oil

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Fig:4.3.6 Test report for 88% Pongamia oil + 12% petrol

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Fig-4.3.7: Test report for 86% Pongamia oil+ 14% petrol

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Fig-4.3.8: Test report for 84% Pongamia oil+ 16% petrol

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Fig-4.3.9: Test report for Petrol Sample

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Fig-4.3.10: Test report for Diesel sample

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Graph for calorific value:

Calorific value (KJ/Kg)

Fig-4.3.9: Calorific value v/s Type of oil samples

CONCLUSION:
The figure shows the variation of calorific value for Pongamia oil blend fuel sample and
compared with petroleum diesel and a sample of petrol used for blending. From the above
graph it can be observed that the calorific value of pure Pongamia oil is less when compared
to petroleum diesel and higher than that of petrol sample. With increase in addition of petrol
proportionate in Pongamia oil the calorific value of the mixture decreases to slight extent.
When two different fuels of different calorific value are blended together the fuel
consumption will be no more reliable. The mixture of Pongamia oil with petrol possess low
volatility, slightly higher viscosity and higher density of Pongamia oil blends and due to the
presence of higher unsaturation in Pongamia blend.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

CHAPTER: 5
SELECTION OF FUEL AND ENGINE TEST

The crude Pongamia oil and with the different proportion of petrol are tested to determine
the various properties like viscosity and density at a different temperature like 35 ,40 and

45℃ are calculated and graphs were plotted.


 With the result it is observed that the Pongamia oil 100% is having high viscosity and
density even at high temperature when compared to diesel.

 The proportion of 88% Pongamia oil and 12% petrol exhibits high viscosity and
density at high temperature when compared to diesel.

 The proportion of 86% Pongamia oil and 14% petrol exhibits gradually reducing and
comparable viscosity and density at high temperature to that of diesel.

 The proportion of 84% Pongamia oil and 16% petrol exhibits much reduced viscosity
and density at high temperature and comparable to the property of diesel.

The deciding parameters like flash point temperature of the Pongamia oil and its blended
proportion are
 Pongamia 100% is having very high flash point compared to diesel,

 Pongamia 88% and 12% petrol is also having high flash point temperature compared
to diesel,

 Pongamia 86% and 14% petrol is having comparable flash point temperature
compared to diesel,

 Pongamia 84% and 16% petrol is having flash point temperature nearer to that of
diesel.

Therefore, it is most desirable to run the engine with the proportion of 84% Pongamia oil and
16% petrol for the safe and smooth running of engine.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Also the deciding parameters of selected sample the calorific value obtained from
experimentation was found to be closer to that of the Diesel fuel which facilitates required
combustion reaction in engine cylinder.

THE ENGINE SET UP USED FOR TESTING THE OIL IS


APE BS-2 WITH THE FOLLOWING SPECIFICATIONS:

Model Ape BS-2

Power 10 HP

Cooling Air Cooled

No. of cylinder One

Type Vertical,4-stroke,Compression ignition

Rpm 3600

Rotation Anticlockwise handle stroke

Starting Handle start with cranking

Table No. 5.1: Specification of the Engine

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

Engine Used for Testing:

Fig-5.1: Engine used to test the oil sample

Since the oil sample is executing the desired properties at high temperature, we decided to
run the engine set up at least for one hour with diesel so that every part of engine gets hated
up and then the oil sample of 84% Pongamia oil +16% petrol is introduced in to the oil tank.
The engine was running with the full throttle open for about six hours without any
problem encountered, it was running almost similar to that when the engine was
supplied with diesel.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIO FUEL.

ENGINE RUNNING WITH DIESEL AND SELECTED PONGAMIA OIL


BLEND:

Fig-5.2: Same Engine Running with 84% Pongamia Oil and 16% Petrol blend

From test running the engine it is observed that the engine run with diesel and with the
selected proportion of Pongamia oil blend is almost comparable in emissions. The test was
conducted for almost six hours with full throttle opening.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 6
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR THE STATED
ENGINE SETUP

By knowing that the engine doesn’t have much problem encountered, by running it with the
proportion of 84% pongamia oil +16% petrol, we decided to run the engine setup in our
laboratory test rig to determine the following performance parameter of an engine. The
following are the parameters calculated during the engine test.

1. Indicated power [IP]


2. Brake power [BP]

3. Friction Power [FP]

4. Specific Fuel Consumption [SFC]


5. Mechanical Efficiency [Ƞmech ]
6. Thermal Efficiency [Ƞther]
i. Ƞbte
ii. Ƞite

Indicated Power (IP)


When the mixture of air and fuel supplied is burnt inside the engine cylinder, the chemical
energy gets converted into heat energy. The total heat thus generated cannot be converted into
work and a substantial part is
(a) Lost to cooling water flowing through the cylinder jackets,

(b) Carried by exhaust gases, and

(c) Lost to surroundings by way of radiation.

The remaining part of the energy exerts a force on the piston which moves and mechanical

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

work is done. The power developed inside the engine cylinder due to combustion of fuel
is called Indicated power (IP).

The mean effective pressure represents the constant pressure if it is acted over the full length
of the stroke would produce the same amount of work as is actually developed by the engine
during a cycle.

Brake Power (BP)


A part of the indicated power is lost due to friction between the piston and cylinder as well
as in the bearings. The net output available at the output shaft is called brake power (BP).
Brake power can be calculated when the engine is coupled to an electric generator as an
alternator.

P=VI

2𝜋𝑁𝑇
BP=
60000

Where V- voltage output (Volts) I-current (Amps)


0.9-mechanical efficiency of generator

Friction Power (FP)


The difference between indicated power (IP) and brake power (BP) is called Friction power

𝐹𝑃 = IP - BP (KW)

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)


The fuel consumption and the evaluation of fuel cost is an important factor considered to have
an indication of the relative economy of the engine under test when compared with test results
on other engines. The criterion of economical power production is the specific fuel
consumption(SFC) which is defined as the mass of fuel required to be supplied to an engine to
develop unit KW power per hour.

The value of SFC is approximately 1.47Kg/KWh for diesel engines and 1.85Kg/KWh for petrol
engines.

Mechanical efficiency ηmech)


The ratio of brake power to indicated power is called mechanical efficiency.

𝐵𝑃
ηmech =
𝐼𝑃

the mechanical efficiency is a measure of the mechanical perfection of the engine or its ability
Ƞ
to transmit the power develoPed in the cylinder to the drive shaft. The mechanical efficiency
essentially depends on the design of the engine, its condition and load, and its value from 75 to
90% for different types of engines.

Thermal efficiency
Thermal efficiency of an engine is the indicator of conversion of heat supplied into work energy.
It is based either on indicated power or on brake power. The indicated thermal efficiency of an
IC engine is the ratio of the heat converted into indicated work to the heat energy in fuel
supplied to the engine.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Indicated thermal efficiency


𝑖௡ௗ 𝑖௡௡𝑡௡ௗ ௡௡௪௡𝑟
Ƞith =

௡௡×௡𝑉
Where mf =mass of fuel supplied kg/s

Brake thermal efficiency,


Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of the heat converted into useful shaft work to the heat
supplied to the engine in fuel.
௡𝑟௡𝑘௡ ௡௡௪௡𝑟 𝑖௡ ௪௡𝑡𝑡
Ƞbth =
௡௡×௡௩
From the expression for ƞith and ƞbth as given above, we can write

ܾ𝑡ℎ = ‫𝑃ܤ‬
ƞƞ𝑖𝑡ℎ

𝐼𝑃 = ƞ𝑚 ܾܾℎ
The value of brake thermal efficiency usually varies from 25-30% for spark ignition engines and
30-40% for compression ignition engines.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Experimental setup used for testing:

Fig:6.1 The engine setup with an alternator and circuits

Fig: 6.2 Engine and alternator (Courtesy: HKBKCE, EC Lab)

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGINE SETUP USED TO DETERMINE


PERFORMANCE PARAMETER:
Model AKV-1

Power 5 HP

Cooling Water Cooled

No. of cylinder One

Type Vertical,4-stroke,

Compression ignition

Rpm 1500

Rotation Clockwise handle stroke

Starting Handle start with cranking

Bore (mm) 80

Stroke length(mm) 80

Table No.-6.1: Specification of the Engine setup (Courtesy: HKBKCE, EC Lab)

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Formulae used for calculations:

V×I
 BP =

଴.ଽ×଴଴଴଴ KW……………………………………………(eq.no.5)
଴୭୪଴୫଴×଴଴୬଴i଴ y ୭଴ ଴଴଴୪

mf = Kg/KW hr……………… ………..(eq. no.6)

଴i୫଴
୫଴

SFC = Kg/KWhr……………………………………….…(eq. no.7)

BP

IP = BP + FP…………………………………………………...(eq. no8)

௡𝑃
ƞܾ𝑡ܾ =

௡௡×௡𝑉 × ͳͲͲ……… … … … … … … … … … ..… … … ...(eq. no.9)


𝐼𝑃
ƞ𝑖𝑡ܾ =

௡௡×௡𝑉 × ͳͲͲ……… … … … … … … … … … … … ..........(eq. no.10)


௡𝑃
ƞ𝑚ܾܾℎ = × ͳͲͲ……… … … … … … … … … … … … … … ....(eq. no.11)


𝐼𝑃

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 61


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CALCULATIONS:
Diesel Sample tested at 2000Watts Pongamia oil (84%)+Petrol(16%)
load condition: Sample tested at 2000Watts load
condition:
V×I V×I
BP = KW BP = KW

= =

= 2.133 KW
= 𝟐.
mf = Kg/KW hr
mf = Kg/KW hr

= 2.605×10-4 kg/s
= 2.0901×10-4 kg/s
mf
SFC = BP
mf
SFC = BP
−4

= 0.4396 kg/kW hr

=0.37126 kg/kW h 𝐹𝑃 = × ‫𝑃ܤ‬

𝐹𝑃 = × ‫𝑃ܤ‬

=0.711KW

=0.6756 KW

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 62


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

IP = BP+FP IP = BP+FP

= 2.0267+0.6756 = 2.133+0.71

=2.70KW =2.844KW

Ƞbte = Ƞbte =

=23.23%
= 21.17%
𝐼𝑃
Ƞite =
𝐼𝑃
× Ƞite = ×

= =

=30.985%
=28.21%

஻𝑃
Ƞmech = ×

=75.06% =75%

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 63


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

TABULAR COLUMN FOR READING:


Type of Fuel Load in Watts Time to run Voltage in (V) Current in
down 10cc of (Amps)
fuel (t) in sec

Diesel 1200 47 240 4.8

1600 41 240 6.6


2000 34 240 7.6

Pongamia oil 1200 42 240 4.8


(84%) +petrol
(16%) 1600 36 240 6.4
2000 31 240 8

Table No.-6.2: Table of readings

TABULAR COLUMN FOR CALCULATIONS:


Type of Load in BP in IP in Mf in Kg/s BSFC Ƞmech Ƞbte Ƞith
Fuel Watts KW KW in (%) (%) (%)
Kg/KW
hr
Diesel 1200 1.28 2.78 1.7×10-4 0.478 46 17.5 19.58

1600 1.76 3.26 2×10-4 0.409 53 21.05 23.2

2000 2.027 2.7 0.2712 75.07 21.17 28.21


2.09×10-4
Pongamia 1200 1.28 1.7067 0.5395 74.99 18 25.25
oil (84%) 1.918×10-4
+petrol
(16%) 1600 1.7067 2.2756 2.237×10-4 0.4718 75 21.65 28.87

2000 2.133 2.844 2.605×10-4 0.4396 75 23.23 30.98

Table No. 6.3: Table of calculations

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

GRAPH:

BP V/s LOAD
0.6

0.5

0.4
BP(KW)

0.3 Diesel

0.2 Pongamia oil (84%) +petrol


(16%)
0.1

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
LOAD(Watts)

Fig-6.3: Brake Power v/s Load

Figure-6.3 shows the variation of brake power with load for diesel and pongamia oil blend. It
can be observed from the graph that brake power of selected fuel sample increases with the
increase in load conditions. At the stated engine load conditions, the pongamia oil blend
sample shows slightly lesser value of break power as compared to the diesel. Hence the
sample composed of (pongamia oil 84% +petrol 16%) proportions shows optimum results in
the present investigation.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 65


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

25

20

15
ƞ;bteͿ

Diesel

10
Pongamia oil (84%) +petrol
(16%)
5

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
LOAD

Fig-6.4: Brake thermal efficiency v/s load

Figure-6.4 shows the variations of bake thermal efficiency of diesel and pongamia oil blend at
two different load conditions. The above graph reveals the relationship between brake thermal
efficiency and load, it can be observed from the graph that as load on an engine increases its
brake thermal efficiency increases gradually. In this present investigation the brake thermal
efficiency of an engine obtained when the fuel used was a mixture of pongamia oil 84% + petrol
16%, shows closer approximations to that of the diesel. At 60%, 80% and 100% load conditions
the brake thermal efficiencies obtained when the prepared sample was used as a fuel gives
almost nearer performance. The brake thermal efficiency of fuel sample at full load condition is
23.23% was found about nearly equal to diesel that is 21.17%. The low efficiency may be due to
low volatility, slightly higher viscosity and higher density of pongamia blended fuel sample and
due to presence of higher un-saturation in fuel sample which affects mixture formation of fuels
and this leads to slow combustion.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 66


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

IP V/S LOAD
0.6

0.5

0.4
IP(KW)

0.3 Diesel

Pongamia oil (84%) +petrol


0.2
(16%)

0.1

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
LOAD (Watts)

Fig-6.5: Indicated power (IP) V/s load


Figure-6.5 shows the variation of indicated power with load for diesel and pongamia oil blend. It
can be observed from the graph that indiated power of selected fuel sample increases with the
increase in load conditions. At the stated engine load conditions, the pongamia oil blend sample
shows slightly lesser value of indicated power as compared to the diesel. Hence the sample
composed of (pongamia oil 84% +petrol 16%) proportions shows optimum results in the present
investigation. From the above graph it can be observed that at 60% load condition the value of
indicated power obtained are approximately similar for both the diesel and the prepared fuel
sample.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

35

30

25
ƞ;ithͿ in %

20
Diesel
15
Pongamia oil (84%) +petrol
10
(16%)
5

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
LOAD (Watts)

Fig-6.6: Indicated thermal efficiency v/s Load

Figure-6.6 shows the variations of indicated thermal efficiency of diesel and pongamia oil blend
at two different load conditions. It can be observed from the graph that as load on an engine
increases its indicated thermal efficiency increases gradually. In this present investigation the
indicated thermal efficiency of an engine obtained when the fuel used was a mixture of
pongamia oil 84% + petrol 16%, shows closer approximations to that of the diesel. At 60%, 80%
load conditions the indicated thermal efficiencies obtained when the prepared sample was used
as a fuel gives almost nearer performance. The indicated thermal efficiency of fuel sample at full
load condition is 30.98% was found about nearly equal to diesel that is 28.2%. The low
efficiency may be due to low volatility, slightly higher viscosity and higher density of pongamia
blended fuel sample and due to presence of higher un-saturation in fuel sample which affects
mixture formation of fuels and this leads to slow combustion.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 68


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

BSFC V/S LOAD


0.6

0.5

0.4
BSFC (kg/KW hr)

0.3 Diesel

0.2 Pongamia oil (84%) +petrol


(16%)

0.1

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
LOAD (Watts)

Fig-6.7: Brake specific fuel consumption v/s load

Figure-6.7 shows the brake specific fuel consumption of pongamia oil blend fuel sample at two
different load conditions. When two different fuels of different calorific value are blended
together the fuel consumption may not be reliable. Since the calorific value and the density of
two fuels are different it can be observed from the figure that at higher load brake specific fuel
consumption of prepared sample is higher than the diesel at both the load conditions. Higher
concentration of the pongamia oil in the blends increases viscosity which further increases
specific fuel consumption.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 69


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 7
EMISSION TEST

7.1. Emission
Under ideal circumstances, CO2 and water vapour ought to be the only emissions from a diesel
engine. However, if Sulphur is present in the fuel, it will be oxidized to Sulphur dioxide and
Sulphur trioxide (together known as SOx). SOx react with water vapour to form sulphuric acid
and other sulphate compounds which then come down as acid rain. The sulphates also form
particles in the exhaust and elevate the exhaust particulate level. The presence of Sulphur in the
exhaust is also detrimental to catalytic after treatment as Sulphur is a powerful catalyst poison
and limits the options available for controlling emissions in engines. The amount of Sulphur
allowed in diesel is being progressively reduced over the last two decades although it has still
not been introduced in India. On the other hand, decreasing Sulphur concentrations in petroleum-
diesel results in a drastic drop in the fuel's lubricity and requires other additives to compensate
for this. SVOs contain almost no Sulphur while retaining a high lubricity which is a huge
advantage that these fuels have over petroleum-diesel.

7.2. EMISSION TESTING:


The emission testing of an oil sample of Pongamia 84% + petrol 16% and a diesel sample is
carried out using INDUS FLUE GAS ANALYSER is a 4-gas analyzer meant for monitoring
CO, CO2, HC, and O2 in automotive exhaust. It meets OIML Class-I specifications. CO, CO2
and HC (Hydrocarbon residue) are measured by NDIR technology and O2 by electrochemical
sensors. It is supplied as a 4-gas analyzer which can be upgraded easily to 5-gas version by the
addition of an NO sensor. It has many control features to prevent faulty measurements. A built-in
dot matrix printer is provided to print out a hard copy of the results.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Fig-7.1: Gas Analyzer

TABULARCOLUMN:
TEST FOR READINGS FOR READINGS FOR
DIESEL SAMPLE PONGAMIA OIL BLENDS
CO 1.023 % Vol. 0.051 % Vol.
HC 417 ppm 189 ppm
CO2 2.65 % Vol. 1.97 % Vol
O2 15.38 ppm 17.56 ppm

Table No-.7.1: Emission characteristics of a diesel engine

7.3. Emission Measurement


1. Automotive exhaust monitor (Indus smoke meter model OMS103)
Range- 0 to 100% opacity in HSU; 0 to ∞ in k (1/m)
Resolution-0.1% in HSU, 0.01 (1/m) in k

2. Automotive exhaust monitor Indus five gas Analyzer model PEA-205


Range- CO: 0 to 15%, HC: 0 to 30000 PPM as hexane, O2 : 0 to 25%,
CO 2 : 0 to 20%
Data resolution- CO: 0.001%, O2 and CO2 : 0.01%, HC: 1 PPM

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

REPORT OBTAINED FROM EMISSION TESTING:

Fig-7.2: For diesel emission test report

Fig-7.3: For Pongamia oil 84%+ petrol 16% emission test report

Dept. of M echanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 72


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

GRAPH:

The graphs are plotted according to the test result obtained from emission test of
petroleum diesel and pongamia oil blend and compared below.

Percentage of Co2 v/s Emission Test Results

0
Disel Pongamia oil (84%) +petrol (16%)

Fig-7.4: Percentage of Carbon dioxide v/s Emission Test results

Carbon dioxide emission

Fig7.4 shows the variation of carbon dioxide emission with different blends at full load.
Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of efficient and complete combustion. Carbon dioxide levels
are affected by air/fuel ratio, spark timing and any other factor which affect the combustion
efficiency. At full load pongamia oil blends gives less carbon dioxide as compared to the
diesel. The carbon dioxide increases with the increase in load due to higher fuel entry as the
load increases. Pongamia oil contains low carbon content as compared to diesel due to this
carbon dioxide emission are also low.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 73


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

PPM of CO v/s Emission Test Results

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
DIESEL (PPM) PONGAMIA BLEND(PPM)

Fig-7.5: PPM of Carbon monoxide v/s Emission test results

Carbon monoxide emission (CO)

Fig-7.5 shows the variation of carbon monoxide with different sample that is for diesel and
pongamia oil blend. Pongamia oil blend gives less carbon monoxide as compared to the
diesel fuel at full load condition. The amount of oxygen content of fuel sample result in

complete combustion of the fuel and supplies the necessary oxygen to convert CO to CO2.
Therefore, the amount of CO2 is considerably reduced.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 74


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Percentage of O2 v/s Emission Test results

18
17.5
17
16.5
16
15.5
15
14.5
14
DIESEL PONGAMIA OIL BLEND

Fig-7.6: Percentage of Oxygen v/s Emission Test results

Oxygen emission

Figure shows the variation of oxygen percentage in engine exhaust when it was run by
diesel and pongamia blend fuel sample with full load condition. From the graph it can be
observed the percentage of oxygen in engine exhaust is high when fuel used was diesel and
the percentage of oxygen in engine exhaust was comparatively low when fuel used was
pongamia oil blend sample.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 75


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

PPM of HC v/s Emission Test results

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
Diesel(PPM) Pongamia oil Blend(PPM)

Fig-7.7: PPM of Hydro carbon v/s Emission Test results

Hydro carbon emission

Fig shows the variation of hydro carbon emission with pongamia oil blend and diesel at full

load condition. Pongamia oil blend gives lower hydro carbon emission as compared to the
diesel. The availability of excess oxygen content in the pongamia oil blend as compared to

the diesel facilitates to convert hydrocarbon to 2 and 2. From the above graph it can be
observed that hydro carbon emission is zero compared to diesel.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 8
EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION ON ENGINE PARTS

The engine selected for experimentation was a compression ignition single Cylinder, 4 strokes,
direct injection, naturally aspirated and water cooled diesel engine. The engine was run continuously
for over an hour with selected fuel (pongamia 84% +16% petrol). Then the engine was disassembled
to see the effect of biodiesel ignition on the engine parts. Our team dissembled and successfully
reassembled the engine on our own under the guidance of our guide. The effects on engine parts
were noted which is shown in the images below

Above figure shows disassembling of the engine

From our experiment it was observed that the engine consumed around 300ml of our selected fuel
(pongamia 84% + 16% petrol) i.e 252ml of pongamia and 48ml of petrol to run continuously for an
hour.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

(a) (b)
Figure (a) shows 3D view of cylinder head of the engine while figure (b) shows 3D view of the
engine without piston cylinder arrangement.

(c)
Figure (c) shows top view of the engine (combustion chamber)

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Disassembled parts of the engine:

1.Fuel injector

Figure (d) shows fuel injector

It was seen fuel injector didn’t show any significant effect of biofuel combustion

2. piston block

Figure (e) shows piston block

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

It was observed that there was lot of sticky substance in the piston block after the engine was run
using biofuel.

3. Connecting rod

Figure (f) shows connecting rod in piston cylinder arrangement

Connecting rod didn’t show any major effects due to biofuel combustion from our observation.

4.Engine block

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Figure (g) shows top view of engine block with inlet and exhaust valves

It was seen that the top portion of engine block was most effected region among other parts in the
engine.

5. Inlet and exhaust valve

(h)

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

(i)
Figure (h) and (i) shows inlet and exhaust valves alignment in combustion chamber.

It can be seen from the above images inlet valve is smaller than the exhaust valve. Here was slight
formation of greasy content which is a residue of biofuel combustion reaction around the valves.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 82


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 9
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In the current investigation it was found that the pongamia oil blend of proportion 84%
+ petrol 16% is chosen because of the more superior quality to that of diesel fuel. When
compared to the other proportion of pongamia oil blends and a sample of 100%
pongamia oil b a s e d o n the a tta inme nt o f fue l p r o p e r tie s o ut o f fo ur
s a mp le s , the s a mp le c o mp r is ing pongamia oil 84% + petrol 16% was selected..
The pongamia oil 84% + petrol 16% and the petroleum diesel tested result are listed
below.

TABULARCOLUMN
Test For Diesel For Pongamia oil 84%+ Petrol 16%
Kinematic viscosity at 45 ℃ 0.146 cSt 5.8 cSt

Density at 45 ℃ 668 kg/m³ 807 kg/m³

Dynamic viscosity at 45 ℃ 9.75× 10−5 N-s/m² 0.00475 N-s/m²


Flash point temperature 51 ℃ 95 ℃
Calorific value 45791 kJ/kg 35234 kJ/kg
Table No.9.1: Comparison of Pongamia oil blend with petroleum diesel

The selected oil blend was used to run the engine and it was observed that the 10 HP Ape
BS- 2 engine was running smoothly with the same full throttle opening similar to that of
diesel without any disturbance. The engine was heated by starting the engine with the same
full throttle opening similar to that of diesel without any disturbance. The engine was heated
by running the engine with diesel for about half an hour, since the sample shows much
reduced viscosity and density at higher temperature. The same sample is used to run the
engine to determine the performance parameter at varying load of 60%, 80% and full load
condition. By testing it was found that the sample exhibits much comparable results when
compared to the petroleum diesel.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 10
SCOPE, EXPECTED OUTCOME & APPLICATIONS

Scope for future work:


SVOs are the most abundant and therefore the most commonly used feedstock for the
production of biodiesel, in addition to being direct sources of fuel for engines. Non edible
oils used for fuel source has considered as safe and most suitable alternative fuel to replace
traditional petroleum diesel, and this reflects to increase in Indian economy. Further research
can be made for developing a new fuel mixture by adopting cost effective and most optimum
methods, by implementing following work in considerations.

 The deposits at maximum load must be compared to deposits from diesel for similar
loading and measures taken to decrease the same if found necessary.
 Performance of the engine with processed oil at various load points must be
compared to that of diesel.
 Engine can be tested to the various performance parameters by varying the load
conditions instead of running only in 60%, 80% and full load conditions.
 The emission test can be carried out for the varying load conditions to determine the
emission characteristic of the oil sample used to run the engine.
 Instead of checking only stationary engine, the test can also be conducted for non-
stationary or locomotive engines.
 The selected proportion of fuel sample can be implemented in villages for the basic
means of transportations and for the irrigation purposes.
 From the testing it was found that the engine can be run with the sample but the
effect of long usage of selected sample on the diesel engine should be determined.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

Expected Outcome of the project:


 An outcome of the project will be a fuel which is to be used in CI Engines with
minimum processing cost for fuel and least modifications in CI Engine.
 The fuel produced should exhibit most of the features of Petroleum diesel and hence
acts as complete substitute for Diesel fuel.

Applications of the project:


 Obtained mixture of fuel will be most suitably used as straight fuel to charge Diesel
Engine.
 By implementing the best practices of extraction of oil from its seed, the total cost
of fuel produce per liter can be optimize.
 Based on the availability of vegetable oils, the optimized mixture can be treated as
complete replacement for petroleum diesel.
 Can be used successfully as straight fuel in stationary and as well as locomotive CI
Engines.

Dept. of M echanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 85


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

CHAPTER: 11

CONCLUSION

In the present experimentation attempt has made to prepare a fuel substitute for petroleum
diesel in diesel engine. In usual practice in order to prepare biodiesel from any vegetable oil
it has to be subjected to transesterification process. Transesterification involves vegetable oil
or animal fats being reacted with short chain alcohols such as methanol or ethanol, in
presence of catalyst. In the transesterification process the added alcohol is deprotonated with
a base to make it a stronger nucleophile. During reaction triglycerides are reacted with an
alcohol such as ethanol to give ethyl esters of fatty acids and glycerol. During
transesterification the viscosity of vegetable oil falls to the acceptable range and the flash
point temperature also falls to the required level. In the present experimentation the above
deciding parameters such as kinematic viscosity, flash point temperature and density of the
vegetable oil lower to the required range by blending the petrol in appropriate
proportions. Based on the engine performance and emission characteristics, one can
conclude that the prepared sample consist of pongamia oil [84%] + petrol [16%] shows
more feasible results. At the full load condition, the engine behaves normal working
with prepared sample similar to the engine behavior when it is fueled with petroleum
diesel. Even the emission level can be minimized to acceptable level as per the ASTM
standard emission norms.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

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doi.org/10.1007/s12046-018-0836-8

14. "Combined effect of combustion chamber shapes and nozzle geometry on


the performance and emission characteristics of C.I. engine operated on
pongamia" Mahantesh. M et al. (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.097

Dept of M echanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 90


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FUEL PROPERTIES AND ENGINE BEHAVIOUR WITH PONGAMIA SEED OIL AS BIOFUEL

15. "Microwave assisted extraction of oil from pongamia pinnata seeds"


Chandra Kumar R et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2960–2964

16. "Effect of Al2O3 Nano additives on the performance and emission


characteristics of Jatropha and Pongamia methyl esters in CI engine"
A. Prabhu et al. (2018) DOI: 10.1080/01430750.2018.1477688

17. "Biodiesel production by transesterification of a mixture of pongamia and


neem oils A. Sankar" Vinayaka et al. (2018) DOI:
10.1080/17597269.2018.1464874.

18. "Comparative Evaluation of Bioproductivity Studies of Simarouba,


Pongamia and Jatropha for Biodiesel Parameters" Gayatri Vaidya1 et al.
(2018) ISSN: 0975-5241

19. "Enhancement in the Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with


Pongamia Methyl Ester and n-Butanol as Oxygenated Additive" Iftikhar
Ahmed Khan et al.(2018) DOI: 10.1080/01430750.2018.1437559

a. Ethics- (http://nuffieldbioethics.org/report/biofuels-2/ethics)
b. Biofuel policy of INDIA- (https://cleantechnica.com/2015/08/26/india-
proposes-national-policy-biofuels/)

i. (http://mnre.gov.in/file- manager/UserFiles/biofuel_policy.pdf)

c. Policy Statement of Karnataka -

(http://crcbng.karnataka.gov.in/biofuelboard/RTI%20ACT/Karnataka_State_Biofuel_Policy.
pdf)

d. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production-


(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2635661/)

Dept of M echanical Engineering, HKBKCE-BENGALURU Page 90