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From Testing to Assessment:

English as an International Language

BUTUH LENGKAP HUB rehanjanda@gmail.com


APPLIED LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGE STUDY

General Editor
Professor Christopher N. Candlin, Macquarie University

Error Analysis
Perspectives on second language acquisition
JACK C. RICHARDS (ED.)

Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature


HENRY WIDDOWSON

Language Tests at School


A pragmatic approach
JOHN W. OLLER JNR

Contrastive Analysis
CARL JAMES

Language and Communication


JACK R. RICHARDS AND RICHARD W. SCHMIDT (EDS)

Learning to Write: First Language/Second Language


AVIVA FREDMAN, IAN PRINGLE AND JANIC YALDEN (EDS)

Strategies in Interlanguage Communication


CLAUS FAERCH AND GABRIELE KASPER (EDS)

Reading in a Foreign Language


J. CHARLES ALDERSON AND A.H. URQUHART (EDS)

An Introduction to Discourse Analysis


New edition
MALCOLM COULTHARD

Computers in English Language Teaching and Research


GEOFFREY LEECH AND CHRISTOPHER N. CANDLIN (EDS)
Language Awareness in the Classroom
CARL JAMES AND PETER GARRET

Bilingualism in Education
Aspects of theory, research and practice
JIM CUMMINS AND MERRILL SWAIN

Second Language Grammar:


Learning and Teaching
WILLIAM E. RUTHERFORD

The Classroom and the Language Learner


Ethnography and second-language classroom research
LEO VAN LIER

Vocabulary and Language Teaching


RONALD CARTER AND MICHAEL McCARTHY (EDS)

Observation in the Language Classroom


DICK ALLWRIGHT

Listening to Spoken English


Second Edition
GILLIAN BROWN

Listening in Language Learning


MICHAEL ROST

An Introduction to Second Language


Acquisition Research
DIANE LARSEN-FREEMAN AND MICHAEL H. LONG

Language and Discrimination


A study of communication in multi-ethnic workplaces
CELIA ROBERTS, TOM JUPP AND EVELYN DAVIES

Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice


ROGER T. BELL
Process and Experience in the Language Classroom
MICHAEL LEGUTKE AND HOWARD THOMAS

Rediscovering Interlanguage
LARRY SELINKER

Language as Discourse: Perspectives for Language Teaching


MICHAEL McCARTHY AND RONALD CARTER

Analysing Genre – Language Use in Professional Settings


V.K. BHATIA

From Testing to Assessment: English as an International Language


CLIFFORD HILL AND KATE PARRY (EDS)
From Testing to Assessment:
English as an International Language

Edited by
Clifford Hill and Kate Parry
First published 1994 by Pearson Education Limited

Published 2014 by Routledge


2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA

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Copyright © 1994, Taylor & Francis

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any
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Notices
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and
experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices,
or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in
evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described
herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety
and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or
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matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any
methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

ISBN 978-0-582-21885-7 (pbk)

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


From testing to assessment: English as an international language/
 edited by Clifford Hill and Kate Parry.
   p. cm. — (Applied linguistics and language study.)
  Includes bibliographical references and index.
  ISBN 0-582-21885-3 (pbk)
  1. English language—Study and teaching—Foreign speakers.
 2. English language—Foreign countries. 3. Communication,
 International. I. Hill, Clifford. II. Parry, Kate. III. Series.
 PE1128.A2F778 1994
428′.0071—dc20 93-38002
CIP
Contents

List of Contributors
Editors’ Acknowledgements
Publisher’s Acknowledgements

Introduction

PART I THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS


1 Models of literacy: the nature of reading tests
Clifford Hill and Kate Parry
Fundamental assumptions: the autonomous model of literacy
An alternative perspective: the pragmatic model of literacy
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Note

PART II READING TESTS


2 The Test of English as a Foreign Language: developing items for reading
comprehension
Bonny Norton Peirce
The TOEFL
The language of multiple-choice items
The TOEFL reading comprehension section
The test development process
The review process
A TOEFL reading comprehension case study
The items
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Note
Appendix 2.1: A TOEFL pre-test item
3 An entrance test to Japanese universities: social and historical context
John E. Ingulsrud
Historical development
University entrance examinations in Japan
Conclusions
Acknowledgement
Notes
4 The test and the text: readers in a Nigerian secondary school
Kate Parry
Methodology
A comprehension unit: Reading
A summary unit: Writing
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Notes
5 Adult education in the United States: adapting material for reading tests
Clifford Hill and Laurie Anderson
Background
Experiment with native and non-native speakers
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Notes
Appendix 5.1: Two versions of the test material

PART III LITERACY ASSESSMENT


6 English education in Zimbabwe: testing communicative competence
Kate Allen
Background

The current Zimbabwean Junior Certificate


Rationale for a new ZJC
Process of development
Results
Conclusions
Acknowledgement
7 English for academic purposes in Brazil: the use of summary tasks
Andrew Cohen
Introduction
Methodology
The texts and the summaries
Reactions to the test
Strategies used
Summarising ability and level of proficiency
The raters’ responses
Problems with the test
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
8 An adult learner in Canada: watching assessment take place
Patrick Cummins and Stan Jones
Introduction
Background
The interview
The final record
Recommendations
Conclusions
Acknowledgement
9 Assessing adult literacy in the United Kingdom: the Progress Profile
Deryn Holland and Brian Street
Background
The development of the Progress Profile

Conclusions
Note
PART IV POLICY IMPLICATIONS
10 Assessing English language and literacy around the world
Clifford Hill and Kate Parry
Introduction
A pragmatic approach to assessing English literacy skills
Alternative testing
Documentation
Acknowledgments
Note
Bibliography
Index
List of Contributors

Kate Allen Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature,


Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

Laurie Anderson Lecturer, Department of English, Siena University,


Siena, Italy

Andrew Cohen Professor, Program in English as a Second Language,


University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Patrick Cummins Literacy consultant, Ottawa, Canada; Lecturer, College


English Teacher Training Program, Department of Applied Foreign
Language Studies, Nanjing University, People’s Republic of China

Deryn Holland Educational Personnel Officer, Buckingham County


Council, Aylesbury, Bucks, UK

John E. Ingulsrud Lecturer, College English Teacher Training Program,


Department of Applied Foreign Language Studies, Nanjing University,
People’s Republic of China

Stan Jones Professor, Department of Linguistics, Carleton University,


Ottawa, Canada

Kate Parry Associate professor, Department of English, Hunter College,


City University of New York, USA

Bonny Norton Peirce SSHRC Postdoctoral Fellow, Modern Language


Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, Canada

Brian Street Senior Lecturer in Social Anthropology, School of Social


Sciences, University of Sussex, UK
Larsen, E., 22, 71, 112, 123, 137, 254
Law, B., 233
Levine, K., 230
Lin, H.S., 255
literacy
as technology, 17–18
models of, 4, 17–34
autonomous, 5, 14–19, 23, 31, 35, 146–7, 235, 244, 253
ideological, 14, 235, 248
pragmatic, 5, 21, 34, 147, 236, 253
literal comprehension (see text base)
Lyons, J., 14
Lytle, S., 233

Macedo, D., 236


machine scoring, 10, 29
Madsen, H., 42
marking scheme (see score key)
Meredith, M., 150
Miyazaki, I., 63
Monaco, G., 114
multiple-choice tasks, 2, 10, 11, 19, 40, 68, 138, 153, 158, 174, 200, 259
Mutumbuka, 172, 173

Narita, K., 65
narrative structure (see rhetorical structure)
National Center for Entrance Examinations in Tokyo, 68–81
National Vocational Qualifications (UK), 233–4
national tests (see testing)
Ndebele, 149
Nigeria, 1, 9, 32, 36, 82–112, 140
Nunnally, J.C., 158

Olson, D.R., 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 31, 112


Ong, W.J., 15, 16, 24
Otis, A., 10
Ottawa Board of Education, 206–7
Oxford Delegacy of Local Examinations, 7

Parry, J., 85
Parry, K., 3, 13, 16, 17, 32, 33, 36, 110, 116, 117, 122, 205, 230, 236, 258, 260

354
Passin, H., 65
pedagogy (see curriculum)
Peirce, B.N., 35, 39, 58, 257
Pempel, T.J., 65
placement (see testing)
Plato, 61
Platt, J., 2
Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (Brazil), 176–7
portfolios (see alternative assessment)
Portuguese, 176–7, 180, 269
Progress Profile, 147
psychometric construction of tests, 19, 40, 155–7
concepts
defensibility of items, 44
grade level, 19, 223
reliability, 66, 157–8, 159, 201, 255, 259, 267
standardisation, 9, 58, 66, 205, 230, 269
validity, 23, 29, 70, 73, 80, 153, 256
procedures
statistical analysis, 54–8
biserial correlation, 55
test review, 45–6
terms
distractor, 16, 19, 37, 40–1, 45–6, 49, 160–2
item, 40–1
key, 40–1
option, 40–1

Rasch programme Person Separability Index, 157–8, 172


reader response to tests
construction of text base/situation model, 114, 122, 125, 129, 141, 259
native speaker versus non-native speaker, 125–44
use of
background knowledge, 31–2, 49, 188
test-taking strategies, 146, 154, 176, 189–3, 202, 219, 224–6, 237, 255, 264
reading comprehension
nature of
experiential, 140
inferential, 139, 260–1
literal (see text base)
reading tests, 4, 10, 15, 16, 19
as genre, 22–3
difficulty in constructing, 155

355
historical development, 5, 23
kinds of, 7
comprehension, 8, 10, 35, 39–41, 44, 46, 68, 83, 90, 152, 177, 203, 259
summary, 8, 36, 201–3
reciprocity, external/internal, 26–33
Reischaur, E.O., 62, 64
reliability (see psychometric construction of tests)
Resnick, D.P., 10
rhetorical structure, 77, 87–8, 105, 119, 167
Richards, J., 21
Rogers, A., 232
Rohlen, T.P., 65, 71
Rounds, P.L., 174

Sarig, G., 179, 190


Sato, T., 66, 67
schema/schemata, 85, 88, 97
real-world, 168, 174, 195, 213, 218
Schon, D.A., 238
score key, 84, 153, 199, 202, 259, 262
Scribner, S., 20
selection (see testing)
Senanu, K.E., 113
Sherwood, R., 33
Shohamy, E., 174
Shona, 149, 161
Showa 61 neno kyots daiichiji gakuryoku shiken no shikenmondai ni kansuru ikenhyoka
(opinions and evaluations concerning the JFSAT test items), 70
Silva dos Santos, 177
Simon, H.A., 176
situation model (see reader response to tests)
Smith, F., 111
Spaulding, R.M., 64, 65
Spearman-Brown measure, 158
standardisation (see psychometric construction of tests)
Stanford-Binet tests, 10
statistical analysis (see psychometric construction of tests)
Stone, M.H., 156, 157, 172
Street, B., 14, 147, 241, 258
summary tasks (see tasks)
Swain, M., 154
syntax, 31–2, 36, 53, 73, 87, 92

356
tasks
kinds of
multiple-choice (see multiple-choice tasks)
open-ended, 19, 156, 170, 174
short-answer, 170
summary, 8, 83, 102, 174, 194
Taylor, J., 65, 72
Teng, S.Y., 63
Terman, L., 10
testing
kinds of
achievement, 66, 79, 151
civil service, 61–5, 78
intelligence, 9–10
national, 151
reading (see reading tests)
university entrance, 65, 70, 78
writing, 2, 10, 152
paradigm, 256, 263
purposes of
accreditation, 254–5, 268–70
placement, 254
selection, 254, 269–70
review of, 45–6
specific
California Achievement Test (USA), 115–18, 122–3
Cambridge O-Level (UK), 151
Canadian Adult Achievement Test (Canada), 211–13
Certificate of Secondary Eduation (UK), 8
English for Academic Purposes (Brazil), 145, 176–7
General Certificate of Secondary Education (UK), 8, 234
Joint First Stage Achievement Test (Japan), 36, 65–78
Ontario Test of Adult Functional Literacy (Canada), 211–23
Stanford-Binet Test (USA), 10
Test of Adult Basic Education (USA), 33, 36, 114–23, 141–4, 231
Test of English as a Foreign Language (USA), 2–3, 35–59
University of Michigan’s Examination for the Certificate of Proficiency in English
(USA), 10
West African School Certificate, 9, 36, 82–6, 96–8, 109–11
Zimbabwe Junior Certificate Exam, 151–5, 170–1
traditions of
American, 9–12, 253

357
British, 7–9, 36, 253
Test Specialist Review, 45
text base, 2, 114, 122, 125, 130, 259, 263
Thorndike, E.L., 9, 10
Training Enterprise Councils, 233–4

United Kingdom, 1, 7, 229–13, 244


United States, 1, 7, 8, 17, 36, 39, 114–47
University of Kyoto, 66, 67
University of Tokyo, 65–7

validity (see psychometric construction of tests)


van Dijk, T.A., 90, 114, 125, 142, 174, 259
Venezky, R.L., 236
Vincent, T., 113
vocabulary, 26, 31, 36, 43, 50–3, 68, 73, 104, 119, 201
Vogel, E.F., 66
Voltaire, 63
Vye, N., 33
Vygotsky, L., 29

Walsh, B.W., 73
Watt, I., 15
West African Examinations Council, 8, 11
West, M.P., 85
Whitney, N., 174
Widdowson, H., 25, 28
Wiggins, G., 271
Willinsky, J., 233
Wright, B.S., 156, 157, 172
writing tests (see testing)

Xun, Lu, 80

Yerkes, R., 10
Yoshiya, M., 72

Zimbabwe, 9, 145, 170–3


Zwicky, A., 114

358