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Chapter 1

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2016, M. Yoon

Classical Electrodynamics

Lecturer

Moohyun Yoon, Office : 3-427 • ☎ 279-2080

Textbook

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons,

New York 1999) (> 9th printing is recommended)

References

W. K. H. Panofsky and M. Philips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism

2nd ed, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. (Reading, MA 1962) (Graduate

level)

J. Schwinger et al, Classical Electrodynamics, Westview Press (1998)

(Graduate level)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, The Classical Theory of Fields, 4th

revised English edition, Pergamon Press (Oxford 1987) (Graduate

level)

Grading guideline

Homework 25%, Mid-term exam 35%, Final exam 35%, Extra 5% [class attitude (e.g. attendance,

questions, office hour etc.)]

Office hour 09:00 - 11:30 on every Thursday

Department of Physics, POSTECH

moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Also

Universities Ph.D. Qualifying Questions and Solutions)

June, 1993

should be useful.

moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Lecture 1

1.1-1.5 Coulomb’s Law

1.6 Surface Distributions of Charges and Dipoles and

Discontinuities in the Electric Field and Potential

1.7 Poisson and Laplace Equations

Lecture 2

1.8 Green’s Theorem

1.9 Uniqueness of the Solution with Dirichlet or Neumann Boundary

Conditions

1.10 Formal Solution of Electrostatic Boundary-Value Problem with

Green’s Function

Lecture 3

1.11 Electrostatic Potential Energy and Energy Density; Capacitance

3 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

∇⋅E = Gauss’s law (SI Unit)

ρ( x ) = qδ( x − x ' )

ε0

for a discrete point charge

∂B N

∇×E = − =0 for static cases

∂t ρ( x ) = ∑ q δ( x − x )

i =1

i i

∴ E = −∇Φ Φ: Electric (scalar) potential (unit: volt)

ρ ρ

Poisson’s eq. ∇ ⋅ E = ∇ ⋅ (−∇Φ ) = → ∇ 2Φ = − (1.1)

ε0 ε0

In regions of space that does not have a charge density, the scalar potential satisfies the Laplace

equation

∇ 2Φ = 0 (1.2)

Since

1

∇2 = −4πδ( x − x ' ) (1.3) , it is easy to verify that

x − x'

1 ρ( x ' ) 3 Free space permittivity

Φ(x ) =

4πε 0 ∫ | x − x' |

d x' (1.4) ε0=8.854×10-12 F/m

Department of Physics, POSTECH

4 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

A test charge q is under the influence of (pre-existing) E.

Then work W done by an external agent on the test charge to move it

from A to B is

B B B B

W=− ∫ qE ⋅ d l = − q ∫

A A

E ⋅dl = q ∫

A ∫

∇ Φ ⋅ d l = q dΦ

A

= q (Φ B − Φ A ) ≡ U B − U A Note: It is not the work done

(1.5) by F=qE!

The negative sign comes because the work must be done against

the action of the field

U = qΦ : potential energy of the test particle in the electrostatic field so the scalar potential is

equivalent to the potential energy per unit charge.

x

Let ΦA = 0 as A goes to infinity. Then Φ(x ) = − ∫∞

E ⋅dl (1.6)

The scalar potential Φ at x is defined as the work required to bring a unit charge from infinity to

x under the influence of electric field.

B

∫A

E ⋅ d l = −(Φ B − Φ A ) (1.7) independent of the path

∫

For closed path Electrostatic field is conservative

E ⋅dl = 0 →∇ × E = 0 Continuity of the tangential component of E

(1.8) Department of Physics, POSTECH

moohyun@postech.ac.kr

5

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Gauss’s law in integral form σ: surface charge density

1

∫ E ⋅ n̂da =

ε0 ∫ σda

S

σ Discontinuity of En

(E 2 − E1 ) ⋅ n̂ = (1.9)

ε0

But

1 σ( x ' )

Φ(x ) =

4πε 0 ∫

S | x − x'|

da ' (1.10)

Φ is continuous everywhere for volume and surface charge densities (even within the charge

distribution). But with point or line charges or dipole layers, Φ is no longer continuous.

surface r constant

point r-1 r-2

5 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

S

n Potential at x due to two surface charge distributions

da'

1 σ( x ' ) − σ( x ' )

S' d

da''

+σ Φ( x ) =

4πε 0 ∫ S | x − x'|

da '+ ∫ S' | x − x '+ n̂d ( x ' ) |

da"

x'

x' - nd −σ

Assuming |x-x’|>>d, we expand

0 x

1 1 1 ( x − x ' ) ⋅ n̂d

= = 1−

| x − x '+ n̂d | ( x − x ' ) 2 + 2( x − x ' ) ⋅ dn̂ + (dn̂ ) 2 | x − x'| | x − x ' |2

Φ( x ) =

4πε 0 ∫

S | x − x'|

da '− ∫

S' | x − x ' |

da"+ ∫S' | x − x'| 3

da"

=

4πε 0 ∫

S | x − x'| 3

da '

Define the dipole moment density as D( x ' ) = D( x ' )n̂ ( x ' ) = lim σ( x ' )d ( x ' )n̂ ( x ' ) (1.10)

d →0

The usual electric dipole moment is then

∫

p = D( x ' )da ' (1.11) _

p +

The dipole moment points from negative charge to positive charge.

Department of Physics, POSTECH

7 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

1 (x − x' ) 1 1

Φ(x ) =

4πε 0 ∫ S

D( x ' )n̂ ⋅

| x − x ' |3

da ' =

4πε 0 ∫

S

D( x ' )n̂ ⋅ ∇'

| x − x'|

da '

1 ∂ 1

=

4πε 0 ∫S

D( x ' )

∂n ' | x − x ' |

da ' (1.12)

∂ 1 1 n̂ ⋅ ( x − x ' )

where we have used the notation = n̂ ⋅ ∇' = (1.13)

∂n ' | x − x ' | | x − x'| | x − x ' |3

Introducing the solid angle n̂ ⋅ ( x − x ' ) da ' cos θ

dΩ = −da ' 3

= 2

(1.14)

| x − x'| | x − x'|

n

θ

θ

θ : angle between n and |x’– x|

da'

-x

x'

Therefore, we write

dΩ . x - x'

da'n 1

∫ D ( x ' ) dΩ

x' x x

| - '| Φ(x ) = − (1.15)

x

4πε 0 S

8 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

1 1 ( x '− x )

Φ( x ) = −

4πε 0 ∫S

D ( x ' ) dΩ = −

4πε 0 ∫ S

σ( x ' )d ( x ' )n̂ ⋅

| x − x ' |3

da '

1 ( x '− x ) 1 (x − x' )

=−

4πε 0 | x − x ' |3

⋅ n̂d

S

σ ∫

( x ' ) da ' =

4πε 0 | x − x ' |3

⋅ dn̂q

n

θ

1 p ⋅ (x − x' )

= (1.16) p = n̂qd

4πε 0 | x − x ' |3 x'-x

0

n

θ D π / 2 2π D

x' - x outside Φ1 ( x ) = −

4πε 0

dΩ =∫ ∫ ∫

0 0

sin θdθdϕ = −

2ε 0

x'

x then θ is an obtuse angle (θ > π/2)

D π 2π D

Φ 2 (x) = −

4πε 0 ∫ ∫ π/ 2 0

dΩ = +

2ε 0

0

Department of Physics, POSTECH

9 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

D

Total potential jump across a dipole layer Φ 2 − Φ1 = i.e. discontinuous

ε0 (1.17)

Φ Φ

+D/2ε0

-D/2ε0

- r = |x|

+

dipole layer

(a) (b)

10 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

1 ρ( x ' ) 3

Φ(x ) =

4πε 0 ∫ | x − x' |

d x'

this is not always convenient and we may need to develop more convenient tools.

11 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Let’s begin with the Divergence theorem

∫

V

∫

∇ ⋅ Ad 3 x = A( x ) ⋅ n̂da

S

A : an arbitrary vector

n : outward normal in S

φ, ψ : arbitrary scalar functions

Let A = φ∇ψ

∇ ⋅ A = ∇ ⋅ (φ∇ψ ) = φ∇ 2 ψ + ∇φ ⋅ ∇ψ

∂ψ

Green’s first identity

∫

V

(φ∇ 2 ψ + ∇φ ⋅ ∇ψ )d 3 x = φ ∫

S

∂n

da (1.18)

Interchange φ with ψ

∂φ

∫

V

(ψ∇ 2 φ + ∇ψ ⋅ ∇φ)d 3 x = ψ ∫

S

∂n

da

∂ψ ∂φ

Green’s second identity

(or Green’s theorem) ∫

V

(φ∇ 2 ψ − ψ∇ 2 φ)d 3 x = ∫

S

φ

∂n

−ψ

∂n

da (1.19)

12 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

two specific functions (and changing integration variable to x’):

1 1 2 ρ

ψ= = φ = Φ (scalar potential) ∇ Φ = −

R | x − x'| ε0

∂ψ ∂φ

∫ ∫

'2 '2 3

Substitute these into (φ∇ ψ − ψ ∇ φ) d x ' = ( φ − ψ )da '

∂n ' ∂n '

V S

1 ∂ 1 1 ∂Φ

∫V

− 4πΦ ( x ' )δ( x − x ' ) +

ε0R

ρ( x ' ) d 3 x ' = ∫

S

Φ ( )−

∂n ' R R ∂n '

da '

1 ρ( x ' ) 3 1 1 ∂Φ ( x ' ) ∂ 1 Integral eq.

Φ(x ) =

4πε 0 ∫

vol

| x − x' |

d x' +

4π ∫

S

R ∂n '

− Φ(x ' ) ( ) da '

∂n ' R (1.20)

1st term: The volume integral includes only the charges inside V. The charges outside V are

taken care of by two surface integrals

∂Φ

2nd term: potential due to an effective surface charge density σ = ε 0

∂n '

3rd term: potential due to a dipole layer of the dipole moment density D= -ε0Φ

Department of Physics, POSTECH

13 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Specification of the potential Φ on a closed surface S (Dirichlet condition) or specification of the

normal component of the electric field En (=∂Φ/∂n) on the surface (Neumann condition) uniquely

defines a potential problem.

Proof

Suppose Φ1 and Φ2 satisfying the same BC and let U = Φ 2 − Φ1

ρ

∇ 2 Φ1 = ∇ 2 Φ 2 = −

ε0

∂U

Then ∇ U = 0 inside V, and U = 0 or

2 = 0 on S

∂n

Green’s first identity with φ=ψ=U

∂U

∫

vol

∫

( U∇ 2 U + ∇U ⋅ ∇U)d 3 x = U

S

∂n

da ⇒ ∫ | ∇U |

vol

2

d3x = 0

For Neumann BC, Φ is also unique to an (unimportant) arbitrary constant.

Department of Physics, POSTECH

14 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

The previous integral equation for Φ over-specified boundary conditions; we do

not need both terms in the surface integrals (from uniqueness theorem). So we

need to develop a formal procedure to remove one of the surface integrals.

1

Instead of demanding ψ = we may introduce a more generic function ψ = G ( x, x ' )

x − x'

1

where G ( x, x ' ) = + F( x , x ' ) (1.21)

x − x'

Here, F(x, x’) is an undetermined function which is a solution of ∇ '2 F( x , x ' ) = 0

for x and x’ in V. So

equation in V given a unit point charge in x.

15 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

∂ψ ∂φ

∫

V

(φ∇ 2 ψ − ψ∇ 2 φ)d 3 x = ∫

S

φ

∂n

−ψ

∂n

da

By choosing φ = Φ, ψ = G ( x , x ' )

ρ 1

with ∇ 2Φ = − ∇ 2ψ = ∇ 2 + F( x , x ' ) = −4πδ( x − x ' )

ε0 , x − x'

We get

1 1 ∂Φ ( x ' ) ∂G ( x , x ' )

Φ(x ) =

4πε 0 ∫

vol

ρ( x ' )G ( x , x ' )d 3 x ' +

4π ∫ S

G ( x, x ' )

∂n '

− Φ(x ' )

∂n '

da ' (1.23)

The freedom in the definition of G allows us to remove one of the surface integral

depending on the type of BCs. This is possible by appropriately choosing F(x, x’)

function.

If S→∞, the surface integrals vanish restoring the usual expression.

16 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

G D ( x, x ' ) = 0 for x’ on S, then we have

1 1 ∂G D (1.24)

Φ(x) =

4πε 0 ∫

vol

ρ( x )G D ( x , x ' )d 3 x ' −

4π ∫

Φ(x ' )

S

∂n '

da '

Potential for Dirichlet problem

For Neumann condition ( specification of normal derivative of Φ), one tempts to choose

∂G N ( x , x ' )

∂n '

= 0 for x' on S. However, if we do so we run into trouble

because from ∇ '2 G ( x , x ' ) = −4πδ( x − x ' )

let’s take a volume integral over V inside S

∂G ( x , x ' )

∫

vol

∫

∇ ' ⋅ ∇ 'G ( x , x ' )d 3 x ' = ∇ 'G ( x , x ' ) ⋅ n̂ ' da ' =

S

∫S ∂n '

da '

∫ − 4πδ(x − x ' )d x

3

= −4π So it does not make sense to choose ∂G N ( x, x ' ) =0

vol ∂n ' x ' on S

With this observation, choose the simplest possible BC: ∂G N ( x , x ' ) 4π

=−

1 1 ∂Φ ( x ' ) ∂n ' S

Φ ( x ) =< Φ > S +

4πε 0 ∫

vol

ρ( x ' )G N ( x , x ' )d 3 x ' +

4π ∫

S

∂n '

G N da '

Potential for

S: surface area

1

< Φ >S =

S ∫

Φ ( x ' )da '

S

(1.25) Neumann problem

Department of Physics, POSTECH

moohyun@postech.ac.kr

17

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Dirichlet and Neumann Green’s functions are symmetric in x and x’ interchanged (see

Jackson Problem 1.14). G(x, x’) = G(x’, x)

18 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

When a point charge q is at a point x in the presence of the potential Φ(x) (which has

been produced by other sources), the electrostatic potential energy associated with

this charge is defined as the amount of work required to bring the charge from a

reference position (usually taken to be at infinity) to x; W = qΦ(x).

charges. We will then extend the result to the case for finite charge distribution.

Procedure:

First, let the charges be dispersed to infinity. Then we bring the charges one by one to

their original positions from infinity and calculate the work required to bring them in.

Assume the space under consideration is initially field free (i. e., Φ0=0). Then bring

the first charge q1 to its original position x1. In this case no work is done (W1=0)

because there is no initial field (or potential).

Once q1 is positioned to x1 , it produces a potential Φ1 everywhere in space:

1 q1

Φ1 ( x ) = , W1 = 0

4πε 0 | x − x1 |

19 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

With q1 at x1 , next bring the second charge q2 to x2. Work is required in this case

and is given by W2 = q 2 Φ1 ( x 2 )

1 q2

And q2 creates the potential Φ 2 (x) =

4πε 0 | x − x 2 |

Similarly for the third charge q3, we have

1 q3

W3 = q 3 [Φ1 ( x 3 ) + Φ 2 ( x 3 )], Φ 3 (x) =

4πε 0 | x − x 3 |

In general for qi to the position at xi , the work required is given by

i −1

Wi = q i [Φ1 ( x i ) + Φ 2 ( x i ) + + Φ i −1 ( x i )] = q i ∑ Φ (x )

j=1

j i

1 qj

where Φ j (x i ) =

4πε 0 | x i − x j |

Total electric potential energy for N charges is therefore

N N N

1 qiq j

W= ∑W = ∑q ∑

i =1

i

i =1

i

j<i

Φ j (x i ) =

4πε 0 ∑∑ | x

i =1 j<i i −xj |

where 1

N

qj

∑| x

N N N

1 qiq j 1 Φ(x i ) =

=

8πε 0 ∑∑

i =1 j≠ i

=

| xi − x j | 2 ∑ q Φ(x )

i =1

i i (1.26) 4πε 0 j≠ i i −xj |

Department of Physics, POSTECH

moohyun@postech.ac.kr

20

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

q i → ρ( x )d 3 x , q j → ρ( x ' )d 3 x '

Then we have

1 ρ( x )ρ( x ' ) 3 3 1

W=

8πε 0 ∫∫ | x − x'|

d xd x ' =

2 ∫

ρ( x )Φ ( x )d 3 x (1.27)

Alternative expression

Insert ρ( x ) = −ε 0 ∇ 2 Φ ( x ) = −ε 0 ∇ ⋅ ∇Φ ( x )

we find 1 ε ε

2

W= ∫ 2 ∫

ρ( x )Φ ( x )d 3 x = 0 (∇Φ ) 2 d 3 x − 0 ∇ ⋅ (Φ∇Φ )d 3 x

2 ∫

ε ε ε ε

∫ ∫

= 0 | E |2 d 3 x − 0 Φ∇Φ ⋅ n̂da = 0 | E |2 d 3 x + 0 ΦE ⋅n̂da

2 2 2 2 S ∫ ∫

Extending the boundary to infinity, the surface term becomes zero (why?)

ε0 ε0

W = ∫ wd 3 x = ∫ | E |2 d 3 x , w= | E |2 (1.28) Always > 0 (positive definite)

2 V 2

w: energy density

Department of Physics, POSTECH

moohyun@postech.ac.kr

21

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

For a point charge, the self energy (i.e. the energy required to form a point charge)

becomes infinite, but for finite distribution of charge it is finite.

Proof for a point charge:

2

ε ε 1 q2 q2 ∞ 1

∫ | E |2 d 3 x = 0 ∫∫∫ ∫

2

W= 0 r sin θdrdθdϕ = dr → ∞

2 V 2 4πε 0 r4 8πε 0 0 r2

Force on a conductor

Let

E1: electric field inside the conductor = 0

E2: electric field outside the conductor

Gauss’s law σ σ

(E 2 − E1 ) ⋅ n̂ = , E2 = E =

ε0 ε0

ε0 σ 2

w = | E |2 = Force per unit area (1.29)

2 2ε 0 (N/m2)

22 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

Suppose there are conductors otherwise in empty space. Each conductor carries charge qi and

potential Vi. Then a linear relationship exists between the potential of the conductors and the

charges on various conductors in the system. In other words, the electrostatic potential energy of

the system can be expressed in terms of the potentials alone and certain geometrical quantities

called coefficients of capacity. The capacitance of a conductor is the total charge on the conductor

when it is maintained at unit potential, all other conductors being held at zero potential.

Then the potentials at the conductors 1 and 2 can be expressed

as

V1' = p11q1 , V2' = p 21q1

the configuration of the conductors w.r.t. the point of

observation

(pij = pji; pii > 0; pii > pij)

Next, let q1 = 0. Then the potentials at the conductors 1 and 2 can be expressed as

V1" = p12 q 2 , V2" = p 22 q 2

Superposition: Then the potentials at the conductors 1 and 2 due to both q1 and q2 are

V = V'+ V" N

1

N

1

N N (1.31)

In general, for N conductors Vi = ∑ p ij q j (1.30) The ES energy W =

2 ∑

i =1

q i Vi =

2 ∑∑

i =1 j=1

p ijq i q j

j=1

Department of Physics, POSTECH

23 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

PHYS503, 2016, M. Yoon

N

Eq. (1.30) is a matrix equation. Inverting it, we get qi = ∑C V

j=1

ij j (1.32)

N N

1

Then the energy can be written as W=

2 ∑∑ C V V

i =1 j=1

ij i j

(1.33)

Cij: coefficients of induction

Example: A two conductor system Q C C12 V1

-Q = 11

+Q −Q C 21 C 22 V2

V1 1 C 22 − C12 Q

=

V2 det(C ij ) − C 21 C11 −Q

V1 V2 = C −1

Q det(C ij ) C11C 22 − C 21C12

C= =Q = (1.34)

V1 − V2 C 22 + C 21 + C12 + C11 C 22 + C 21 + C12 + C11

Exercise: Solve for a concentric spherical capacitor of radius a and b with qa and

qb on them.

Department of Physics, POSTECH

24 moohyun@postech.ac.kr

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