Distribution Transformer Handbook

IEC / CENELEC related specifications ABB Ident # 1LAC000003

www.cadfamily.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.com The document is for study only,if tort to your rights,please inform us,we will delete

© Copyright 2003 ABB Ltd. All rights reserved.



The objective of this Distribution Transformer Handbook is to facilitate the selection, ordering and operation of distribution transformers. The target readers are personnel involved in the various stages of a transformer’s service life, from planning the investment to the disposal of the transformer after use. It may also be useful to ABB personnel. The handbook is arranged with the sections following the transformers life from planning through ordering, installation, operation, maintenance and scrapping. Other useful information, including more theoretical topics, may be found at the end of this handbook. Navigation through this handbook is facilitated through a three level contents following this foreword, and the index at the end. ABB Power Technologies Division thanks the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for permission to reproduce information from its International Standards. All such extracts are copyright of IEC, Geneva, Switzerland. All rights reserved. Further information on the IEC is available from www.iec.ch. IEC has no responsibility for the placement and context in which the extracts and contents are reproduced by ABB Power Technologies Division; nor is IEC in any way responsible for the other content or accuracy therein." The standards, IEC, CENELEC, IEEE, mentioned in the text refer to the edition given in the list of standards. For practical use only latest editions of the standards should be used. Extracts from the ABB Switchgear Manual are quoted by kind approval by the issuer. UK English has been selected for this document to comply with the text in IEC standards.

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0. 1. 2.

0.1. 1.1. 1.2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. CONTENTS ABB-GROUP ABB POWER TECHNOLOGY DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS – PTDT LARGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, LDT MEDIUM DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, MDT SMALL DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, SDT DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 2.4.1. Vacuum cast resin dry-type transformers 2.4.2. Resibloc® dry-type transformers OTHER TRANSFORMER TYPES 2.5.1. Single phase transformers 2.5.2. Drives transformers 2.5.3. Additional products NORMAL INFORMATION SPECIAL INFORMATION PARALLEL OPERATIONS ACCESSORIES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS INSTALLATION 4.2.1. Transport 4.2.2. Transfer of responsibility (Incoterms) 4.2.3. Handling, lifting 4.2.4. Receiving the transformer at site 4.2.5. Storage prior to energizing 4.2.6. Erection at site 4.2.7. Network connection 4.2.8. Earthing 4.2.9. Protective equipment 4.2.10. Insulation resistance, off-circuit/on-load tap changer 4.2.11. Off-circuit/on-load tap changer 4.2.12. Mechanical checks 4.2.13. Energizing OPERATION 4.3.1. Lifetime 4.3.2. Temperature rise and load capacity 4.3.3. Parallel operation 4.3.4. Frequency 4.3.5. Protection devices MAINTENANCE 4.4.1. Inspection during operation 4.4.2. Maintenance during operation 4.4.3. Inspection and maintenance during downtime 4.4.4. Investigation of transformer disturbances 4.4.5. Transformer liquid and insulation 4.4.6. Bushings and joints 4.4.7. Off-circuit tap changer 4.4.8. On-load tap changer 4.4.9. Liquid conservator with rubber sack 4.4.10. Gaskets 4.4.11. Surface protection LOCAL REGULATIONS REUSE LANDFILL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) PCB-CONTAMINATED OIL INTRODUCTION CHOICE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE BASIC PHYSICS OF THE TRANSFORMER EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM VOLTAGE RATIO AND VOLTAGE DROP (OR RISE) EFFICIENCY NO LOAD (MAGNETISING) CURRENT AND NO LOAD LOSSES LOAD LOSSES SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE ABILITY TO WITHSTAND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS TRANSFORMER SOUND CORE MATERIALS CONDUCTOR MATERIALS



5 5

7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9



3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4.

10 11 11 12


4.1. 4.2.

13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 23 23 24 24 24 24 24




5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5.

25 25 25 25 25


6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6. 6.7. 6.8. 6.9. 6.10. 6.11.

26 26 26 28 28 31 32 37 37 40 44


7.1. 7.2.

48 48

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we will delete .1.2. Electrical and magnetic quantities Overvoltages due to ferroresonance LIMITATION OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS 9.1. 52 52 52 52 52 9.1. Multiples and sub-multiples of units IDENTIFYING TERMINALS 10. Three phase transformer RATING PLATE ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) inform us. INSULATION MATERIALS 7. TESTING OF TRANSFORMERS 8.7. 71 71 71 74 76 80 80 80 11. Sustainability development EXTRACTS FROM IEC 61936-1 (2002-10) POWER INSTALLATIONS EXCEEDING 1 KV A. 10. Degrees of protection against solid objects 10. IEC Standards 11.1.3. Customer review of management systems UNITS AND CONVERSION TABLES 10.5.4. IEEE Standards OTHER RELEVANT STANDARDS AND LITTERATURE CONTRIBUTORS FEEDBACK 49 49 50 50 8. CONTROL AND AUXILIARY SYSTEMS 9. 12.1 General INSULATION EQUIPMENT 6. 10.3. Internal overvoltages caused by high frequency oscillations TRANSFERRED OVERVOLTAGES IN TRANSFORMERS CE MARKING DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY IP-CLASSIFICATION 10.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.3. Overvoltages due to earth-fault 9.1.2. 10.6. General requirements SAFETY MEASURES 8.4. MISCELLANEOUS 10.2.1. safety and environment 10. 10. ENVIRONMENT.8. INDEX 90 www.2 Fundamental requirements 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 82 83 88 88 88 88 88 13. General 10. 9.3. OVERVOLTAGES AND OVERVOLTAGE LIMITATION CENELEC Standards 11. Solid insulation materials 7.4. Other fluids GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ROUTINE TESTS TYPE TESTS SPECIAL TESTS LIMITATION OF TEMPORARY OVERVOLTAGES 9.1.3. Degrees of protection against water 10.7. 53 54 54 55 55 56 57 57 58 9.if tort to your rights. 6 Protection against fire PROTECTION. Electromagnetic disturbances on transformers 10. General electrotechnical symbols LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS TRANSFORMER-RELEVANT STANDARDS 11. 8.C.3.1. Environment 10.1 Monitoring and control systems EARTHING SYSTEMS 9.6. Basic Sl units 10. 11.7.5. Comparison to NEMA ratings TERMINAL DESIGNATION. Electromagnetic field in the vicinity of transformers 10. Health.1. Fluids 7.2. 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 61 61 63 63 64 66 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 69 70 10.4. Single phase transformer 10. Quality 10.2. 10.1. 8.1.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 4 The document is for study only. Load rejection overvoltages 9.7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 11.4.8. SUSTAINABILITY 10.cadfamily.1.1 General 10.3. – PART 1: COMMON RULES 81 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 4. Effect of electromagnetic fields on humans QUALITY. HSE.2.1 General requirements INSTALLATIONS 7. Definitions 10.4. 10.3.8. 10.8.

distribution and automation. 1.5 kV.000 units yearly. with a broad range of products. materials. gas and water utilities as well as industrial and commercial customers. service and support.000 people.if tort to your rights. Without them the core activities of nearly every business and factory would come to a standstill – with serious financial consequences. Our warranty provides unified ABB quality. all standards (IEC. ANSI. The ABB Group of companies operates in around 100 countries and employs about 135. protection. We strengthen our relationships by building trust as a socially responsible supplier of environmental sound products and services.com Page 5 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. motion.cadfamily. which guarantees structured. ABB Power Technologies serves electric. This is why we never compromise on the performance. It can be viewed on its own but also as a part of a larger system. Our production facilities are ISO 9001/14001certified. ABB Power Technology Distribution Transformers – PTDT ABB is the worlds leading supplier of Distribution Transformers offering all technologies (Dry/Liquid).1. That means the better we know our customers’ business challenges. and more. ABB Automation Technologies blends a robust product and service portfolio with end-user expertise and global presence to deliver solutions for control. ABB Distribution transformers produce about 400. environmental protection or recycling. ABB Distribution Transformers has 30 production facilities around the world and 140 country Sales and Services centres.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. and plant integration across the full range of process and utility industries. All ABB Distribution Transformer products are Industrial IT certified. After more than 100 years in the development and manufacture of transformers ABB Distribution Transformers are well aware of this dependence. the hotel lift. easy accessible and on-line documentation. All of this means that with ABB Distribution Transformers you have access to a world-wide network of factories and facilities serving you locally with the most up to date technologies. However. security or reliability of our products. ABB-GROUP ABB is a leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve performance while reducing environmental impact. manufacturing methods. nor on design.please inform us. systems and services for power transmission. www. the farm machinery or the petrochemical plant nobody gives it a second thought. the better we can serve them. in amusement parks and in every kind of factory you will find ABB transformers at work. Industrial IT guides every step ABB takes going forward in technology. 1. Industrial IT is the ABB name for a powerful commitment to solutions for Real-Time Automation and Information. the office computer. business processes. providing the highest quality for standard and speciality products as well as solutions. As a business-to-business supplier ABB knows that value creation grows out of close relationships with customers. transformers are one of the most important units in every production process. ABB Distribution Transformers objective is to support you and to add value to your activities with a low total cost of ownership.1. etc) and all applications up to 72.we will delete  .2. INTRODUCTION In almost every place where people live and work you will find at least one transformer. But as long as it keeps working and supplying power to the escalator in the department store. in underground railways. CENELEC. the oven in the local bakery. All over the world.

www. liquid filled have primary voltages up to 72. CENELEC.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 6 The document is for study only. TRANSFORMER TYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION Transmission of energy is generally divided in two parts. ABB offers a full range of transformers fulfilling the requirements in IEC.5 kV and dry-type transformers with open or encapsulated windings for primary voltages up to 52 kV. which is supported by Power Transformers.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.cadfamily. other standards and customer-specific requirements.2. this is supported by Distribution Transformers in various hierarchies. first is transmission over long distances at high voltages. Distribution transformers.please inform us.if tort to your rights. The second part is distribution of the energy from substations to the various users.we will delete . ANSI.

2.1. esters and synthetic hydrocarbons.com Page 7 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. primary voltage 60 – 36 kV. A typical product has power rating 10 – 30 MVA. LDT Power range Primary voltage Available fluids 5000 kVA and above Up to 72. The tanks typically have radiators. www. secondary voltage 24 – 6 kV. Transformers provided with on-load tap changer usually have a separate tap winding. On customer request.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. The windings are made of paper insulated rectangular wire in the form of multi-layer disc. Transformers in this range are three phase and can be manufactured with off-circuit tap changer or on-load tap changer. dimethyl silicone. esters and synthetic hydrocarbons.we will delete  . An advantage of the hermetically sealed transformers is that the oil is not in contact with the atmosphere thus avoiding absorption of humidity from the environment. MEDIUM DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS. Flexible corrugated tank walls enable sufficient cooling of the transformer and compensate for changes in the oil volume due to temperature variations during operation.2. and the conductor materials are either copper or aluminium. dimethyl silicone.cadfamily. helical or foil windings. MDT Power range Primary voltage Available fluids 315 .please inform us. Transformers of this type are used to step down threephase high voltage to low voltage for energy distribution. A typical product has power rating 1000 kVA.2. Transformers of this type are used for receiving the energy from higher voltage levels and to transform and distribute the energy to lower voltage level substation or directly to large industrial consumers. The core is constructed of grain oriented steel laminations. primary voltage 22 kV.5 kV Mineral oil. the transformer may be equipped with oil conservator. however the smaller sizes might have corrugated tank walls. The transformers in standard versions are three phase hermetically sealed.5000 kVA Up to 36kV Mineral oil.if tort to your rights. mainly in metropolitan areas and for industrial applications. secondary voltage 420 V. LARGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS.

1. The high voltage winding is multi layer type with a cross wound glass fibre insulation soaked in epoxy. primary voltage 22 kV. Application areas for both types are quite similar. The high voltage windings are typically disk winding.cadfamily. 2. SMALL DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS.2. secondary voltage 420 V. Vacuum cast resin dry-type transformers Power range Primary voltage Climate class 50 kVA up to 30 MVA Up to 52 kV C2 Vacuum cast means that the high voltage windings are cast-in in epoxy and cured in vacuum. cured in open atmosphere.we will delete . ABB offers a full range of dry-type transformers with primary voltages up to 52 kV. primary voltage 22 kV. adaptable for pole mounting or assembly in substations. Transformers of this type are used to step down three-phase high voltage to low voltage for energy distribution.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. mainly in the countryside or low-density populated areas.2.if tort to your rights. secondary voltage 420 V. SDT Power range Primary voltage Available fluids Up to 315 kVA Up to 36kV Mineral oil. On customer request.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 8 The document is for study only.4. esters and synthetic hydrocarbons. like in large office buildings. fulfilling the requirements in IEC. dimethyl silicone. shopping centers and warehouses. secondary voltage 420 V. primary voltage 22 kV. the transformer can be equipped with oil conservator. DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS Dry-type transformers are used to minimize fire hazard and other environmental contamination on surroundings and people.4. hospitals.4. 2. A typical product has power rating 100 kVA. CENELEC and ANSI standards. however Resibloc has an advantage in extreme climatic conditions. ® 2.please inform us. Resibloc® dry-type transformers Power range Primary voltage Climate class 30 kVA up to 40 MVA Up to 52 kV C2 Resibloc® is an ABB patented process for the high voltage winding. The transformers are three phase oil immersed hermetically sealed. Hot dip galvanizing is often the preferred surface treatment for outdoor applications. A typical product has power rating 1000 kVA. www. oil and gas production facilities and other sites where a fire has potential for catastrophic consequences.3. sea going vessels. A typical product has power rating 1000 kVA.

A typical application is submersible oil pump drives and similar equipment where only HV motor applications are available. particularly those with low population densities.5. www. Converter drives are normally fed by medium voltage networks from 5 kV up to 36 kV and the converter supply voltage usually ranges from 400 V up to 4 kV. VSD transformers are produced in oil insulated and dry-type configurations up to 6 MVA ratings for various types of converters and output voltages. Depending on customer requirements. They are suitable for residential overhead distribution loads.if tort to your rights. 2. They represent an economical option for certain networks.2.please inform us.we will delete  .cadfamily. transformers may be connected between two phases of a three phase system (two HV bushings) or from one phase to ground (single HV bushing).5. 2. • Starter transformers. Transformers are individually designed and manufactured according to system requirements. • Auto transformers. • Booster transformers. kVA Up to 36 kV Mineral oil Transformers of this type are generally oil immersed and suitable for pole mounting. • Convertor transformers. • Reactors.2. OTHER TRANSFORMER TYPES Single phase transformers Power range Voltage Applicable fluid 15 .5.com Page 9 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. 2. The VSD transformer transforms the medium network voltage to the converter supply voltage. Additional products • Earthing transformers.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Drives transformers Variable Speed Drive (VSD) transformers provide the voltage transformation as well as electric isolation that is necessary for motor drives applications. as well as light commercial or industrial loads and diversified power applications.

4. assembly. INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH ENQUIRY AND ORDER For application for quotations and possible ordering transformers. transport and handling. the number of tappings. • Single or three-phase unit. the active and reactive outputs separately.g. • Dry-type or oil-immersed type. if required for any winding. tap-changer. • Any peculiarities of installation. degree of protection (see IEC 60529). • Rated voltage for each winding • For a transformer with tappings: Which winding is tapped. If the tapping range is more than ±5 %. • Details of auxiliary supply voltage (for fans and pumps. etc.we will delete . In addition for example limitations on oil and winding temperature rises (e. oil-level indicators. when necessary. required power-loading combinations. if applicable. see 5. contact your nearest ABB office or search for your product and ABB contact on http://www. If dry-type.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. rating plates. • Indoor or outdoor type. • Connection symbol and neutral terminals. see IEC 60076-3).abb. alarms etc). stating. the type of voltage variation. Whether 'off-circuit' or 'on-load' tap-changing is required. • Number of phases in system. • For multi-winding transformers. • Fittings required and an indication of the side from which meters. shall be legible. whether mineral oil or synthetic insulating liquid. • Method of system earthing (for each winding).ch 3. except 3.3.4. auto-transformer or booster transformer. NORMAL INFORMATION The following information shall be given in all cases: • Particulars of the specifications to which the transformer shall comply. for each winding.iec. • Type of cooling. • Rated power for each winding and. and the location of the maximum current tapping. Switzerland. www. If oil-immersed type. • Highest voltage for equipment (Um) for each winding (with respect to insulation. *Copyright © IEC. especially in the case of multi-winding auto-transformers.cadfamily. for tapping range exceeding ± 5 %.1. is an extract from IEC 60076-1 Annex A. Restrictions on dimensions and mass. Geneva.please inform us. • Frequency. for example: separate winding transformer. the respective lower power values are to be stated together with the rated power (which refers to the most efficient cooling).com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 10 The document is for study only. the specified maximum current tapping. and the tapping range or tapping step. 65/60 or 55/50 °C) may be given.com The information given in section 3. • Kind of transformer..if tort to your rights. www. • Insulation level (see IEC 60076-3). if applicableIf the transformer is specified with alternative methods of cooling. • Type of oil preservation system.

or restrictions to circulation of cooling air. if the tapping range of the tapped winding exceeds ±5 %. if a specific value is required. • Tolerances on voltage ratios and short-circuit impedance’s as left to agreement in IEC 60076-1 Table 1. • Whether a stabilizing winding is required and. supplementary information will generally be required.cadfamily. possibly. • Special installation space restrictions which may influence the insulation clearances and terminal locations on the transformer.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. • Whether load current wave shape will be heavily distorted.3. and whether it will be subjected to load rejection conditions.please inform us. • Diagram of connections. this shall be stated and the following information on the existing transformers given: • Rated power. furnace transformers and traction feeding transformers. details to be given.2. (see IEC 60076-1 section 1. Whether unbalanced phase loading is anticipated.3. • Whether a transformer is to be connected directly or by a short length of overhead line to gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). 3. and which connection is required ex works • Short-circuit characteristics of the connected systems (expressed as short-circuit power or current. whether or not the test is to include chopped waves (see IEC 60076-3). if so. or both. • Vacuum withstand of the transformer tank and. In both cases.2 (to enable the rating of the transformer auxiliary equipment to be established). PARALLEL OPERATIONS If parallel operation with existing transformers is required. • Altitude above sea level. For multi-winding transformers. • Short-circuit impedance on the principal tapping and at least on the extreme tappings. any impedance’s that are specified for particular pairs of windings (together with relevant reference ratings if percentage values are given). • Special ambient temperature conditions. • Rated voltage ratio.we will delete  . • Details of intended regular cyclic overloading other than covered by 4.com Page 11 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. SPECIAL INFORMATION The following additional information may need to be given: • If a lightning impulse voltage test is required. or system impedance data) and possible limitations affecting the transformer design (see IEC 60076-5). the method of earthing. for example. NOTE: On multi-winding transformers.2 b)). or deviating from values given in the table. Any information regarding the required corrosion resistance of the surface treatment in reference to the geographic zone and pollution zone. • Voltage ratios corresponding to tappings other than the principal tapping. the conservator. • Whether transformers will be subjected to frequent over-currents. Any tests not referred to above which may be required should be mentioned separately and may lead to additional cost and longer delivery time. • Whether sound-level measurement is to be carried out (see IEC 60551). or connection symbol. • Expected seismic activity at the installation site which requires special consideration. corrected to the appropriate reference temperature. • Any other exceptional service conditions. • Whether a generator transformer is to be connected to the generator directly or switchgear. www. how they should be changed. • If a transformer has alternative winding connections.if tort to your rights. if in excess of 1 000 m (3 300 ft). • Load loss at rated current on the principal tapping. • Short-circuit impedance. or impedance range (see IEC 60076-1 Annex C).

we will delete . fuses Built-in current transformers Multi function devices. 3) Standard on SDT/MDT with conservator 4) Standard on hermetically sealed 5) Plug-in bushings is the preferred ABB solution instead of cable boxes due to easy assembly and lower cost and reduced distances in the substation 2) 1 www.if tort to your rights.4.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. ) Only used when conservator Thermometer pocket is an option on SDT and standard on MDT. O (optional) and NA (not applicable) are an indication of where the different accessories are most common in use.3. Accessory type Tap changer Off-circuit On-load • Voltage regulation relay • Electrical position indicator • Parallel operation equipment Conservator Silicagel dehydrating breather Pocket. ACCESSORIES This is a list of available accessories to be selected in cooperation with the user.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 12 The document is for study only. pressure.please inform us. (bi-directional) Drain valve at tank bottom Liquid level gauge Liquid sampling valve Cable boxes on LV – and HV side mounted on the cover Plug in HV & LV bushings equipped with the robust protections Enclosures (of different protection class) Overvoltage protection devices • Surge arrestors • Arching horns Overcurrent protection. top liquid thermometer Dial thermometer Pressure relief valve Pressure relief device with signal Gas-actuated relay Integrated protective device mounted on the cover Temperature monitoring system Earthing terminals Wheels. temperature. oil level and gas Type of transformer SDT/MDT LDT S O O O O O O S S S S O O S O NA S S S S S O 5) Dry NA Bolted links O 1) O 2) O O 4) S O O O NA S 2) S S 3) O 3) O O 5) NA NA NA S NA NA NA NA O S S NA NA NA NA NA O O NA O NA O NA O O O O O O NA O O O O The abbreviations S (standard accessory).cadfamily.

• Comply with relevant Internal Control Regulations.4.1. o All accessory circuits are operational. o All shipping members have been removed. o The neutral and earth connections have been properly made. • Do not attempt to change tap setting while the transformer is energized. • Do not make any connections which do not comply with the rating plate. however it may be overruled or supplemented by local regulations and the supplier’s or purchaser’s specific instructions. See also relevant safety sections in Extracts from IEC 61936-1 (2002-10) Power installations exceeding 1 kV a. • Do not tamper with interlocks.cadfamily.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. • Do not operate the transformer without alarm and monitoring systems connected.if tort to your rights. o There is no visible moisture on or inside the core and coils (dry-type transformers).com Page 13 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. • Do not energize or perform maintenance on the transformer without proper earth connection. • Do not remove any enclosure panels while the transformer is energized. o All connections are tight and secure. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE This section describes ABB’s general experience/recommendations and minimum requirements. o There is continuity in all windings. • Do not move or lift a transformer without applying adequate equipment and safety precautions. o All plastic wrappings are removed from the core and coils (dry-type transformers). – Part 1: Common rules at the end of the handbook. o All protective covers are closed and tightened. o Proper clearance is maintained from high voltage bus to terminal equipment. commissioning and maintenance: • Never work on transformers or any installed electrical equipment alone.c. 4. • Comply with any instructions supplied by the transformer manufacturer. coils. o There are no obstructions in or near the openings for ventilation. www. o The correct transformer ratio exists for units with internal terminal boards. tank or enclosures. o There is no dust. A relevant megger is recommended. • Do not reconnect when the transformer is energized. o Fans – if supplied – are operational. dirt or foreign material on core and coils (dry-type transformers). INSTALLATION.please inform us. • Perform a final inspection prior to energizing: o All external connections have been made properly. alarms and control circuits. o All tap connections are properly positioned. o No tools or other articles are left inside or on top of the core.we will delete  . • Do not apply abnormal mechanical strain on the terminals. o All windings are free from un-intended earths. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Please observe the following and any other safety advices before installation. • Be aware of possible need for magnetic field protection.

except for the largest units. lifting Only approved and suitable lifting equipment shall be used. 4.3. • Prevention of damage to bushings. Incoterms are standard definitions of trade terms and are internationally recognized as indispensable evidence of the buyer’s and seller’s responsibilities under a sales contract. • Larger transformers should preferably be positioned with the longitudinal axis in the direction of movement. Use a forklift only on transport pallets or transformer bottom. Use the provided lifting lugs only. During transport the following should be considered: • Angle of tilting exceeding 10º must be specified in the contract. When lifting a transformer with cable boxes on the cover. INSTALLATION Transport The transformer is supplied filled with liquid and normally all accessories fitted. 4.please inform us. Transformer lifting example www. and in such a way that twisting forces on the transformer tank are avoided. wooden blocks and lashes. only provided jacking points shall be used.2.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 14 The document is for study only.org/index_incoterms.if tort to your rights. however a wall chart may be viewed on http://www.cadfamily. • Any use of crates or containers.we will delete .iccwbo.2. 4. When hydraulic jacks are used. Handling.4.asp where a wall chart in preferred language may also be purchased. • Secure against movement by means of e.1. Do not apply load to corrugated fins or radiators and their supports.2.2. • Adapt vehicle speed to the road conditions. • Any impact recorders to be specified in the contract. corrugated panels or radiators and accessories. Transfer of responsibility (Incoterms) Incoterms defined by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) make international trade easier and help traders in different countries to understand one another. • Vehicle capacity shall be adequate for the transport weight of the transformer. special care must be taken.g. The radiators may be dismantled during transport. Incoterms will not apply unless specifically incorporated into the contract Those standard trade definitions that are most commonly used in international contracts are protected by ICC copyright.2.

4. do any of the following: • Make necessary arrangement to avoid further damage. Receiving the transformer at site Transformers manufactured by ABB are thoroughly tested and inspected prior to shipping. it should be placed upon supports to allow ventilation under the bottom of the transformer base.cadfamily. • That the delivery is complete according to order confirmation. Any leakages? • External damage. it should be inspected carefully. fire protection regulations. • No repairs should be started until responsibilities are clarified and actions are agreed upon all involved parties. The receipt of the unit shall be signed for. but upon receiving the transformer at site.6. dry-type transformers etc. A transformer equipped with wheels must be prevented from moving by chocking the wheels. safety.com Page 15 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Storage prior to energizing When storage of the transformer is required. Observe local authorities regulations for civil engineering of transformer cells. when applicable. The duct cross section of the outlet should be 10 % more than the cross section of the inlet opening due to increase of volume of the hot air.we will delete  . should be inspected/removed. safety regulations. • Prior to energizing. and from the windings to earth. give careful consideration to accessibility. • Humidity/condensation in control cubicles. however for Resibloc –60°C. • The transformer nameplate.g. Make sure the foundation for mounting the transformer is entirely adequate. This applies to dry-type in particular.2. A liquid containment tank may be required. In case of damage revealed during the receiving inspection. cracks in bushings.4. • Make a report of the damage immediately. Fresh air intake at floor level. • Minimum storage temperature for dry-type transformer is in general -25°C. without any possibilities of mechanical damage and on a solid foundation. cable boxes. As a guide each kilowatt of losses requires 4 cubic meters of air circulation per minute. • If the transformer does not have a structural steel base. ventilation and ease of inspection. To be inspected: • The way in which the transformer has been secured on the trailer. • Compare the packing list with the goods received. perform a megger test between the different windings. the following recommendations should be noted: • Preferably in dry and clean locations. • Impact recorders indications when applicable.5. e.2. www.4.please inform us. and a ventilation duct leading to outer air must be built on the ceiling or upper part of the wall.if tort to your rights. • Liquid level. Transformer shipments are normally insured. 4.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. • Contact the insurance company concerned and ABB.2. • The liquid conservator and dehydrating breather must be checked to ensure that dry air is breathed. The intake and outlet openings should be located diagonally across the room. driving mechanism for on-load tap changer. Erection at site In determining the location of a transformer. and the result of the inspection shall be noted. Ventilate the erection site properly. (Conservator type only) Liquid samples to be analysed regarding moisture content prior to energizing.

(mm) *Copyright © IEC.7. Conical washers shall be used in order to obtain the required contact pressure.we will delete .and regulations for electrical installations.2. Tightening torque Bolt size M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 Recommended tightening torque/Nm Property Class Bolt 8.7. Cable and busbar load capacities are outside the scope of this handbook. file or similar immediately before joining.ch 12 75 110 17.7. Jointing compound. For aluminium-copper joints the copper is coated with tin.5 325 630 4.5 15. however dealt with in detail in ABB Switchgear Manual. which prevents the access of air and humidity into joints. Minimum electrical clearances shall be obtained. High voltage connection is normally performed by copper cables and copper cable lugs. and renewed oxidation is prevented by applying a thin protective film of grease (neutral Vaseline).com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. www. Electrical clearances in air Note: Testing or well documented local practice can allow the use of reduced clearances.cadfamily.7.0 5. or bi-metal sheets (one side of copper and the other of aluminium) can be used between the joint. 4.1. phase to phase and phase to earth.0 120.0 30. the nuts should only be tightened until the washer becomes flat.if tort to your rights. 4. It must be remembered that good contact between joined aluminium surfaces can be achieved only if the no conducting oxide film is removed with a wire brush.6 7.iec.2. Suitably strong steel bolts and nuts have to be used for tightening the joint. Geneva. Flexible connectors shall be used between the terminals and the bars. Network connection Maximum system voltage (kV) 3. Suitable cable lugs shall be used when connecting low voltage copper cables. Switzerland.4.8 Nut 8 3.1. when connecting to low voltage busbars. In some cases heat shrinkable connectors or elbow connectors are used.2. www. bus bars and cables shall be installed such that minimal mechanical stress is transferred to the bushings.2.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 16 The document is for study only. The aluminium surface must be larger than the copper surface.please inform us.0 When disk-type spring washers are used.0 60.5 95 170 24 125 210 36 170 280 72. The tightening torque’s given below are recommended to be used in external transformer joints. Connecting transformer terminals to the networks Observe local authorities safety. The zinc crystals of the compound break down the layer of oxide on the aluminium.2 Lightning impulse withstand voltage (kV) 45 60 Minimum clearance according to IEC 60 90 60076-3.2. Aluminium parts shall always be placed above copper parts so that water cannot drain from the copper parts onto the aluminium (corrosion).2. must be used in the joint. Nuts should be adequately locked. Conductors.

off-circuit/on-load tap changer Check the insulation resistance between HV and LV as well as windings to earth. Minimum value is 1000 ohm per volt service voltage (Maximum 1mAmp.please inform us. • Condition of dehydrating breather. the transformer can be connected to the network.). and select the suitable tap changer position. 4.if tort to your rights. 4. This does not necessarily mean that there is a fault in the transformer.cadfamily. It could be a false alarm caused by an air bubble. After the transformer has been connected to the network. and check the functions: • Thermometer with contacts for alarm and tripping signals. a gas and an oil sample should be taken for analysis. Older relays may trip the circuit breaker immediately. www.2. When connecting the transformer to the network.2.9. Earthing Earth the transformer at the earthing terminals provided. • Finally the transformer must be cleaned. gas may be present which gives an alarm in the gas relay. Off-circuit/on-load tap changer • Check the galvanic contact between the winding and the tap-changer in all positions. 4.10. Modern over-current and differential relays contain a control circuit which makes the relays in sensitive to inrush currents. See also section 6. Earthing resistance according to electricity utilities. paragraph “Inrush current”. When provided. • Tighten all leaking gaskets carefully.4. Replace blown fuses and try energizing again because the magnitude of the inrush current is a statistical variable large spread. 4. trapped under the cover.2.we will delete  . and then moved into the gas relay.com Page 17 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. fuses may blow immediately caused by high inrush current. (For conservator type only). Protective equipment Connect the equipment. Insulation resistance. when combined with a winding temperature indicator Winding temperature indicator setting Alarm 85ºC 90ºC 105ºC Tripping 100ºC 105ºC 135ºC • Thermometer settings for dry-type transformers according to the relevant temperature class.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Mechanical checks • Check the liquid level.11. • Gas relay with contacts for alarm and tripping signals. Energizing After the transformer has been found to be in good condition and the protective equipment is found in order. • Pressure relief device with contacts for alarm signal. Recommended settings for ONAN transformers Oil thermometer setting Oil thermometer setting.or national standards 4. oil level indicator with contacts for alarm signal. • When applicable. surface damage caused by transportation and installation work shall be repaired. • After completed installation work. • Compare the voltage ratio of the transformer and the network voltages.12. If not air. Air is colour less and odor less.

without loosing more than 50 % of its original mechanical strength. and so forth for all other insulation classes. Ageing consists of several oxidation processes. Ageing sets certain limitations to the load capacity of the transformer. location etc. Technical lifetime: Solid insulation materials consist mainly of organic materials. where the chemical reaction rate increases strongly with temperature.3.if tort to your rights.3. heavy overload or short. To illustrate this. an old transformer can work perfectly well in normal conditions for several years more. These limitations are defined in IEC publication 60354 “Loading guide for oil immersed transformers”.1. These detrimental processes.4. This is a matter where high degree of judgment is involved.cadfamily. % Temperature rise 50/55 ºC 0 116 +10 108 +20 100 +30 91 +40 82 +50 72 +60 - - 119 110 100 89 77 64 www. Class 130 is defined to withstand a continuous temperature of 130° C for 7 years. economical and technical. the expected technical lifetime for a transformer depends mainly on its accumulated load cycle and the ambient temperature. Also a number of transformers are exchanged due to change in system voltage or insufficient capacity. IEC 60354 provides guidelines on how to overload oil-immersed transformers.2. which are affected by temperature. typically when the cost of the total losses of the old transformer is too high. humidity and oxygen. are called ageing. Constant ambient air temperature ºC Permissible continuous load factor. Temperature rise and load capacity Thermal class 105 is defined to withstand a continuous temperature of 105° C for 7 years. while there is very little reduction in the dielectric strength.please inform us. 4.we will delete . These materials change over time. There is no clear definition of "end of life" in any international standard. In practical terms.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Economical lifetime: Economical lifetime ends when the capitalized cost of continued operation of the existing transformer exceeds the capitalized cost of a new investment. Continuous load capacity at different constant ambient air temperatures has been calculated according to IEC 60354. lifetime is halved at a temperature rise of 7-8 ºC and vice versa. it may collapse. As a rule of thumb. they become brittle and the mechanical strength is reduced. application. % Temperature rise 60/65 ºC Permissible continuous load factor. Permissible continuous loading capacity at different ambient air temperatures for ONAN distribution transformers. This varies with customer. The sum of ambient + average temperature rise of any of the windings + 10° C (to allow for that maximum temperature rise in a winding is 10° C above average) should not exceed 105° C. Consequential risks and costs associated with electricity downtime are of increasing importance. 4. A typical technical lifetime of a distribution transformer under normal conditions is at least 30 years.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 18 The document is for study only.3. OPERATION Lifetime The lifetime of a transformer can be divided into two categories. this is called Montsinger’s rule. be it a voltage peak.circuit currents. but as soon as it gets a surge. Thus.

3. 4. Gas actuated relay The gas generated in a transformer during a fault is collected in the gas relay.g. 4.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. If the tripping contacts operate the transformer will be immediately disconnected from the network. Normally the accessories are selected with rated current not less than 120% of rated current of the transformer. The clock-hour which indicate the phase displacement is stamped on the transformer rating plate. such as the tap changer and the bushings are correspondingly rated.3.5.3.In practice the transformer is not continuously fully loaded. www. reference is made to IEC 60076-8 (Power transformers – Application guide clause 6 page 81. plus duration and the repetitive cycle of the overload. because the oil temperature changes much slower with the load than the temperature rise of the winding.1.cadfamily.please inform us. The gas will displace the liquid in the relay and minor gas generation will cause the closing of the alarm contact.5.3.we will delete  . followed by the tripping contact. • Tap changers should have tap position giving voltage ratios as close as possible.3.5. This is defined in the IEC 60354.com Page 19 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.3. Protection devices Overcurrent protection There are two types of overcurrent protection: • Fuses. Overloading a transformer implies that the construction and the accessories. 4. (For bushings see IEC 60137) Corresponding considerations are made for dry-type transformers. Overcurrent protection is mainly intended for protection against high overcurrents due to external short-circuits. within +-10%. Dyn11. Differential protection Differential relays react upon different ampereturns on the two sides of the transformer which indicates that there may be an internal fault in the transformer. Deviation from the above requirements is possible. Yd11.5. • The power rating of the transformers should not deviate more than 1:3. then the alarm contact will close first. 4.2. 4. Frequency A transformer designed for 50 Hz can be used for 60 Hz but not vice versa. • Poles with the same polarity on HV. Based on the above there is a certain emergency overload capacity for the transformer. • Transformers should have approximately the same voltage ratio. • The short-circuit impedance voltage should be the same. and are described in IEC 60905 Loading guide for dry-type power transformers. will cause the immediate closing of the tripping contact. Special attention shall be paid to the fact that the transformer’s short term load capacity cannot be judged on the basis of the oil temperature alone. 4.3.3. The permissible short-term overload depends on the starting conditions. A heavy liquid flow from the transformer into the liquid conservator (conservator type only). The load and the temperature fluctuate by seasons and time of the day. e.and LV side shall be connected in parallel. and must be analysed on a caseto-case basis. • Overcurrent relays which send tripping signals to the circuit breaker. provided adequate knowledge is available.4.91). For further details. Parallel operation When two or more transformers are connected in parallel the following is required: • Only transformers having the same phase displacement between primary and secondary voltage can operate in parallel. If an extensive amount of gas is generated or the oil level falls.if tort to your rights.

• Amend surface treatment defects. A skilled welder and a welding instruction are required. • Cleaning glasses on gas relay. (Conservator type only). they shall be locked in open position to prevent them inadvertently closing during maintenance work. Leaking joints can be repaired only by welding.g. • Inspection for liquid leakages. • Humidity removal. 4.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Contact ABB for further instructions. • Dehydrating breather.1. 2/3 of the silica gel has changed from blue to red colour (old type).please inform us. respectively.4. • Inspection of surface condition. the protective equipment of the transformer gives an alarm or trips the transformer from the network. Maintenance during operation For personal safety reasons. • Welded joints.4.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 20 The document is for study only. Studies may reveal whether it is a question of transformer damage or some other disturbances in the system. In addition for dry-type transformers: • Inspection and e. 4. In heavily contaminated installations more frequent inspections may be needed.4.4. Over voltage protection See section 9.4.4. during operation. one should immediately investigate the reason for it. if the gasket has lost its elasticity.5.3. thermometer and liquid level indicator. www. • Cover gaskets. • Liquid sampling from bottom drain valve for larger units as required. especially on bushings. • Inspection for contamination. • Move tap changer through all positions a few times. only a limited amount of maintenance activities should be performed on the transformer when it is in operation.we will delete . 4.4.cadfamily. When the disconnectors have been opened. • Cleaning contaminated bushings (cleaning agent e. tightening will usually help. all types of tap changers. it must be replaced.3.if tort to your rights. valves and gaskets of the tap changer. or from pink to white. Inspection and maintenance during downtime Before starting maintenance work. MAINTENANCE Inspection during operation Inspection during operation shall only be performed after taking safety measures into consideration: • If there is a maximum indicator on the thermometer the maximum temperature should be recorded. methylated spirit).4. if leaks occur. Investigation of transformer disturbances If. • Functional inspection of applicable accessories.g.2. 4. • Check drying material in the dehydrating breather. Items to be considered are: • Bushing gaskets. The reason for loss of elasticity can be excessive heating or aging. • Tightening winding supports. If there are leaks. tightening usually will help. 4. vacuum cleaning as required. (Conservator type only). the transformer has to be disconnected from the network and earthed. The silica gel shall be changed when approx.

Remove the failure in the system Contact manufacturer SOLUTIONS Clean with dry air. Fuses blows Fuses incorrectly calibrated Protection relays. Ventilate.com Page 21 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Clean with dry air. Spurious triggering during operation Defect Pt100 sensors or thermistors. Ageing. dirt. For dry-type transformers. Contact the electricity utility Check settings. No voltage applied in one of the phases on the primary side Triggering and alarm incorrectly set. Contact manufacturer. Check the connections.4. Trouble shooting advices For oil type transformers see section 4.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Dielectric. installation. installation Unsymmetrical load on the secondary side. The automatic protection device is triggered at the transformer energization The primary voltage does not coincide with the position or connection. Presence of humidity on surface of Low insulation resistance windings.V.cadfamily.we will delete  .4. Fuse Blown fuse Relays Incorrect timing. Consider different rating Check timing and current setting. Defective windings.4. Winding rupture. Windings. Primary voltage.1. Check installation and contact the electricity utility. Change position or connection. see table below in addition: SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSES Dielectric. Triggering of the overcurrent relay or blown HV fuses during operation Short circuit in the system on the secondary side Perforation of insulating material. Contact manufacturer. Check that the position or connection comply with the primary voltage. Check installation and contact the electricity utility. Fuse has blown in one phase Unsymmetrical voltages on the secondary side Winding rupture L. Bolted links incorrectly connected in one of the phases. Absence of primary voltage. www. Change fuse. Contact manufacturer.3 for further information.if tort to your rights. Check timing.please inform us. Tap changer or bolted links. Timing and/or current is incorrectly adjusted.V. Contact manufacturer. Change fuse. Check L. Change fuses. Unexpected secondary voltage Tap changer or bolted links incorrectly positioned or connected. Incorrect thermometer operation. Check thermometer Check sensors or thermistors.

Use damping pads below the transformer Contact electricity utility Contact manufacturer Abnormal operating temperature Transformer overloaded Local heating at the transformer terminals Excessive cable heating High voltage to earth Earth failure on one phase Supply voltage higher than presupposed Loose accessories or elements High acoustical sound level Reflection from walls and other elements. the bushings. • Is the gas relay filled with gas: colour and quality? • Is oil sooty? • Thermometer readings. rain. earth fault relay).com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 22 The document is for study only.4.2. High ambient temperature.). etc. • Network data.4. contamination or visible marks of arcing on windings. cleats and leads? • Gas-in-oil analysis for LDT units? • Any other observation. were connections or other relevant things made when the disturbance took place.if tort to your rights. www. possible relay operations which took place elsewhere in the network (e. Consider installation of cooling fans Consider load reduction or installation of a transformer with higher power rating Clean contact surfaces and retighten Undersized cables Remove failure Change bolted links connection. Retighten. are there humidity.cadfamily.please inform us. Low frequency Smoke Insulation failure 4. • Weather data (thunderstorm. SOLUTIONS Contact manufacturer Check current transformers Check ventilation of premises. • Were coolers or tank damaged? • Are there visible marks of arcing on e. what was the loading like. Install sound damping panels.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.we will delete . Recording of disturbances • Date and time of the occurrence. • Data for installed overvoltage protection.g. cover or conservator? • In case of dry-type transformers.SYMPTOMS Triggering of differential relay during operation PROBABLE CAUSES Failure in the transformer Failure in current transformers feeding the relay Insufficient ventilation.g. Place the transformer in non-parallel direction to the walls.

please inform us. de-gassing and possibly addition of inhibitor. the insulators have to be dry and clean. service record and strategic importance for safe electricity supply. Measurements In addition to the above instructions. A short-circuit current has passed the transformer. Liquid acts as a good electrical insulation only as long as it is satisfactorily dry and clean. An air bubble is colourless and odourless. However if the gas has colour or smell.4.if tort to your rights. www.com Page 23 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. the following inspection measurements can be carried out: • Insulation resistance. Especially for large LDT transformers.4. Methylated spirit or easily evaporating cleaning agents can be used for cleaning. 4.4. Transformer liquid and insulation The task of liquid in a transformer is to act as an electrical insulation and to transfer heat from the transformer’s active parts into coolers.4. To take liquid samples from hermetically sealed transformers is normally not necessary. The temperature when the measurements were made must be considered. Bushings and joints The porcelain insulators of transformer bushings ought to be cleaned during service interruptions as often as necessary.3. No gas bubbles.5. To obtain reliable results.cadfamily. liquid regeneration may be economically motivated. 4. and should only be performed after consultation with ABB. The condition of external conductor and bus bar joints of transformer bushings shall be checked at regular intervals because reduced contact pressure in the joints leads to overheated bushings etc. For higher voltages on the low-voltage side of the transformer the measured current will be in the range of a few milliamperes for a sound transformer.6. The liquid in this type of transformers is not in contact with the atmosphere.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. filtering.4.4.4. • DC resistances of windings should be compared with the DC resistance measured during delivery test. the voltage during measurement should gradually be increased to the nominal low voltage. 4. Testing of liquid in transformers should normally be performed 12 months after filling or refilling. Function of transformer protective equipment Operation of some protective equipment such as gas relay or differential relay does not always mean that the transformer is damaged.we will delete  . • Voltage ratio. Humidity balance between the oil and the insulation implies that most of the humidity will gather in the paper insulation. The gas relay can operate for example when: An air bubble has been left under the transformer cover. Testing of oil in on load tap changers must be performed according to the tap changer supplier’s recommendations. and may cause the adjacent gasket to be destroyed by the heat. This is particularly important for places exposed to contamination and moisture. and less exposed to moisture. Liquid regeneration implies drying. size. the transformer is damaged.4. ABB offers different tests and analyses of liquid samples depending of transformer type. If the low voltage of the transformer is 400 V or lower. The measured current should be compared with the no-load current measured in the delivery test. • No-load current measurement by means of a low voltage variable source. subsequently every six years.

we will delete . Usually the turns ratio of the HV winding is regulated ±2x2. Small damage as scratches 2 do normally not need repairing. it is recommended to contact ABB. or >92% by weight metallic zinc in dry film) paint to at least the same thickness as the original zinc coating. leaks can usually be sealed by tightening the screws (bolts).if tort to your rights. Do not remove any original zinc during cleaning. When the tap changer is turned the locking device must be secured.4. Liquid resistant rubber rings are used as gasket for bushing bolts. If the gaskets are leaking. Off-circuit tap changer The transformation ratio can be adjusted with an off-load tap changer when the transformer is not energized. position indicator and locking device. The shaft end is provided with a handle. passivating. For dry-type transformers the off-circuit tap changing is generally done by means of bolted links. The silicagel shall be changed when approx. Zinc coated surfaces Zinc coated surfaces have a self-repairing. After thoroughly cleaning apply zinc-rich (between 65-69% zinc by weight.please inform us.11. are usually made of liquid resistant vulcanized cork sheet or silicone sealant.4. All these gaskets can be tightened and replaced from outside the tank. The paint may be one-component (preferred) or two-component. 4. above 50 mm . may need repair.9. Liquid conservator with rubber sack The system consisting of oil conservator with rubber sack does normally not require any other maintenance than inspection of the silicagel breather.5 %. the points to be repainted shall be cleaned from rust.4. characteristic. 4.4. Painted surfaces When repairing damaged paint. shafts and spindles.7.4. The control shaft of the off-load tap changer is brought through the cover or the tank wall. 4. Larger areas.4.11. dirt and grease before priming with a zinc rich primer prior to top coat paint. as well as between bushings and cover. 4.10. When tightening the gaskets special care must be taken to prevent the breaking of screws (bolts) or the gasket “floats away” (if not in a groove) caused by the heavy pressure. www. On-load tap changer Maintenance of on load tap changer to be performed according to the instructions given by the supplier of the tap changer. It is recommended that the off-circuit tap changer is moved from one extreme position to the other a few times during service interruption. When these gaskets have to be replaced.cadfamily.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 24 The document is for study only.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Surface protection 4. 2/3 of the silicagel has changed from blue to red colour. Gaskets The gaskets of the cover and flanges.4.2. because that assures that the off-load tap changer has been set to operating position. In particular stud nuts must be tightened very carefully.4. This is necessary especially when the tap changer is moved infrequently.

Insulation material. Not all ABB transformer manufacturers used PCB. including transformer and condenser oil.please inform us. 5. also represent a value if treated correspondingly. The total losses consist of load losses and no load losses. The landfill portion of the transformer should be minimized. thus the salvage value of a transformer is expected to increase in the future. REUSE Transformers contain valuable materials. ABB have agreements with local waste processing plants and may dispose of used transformers taking sustainable development in consideration. 2 and 3 are negligible compared to 4.20 years. If not. DISPOSAL AFTER USE Scrapped transformers may harm the environment.1. and those who did. The lifetime energy losses are one of the reasons why ABB recommends an energy-effective transformer layout. e. LANDFILL Materials not re-circulated go to landfill or energy production. Raw material extraction. www. PCB-CONTAMINATED OIL PCB was used in many ways and was included in several different products. Transport to site 4.5. ABB can assist in the disposal of PCB-contaminated oil.com Page 25 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Local authorities may give guidance.we will delete  . 5. • Oil. 5. If in doubt the local ABB Company can assist. Disposal after use LCA calculations show that categories 1. • Aluminium. pressboard and paper. represent a higher value than those scrapped today. Transformer production 3. Transformers acquired today may after service life. provided reuse of materials. 5.if tort to your rights. Some transformer owners prefer to scrap used transformers themselves.5. Material disposal technology is continuously improving. Examples are: • Copper. • Steel. It is also expected that materials which today are not recyclable may be treated differently in the future. Energy losses during service 5. they may. Life cycle assessment shows that the dominating environmental impact during a transformers life is energy losses during service. stopped using it long before the factories were acquired by ABB.3.cadfamily. however it is harmful to the environment and develops cancer-causing dioxides during normal combustion. both are significant.g.2. The use of PCB is now prohibited. LOCAL REGULATIONS Local regulations shall always be adhered to in disposing used transformers. however. A part of category 1 is regained during disposal. which may be reused either as is or after reprocessing.4. 5. also Internet community home pages may give advice. represent energy. The relation between load and no load losses depends on the transformer loading. manufacturing and transport 2. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) The environmental impact of transformers may be divided into five life cycle categories: 1.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.

please inform us. The induction law was formulated by Neumann in 1845. 6. While generator transformers are step-up transformers. but on the other side it requires more expensive lines. Closer to the consumers the power is distributed at lower voltage levels.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. cables and transformers.1. 6. while in signal transformers the signal must be transferred with a minimum of distortion. where the main requirement is that it shall transfer a certain amount of electric power at a constant frequency while the voltage is being changed from one level to another with a minimum of power losses. the power loss will be lower when the system voltage is increased. The power rating of distribution transformers is usually lower the closer to the consumer the transformers are situated.we will delete . such as the measurement of voltage and current. A high system voltage reduces the transmission losses.3.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 26 The document is for study only. the quantity measured must be transferred from the primary circuit to the secondary as exactly as possible.6. BASIC PHYSICS OF THE TRANSFORMER The function of a transformer is mainly based on two physical phenomena. In other words. 6. CHOICE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE Large power stations where the electric energy is generated are often situated far away from the numerous places where the electric energy is consumed. the distribution transformers are normally step-down transformers. PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION A transformer is a static device with two or more windings that are linked to each other by means of a strong magnetic field. which was discovered by Faraday in the 1830’s. The need for high voltage levels in electric power transmission is illustrated in the following. The induced voltage ui is proportional to the quotient ∆Φ/ ∆t. This text concentrates on power transformers. One of them is the electromagnetic induction. The power loss p in a 3-phase transmission line with a resistance R per phase and a current I flowing in each phase is: p = 3 ⋅ R ⋅ I2 At a system voltage U the transmitted active power is: P = 3 ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ cos ϕ Equation (2) can be rewritten as: 3 ⋅ U ⋅ cos ϕ Inserted in the equation (1) gives: p = P2 R U 2 ⋅ cos 2 ϕ I= P (W) (W) (1) (2) (A) (3) (W) (4) Equation (4) indicates that the power loss in the line is proportional to the square of the transmitted active power and inversely proportional to the square of the system voltage. The choice of system voltage is a matter of economic balance. or the transfer of signals or electric power. If a change ∆Φ takes place during a short time-interval ∆t. The design requirements of transformers depend on the application. Transformers are designed for specific purposes. a voltage will be induced which will drive a current around in the loop.if tort to your rights. The voltage is taken down in several steps. Consider a loop of a conducting material enclosing a magnetic field Φ. In measurement transformers. Several hundreds of kilovolts are used for lines for lines transporting large quantities of electric power over long distances.cadfamily.2. or more correctly written on differential form: ui = dΦ dt (V) (5) www.

When the terminals of the secondary winding are open. the induction law is written as: ui = − dΦ dt (V) (6) where the minus sign indicate that ui has the direction that it will drive a current through the loop. the relation between the applied voltage on the primary side and the output voltage on the secondary side is the same as the relation between the number of turns in the primary winding and the secondary winding respectively: U1 N = 1 U2 N2 or (8) www. In other words.This is the scalar value of the induced voltage.com Page 27 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. the same induced voltage will take place in each of the turns.if tort to your rights. The windings are made as concentric shells around a central core of laminated steel plates.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. To indicate also the direction of the induced voltage. The voltage induced in the whole coil will then be: ui = −N ⋅ dΦ dt (V) (7) The other physical phenomenon is that a conductor carrying an electrical current is surrounded by a magnetic field. the induced current strives to resist any change in the magnetic field.we will delete  . which makes the magnetic coupling between the windings strong.cadfamily. Φ Figure 6-1 If the loop is replaced by a coil with N number of series-connected turns. Due to the magnetic properties of the steel the magnetic flux will be several thousand times higher than it would have been without the steel core. When the flux increases. When the flux decreases. the induced current has the direction that gives a flux with a direction opposite the direction of Φ. H I Figure 6-2 To create a magnetic field that varies in time in a transformer a sinusoidal voltage is applied to the primary winding which creates a magnetising current. the induced current has the direction that gives a flux with a direction in phase with Φ. which is formed as a closed loop for the magnetic field. which sets up a magnetic field with the opposite direction of the change dΦ.please inform us.

The corresponding vector diagram is shown in Figure 4. the voltage at the secondary terminals changes to U2. while the ratio between the primary and secondary currents fulfils the equation: I1 ⋅ N1 = I 2 ⋅ N 2 with a deviation of one percent or less. To achieve this current an applied voltage of just a fraction of the rated voltage will be sufficient.4. This voltage is called the short-circuit voltage and is usually expressed as a percentage of the rated voltage. The real part of Z represents the load losses of the transformer. The real part of Z0 represents the no load losses. With the load ZL connected. The influence of the small magnetising current (usually in the magnitude of 1% of the rated current) is negligible. EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM A simple equivalent diagram for the transformer can be drawn based on two measurements on the transformer. (10) 6.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 28 The document is for study only.if tort to your rights.5. depending on • the angle φ between the voltage on the secondary terminals of the transformer U2 and the secondary current I2 • the value of the secondary current I2 • the short-circuit impedance of the transformer Z and its active and reactive components. That is the part of the magnetic field. r and ±jx respectively At no load the secondary voltage is U20. 6.). In the following considerations symmetrical loading is assumed. The current has one dominant inductive component and one smaller active component.U 2 = U1 ⋅ N2 N1 (V) (9) When the secondary winding is loaded. These can be calculated from the measurements. is found by short-circuiting the secondary terminals and applying a voltage at the primary side. When the transformer is loaded.we will delete . www. the voltage ratio may differ considerably from the turn ratio (see 6. The impedance of the circuit is given by the quotient of the short-circuit voltage divided by the rated current. The other impedance in the diagram. The current in the windings during this measurement shall be equal to the rated current.cadfamily. Because Z0>>Z the impedance of the parallel connection is equal to Z with a negligible difference. The circuit is a parallel connection of Z0 and Z. Z.please inform us. the voltage on the secondary terminals changes from that in no load condition. one in no load and one in short-circuited condition. Z I2 Z0 U20 U2 ZL Figure 6-3 In no load condition (open secondary terminals) the total magnetising current and the active power consumption are measured at rated voltage. which is situated outside the core. VOLTAGE RATIO AND VOLTAGE DROP (OR RISE) The voltage ratio of a transformer is normally specified in no load condition and is directly proportional to the ratio of the number of turns in the windings. and the imaginary part is attributed to the magnetic leakage field.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.5. and the real and the imaginary components of transformer’s no load impedance Z0 can be found. This impedance is not constant but will vary non-linearly with the applied voltage due to the non-linearity of the magnetisation curve.

the arithmetic difference between U20 and U2.06 = 1 ⋅ (0.8 inductive 2 Example:n = 1 ∆U 2 U 20 ur = 0.please inform us. ur and ux are the active and the reactive short-circuit voltages at rated current related to the rated voltage U20. To calculate the relative voltage drop at any relative loading n equation (11) can be rewritten as ∆U2 U20 = n(ur cos ϕ + u x sin ϕ) + 1 − 1 − n2 (ur sin ϕ − u x cos ϕ) 2 (12) n= I2 (13) I 2N cosφ = 0.cadfamily.if tort to your rights.06 ⋅ 0.6 ) + 1 − 1 − 12 ⋅ (0.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.01 * 0.com Page 29 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.01 ⋅ 0.955 ⋅ U 20 (V) (15) (V) (16) In other words.045 ) ⋅ U 20 = 0.8 + 0.we will delete  .06 ⋅ 0. when a transformer with these values for ur and ux is loaded with rated current with a power factor of 0.045 (14) ∆U 2 = 0.01 ux = 0.U20 φ ux ∆U2 φ ur U2 I2 φ Figure 6-4 From the vector diagram in Figure 6-4 the following relationship appears: (V) (11) 2 ∆U 2 = I2 ⋅ r ⋅ cos ϕ + I2 ⋅ x ⋅ sin ϕ + U20 − U 2 − (I2 ⋅ r ⋅ sin ϕ − I2 ⋅ x ⋅ cos ϕ) 20 ∆U2 is the voltage drop. www.5% of the voltage at no load.8 inductive the voltage on the secondary terminals decreases to 95.6 − 0.045 ⋅ U 20 U 2 = U 20 − ∆U 2 = (1 − 0.8 ) = 0.

which states that the output power shall be equal to the rated power. This may be especially important for example in a case where a large motor represents the main load of the transformer. Positive angles of ϕ mean leading (capacitive) load current. Figure 6-6 shows another example of how the secondary voltage may vary at various values of the short circuit reactance ux and of cosφ. The highly inductive starting current of the motor may then be considerably higher than the rated current of the transformer. this will contribute to an even lower voltage on the secondary side of the transformer.please inform us.cadfamily. Negative angles of ϕ mean lagging (inductive) load current.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. The voltage drop is due to the consumption of active and reactive power in the transformer. and that the voltage applied on the primary side shall be adjusted to compensate for the voltage drop (or rise) in the transformer. Observe that at angle φ above a certain positive value the secondary voltage increases compared to voltage at no load. In general the secondary voltage decreases with increasing ux. The output power differs from the rated power.we will delete . According to the IEC definitions (see clause 4.9 the secondary voltage has dropped to about 90% of the no load voltage. Observe that already at ux=7% and cosφ=0.1 of IEC 60076-1) it is implied that the rated power of a two-winding transformer is the input power. Users and installation planners are recommended to take the variation of the secondary voltage during loading into account when specifying the transformer data. Consequently there may be a considerable voltage drop through the transformer.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 30 The document is for study only. If the feeding power source is weak.if tort to your rights. This is different from the definition in ANSI/IEEE.Figure 6-5 Figure 6-5 shows an example of how the secondary voltage varies with various angles of ϕ and load currents for the particular values ur = 1% and ux = 6%. www.

At rated current n=1. EFFICIENCY The efficiency of a transformer is calculated according to: η% = 1 ⋅ 100 P0 + PL ⋅ n 2 1+ P2 ⋅ n where P0 is the no load loss k(W) at rated voltage PL is the load loss (kW) at rated current P2 is the active power (kW) supplied to the load n is the relative degree of loading. www.cadfamily.900 kW uz= 5. P2 is calculated according to: P2 = 3 ⋅ I2 ⋅ U 20 ⋅ (1 − Example: 1600 kVA transformer P0=1.560 kW PL=11.7% n=1 cosϕ=0.8 cosϕ=1.we will delete  .if tort to your rights.92% η=99. Both Figure 6-5 and 6-6 indicate that the voltage drop in the transformer decreases when the power factor increases.0 η=98.6. 6.please inform us. A low voltage drop increases the efficiency of the transformer.16% ∆U 2 U20 ) ⋅ cos ϕ The efficiency of transformers is in general quite high.Figure 6-6 The power factors (cosϕ) in Figure 6-6 are inductive.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.com Page 31 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.

Now one cycle of the applied voltage is completed. And again there is a remanent flux floating in the core. Unlike the permeability of other materials. Starting at point a in the diagram. but corresponding values of corresponding values of current and flux do not follow the curve to the right in the diagram. lagging 90 degrees after the applied voltage. T=Vs/m2 d B e f c H A/m b a Figure 6-7 At point e the current has decreased to zero.cadfamily. the flux decreases further and becomes zero at point f. The magnetising current will not be sinusoidal but considerably distorted. a magnetising current will flow through the winding and a magnetic flux will float in the core. The magnetic flux will also be of sinusoidal shape. When the magnetising current and the magnetic flux proceed towards smaller negative values. From point f on the flux changes direction and increases in the negative direction until it reaches point a. At point b the magnetising current is zero. a diagram is necessary to describe the permeability of ferromagnetic materials. This flux is called the remanent magnetic flux. up to 280 000.we will delete . this time with the opposite direction compared to the remanent flux at point b. Increasing the current now in the negative direction. Increasing the magnetising force further from point c. When proceeding further along the curve to the right in the diagram the magnetising force changes to positive direction. they follow the curve from a to b.6. NO LOAD (MAGNETISING) CURRENT AND NO LOAD LOSSES The no load current and no load losses are attributed to the core and the special magnetic properties of the core steel. which gives a strong coupling between the windings of a transformer. Ferromagnetic materials are characterised by their particular high relative permeability. The flux decreases also. At point c the flux density in the core becomes zero. This value of the magnetising force is called the coercive force.if tort to your rights. but there is still remaining a magnetic flux in the core.please inform us. where the flux density and the magnetising current have their maximum negative value. a flux in the positive direction starts to flow in the core. which have constant permeability. At point d the current starts to decrease.7. www. see Figure 6-7. This means that a relatively small number of magnetising ampereturn per meter length of the magnetic flux lines is required to obtain a strong magnetic field.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 32 The document is for study only. Figure 6-7 shows corresponding values of magnetic flux and magnetising current during one cycle of the applied voltage. They follow the curve to the left. When a sinusoidal ac voltage is applied to the terminals of a transformer winding.

If the external field gradually decreases. The hysteresis losses per second will then be 50 times the area of the loop. For the best commercially available core material today the saturation flux density is 2 slightly above 2.if tort to your rights. But when the external field has disappeared. that a ferromagnetic material has numerous small magnets attached to its crystalline molecular structure. This means that no further increase in the magnetic flux can be obtained from the ferromagnetic material. The loop can be displayed on the screen of an oscilloscope. The supplied energy changes to heat. One could imagine that there is friction present in the material when the domains turn around. and they are proportional to the frequency. more and more of the domains will change their direction so the direction of their magnetic field coincides with the direction of the external field. Within certain domains these magnets have the same orientation. As the external field is increasing.we will delete  . this will have an impact on the orientation of the domains. the total magnetic field will be thousands of times higher than the original external field that directed the domains.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.The physical explanation for the described course of events is. Further increase of the external field will cause more and more domains to change their direction gradually so the direction of their magnetic field coincides with the new direction of the external field. which has the unit of Ws/m of core material. At 50 Hz the hysteresis loop is run through 50 times per second. If the material is placed in an external magnetic field. have low hysteresis losses. and the magnetic field from each of them practically cancels each other so there is no resulting magnetic field. the permeability of air. the permeability is not a constant but varies during the cycle and varies also with the peak value of the flux density. which increases the temperature of the core. that is low coercive force. more and more domains will slide out of the orientation they got due to the external field. All the domains have now aligned their field with the external field. At a certain value of the external field. the orientation of the domains will be so mixed that there is no resulting magnetic field from them. Exposed to an increasing external field of opposite direction. The word hysteresis comes from the Greek hystereo = lag behind. To turn the direction of the magnetic domains requires supply of active energy.please inform us. This is the reason why the magnetic flux lags behind the magnetizing force. the no load current is not sinusoidal.com Page 33 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.cadfamily. The supplied energy appears as losses in the transformer. This diagram is called the hysteresis loop.0 Tesla (Vs/m ). They are called hysteresis losses. The permeability is equal to the slope of the hysteresis loop. expressed in a simplified way. At a certain flux density the slope of the curve will become equal to µ0. As mentioned in the foregoing. www. Reorientation of the domains is a gradual process that requires some time. In the original state of the material these domains are randomly orientated. which the diagram in Figure 6-7 illustrates. The hysteresis loop illustrates also that the slope of the curve decreases with increasing magnetizing force. The required 3 energy is represented by the area within the hysteresis loop. Because this slope varies during a cycle of the applied voltage. which remain in the same direction as they got under influence of the foregoing external field. Materials with a narrow hysteresis loop. more and more domains will change orientation. This is called magnetic saturation. Due to the many magnetic domains that become unidirectional. there will still be a considerable number of domains.

For three-phase transformers the average value for the three phases is noted.-value of the non-sinusoidal no load current.m. It has a short peak value due to the low slope of the magnetising curves (the right and the left strings of the hysteresis loop) at high flux densities.we will delete . In modern core plate a few percents of silicon is alloyed to reduce the conductivity and the eddy current losses.cadfamily. But if the silicon content exceeds a certain limit. the material will be difficult to roll. In practice the thickness is normally within the range 0. The traditional way to measure the specific total losses in core steel expressed in W per kg core steel has been by means of the Epstein frame. Eddy current losses Another component of the no load losses is the eddy current losses. The eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the thickness of the plates. The method is described in IEC 60404-2 (1996-03) Magnetic materials – Part 2: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet and strip by means of an Epstein frame.please inform us. These losses can be calculated by means of the following formula: P0 eddy = 1 ⋅ σ ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ d 2 ⋅ B 2 ⋅ V 24 where σ is the conductivity of the core material ω is the angular frequency d is the thickness of the core plates B is the peak value of the flux density V is the volume of the core (W) (17) The formula deserves some comments.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 34 The document is for study only. Anomalous losses For the sake of completeness there is a third component in the no load losses which is called anomalous losses that have been ascribed to a diffusion phenomena in the crystal grid of the material. It is unsymmetrical on the two sides of the peak value due to the width of the hysteresis loop.s. The choice of plate thickness is a matter of economic balance between the capitalised value of the losses and manufacturing costs.30 mm. It is relatively laborious and time consuming to prepare the samples for the Epstein measurement. which can be constructed from the hysteresis loop.if tort to your rights. These currents produce losses in the core plates. slit and cut. This is a quadratic frame made of the laminated core steel to be investigated. The no load current measured at the delivery test and noted in the test report is the r. The time-variable magnetic flux induces currents running in paths perpendicular to the direction of the flux.Figure 6-8 Figure 6-8 shows a typical shape of this current. It appears that the eddy current losses are proportional to the conductivity of the core material.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. In order to establish a quicker method that facilitates measurements on a higher number of www.23 – 0.

Particularly the joints between limbs and the upper yoke are critical because the plates of the upper yoke are more or less forced down after the core is raised and the windings are assembled on the limbs.please inform us.samples. Fuses have blown or relays have disconnected the transformer immediately after energizing. The no load losses in a transformer core in W per kg core steel will normally be higher than the values obtained from test samples in a laboratory. In single sheet testers a magnetic field is created that is applied perpendicular to the surface of the sample sheet at one end. (V) (18) dt This can also be seen the opposite way. The polarity of the remanent flux may be positive or negative. There are several reasons for this. single sheet testers were developed. Modern low loss core steel is quite sensitive to mechanical strain and treatment. The highest inrush current occurs when the circuit breaker connects the transformer when the voltage passes through zero. The magnitude of the inrush current is a statistical variable depending on where on the sinusoidal voltage curve the circuit breaker connects the transformer to the voltage source. The remanent flux will be a statistical variable. that is from 0 to π. This factor varies with the cross section area of the core and with the design as well. It will be at its maximum if the disconnection happens when the flux has its maximum. The method is standardised and described in IEC 60404-3 (2002-10) Ed.we will delete  . which also may be unevenly distributed along the core limbs and yokes.if tort to your rights. Experienced manufacturers are normally able to predict the no load losses with not more than a few percent deviation from the measured losses. www. Burrs at the edges of the core plates influence the losses unfavourably. The large number of thin core plates must be kept together by means of a certain pressure. floats along the length of the sheet and goes out again perpendicular to the surface again at the other end. This is due to studies of the flux pattern in transformer cores and mathematical models derived from regression analysis of the measured losses of a large number of transformers. unless the disconnection takes place exactly when the flux passes zero. where 0 is the time when the circuit breaker makes and π is the time when the voltage changes direction: Φ = ∫ U ⋅ sin( ωt ) ⋅ d(ωt ) = U(− cos π − ( − cos 0)) = 2U 0 π (Vs) (21) To compare this result with the situation when the circuit breaker makes at the peak value of the voltage. The increase in losses in a real transformer core compared to the material measurements in laboratories is often expressed by means of a factor called the ‘building factor’.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. This makes it possible to state average and variability values with higher statistical confidence. The joints between limbs and yokes where the flux direction changes may not be perfect due to tolerances in the manufacturing.1 Magnetic materials – Part 3: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic sheet and strip by means of a single sheet tester. 2. The induction law states that the induced voltage is proportional to the time derivative of the magnetic flux. there will always remain a remanent flux in the core. This may create the suspicion that there is something wrong with the transformer.com Page 35 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. the integral is taken between the limits π/2 and π. An explanation of the phenomenon will be given in the following. Inrush currents Inrush currents have sometimes been a problem from a protection point of view.cadfamily. the magnetic flux is the time integral of the voltage: dΦ = u ⋅ dt (Vs) (Vs) (19) (20) u = dΦ Φ = ∫ u ⋅ dt Assuming that the voltage is sinusoidal and the integral is taken over the first half cycle of the voltage. When the circuit breaker disconnects the transformer from the voltage source.

com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 36 The document is for study only. the inrush current will cause a voltage drop across this impedance which will reduce the voltage at the transformer terminals. The light grey curve marked Φ’ is the magnetic flux in the normal stationary condition. If the short–circuit impedance of the source is high. and will cause considerable mechanical forces in the primary winding.if tort to your rights. But at 2π the current will increase again. A sudden increased sound level that follows the same declining development as the magnetic flux can be heard.Φ= π ∫ U ⋅ sin(ωt ) ⋅ d(ωt ) = U( − cos π − ( − cos π 2)) = U 2 π (Vs) (22) Equation (22) complies with the situation in continuous normal service. It can also be noted that the worst case only occurs in one out of the three phases. When the voltage changes direction at π. The short-circuit power of the feeding source has also influence on the magnitude of the inrush current. This course of events will continue with gradually decreasing peak values of the current. Modern overcurrent relays and differential relays contain a control circuit that reduces the sensivity of the relay when a second harmonic in the current exists.cadfamily. The number of cycles before stationary normal operation is reached ranges from less than 10 cycles for small transformers up to several minutes for larger transformers. If the remanent flux Φr has the same direction as the flux calculated in the foregoing the total flux will be Φ t = 2Φ + Φ r which makes the inrush current even higher. In most cases electrical connection between the two poles of the circuit breaker will be established before metallic contact between the poles takes place because of arcing between the poles. In that www. The reactance of the transformer is then very low compared to the large reactance at normal flux. (Vs) (23) Figure 6-9 Figure 6-9 illustrates the situation. the current will decrease.we will delete . From equation (21) it appears that the magnetic flux reaches a value. This current will be of the same magnitude and character as a short-circuit current. A high current will then be drawn from the energy source.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. The statistical probability that the absolute worst case will occur is not high. The influence of the original remanent flux will also gradually disappear. The forces are proportional to the square of the current. which is twice as large as it is in normal service if the circuit breaker makes when the voltage passes through zero. There is higher probability that such arching will occur when the voltage difference between the poles is in the range of the voltage maximum than when this voltage difference is close to zero. A characteristic of the inrush current is that it contains a second harmonic component because of unsymmetrical half-cycles. This means that the point of magnetic saturation in the core will be exceeded.please inform us.

• A tall transformer gives a low impedance and vice versa.cadfamily. however. The temperature that guaranteed losses shall be referred to is stated in the standards. To avoid high eddy current losses the conductor dimension perpendicular to the magnetic flux lines must be kept small.if tort to your rights. where R is the direct current winding resistance and I the current through the winding.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. a smaller range which gives the optimum transformer from an economic point of view. The winding conductors are situated in a time-varying magnetic field due to the current floating in the conductors themselves. Because of the magnetic leakage field additional losses arise in the tank and in metal details keeping the core and the windings firmly together. However. SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE Users have sometimes particular requirements regarding the short-circuit impedance. like for example short-circuit impedance and space limitations. Inrush currents tend to be higher on modern transformers compared to transformers manufactured say 40 years ago.u. In a simple winding configuration of a two-winding transformer. or in % according to the following formulas: u z = Ir ⋅ Z / Ur u z = 100 ⋅ Ir ⋅ Z / U r p. 2 6.8. Based on measured short-circuit voltage the value of Zk expressed in ohm can be calculated from the following formula: www.please inform us. The transformer designer can meet the requirements in different ways: • The size of the core cross-section.we will delete  . Further tall and slim windings have lower eddy current losses than low and wide windings. which in turn increases the losses.u. For each transformer there is. The eddy current losses come in addition.com Page 37 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. % (24) (25) Formulas (24) and (25) are valid for for single-phase transformers. The reason is that modern low loss core steel allows higher flux densities in the core without unacceptable high core temperatures as a consequence. where Ir and Ur are rated values of current and voltage on either side of the transformer. The consequence of the eddy currents is that the resulting current in the conductors is unevenly distributed in the cross section of the conductor. This magnetic field creates eddy currents in the winding conductors. • limitation of short-circuit currents. • limitation of voltage drop. the flux density is highest at conductors nearest the duct between the shells. The magnetic flux density varies also across the radial width of the winding. Such requirements may be determined by: • parallel operation with existing units. Consequently the losses and also the temperature will highest in these conductors. The RI losses increase with the temperature while the additional losses decrease with the temperature. that is the lowest sum of the manufacturing costs and the capitalised value of the losses. where the windings are situated as two concentric shells. 6.way a releasing signal from the relay to the circuit breaker is prevented during inrush current. in practise the design of a transformer is often a compromise between different considerations. Regarding smaller distribution transformers a high degree of standardisation in the manufacturing may in certain cases constrain the designer’s ability to meet the requirements. LOAD LOSSES The currents floating in the windings create losses due to the resistance in the windings. For 3-phase transformers the nominator must be multiplied with √3. They are 2 equal to RI in each of the windings. Short-circuit impedance Z is often expressed as uz in p. which is a normal physical phenomenon and not a failure. A large cross-section gives a low impedance and vice versa.9.

www. Then R= PL/Ir2 Ω Ω (29) (30) X = Z2 − R2 The real part of the short-circuit voltage is R ⋅ Ir Ur ur = u r% = p.please inform us.we will delete . which mainly runs through the windings and the ducts between windings. or % Ω (34) (35) While X0 is mainly linked to the magnetic field in the core. the load losses PL and the rated power Sr of the transformer: R ⋅ Ir R ⋅ Ir2 P p.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 38 The document is for study only. The relation between the short-circuit impedance expressed in ohm referred to the two sides of the transformer is equal to the square of the turn ratio or square of the rated voltage ratio. Z has the active and reactive components R and jX. From formulas (26) and (27) it appears that Z expressed in ohm is different depending on which 2 side of the transformer it is referred to.cadfamily.if tort to your rights.u.Z= u z% ⋅ U r 100 ⋅ Ir = u z% 100 ⋅ U r2 Sr Ω (26) for single phase transformers and Z= u z% ⋅ U r 3 ⋅ 100 ⋅ Ir = u z% 100 ⋅ U r2 Sr Ω (27) for 3-phase transformers. X is linked to magnetic leakage field. To find these components the load losses (PL) are registered by means of wattmeters during the short-circuit measurement. Sr is the rated power of the transformer.u. (33) = = L Ur Ur ⋅ Ir Sr The relation ur = PL/Sr is also valid for 3-phase transformers.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. (31) R ⋅ Ir ⋅ 100 Ur % (32) For three-phase transformers a factor √3 is inserted in the nominator. The imaginary part of uz can be calculated as ur = u x = u r2 − u r2 X = Z2 − R2 p. because the ratio Ur/Ir or Ur /Sr is different on each side of the transformer. unless the turn ratio is equal to 1. It follows that  N1  Z 1  U r1  = U  = N     Z 2  r2   2 2 2 (28) where the indices 1 and 2 refers to the two sides of the transformer.u. There is a simple relation between ur.

For a simple two-winding arrangement the formula is: X = 4π ⋅ 10 − 7 ( t 12 + t1 + t 2 L1 + L 2 ) k R N 2 ⋅ 2πf 3 hw Ω (37) Dimensions in meter. X can be calculated based on the geometric dimensions of the windings and the number of turns. www. If the transformer is loaded with a leading current. The magnetic flux in the core becomes smaller. the practically the whole magnetic field goes in the core.if tort to your rights. The secondary low voltage winding is the inner winding where the voltage decreases. N is the number of turns in the winding on the side to which X shall be referred. The magnetic flux in the core and the secondary voltage increase.we will delete  . The leakage field becomes smaller and the flux in the core increases and makes the voltage drop on the secondary side smaller. See Figure 6-11. When loading the transformer with a lagging current. The reactive power of the magnetic energy of the leakage field is Q = ω ⋅ LI 2 = 2πfLI 2 = XI2 VA(r) (36) Here I is the load current flowing in either of the windings and X the reactance in ohm referred to same side of the transformer as I.com Page 39 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. this capacitive load supplies reactive power to the transformer. If a capacitive load is added the resulting current decreases because the capacitive current partly compensates the inductive current. See Figure 6-10. that is a current with a resulting reactive current. Typically for distribution transformers the high voltage is applied to the outer winding.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.cadfamily.Figure 6-10 When the transformer is energized but not loaded.please inform us. a part of the magnetic field is drawn out from the core to the core window where the windings are situated. which is capacitive.

The shortcircuit reactance or short-circuit voltage calculated by means of these formulas comply very well with the measured values. In most practical cases its numerical value is within the range 0. It can be seen from Figure 10 that some of the field lines towards the ends of the windings have an increasing horizontal or radial component.we will delete .99.10. Zs = U2 s S In ohms per phase (equivalent star connection) (41) www. value of the symmetrical shortcircuit current is calculated as: I sc = U 3 ⋅ (Z + Z s ) kA (40) Where Zs is the short-circuit impedance of the system.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 40 The document is for study only. However.please inform us. The formula for ux expressed as a percentage of the rated voltage Ur is u x = 2( t 12 + t1 + t 2 L1 + L 2 (IN) f 10 − 2 ) kR 3 hw e t 0 50 % (39) where et0 is the number of volts per turn in no load condition. the r. This is in reality not the case. Rogowski made a careful study on how to compensate for this deviation from the assumption in the formula. The result of this study (published early in the last century) was a correction factor kR = 1− (t 1 + t 12 + t 2 )   πh w πh w  − 1 − e (t1 + t12 + t 2 )      (38) This factor has is known as the the Rogowski factor.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. ABILITY TO WITHSTAND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS IEC 60076-5 Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit identifies the requirements for transformers to sustain without damage the effects of overcurrents originated by external short circuits.if tort to your rights.⊗ IN IN hw t1 t12 t2 Figure 6-11 In the formula (37) L1 and L2 are the mean circumference for the inner and outer windings respectively. for high currents an addition for the reactance in the lead assembly must be made. The formula is based on the assumption that the magnetic field lines goes vertically along the whole height hw of the windings. hw/kR instead of hw. It makes the length of the leakage field duct a little longer. The German professor W.m.cadfamily. Corresponding hand formulas exist also for more complicated winding arrangements. 6.95 – 0.s. For three-phase transformers with two separate windings.

in kilovolts (kV) Z is the short-circuit impedance of the transformer referred to the winding under consideration.com Page 41 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Another aspect of the short circuit topic is the mechanical forces in the windings due to overcurrents. According to IEC 60076-5 the duration shall be 2s. in megavoltamperes (MVA). u z ⋅ Ur2 100 ⋅ S r In ohms per phase (equivalent star connection) (42) R X ˆ U sin(ωt + α ) i(t Figure 6-12 Consider the circuit in Figure 6-12. thus simulating a short-circuit. in megavoltamperes (MVA). The duration of the symmetrical short-circuit current must be limited to avoid excessive overheating. U and Z are defined as follows: U is the rated voltage Ur of the winding under consideration. Sr is the rated power of the transformer.if tort to your rights. in kilovolts (kV).please inform us.Where Us is the rated voltage of the system. the mechanical forces follow the current instantaneously. Unlike temperatures that need some time to rise. The degree of asymmetry is a statistical variable with its maximum when the short-circuit occurs in the range where the voltage passes through zero and its minimum in the range where the voltage has its peak value. when calculated by means of formulas given in the standard. The current i(t) is expressed by the following equation: i( t ) = ˆ ⋅ (sin(ωt + α − ϕ) − e I in which −t τ ⋅ sin(α − ϕ)) A (43) ˆ ˆ= U I Z that is the peak value of the symmetrical. S is the short-circuit apparent power of the system. unless otherwise agreed between purchaser and supplier. This will be demonstrated in the following.we will delete  . During this time the temperature in the windings shall not exceed certain values given in IEC 60076-5.cadfamily. as a percentage.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. stationary short-circuit current Z = R + j ωL [Ω] A (44) α = switching angle of the voltage u(t) at the instant of the short circuit [rad] ϕ = phase angle of the circuit impedance (=arctg ωL/R) τ = L/R = tgϕ/ ω [ s (the time constant of the circuit) ] ω = 2·π·f -1 [rad] [s ] www. it is calculated as follows: Z= where us is the measured short-circuit impedance at rated current and frequency at reference temperature. Assume that the switch makes at the instant t = 0. The degree of asymmetry depends on point of the sinusoidal voltage curve where the short-circuit occurs. The first cycles of a short-circuit current are asymmetric with respect to the time axis.

It occurs in almost all cases when α = 0 (or π).if tort to your rights. The peak factor value in the example in Figure 6-13 is 2.u. k = 1. 0. www. which means that ϕ ≈ π/2.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 42 The document is for study only.The current starts from zero and consists of two components: • an alternating steady-state component of fundamental frequency.cadfamily. The value of the first peak of the short circuit current is the r.38. In power systems X >>R. The first peak value of the short-circuit current determines the maximum force that acts on the windings.m. In a real case with a transformer installed in a network: X = the sum of the network and the transformer reactance [Ω] R = the sum of the network and the transformer resistance [Ω] X/R and the peak factor increase with increasing transformer power rating. The maximum value of this current depends on the X/R ratio and the switching angle α.s.we will delete . Equation (43) can then with reasonable approximation be written as: π −t i( t ) = ˆ ⋅ (sin(ωt − ) + e τ ) I 2 The first current peak closely corresponds to the time when ωt = π. value of the stationary short circuit current multiplied with the peak factor.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. A (45) 2 1. • an unidirectional component decreasing exponentially with time.5 -1 t (ms) 20 40 60 80 Figure 6-13 i = ˆ ⋅ k = I sc ⋅ 2 ⋅ k = I sc max I where the asymmetry factor k is k = 1+ e − πR A (46) X (47) Figure 6-13 shows an example on how the short-circuit current elapses.68. The peak factor is k·√2 and its dependence of X/R is shown in Figure 6-14. In this example X/R = 8.5 1 Isc p.please inform us.5 0 0 -0.

0 2. which shows an upper part of an outer winding.4 k√2 1 10 X/R Figure 6-14 100 Mechanical forces in the windings Current flows through the winding conductors. Each time the current passes through zero the forces are also zero.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.2 2.0 1. That may cause buckling of the winding if it has not been made robust enough. These movements are invisible for the human eye.4 2. The axial forces are caused by the radial component of the magnetic field at the ends of the windings.we will delete  . www. I B F=IХB Figure 6-15 When considering the ability of a design to withstand it is usual to split the forces into radial and axial components as indicated in Figure 6-15. These forces may lead to tilting of the conductors between the axial spacers in the winding.com Page 43 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. But rapid film recordings played in slow motion show the size of the movements and illustrate the violence of the forces. The radial force is directed outwards and causes a tensile force in the winding conductors. The short circuit current may amount to 10 – 20 times the rated current of the transformer. The whole winding is subject to a strong axial pressure. The conductors are then subject to mechanical forces. which are situated in the magnetic leakage field.if tort to your rights. They are pulsating. which means that the forces in the windings may be 100 – 400 times larger at a short circuit than in normal service. In the corresponding inner winding the radial component is directed inwards.please inform us. At normal load current the forces are small.8 2. They increase with the square of the current. The forces cause large movements in the windings.cadfamily.8 1.3.6 2. The sum of the forces is balanced at the other end of the winding. The force on each turn or disc adds together. These forces are not static. so during the high overcurrents that arise if a short-circuit in the system occur.6 1. See Figure 6-16. the forces must be given attention when designing the transformer.

TRANSFORMER SOUND Transformers in service cause sound.we will delete .com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. The book is available from ABB at request. The frequency of a sound produces its own distinctive tone. typically above 3 kHz. there will be axial forces directed towards the yokes. Sound may be defined as any pressure variation in air (or other elastic media) that the human ear can detect. In case of axial “openings” in the winding.please inform us.if tort to your rights. A further characteristic used to describe a sound is the amplitude of the pressure variations. The pressure variations travel through the medium from the sound source to the listener’s ears. The framework keeping the core and windings together must be designed to be able to withstand such forces. the decibel scale (dB) is used. fundamentally 100 Hz or 200 Hz. which in the long run may seriously discomfort people in the environment. which is expressed in Pascals (Pa). A transformer ‘hum’ is low frequency. Therefore. to avoid the use of large numbers. A more comprehensive treatment of the short-circuit topic is given in the book “SHORT-CIRCUIT DUTY OF POWER TRANSFORMERS – THE ABB APPROACH” by Giorgio Bertagnolli. The weakest sound that a healthy human ear can detect is strongly dependent on the frequency. issued by ABB. that is one or more places along the height of the winding where there are no ampere-turns.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 44 The document is for study only. while a whistle is high frequency.A B A Axial current forces B Resulting axial pressure Figure 6-16 The ability to withstand tilting of the conductors depends on the diameter of the winding. 6.cadfamily. the distance between the spacers around the circumference and the dimensions of the conductor. The threshold of pain corresponds to a sound pressure of more than a million times higher. and is expressed in Herz (Hz).11. at 1 kHz it has amplitude of 20 µPa. www. The normal range of hearing for a healthy young person extends from approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The number of cyclic pressure variations per second is called the frequency of the sound.

The dB-scale is logarithmic and uses 20 µPa as the reference level. The curves in Figure 6-17 are results of such investigations. It appears that the ear is most sensitive in the frequency range between 3 and 4 kHz. p0. 70 and 100 dB at 1 kHz. In order to imitate the response curves of the human ear filters are inserted in the measuring equipment.we will delete  . For frequencies below 700 Hz the threshold curve ascends. The lowest curve that goes through zero dB sound pressure at1000 Hz represents the hearing threshold. Source of sound Sound pressure level in dB Quiet living area 45 Normal conversation at 1 m distance 60 Medium factory noise 75 Factory maximum limit 85 City street with heavy traffic 95 Circle saw at 1 m distance 105 Comprehensive investigations are made to correlate human perception of ‘loudness’ at various frequencies and sound pressures.com Page 45 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.if tort to your rights. The curve also rises at frequencies above 4 kHz. Sound pressure is a scalar quantity. Measurement results made with one of the three filters inserted are denoted dB(A). They imitate the curves going through 40. Each curve represents sound that is perceived as ‘equally loud’ across the whole frequency range. dB(B) or dB(C). 70 and 100 dB at 1 kHz respectively. Sound pressure level Lp expressed in dB is defined in the following equation: L p = 10 ⋅ lg p2 2 p0 dB (48) where p is the sound pressure measured by a microphone. The three upper curves go through 40. where a sound pressure even below 20 µPa is audible. named A.please inform us. but they can be regarded as average curves for how young persons with healthy ears respond. B and C filters. which means that for the lower frequencies the sound pressure has to be increased to make the sound audible. Three different filters are standardized. A microphone responds quite differently to sound pressure. which means it has magnitude only. These curves will vary somewhat from one person to another. Ear sensivity curves 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 10 100 1000 Sound frequency (Hz) Figure 6-17 C-weighted filter B-weighted filter Sound pressure (dB) A-weighted filter Hearing threshold 10000 100000 www. To provide a feeling of how a few well-known types of sound are situated on the dB-scale some values are listed below. The human ear is not able to hear anything below this curve.cadfamily. which then corresponds to 0 dB.

When measuring the sound pressure around a transformer, the A-filter is used because this corresponds to the sound pressure level that normally prevails. The sound pressure caused by a transformer is measured in several points around the transformer at a distance of 0,3 meters from the outer vertical surface of the transformer. This measurement result is in itself of limited interest, because nobody normally is standing 0,3 meters from the transformer. More interesting is the sound pressure level at larger distance from the transformer where people may stay. To be able to estimate the sound pressure at larger distance, the sound power level of the transformer must be determined. The term ’sound power’ needs to be explained. A sound source radiates power into the surrounding air resulting in a sound pressure field. Sound power is the cause. Sound pressure is the effect. The sound pressure, which is heard or measured with a microphone, is dependent on the distance from the source and the acoustic environment. So, the sound pressure at a certain distance from the source alone cannot quantify the strength of the source. It is necessary to determine the sound power of the source, which is independent of the environment and a unique descriptor of the strength of the sound source. Sound power is the rate at which energy per unit time is radiated from the source. Its dimension is Watt. However, sound power Lw is normally also expressed in dB and logarithmic scale according to the following formula: L w = 10 ⋅ lg W W0 db


In this formula W0 is an arbitrarily chosen reference value equal to 10 Watt, which corresponds to a quite weak sound source. This reference value is chosen without regard to the previously mentioned reference value for sound pressure. The sound power of one of the strongest sound power sources of concern, a large jet motor, has a 18 sound power of about 100 000 Watts. The total power range to deal with is then 10 . Instead of working with such extremely high figures in acoustical subjects, the whole power range is covered by 180 dB. Based on the measured sound pressure the sound power of the transformer in dB can be calculated according to formulas given in IEC 60076-10 Ed. 1.0. In a large free field the sound pressure at larger distances from the transformer can be calculated. In practice there are often one or more walls or other items in the surroundings of the transformer that will reflect sound from the transformer and make a prediction of the sound pressure at various places in the neighbourhood difficult.
Sources of sound generation

The dominant generating source of transformer sound is magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is the change in dimensions which takes place in certain materials when they are subjected to a change -7 -5 in magnetic flux. In magnetic core steel the dimensional change is in the range of 10 to 10 meters per meter length at typical induction levels. The effect does not depend on the sign of the flux, only on its magnitude and orientation relative to certain crystallographic axes of the material. Therefore, when excited by a sinusoidal flux, the fundamental frequency of the dimensional change will be twice the exciting frequency. The effect is highly non-linear, especially at high, near saturation, induction levels. The non-linearity results in a significant harmonic content in the vibration spectrum of the core. In three-phase cores the change in dimension in each core limb does not occur simultaneously, which means that the whole core will be subject to pulsating distortions that also generate sound. A DC bias in addition to the AC magnetization of the core may significantly increase the vibration amplitudes of the core and consequently the sound level. The DC bias may also cause a considerable difference in the positive and negative peaks of the flux density, which in turn makes the fundamental frequency of the sound equal to the frequency of the service voltage instead of twice this frequency.

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There are a few means available to the transformer designer to reduce the sound generated from the core:
• Reduce the flux density in the core from the usual 1.7 – 1,85 Tesla down to 1,2 Tesla. This can be done either by increasing the core cross section or by increasing the number of turns in the windings. There is not much to gain in reduced sound level by going below 1,2 Tesla. Reduced flux density gives larger geometric dimensions, increased load losses and higher weight and manufacturing costs. The no load losses will decrease, • Avoid combinations of core cross section and limb height that make natural frequencies of the core coincide with frequencies of the magnetic field, • Making the framework that holds the core together heavier and stiffer, • Inserting a pad of damping material between the active part of the transformer and the tank bottom.

Another source of sound from transformers is vibrations in the windings due to pulsating mechanical forces acting on the winding conductors. The windings are situated in the magnetic leakage field. The force acting on a winding conductor is proportional to the product of the current floating in the conductor and the local flux density of the magnetic field where the conductor is situated. At normal flux densities in the core, 1,7 T and above, the sound due to the core will overshadow the sound from the windings. But in cases where especially low sound levels are specified and the flux density in the core is low (down to 1,2 T) in order to fulfil the required sound level, the sound produced by the windings may give a noticeable contribution to the total sound level of the transformer. Plane metal plates between stiffeners in the transformer tank may act like a membrane of a loudspeaker if any natural frequency of the plate coincides with a dominant frequency of the vibrations from the active part. The total sound level of the transformer may in such situations be considerably increased. The measurement of sound from transformers may sometimes be disturbed by high background sound or sound from one or several other strong sound sources in the surroundings. To determine the sound power of the transformer in such situations sound intensity measurements are made. Sound intensity is the time-averaged product of the pressure and particle velocity of the medium in which the sound waves are propagating. Sound intensity is a vector quantity describing the magnitude and direction of the net flow of sound energy at a given position. It is outside the scope of this chapter to explain the physics that form the basis for determining the sound power of a source by means of sound intensity measurements. We will just mention that two closely spaced microphones are used and that the measurement procedure and the determination of the results are described in IEC 60076-10. Cooling fans create turbulent flows of air resulting in pressure fluctuations with a wide range of frequencies. The sound level is highly dependent on the speed of the fan wheel periphery. The transmission of sound from the transformer to the surroundings can be reduced by installing sound-damping panels around the transformer or place the transformer inside a separate building. Within large buildings transformer sound may propagate widely through structural parts of the building, like floors and walls. Inserting plates of suitable damping material between the transformer and its fundament can effectively reduce this. The IEC transformer standards do not prescribe any permissible limits for transformer sound. They just describe how sound characteristics of transformers can be determined. Permissible limits are entirely subject to agreement between purchaser and supplier in each case. The CENELEC transformer standard HD 428.1 S1:1992 has standardized limits for the sound level for the smallest distribution transformers.

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Transformer cores are built from thin sheets of steel. These sheets are manufactured specifically for use in transformers. Core steel has low carbon content < 0.1%. Increased carbon content has a detrimental influence on the hysteresis losses as well as the ageing properties. Core steel is alloyed with silicon (Si). Silicon increases the specific electrical resistance, which again reduces the eddy current losses in the core. Increased silicon content makes the core steel brittle; therefore the content is kept below 3%. Today, only grain-oriented steel is used. By cold rolling the steel sheets, the magnetic domains in the steel sheet will tend to be oriented in the rolling direction. One gets a material with very good loss properties in the rolling direction, and correspondingly poor properties in the transversal direction. The rolling process requires special equipment with very high surface pressure. The grain oriented core steel is available in several grades. The different properties are obtained by the raw material composition, the degree of cold rolling and different finishing treatments, for example laser treatment. Laser treatment is a mechanical treatment which divides the magnetic domains into smaller domains with lower losses as the result. To minimise eddy current losses, the sheets must be insulated from each other. Earlier it was common to use varnish or paper. Today the core steel is delivered ready insulated from the manufacturer. The insulation is an inorganic material compatible with transformer oil and is corrosion and temperature resistant. The insulating coating is very thin < 4 µm. A thin coating means a good core fill factor. The core is built up from many layers of core steel sheets. Suppose the core limb was built from a solid iron bolt, the core would represent a short-circuited winding around itself, and the transformer would not work. The mutually insulated sheets prevent such a short- circuit. Eddy current losses in the core steel are proportional to the square of the thickness. Therefore the steel sheets have to be thin in order to reduce the no load losses. Typical thickness is from 0.23 mm to 0.30 mm.


From a technical and economical point of view there are two conductor materials that can be used, copper (Cu) or aluminium (Al). The choice of conductor material depends mainly on price and availability. The supply and demand of copper and aluminium can vary quite significant on the world market, and thereby also price and availability of conductors from the manufacturers. Some customers prescribe copper only, for different reasons. The physical dimensions of a transformer with copper windings are normally smaller than that of a transformer with aluminium windings. Conductor shapes are foil, round or rectangular wire. The foil is not directly insulated. The round and rectangular wire is normally coated by varnish. The use of varnish instead of paper improves the winding space factor due to smaller thickness, and reduces the winding to liquid temperature gradient (winding to air temperature gradient for drytype transformers). Rectangular wire can also be insulated by paper for thermal class 105 or with aramid for higher temperature classes. Cold working of the conductor increases the hardness and leads to increased the ability to withstand short-circuit forces.

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3.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. and normally double coated. Reference is made to IEC 60893-3 and IEC 61212-3 Aramid fibre are used to manufacture insulation paper or board sheets in different thicknesses. Contaminants represent weaknesses in the insulation that may lead to dielectric break-down. 7. INSULATION MATERIALS Solid insulation materials A good insulation material must have the following properties: 1. 7. thermal class 220.7. The material surface may be smooth or porous. 4. In some cases also used as supports or spacers in dry type transformers.1. Solid synthetic insulation materials These materials are mainly used in dry type transformers or reactors having higher thermal classes 130. The material has very good thermal properties. spacers and duct sticks.2. and high density gives high dielectric strength.1. 2.1. 155.com Page 49 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Cellulose materials Mainly used in oil immersed transformers with thermal class 105. Enamels are used as conductor insulation. and IEC 60641-3 for board. These materials are more expensive than cellulose insulation. Long lifetime at operating temperature.if tort to your rights. Insulation materials to be used in liquid-immersed transformers must be compatible to the liquid. and are easy to oil impregnate. Cellulose insulation is made of slow growing types of wood. 7. Reference is made to IEC 60317 Epoxy resins used in combination with fillers. Polyesters can be used as insulation barriers. High dielectric strength. and IEC 60629-1 for board.3. www.1. Long fibres give long life-time. 7. Aramid insulation is specified in IEC 60819-3 for paper.4. these small air bubbles would cause partial discharges. Cellulose products are compatible to mineral oil. Insulation material must withstand the operating temperatures that occur in the transformer during the lifetime of the transformer.3. Porcelain Porcelain is mainly used for bushings in oil-immersed transformers.3. and the tiny cavities in the cellulose are filled with oil.cadfamily. 180.3. Several qualities for different applications are available. for example glass fibre and quartz powder is used for insulation barriers and complete vacuum cast windings. In case the cavities were not filled with oil.3. Partial discharges may in the long term escalate to a dielectric break-down. 220.1. Cellulose insulation is specified in IEC 60554-3 for paper. The porous type can to a certain extent be oil impregnated.we will delete  .please inform us. The impregnation is done under vacuum and elevated temperature.3. 3. having long fibres. Easily workable. Good mechanical properties.1. General 7. Thereby the dielectric strength is further increased.

Flash point 145 °C. Mineral oil is the most common liquid used.3.3. and are typically 5-6 times more expensive than mineral oil. Chemical Electrical 7. The main motivation for using these fluids is improved fire safety and environmental impact.2. When it ignites it is self-quenching because it creates a layer of oxide. relative permittivity 2.2.2. 3 7. Fluids The fluid in a transformer has several functions.we will delete . due to its poor lubrication properties.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.7.3.96 kg/dm . Dimethyl Silicone Important properties of silicone fluid are specified in IEC 60836 Flash point 310 °C.7. Further these fluids are applicable for operation at elevated temperatures. Mineral oil Important properties of mineral oil are specified in IEC 60296. density 0. Mineral oil offers in most cases the best compromise between cost and technical properties.88 kg/dm . Other fluids These fluids are reserved for special applications. Silicone fluid has slightly lower dielectric and cooling properties compared to mineral oil.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 50 The document is for study only. and compatibility with other transformer materials is also very good.2.o. it is not selfquenching related to arcing and electrical failures. General Oxidation stability Oxidation inhibitor content Corrosive sulphur Water content Neutralization value Breakdown voltage AC Breakdown voltage.if tort to your rights.2.3.cadfamily. 3 www. However. Mineral oil is normally the reference to which all other liquids are compared. relative permittivity 2. Several requirements have to be fulfilled.1. 7. however have limited capabilities in extremely cold climates.3. Silicone fluid is not used in on-load tap changers a. density 0.please inform us. the two most important are certainly insulation and cooling. Another function is to carry information about the condition of the active part inside the transformer.3.1. impulse Dissipation factor Streaming charging Physical Additional Viscosity Appearance Density Pour point Surface tension Flash point Low particle content Compatibility materials with other transformer Gassing properties Aromatic structure Poly-aromatic structure Solubility properties 7.3.

com/ for additional information. Flash point 330 °C.7. relative permittivity 2.com Page 51 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. density kg/dm . 3 7. This is good compromise between fire safety and environmental friendliness.1.3. density 0. see also www. BIOTEMP is an ABB developed and patented agricultural ester. 3 www.3.4. density 0.if tort to your rights. based on sunflower oil.3.we will delete  .cadfamily.83 kg/dm .2. 3 7. Agricultural Ester No applicable IEC specification.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.abb.please inform us.97 kg/dm . Synthetic Ester Important properties of synthetic ester are specified in IEC 61099 Flash point 275 °C.3. relative permittivity 3. relative permittivity 3. Synthetic Hydrocarbon Important properties of synthetic hydrocarbon are specified in IEC 60867 Flash point 230 °C.2.

www. • The test basis for all characteristics other than insulation is the rated condition. • All external components and fittings that are likely to affect the performance of the transformer during the test shall be in place. • Measurement of the harmonics of the no-load current (IEC 60076-1 10. and for dry-type transformers: according to the requirements in IEC 60726 8. NOTE: If tests other than those listed above are specified in the contract. • Measurement of the power taken by the fan and oil pump motors. TYPE TESTS • Temperature-rise test (IEC 60076-2).ch 8. • Tests shall be made at the manufacturer's works. • Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss (IEC 60076-1 10. traceable accuracy and be subject to periodic calibration. *Copyright © IEC.5). • Dielectric type tests (IEC 60076-3). No limitations for the values are given here.cadfamily.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.3).8).4). • Dielectric routine tests (IEC 60076-3).3. Geneva. PD test will be a routine test in the new IEC standard for dry-type transformers.6). GENERAL REQUIREMENTS • Tests shall be made at any ambient temperature between 10 °C and 40 °C. • All measuring systems used for the tests shall have certified. and/or measurement of dissipation factor (tan δ) of the insulation system capacitances. • Measurement of no-load loss and current (IEC 60076-1 10. according to the rules of 4. SPECIAL TESTS • Dielectric special tests (IEC 60076-3). • Zero-sequence impedance(s) on three-phase transformers (IEC 60076-1 10. where appropriate (IEC 60076-1 10. 8. NOTE: Specific requirements regarding accuracy and verification of measuring systems are under consideration (see IEC 60606) Where it is required that test results are to be corrected to a reference temperature. 8. ROUTINE TESTS • Measurement of winding resistance (IEC 60076-1 10. for oilimmersed transformers: 75 °C. (These are reference values for comparison with later measurement in the field. TESTING OF TRANSFORMERS The information given below is an extract from IEC 60076-1 (1993-03) Clause 10. unless otherwise agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. • Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement (IEC 60076-1 10. • Short-circuit withstand test (IEC 60076-5).2).6 of ISO 9001.we will delete . • Tapped windings shall be connected on their principal tapping. and between windings. • Determination of transient voltage transfer characteristics. • Determination of capacitances windings-to-earth.7). • Determination of sound levels (IEC 60076-10).4. this shall be.8. • Measurement of insulation resistance to earth of the windings.if tort to your rights.). Switzerland.iec. • Tests on on-load tap-changers.please inform us.2. and with cooling water if required at any temperature not exceeding 25 °C. unless the relevant test clause requires otherwise or unless the manufacturer and the purchaser agree otherwise. unless the test clause states otherwise.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 52 The document is for study only.1. such test methods are subject to agreement www. Testing of drytype transformers is described in IEC 60726 (1982) for further information. now in process.

who has the overview and the knowledge about the system. The distance between the transformer and the spot of the lightning stroke has an influence on the front time of the surge that strikes the transformer. physical understanding of the origin of the various types of overvoltages is necessary.we will delete  . These tests shall verify that the transformer has a high probability of reliable operation. Temporary overvoltages are caused by earth faults. ranging from less than one second up to several hours. But an additional condition for the high service reliability is that adequate overvoltage limitation is provided.com Page 53 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. This group contains both temporary and transient overvoltages due to sudden changes in the service conditions in the power system. Overvoltages caused by atmospheric phenomena. These overvoltages are classified with regard to their duration in two main groups: • Temporary overvoltages (TOV) • Transient overvoltages A temporary overvoltage is a power frequency voltage of relatively long duration. Service experience confirms that transformers. Transient overvoltages may be oscillatory or non-oscillatory. According to measurements on overhead lines the 50% probability peak value of the lightning current is in the range 10 – 20 kA in most investigations.cadfamily. The peak value of the voltage depends on the lightning current. They can also occur when external insulation flashes over. • Overvoltages generated within the power system. A transformer may also be exposed to combinations of temporary and transient overvoltages. because the transformer may in service also be exposed to more severe overvoltages than those applied in the delivery test. The magnitude of several kinds of overvoltages is a statistical variable. Overvoltages generated within the power system. These are transient overvoltages mostly due to lightning strokes to earth near overhead lines connected to the transformer. A transient overvoltage is a short-duration overvoltage ranging from nanoseconds up to a few milliseconds. Such changes are caused by switching operations or failures. The front time may vary from nanoseconds up to a few milliseconds. OVERVOLTAGES AND OVERVOLTAGE LIMITATION Transformers may in service be exposed to voltages in excess of the normal operating voltage. transient voltages may amount to 6 – 7 p. Transient overvoltages may be immediately followed by temporary overvoltages. due to multiple transient current interruptions in the circuit breaker with front times down to fractions of a microsecond.9.if tort to your rights. To be able to do this in an appropriate way.please inform us. www. The tests are specified in international or national standards. Suppliers of the equipment may make guarantee reservations in cases where precautions regarding limitations of overvoltages are missing or obviously insufficient. They are usually unidirectional. which have passed such tests.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. although lightning can in some cases also directly strike the line or even the transformer. In power system planning the importance of considering all types of overvoltages that the equipment may be exposed to should be emphasized. The ability of the insulation to withstand overvoltages is also a statistical variable. Transformers are designed to withstand certain dielectric tests before delivery from the factory. load rejections and low frequency resonance phenomena. Lightning currents of more than 100 kA have been registered. This includes balancing the costs for such precautions against the statistical risk for failures and their economical consequences. It is a task for the system planner. When switching reactive loads.u. to choose precautions to prevent overvoltage damage on the equipment. Overvoltages are also classified in two main groups with regard to their origin: • Overvoltages caused by atmospheric phenomena. the shorter distance from the transformer the shorter front time. which is a statistical variable. are reliable with very few exceptions. Transient overvoltages occur when equipment is connected to or disconnected from the system.

1. The high overvoltages can only be reduced by changing these three parameters. X is positive for inductive reactances and negative for capacitive reactances. which would be obtained at the given location in absence of any such fault. the earth-fault factor is 0. that illustrates how the earth-fault factor at the location of the fault varies with X0/ X1 for different values of R0/X1. When for example X0 and R0 both are zero. LIMITATION OF TEMPORARY OVERVOLTAGES Overvoltages due to earth-fault A phase-to-earth fault may result in phase-to-earth overvoltages affecting the two other phases. It should be recognised that surge arresters are normally not suitable to limit temporary overvoltages due to the duration of such overvoltages and the limited thermal capability of the surge arresters. Thus the safety margin between the insulation level (BIL) of the transformer and the protection level of the surge arresters can be kept relatively high. When X0/X1 = . The diagram is shown in Figure 9-1. In this case the two healthy phases are each operating at half the line-to-line voltage with opposite polarity referred to earth.s.866.we will delete .com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 54 The document is for study only. phase-to-earth power frequency voltage on a healthy phase during a fault to earth affecting one or more phases at any point on the system to the r. 9. phase-to-earth power frequency voltage. and for a given system configuration. The complex impedances of the system seen from the location of the earth-fault are: Z1 = R1 + j X1 : resistance and reactance of the positive sequence system Z2 = R2 + j X2 : resistance and reactance of the negative sequence system Z0 = R0 + j X0 : resistance and reactance of the zero sequence system If the following assumptions are made: Z1 ≈ Z2.866 times the normal voltage between phase and neutral. In extended resonant earthed networks the earth-fault factor may be higher at other locations than the fault.cadfamily. R1 << X1 and that the fault resistance R = 0. which is the other main parameter that influences the choice of the surge arresters. At low negative values of X0/X1 the earth-fault factor may become very high. X0 and R0 will give very high overvoltages that may destroy the surge arresters and the insulation of transformers and other equipment. For small positive values of X0/X1.1. can be drawn.2 the system is in a resonance condition.please inform us. The overvoltage on the sound phases during an earth-fault is usually expressed by means of the earth fault factor. which can only be controlled by affecting these parameters while designing the system. the ratio of the highest r.1. which means that the highest voltage to earth on one of the healthy phases is 0. www. depending on the duration of the fault.9.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.if tort to your rights. The earth fault current is inductive for X1/X0 > -2 and capacitive for X1/X0 < -2. the earth-fault factor increases with increasing R0. a diagram. but it can be reduced by selecting a high R0.m. [IEV 604-03-06] During a single-phase earth-fault the system will be in an unsymmetrical condition and the earthfault factor is calculated by means of symmetrical components. The curves show the earth-fault factor at the location of the fault.s. In the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) issued by IEC the earth fault factor is given the following definition: The earth fault factor is at a given location of a three-phase system. It can be seen that unfavourable combinations of the parameters X1. The system parameters determine such overvoltages.m. For high values of R0 the earth-fault factor approaches √3. A low earth-fault factor has the advantage that it allows a low protection level of the surge arresters. At high positive or negative values of X0/X1 the earth-fault factor approaches also √3 nearly independent of R0.

A thorough system analysis is necessary.com Page 55 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Special precautions to protect distribution transformers against overvoltages due to load rejection are normally not needed 9.cadfamily.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. www.please inform us. cables and capacitors). in different loading conditions and system configurations is of vital importance. • fuses are blown in one or two phases.if tort to your rights. 9. short-circuit or due to mechanical stresses.1.3. The overvoltage duration depends on the operation of the voltage-control equipment and may be up to several minutes. Load rejection overvoltages A full load rejection in moderately extended systems can give rise to phase-to-earth and phase–tophase overvoltages with amplitude usually below 1.Figure 9-1 The duration of the overvoltage corresponds to the duration of the fault and will remain until fault clearing.we will delete  . The frequency of these overvoltages is equal or close to the frequency of the power system.1. that is a low frequency. In systems without earth-fault clearing the duration may be several hours.2 p. In insulation co-ordination knowledge about the earth-fault factor at various places in the network. Overvoltages due to ferroresonance Ferroresonance may occur in circuits with inductive elements having non-linear magnetizing characteristics (reactors with iron core or transformers in no load or low load condition) and large capacitive elements (lines. • one or two phase conductors are ruptured during earth fault. This will imply surge arresters with higher protection level and lower safety margin regarding transient overvoltages. Transformer failures caused by overvoltages due to ferroresonance do not seem to occur frequently.2. but the risk is not negligible when the capacitive current of the system is of the same size as the magnetizing current of the transformer.u. Overvoltages due to ferroresonance may occur in certain fault situations like: • malfunction of a circuitbreaker if it fails to break or close in one or two phases during switching operation. Providing automatic and quick disconnection of the transformer in case the supply should fail in one or two phases will limit the duration of the overvoltage and system instability and reduce the extent and probability of material damage.

• imposing a short-circuit condition on the network.we will delete . For this reason the neutral point should also be provided with overvoltage protection.if tort to your rights. • strong dependence on wave shape. but they have several disadvantages: • unpredictable sparkover voltage. In general metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps offers the possibility to select a lower protection level than the non-linear resistor-type surge arresters with series gaps.2 µs and a time from the beginning to half the peak value of 50 µs.9. These devices are in most cases connected between each phase terminal of the transformer and earth. which corresponds to the peak value of the standard test voltage impulse.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. a three-phase impulse wave will be reflected with the same polarity and an increased peak value at the neutral point. Thus an increased safety margin between the insulation level of the transformer and the protection level of the surge arrester can be achieved. Spark gaps have been widely used in the past especially at moderate rated voltages. • dependence on ambient conditions. To provide optimum protection the distance between the surge arresters and the terminals of the transformer to be protected should be as short as possible. Spark gaps installed www. Due to the superior properties of metal-oxide arresters they are becoming more preferred instead of spark gaps in modern systems. If the neutral point of y. In the latter type the resistor is exposed only during transient overvoltages that are high enough to ignite the series gaps.cadfamily. • spark gaps. and in addition. it must be checked that the arc in the series gaps will extinguish with sufficient safety margin when the transient overvoltage has passed away but with a sustained temporary overvoltage corresponding to the actual earth-fault factor. when using non-linear resistor-type surge arresters with series gaps. • dependence on voltage polarity. • risk of creating an evolving fault.and z-connected windings is isolated or earthed through a high inductance or resistance. Transformers connected to overhead lines should be protected against transient overvoltages caused by lightning to secure high service reliability. Windings for rated voltages below 1000 V should also be protected in the same way when they are connected to overhead lines. In cases where short connections to the surge arresters are difficult to achieve for practical reasons. The same goes for the distance from the earthing terminal of the arresters to the earth. A protection level around 70% of the insulation level of the transformer is frequently aimed at for the surge arresters at the phase terminals.2. • creating chopped waves. contrary to the non-linear resistor-type surge arresters with series gaps. The protection level of surge arresters is normally selected lower than the insulation level of the transformer in order to provide a certain safety margin. However. This is an aperiodic voltage impulse with a front time of 1. It must be kept in mind that metal-oxide surge arresters also will be continuously exposed to the normal service voltage. that is an open air gap between two terminals. The protection level of a surge arrester in the neutral point is normally chosen to be around 3/4 of the protection level of the surge arresters at the phase terminals. to all kinds of smaller and larger temporary and transient overvoltages. The BIL of a transformer is also called the insulation level of the transformer. • metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps. LIMITATION OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES The ability of a transformer to withstand transient overvoltages is characterised by its basic impulse level (BIL). Limitation of the overvoltage can be achieved by means of: • non-linear resistor-type surge arresters with series gaps.please inform us. But in locations with frequent lightning storms with high lightning currents spark gaps can be useful in combination with metal-oxide arresters. • long and unpredictable time delay to breakdown. selection of a higher insulation level for the transformer should be considered.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 56 The document is for study only.

if not adequately protected. and are most severe for transformers for low system voltages due to their lower insulation level. Another possibility is using circuit breaker with point-on-wave control. The capacitors will also reduce the front steepness of the incoming wave during energizing and reduce the risk of transformer failure Switching of capacitor banks for phase compensation has sometimes caused failures in dry-type transformers. 9. 9. 20 kV transformer that is energized continuously for long periods without being disconnected.3. the need to protect for example a 2000 kVA.if tort to your rights. transformers that are more frequently disconnected and energized are. The explanation is that extremely steep overvoltages occur during prestrikes and reignitions in the circuit breaker after the current has been chopped outside its natural passage through zero. Capacitors between transformer terminals and earth will reduce the number of reignitions in the circuit breaker. The internal overvoltages within a winding are not only depending on the peak value of the voltage arising at the terminals. Thus a voltage with a peak value below the protection level of the arrester may damage the transformer if the change in terminal voltage takes place in just a fraction of a microsecond. which close and open at the most favourable time to minimize the transients. Attention should be paid to the physical fact that the transient overvoltages that arise when breaking inductive currents like the magnetizing current of a transformer is independent of the system voltage.1.cadfamily. 10 kV transformer that is frequently switched in and out is higher than to protect a 100 kVA. Internal overvoltages caused by high frequency oscillations Switching operations are always followed by high frequency oscillations in the kHz and MHz range. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS In locations which are not exposed to lightning overvoltages. The use of circuit breaker with opening and closing resistors has considerably reduced such failures.please inform us. In this way the spark gaps will reduce the ageing of the arresters.we will delete  . Failures have also occurred on drytype transformers in spite of being protected by surge arresters. more prone to fail than transformers that are continuously energized for several years between each disconnection. or even in some cases eliminate them. In other words. A high number of high lightning current surges will contribute to ageing of the arresters. They increase with the magnetic energy stored in the transformer core at the moment of current chopping. a higher failure rate on dry-type transformers than on oil-immersed transformers has been observed on dry-type transformers when adequate protection against transient overvoltages is missing. To summarise this. If the damping is slow and the dominating frequency of the oscillations coincide with one of the resonance frequencies of the transformer.com Page 57 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Opening and closing resistors on the circuit breaker will effectively damp such oscillations.at one or two poles of the overhead line away from the transformer will lead the highest current surges to earth before they reach the metal-oxide arresters at the transformer terminals. high local turn-to-turn voltage stresses within the winding arise and may cause a failure. Because of the statistical nature of the size of the transient voltages. these transient overvoltages increase with the size of the transformer. with slow or rapid damping. Transformers installed in locations where they are not exposed to lightning overvoltages will still be exposed to transient overvoltages caused by switching operations. Alternatively the dominating frequency of the oscillations could be changed (lowered) by installing additional capacitance. the resonance characteristics of the transformer should be known and a careful study of the power system should be made.3.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. www. The service experience regarding oil-immersed transformers in such locations indicates that they seem to withstand such overvoltages without being protected by surge arresters. but also on the steepness of the voltage change at the terminals. Oil-immersed transformers seem to be more robust against such stresses compared to dry-type transformers. When choosing this solution. For the latter type the need for adequate protection should be recognised.

Transferred overvoltages can be critical if: • the secondary winding is not connected to the network. Annex E of IEC 60071-2 goes a little more in detail on this subject. TRANSFERRED OVERVOLTAGES IN TRANSFORMERS Transferred voltages in transformers can have the following modes: • electromagnetic transfer.cadfamily. Surge arresters between phase terminals as well as between phases might be justified.we will delete . • the secondary winding has a low rated voltage compared to the rated voltage of the high voltage winding. www. The earth capacitances and the self-inductances of the windings form the oscillation circuits.please inform us. the minimum precaution is that a secondary or tertiary winding that is not connected to the network.4. should be earthed in one point.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. • oscillatory transfer through natural oscillations of the primary and/or the secondary circuits of the transformer. one corner of delta windings and preferably the neutral of star windings.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 58 The document is for study only.9.if tort to your rights. • the winding is the tertiary of a three-winding transformer. • electrostatic or capacitive transfer. In any case.

function and signature of the authorized person(s) acting on behalf of the supplier.10. this states that the legal requirements for the commercial product have been met.ch Explanation of numerals : IP23 The first characteristic numeral (2) describes the protection against solid foreign objects of 12. protection relays. moisture etc. It should also be noted that motors. etc. The following three European Union Directives may be applicable to distribution transformer installations: The Machine Directive covers most types of machines.please inform us. they are subject to the relevant standards and regulations. MISCELLANEOUS 10.com Page 59 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. the normative documents (with edition/date of issue) the transformer is in conformity with and possible additional information. are protected against touching and external influence such as dust.cadfamily. pollution. do not require a CE mark. a safety designation or a designation of conformity to a standard.1.2. measuring. fixed installations (which are assembled at the site of operation) have to meet the EMC protection requirements but they do not require a declaration of conformity.1. measuring and metering devices.5mm diameter and greater. are not covered by the Machine Directive. 10.3. The EMC Directive is intended for application to almost all electrical equipment. it is not covered by the Low-Voltage Directive. protection and regulating equipment is a fixed component of highvoltage substations and/or distribution transformers. www.if tort to your rights. 10. with the exception of certain special types that are specifically excluded. Switzerland. The CE mark is not a quality designation.iec. IP-CLASSIFICATION 10. However. the product.we will delete  . by definition. This also applies to all primary and secondary devices in these installations (as components with no direct function). CE MARKING The CE mark based on European Directives assists the free distribution of goods on the European market. The second characteristic numeral (3) describes the protection against spraying water.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. The Low Voltage Directive (LVD) is applicable to independent low-voltage equipment which is also used in distribution transformers and installations. However. The European Commission now shares this view. Such DoC will as a minimum identify the supplier. In conclusion it is noted that high-voltage equipment and installations. The DoC shall denote place and date of issue as well as name. However. DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY A Declaration of Conformity (DoC) according to EN 45014 General criteria for supplier’s declaration of conformity may be issued on demand by customers. www. the conformity statement. if control. When the manufacturer applies the CE mark. *Copyright © IEC. in this regard the transformer terminals as well as accessories. including secondary installations. It is directed to the national standards supervising bodies. The power supply companies and the manufacturers in Europe (EURELECTRIC/UNIPEDE and CAPIEL) have always been of the unanimous opinion that highvoltage equipment is not subject to the Machine Directive. This equipment must conform to the LVD and have a CE mark when purchased on the open market. such as control circuits. because by definition (as per IEC 60050-441) they are considered to be high-voltage products. a CE mark nor an approval by any competent authority. terminal strips.3. General IP classification describes to what extent electrical equipment. Reference is made to IEC 60529 for a detailed description on this subject. Geneva.

sphere of diameter and greater Dust protected The object probe. but dust shall not penetrate in a quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the apparatus or to impair safety No ingress of dust Definition First Characteristic Numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 Dust tight 6 10.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. sphere of 2.10.5mm diameter and greater Protected against solid foreign objects of 1.5mm diameter and greater Protected against solid foreign objects of 2.please inform us.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 60 The document is for study only.3. sphere of 50 mm diameter shall not fully penetrate The object probe.5 mm diameter shall not penetrate at all The object probe.cadfamily.if tort to your rights.2.0 mm diameter shall not penetrate Ingress of dust is not totally prevented.we will delete .5 mm diameter shall not fully penetrate The object probe. Degrees of protection against water Description No protection Protected against vertically falling water drops Protected against vertically falling water drops when enclosure tilted up to 15 degrees Protected against spraying water Protected against splashing water Protected against water jets Protected against powerful water jets Definition Vertically falling water drops shall have no harmful effects Vertically falling water drops shall have no harmful effects when the enclosure is tilted at any angle up to 15 degrees on either side of the vertical axis Water sprayed at an angle up to 60 degreed on either side of the vertical axis shall have no harmful effects Water splashed against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects Water projected in jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects Water projected in powerful water jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects Second characteristic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 www. Degrees of protection against solid objects Description Non-protected Protected against solid foreign objects of 50mm diameter and greater Protected against solid foreign objects of 12. sphere of 1.

The NEMA enclosure type numbers meet or exceed the test requirements for the associated IEC Classification.ch www. All entries on the plate shall be indelibly marked.if tort to your rights. 1W.1. fungus.we will delete  .3.cadfamily.please inform us. 1V. www. rusty. the IEC Enclosure Classification Designations cannot be exactly equated with the enclosure Type numbers in the NEMA Standard. Example of a Dyn connected transformer: Figure 10-1 10.4. Single phase transformer The two terminals at the high voltage side should be marked 1. and because the test and evaluations for other characteristics are not identical. or conditions such as moisture (produced for example by condensation). icing.2. for this reason the table cannot be used to convert from IEC Classifications to NEMA enclosure Type numbers.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.4. and coolants. 2W.4. Comparison to NEMA ratings IEC 60529 does not specify degrees of protection against mechanical damage of equipment. The following table provides an equivalent conversion from the enclosure Type numbers in NEMA Standard to the IEC Enclosure Classification Designations. 1N for the high voltage side and 2U. TERMINAL DESIGNATION. oil.5.10. 2N for the low voltage side. IDENTIFYING TERMINALS Unless the customer specifies terminal marking otherwise. Switzerland. 2V. 10. For this reason. Geneva.1 and 1. or vermin. The NEMA Standard for Enclosures for Electrical Equipment does test for environmental conditions such as corrosion. The two terminals at the low voltage side should be marked 2. the terminals should be marked according to IEC 60616 TR.1 and 2.4. RATING PLATE Transformers shall be provided with a rating plate of weatherproof material in visible position. 10. NEMA Enclosure Type Number 1 2 3 3R 3S 4 and 4X 5 6 AND 6P 12 AND 12K 13 IEC Enclosure Classification Designation IP10 IP11 IP54 IP14 IP54 IP56 IP52 IP67 IP52 IP54 10. Please see standard IEC 60076-1 for complete description to the rating plate information for the different types of transformers. risk of explosions. Three phase transformer 1U.2. *Copyright © IEC. corrosive vapors.iec.2.com Page 61 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.

• Number of the applied standard. this will be added as an extra plate or a different rating plate. • Total mass. • Mass of insulating oil. www. • Rated voltage and tapping range (V or kV). • Basic insulation levels.we will delete . o Degree of protection (IP class). • Connection symbol. When customer specification requires additional information. • Manufacturer’s name. • Year of manufacture. o Climatic class. • Manufacturer’s serial number.if tort to your rights.cadfamily. The below is an example of the default ABB rating plate for transformers of type SDT and dry-type transformers. • Rated frequency (Hz). o Fire behavior class. • Short-circuit impedance (%).please inform us. • Number of phases.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. • Rated currents (A or kA). • For dry-type transformers: o Temperature class. o Environmental class.Below is the minimum information to be given for each transformer: • Kind of transformer.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 62 The document is for study only. • Rated power (kVA or MVA). • Type of cooling.

please inform us.ch The International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) gives the following definition of EMC: ”The ability of an equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment. [IEV 161-01-06] Disturbance level The amount or magnitude of an electromagnetic disturbance.if tort to your rights. Geneva. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) 10.iec.” [IEV 161-01-07] Other relevant definitions are: Electromagnetic disturbance Any electromagnetic phenomenon which. can cause electrical equipment to depart from its intended performance [IEV 161-01-05.6. Switzerland. measured and evaluated in a specified way [IEV 161-03-01.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. modified] Electromagnetic interference (EMI) Degradation of the performance of equipment. Definitions *Copyright © IEC. NOTE The terms “electromagnetic disturbance” and “electromagnetic interference” denote respectively cause and effect.1. www. but they are often used indiscriminately. by being present in the electromagnetic environment.6.we will delete  .com Page 63 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. modified] Electromagnetic compatibility level www. transmission channel or system caused by an electromagnetic disturbance.cadfamily.10.

and the influence of its harmonics is negligible. www. in the order of 1% of the rated current of the transformers. This requirement is normally not critical in public supply systems but may have to be considered in installations with considerable convertor loading. IEC 60076-1 Power transformers Part 1: General assumes that the wave shape of the supply voltage is approximately sinusoidal.if tort to your rights. equipment or system for which it remains capable of operating at a required degree of performance [IEV 161-03-14] 10. In systems with considerable capacitive elements. • inter-harmonics. • voltage unbalance.2. the compatibility level is chosen so that there is only a small probability that it will be exceeded by the actual disturbance level. which in turn causes voltage magnification even at a point remote from the distorting load. this should be specified in the enquiry and in the order. However. The sources of interharmonics can be different types of convertors. Harmonics Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies that are whole multiples of the power frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate. Disturbance phenomena to consider are: • harmonics.6. which may need consideration in the transformer design. there is a risk that harmonics cause shunt and series resonance in the network.please inform us. Electromagnetic disturbances on transformers Transformers may be exposed to various types of electromagnetic disturbances when operating in public and industrial power supply systems. Harmonic currents produce harmonic voltage drops across the impedance of the network. • overcurrents.cadfamily.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 64 The document is for study only.we will delete . if the transformer core is saturated due to an applied voltage higher than the rated voltage. The magnetizing current is in normal operation small. [IEV 161-03-10. Interharmonics may need consideration in the transformer design.The specified electromagnetic disturbance level used as a reference level in a specified environment for co-ordination in the setting of emission and immunity limits NOTE By convention. • power frequency variation. the magnetizing current and its harmonics will dramatically increase. Equipment with a non-linear voltage/current characteristic cause current harmonics. They can appear as discrete frequencies or as a wide-band spectrum. arc welding machines and arc furnaces. Current harmonics influence the load losses and the temperature rise. If the total harmonic content exceeds 5% or the even harmonic content exceeds 1%. induction motors. modified] Immunity level The maximum level of a given electromagnetic disturbance incident on a particular device.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. • overvoltages. Interharmonics Interharmonic currents and voltages have frequencies which are not an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The magnetizing current of transformers contains harmonics due to the non-linear magnetizing characteristic. like long cables or power factor correction capacitors.

but the duration of the currents must be limited to maximum 2 seconds by means of relays that disconnect the transformer from the energy sources. The topic of temporary and transient overvoltages is treated in chapter 9.cadfamily. Consequently the flux density in one or two limbs of the core will increase correspondingly.com Page 65 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. If the degree of unbalance is known before ordering the transformer.03 Tesla. When www. for example 1 or 2%. unacceptable heating in structural details keeping the core together and in the tank may occur. A dramatic increase in the magnetizing current and its harmonics will also take place. Power frequency variation In public supply systems the temporary frequency deviation from the nominal frequency is normally not more than ±1 Hz. In supply systems isolated from public network (for example an island system) frequency variations up to ±4% are expected. Each case must be treated individually. The steady-state deviation of frequency from the nominal frequency is much less. Large pulsating mechanical forces will act on the windings and their supports during these currents. The maximum disturbance level in a network may be derived from theoretical studies or measurements. The saturation flux density of modern core steel is 2.if tort to your rights.we will delete  . The disturbance level is not a single value but varies statistically with location and time. unless a longer duration is agreed in the contract. continuously or intermittently. Due to the distorted voltage triangle the voltage across one or two phase windings will be higher than rated. Before connecting a dominant single-phase load to an already existing transformer. A frequency of 49 Hz instead of 50 Hz will increase the flux density in the transformer core by 2% at the same applied voltage. The predominant cause of voltage unbalance is unbalanced load. Transformers may also be exposed to overcurrents due to short-circuits in the network. The sound level of the transformer may also increase.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. The compatibility of transformers regarding overvoltages and overcurrents is verified by means of various tests described in the IEC transformer standards 60076-3. not be economical to define the compatibility level in terms of this highest value to which most devices would not be exposed to most of the time. Such currents may amount to 10 – 20 times the rated current of the transformer or even more. It seems more appropriate to define the compatibility level as a value that only will be exceeded by the disturbance level in very few cases. Increase in the magnetizing current and its harmonics in the affected phases will be another consequence.Overvoltages Quasi-stationary or steady state overvoltage causing an increase of more than 5% in the flux density in the transformer core in relation to the core flux at rated voltage should be specified in the enquiry and in the order. It may. Further increase in the magnetic flux may cause unacceptable heating in structural details keeping the core together and in the tank. in general. Transformers are designed to withstand certain short-circuit currents. In such cases the flux density in the transformer core may increase up to 4%. 60076-5 and 60726. it will be possible to take it into account in the design.please inform us. Service experience indicates that transformers from experienced manufacturers seldom fails because of short-circuit currents. Because of this variability it is often very difficult or even impossible to determine the real highest level of disturbance. and this should be taken into account when designing the transformer. It is not possible to make a general rule regarding permitted unbalance for transformers. Overcurrents IEC 60076-7 – Power transformers – Part 7: Loading guide for oil-immersed transformers (in process) and IEC 60905 Loading guide for dry-type transformers provide advise regarding overloading of transformers. it is recommended to analyse the situation first. In addition the high current density in the windings will rapidly increase the winding temperature. which may appear very infrequently. Voltage unbalance IEC 60076-1 Power transformers Part 1: General assumes that the three-phase supply voltage is approximately symmetrical in normal service conditions. If saturation in these limbs is reached.

performing thermal testing on convertor transformers.ch Location Magnetic flux density in air [µT] 50 Hz 0 kHz – 2 kHz 250 380 20 75 25 90 6 40 The magnetic field was detectable up to approximately 10 m from the physical enclosure of the substation.3. Research on the effect of electric and magnetic fields on health is still not complete. www. The measurements were taken with field coils and are considerably influenced by the presence of harmonics.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 66 The document is for study only. one at 50 Hz and one at 0 kHz to 2 kHz. Typical measured maximum values at various locations are given in the following table: Magnetic field [A/m] 50 Hz 0 kHz – 2 kHz Adjacent to transformer connections 200 300 Above transformer 15 60 Adjacent to low-voltage cables 20 70 Adjacent to but outside the roof 5 30 *Copyright © IEC. Attention should be paid to the possible influence of such fields on heart pacemakers.we will delete . the magnetic field may exceed the immunity level of the electronic equipment. Switzerland.6. Electromagnetic field in the vicinity of transformers Distribution transformers with voltage ratio from medium to low voltage for supply to commercial and industrial consumers are often integrated into these consumers’ buildings. especially in the presence of moisture. Effect of electromagnetic fields on humans With regard to health hazards a magnetic flux density of 100 µT at 50 Hz seem to be considered as acceptable with high safety factor (250-500). IEC 61000-2-7 “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 2: Environment – Section 7: Low frequency magnetic fields in various environments” refers results from measurements taken at an installation of a 315 kVA distribution transformer. which in turn may cause disturbance on electronic equipment.4. The electromagnetic field from such transformers may disturb the performance of electronic equipment situated near by.3. Geneva. For this reason two values are stated for each location. the effect of harmonic currents is taken into according to IEC 61378-1.6.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. In cases where the field exceeds the immunity levels of various kinds of electronic equipment in the vicinity of the transformer.cadfamily. For short time exposure the acceptable limit can be doubled. www. CENELEC report R014-001 “Guide for the evaluation of electromagnetic fields around power transformers” indicates formulas for calculation of field values for some simple geometric configurations. Still the above example indicates the magnitude of the field that can be expected. 10. ABB has developed solutions for shielding cable boxes which reduce the electromagnetic field related to the LV cables and connections. appropriate shielding of the equipment or moving the equipment further away from the transformer can solve the problem.6. Practical experience from measurements of electromagnetic field around a transformer indicates that the measured values are considerably depending on how the measurements are made.please inform us.if tort to your rights. Appropriate routines for cleaning are recommended in section 4. Or in other words. cause electrical discharges. 10. There is so far no international standard describing how measurements of the electromagnetic field around transformers shall be performed to achieve consistent results.iec. Contaminants on bushings of oil-immersed transformers and on windings of dry-type transformers may.

8. ABB has committed itself to work for environmental improvement and pollution reduction. Customer review of management systems Customers may review the general management system of the manufacturing sites. environment. Quality The functional reliability of transformer installations depends of the suitability and quality of the transformer. safety and environment ABB factories comply with national internal control regulations defining requirements for health. ABB transformer factories have adopted the European and International standard of quality EN ISO 9001:2000 Quality management systems Requirements This standard emphasizes customer satisfaction. process approach and continuous improvement.10.8. UNITS AND CONVERSION TABLES 10.com Page 67 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. components and the processes employed. and not disclose anything to any third party unless this is agreed with ABB in writing.2. however company secrets may be excluded.7.we will delete  . 10.1. sustainability 10. 10.4. Environment ABB requires that all manufacturing sites operate a certified environmental management system according to the International standard ISO 14001:1996 Environmental management systems Specification with guidance for use Thus. 10. 10.7.3. Quality. Health. Sustainability development ABB is a signatory to the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Business Charter for Sustainable Development and works actively to live up to this commitment and to fulfil its social responsibilities.if tort to your rights. 10. The customers are obliged to only use information regarding ABB obtained in this way for their own use.1. Basic Sl units Quantity Units Symbol m kg s A K cd mol Units Name metre kilogramme second ampere kelvin candela mol Length Mass Time Electric current Thermodynamic temperature Luminous intensity Quantity of substance www.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. safety and working environment.7.cadfamily.7.please inform us.5. HSE.7.7. Most factories operate ISO 9001 certified management systems.

magnetic potential difference Electric voltage electric potential difference Electric conductance Electric resistance Quantity of electricity.10.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 68 The document is for study only. Multiples and sub-multiples of units Factor 12 10 9 10 6 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 -1 10 Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci Symbol T G M k h da d Factor -2 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 10 -12 10 -15 10 -18 10 Prefix centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Symbol c m µ n p f a 10.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.8.if tort to your rights.3. electric charge Electric capacitance Electric flux density Electric field strength Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density.2. (induction) Inductance (permeance) Magnetic field strength ampere A volt V 1 V =1 W/A siemens ohm coulomb S Ω 1 S = A/V 1 Ω = 1/S ampere-hour Ah 1C = 1 As 1 Ah = 3600 As C farad coulomb per square metre volt per metre weber. volt-second tesla F C/m 2 1 F = 1 C/V V/m Wb.cadfamily. Vs T 1 Wb = 1 Vs 1 T =1 2 Wb/m 1 H = 1 Ωs =1 Wb/A henry ampere per metre H A/m www.please inform us.8. Electrical and magnetic quantities Quantity SI unit Name Symbol Other units symbol Relationship Electric current.we will delete .

10. For the special case of sinusoidal voltage and current d=tanδ. Mathematical symbols for magnetic quantities (general) Symbol Φ Quantity magnetic flux magnetic induction magnetic field strength.4.if tort to your rights.com Page 69 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. Fm U. General electrotechnical symbols 10.8.cadfamily.1. Mathematical symbols for alternating-current Symbol S P Q φ λ δ Quantity apparent power active power reactive power phase difference power factor = P/S = λ. Lmn 10. VA W VA(r) rad rad d Z R X Ω Ω Ω www.we will delete  . σ ρ G R E S Ω V 10.4. electric charge electric field strength electric flux density. impedance resistance reactance 2 2 Sl unit W.please inform us. Mathematical symbols for electrical quantities (general) Symbol Q E D U V. ·10 F/m relative permittivity electric capacitance electric current electric current density specific electric conductivity specific electric resistance.4.3. magnetizing field strength magnetomotive force magnetic potential difference absolute permeability absolute permeability for vacuum -7 µ0 = 4π ·10 ·H/m relative permeability self inductance mutual inductance SI unit Wb T A/m A A H/m H/m 1 H H B H F. d =P/ S − P .8. Um µ µ0 µr L M. φ ε ε0 εr Quantity quantity of electricity.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. resistivity electric conductance electric resistance electromotive force SI unit C V/m C/m² V V F/m F/m 1 F A A/m² S/m Ωm C I J. S γ. For the special case of sinusoidal voltage and current λ = cos φ loss angle dissipation factor. electric displacement electric potential difference electric potential absolute permittivity constant permittivity for vacuum -12 ε0 = 8.4.

com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.nema.com American National Standards Institute Communauté Européenne.ce-marking. Electronic & Information Technologies www. Distribution Transformers Small distribution transformers Systéme Internationale d´Unites (International System of Units) Temporary overvoltage Assosiation for Electrical.abb.org Comite Europeen de Normalisation (European committee for standardization) Comite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.please inform us.org Polychlorinated biphenyl Partial discharge Power Technology.9.10.cadfamily. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABB ANSI CE CEN CENELEC DIN DoC EMC HV ICC IEC IEEE IEV IP ISO LCA LDT LV MDT NA NEMA PCB PD PTDT SDT SI TOV VDE Asea Brown Boveri.we will delete .iec.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 70 The document is for study only. www. Inc.V.if tort to your rights.ch The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. International Electrotechnical Vocabulary International Protection (IEC 60529) International Organization for Standardization Life cycle Asessment Large distribution transformers Low voltage Medium distribution transformers Not applicable National Electrical Manufacturers Association www. (German Institute for standardization) Declaration of Conformity Electromagnetic compatibility High voltage International Chamber of Commerce International Electrotechnical Commission. www. www.


11.1.1. IEC Standards
IEC 60027-1 (1992, corrected and reprinted 1995-03-31) Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology - Part 1: General IEC 60027-1 am1 (1997-05) Amendment 1 - Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology - Part 1: General IEC 60050-441 (1984-01) International Electrotechnical Vocabulary. Switchgear, controlgear and fuses IEC 60050-441-am1 (2000-07) Amendment 1 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary. Switchgear, controlgear and fuses IEC 60060-1 (1989-11) High-voltage test techniques – Part 1: General definitions and test requirements IEC 60071-1 (1993) Insulation co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules IEC 60071-2 (1996-12) Insulation co-ordination – Part 2: Application Guide IEC 60076-1 (2000-04) Ed. 2.1 Power transformers – Part 1: General IEC 60076-2 (1993-04) Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise IEC 60076-2 Corr. 1 (1997-06) Corrigendum 1 - Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise IEC 60076-3 (2000-03) Power transformers – Part 3: Insulation levels, dielectric tests and external clearances in air IEC 60076-3 Corr. 1 (2000-12) Corrigendum 1 - Power transformers – Part 3: Insulation levels, dielectric tests and external clearances in air IEC 60076-4 (2002-06) Power transformers – Part 4: Guide to the lightning impulse and switching impulse testing – Power transformers and reactrors IEC 60076-5 (2000-07) Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit IEC 60076-8 (1997-11) Power transformers – Part 8: Application guide IEC 60076-10 (2001-05) Power transformers – Part 10: Determination of sound levels IEC 60156 (1995-08) Insulating liquids – Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency – Test method IEC 60214-1 (2003-02) Tap-changers – Part 1: Performance requirements and test methods IEC 60270 (2000-12) High-voltage test techniques – Partial discharge measurements IEC 60289 (1988-05) Reactors IEC 60296 (1982-01) Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear IEC 60296-am1 (1986-01) Amendment no. 1

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IEC 60354 (1991-10) Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers IEC 60422 (1989-04) Supervision and maintenance guide for mineral insulating oils in electrical equipment IEC 60475 (1974-01) Methods of sampling liquid dielectrics IEC/TR 60479-1 (1994-09) Effect of current on human beings and livestock – Part 1: General aspects IEC 60529 (2001-02) Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) IEC 60542 (1976-01) Application guide for on-load tap-changers IEC 60542-am1 (1988-01) Amendment No. 1 IEC 60554-3-1 (1979-01) Specification for cellulosic papers for electrical purposes. Part 3: Specifications for individual materials. Sheet 1: General purpose electrical paper IEC 60567 (1992-07) Guide for the sampling of gases and of oil from oil-filled electrical equipment and for the analysis of free and dissolved gases IEC 60599 (1999-03) Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in service – Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and free gases analysis IEC/TR 60616 (1978-01) Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers IEC 60641-3-1 (1992-05) Specification for pressboard and presspaper for electrical purposes – Part 3: Specification for individual materials – Sheet 1: Requirements for pressboard, types B.0.1, B.2.1, B.2.3, B.3.1, B.3.3, B.4.1, B.4.3, B.5.1, B.6.1 and B.7.1 IEC 60641-3-2 (1992-05) Specification for pressboard and presspaper for electrical purposes – Part 3: Specification for individual materials – Sheet 2: Requirements for presspaper, types P.2.1, P4.1, P.4.2, P4.3, P.6.1 and P.7.1 IEC 60666 (1979-01) Detection and determination of specified anti-oxidant additives in insulating oils IEC 60695-1-40 (2002-11) Fire hazard testing – Part 1-40: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of electrotechnical products – Insulating liquids IEC 60726 (1982-01) Dry-type power transformers IEC 60726-am1 (1986-01) Amendment No. 1 IEC 60814 (1997-08) Insulating liquids – oil-impregnated paper and pressboard – Determination of water by automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration IEC 60836 (1988-08) Specification for silicone liquids for electrical purposes IEC 60836 Corr.1 (1993-12) Corrigendum 1 - Specification for silicone liquids for electrical purposes
1) 1)


1) 1)

New edition in process New edition in process

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IEC 60867 (1993-09) Insulating liquids – Specifications for unused liquids based on synthetic aromatic hydrocarbons IEC 60897 (1987-03) Methods for the determination of the lightning breakdown voltage of insulating liquids IEC 60905 (1987-12) Loading guide for dry-type transformers IEC 60944 (1988-09) Guide for the maintenance of silicone transformer liquids IEC 60970 (1989-06) Methods for counting and sizing particles in insulating liquids IEC 61039 (1990-10) General classification of insulating liquids IEC 61065 (1991-05) Method for evaluating the low temperature flow properties of mineral insulating oils after ageing IEC 61065 Corr. 1 (1993-12) Corrigendum 1 - Method for evaluating the low temperature flow properties of mineral insulating oils after ageing IEC 61099 (1992-05) Specification for unused synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes IEC 61099 Corr. 1 (1993-1) Corrigendum 1 - Specification for unused synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes IEC 61100 (1992-05) Classification of insulating liquids according to fire point and net calorific value IEC 61125 (1992-08 + corrigendum 1992-09) Unused hydrocarbon-based insulating liquids – Test methods for evaluating the oxidation stability IEC 61144 (1992-12) Test method for the determination of oxygen index of insulating liquids IEC 61181 (1993-06) Impregnated insulating materials – Application of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) to factory tests on electrical equipment IEC 61197 (1993-09) Insulating liquids – Linear flame propagation – Test method using a glass-fibre tape IEC 61203 (1992-12) Synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes – Guide for maintenance of transformer esters in equipment IEC/TR3 61294 (1993-10) Insulating liquids – Determination of the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) – Test procedure IEC 61378-1 (1997-09) Convertor transformers – Part 1: Transformers for industrial applications IEC 61619 (1997-04) Insulating liquids – Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) – Method of determination by capillary column gas chromatography IEC 61620 (1998-11) Insulating liquids – Determination of dielectric dissipation factor by measurement of the conductance and capacitance – Test method IEC 61868 (1998-11) Mineral insulating oils – Determination of kinematic viscosity at very low temperatures IEC 61936-1 (2002-10) – Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. – Part 1: Common rules

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principles and rules EN 60071-1:1995 +A1: 2000 EN 60071-2:1997 Insulation co-ordination – Part 2: Application Guide EN 60071-2:1997 +A12: 2002 EN 60076-1: 1997 Power transformers – Part 1: General EN 60076-1: 1997 +A11: 1997 EN 60076-2: 1997 Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise EN 60076-3: 2001 Power transformers – Part 3: Insulation levels. 1998 Bushings above 1 kV up to 36 kV and from 250 A to 3. wheel assembly) EN 50216-5: 2002 +A1: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part 5: Liquid level.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 74 The document is for study only. CENELEC Standards EN 50180: 1997 + corrigendum Apr.we will delete .5 kV to 550 kV EN 50336:2002 Bushings for transformers and reactor cable boxes not exceeding 36 kV EN50386: 2002 Bushings up to 1 kV and from 250 A to 5 kA.please inform us.15 kA for liquid filled transformers EN 50216-1: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part 1: General EN 50216-2: 2002 +A1: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part 2: Gas and oil actuated relay for liquid immersed transformers and reactors with conservator EN 50216-3: 2002 +A1: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part 3: Protective relay for hermetically sealed liquid-immersed transformers and reactors without gaseous cushion EN 50216-4: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part 4: Basic accessories (earthing terminal. for liquid filled transformers EN 60071-1:1995 Insulation co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.1. drain and filling devices.2.25 kA to 5 kA. dielectric tests and external clearances in air EN 60076-4: 2002 Power transformers – Part 4: Guide to the lightning impulse and switching impulse testing – Power transformers and reactors www.cadfamily.if tort to your rights.IEC 62021 (2003-06) Insulating liquids – Determination of acidity – Part 1: Automatic potentiometric titration 11. for liquid filled transformers EN50387: 2002 Busbar bushings up to 1 kV and from 1. for liquid filled transformers EN 50299: 2002 Oil-immersed cable connection assemblies for transformers and reactors having highest voltage for equipment Um from 72. pressure devices and flow indicators EN 50216-6: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part6: Cooling equipment – Removable radiators for oil-immersed transformers EN 50216-7: 2002 Power transformer and reactor fittings – Part 7: Electric pumps for transformer oil EN50243: 2002 Outdoor bushings for 24 kV and 36 kV and for 5 kA and 8 kA. thermometer pocket.

from 50 to 2500 kVA with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 1: General requirements and requirements for transformers with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 24 kV HD 428.1 S1: 1994 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.we will delete  .2. from 50 kVA to 2.if tort to your rights. 1998 Convertor transformers – Part 1: Transformers for industrial applications EN 61620: 1999 Insulating liquids – Determination of dielectric dissipation factor by measurement of the conductance and capacitance – Test method HD 428.EN 60076-5: 2000 Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short-circuit EN 60076-10: 2001 Power transformers – Part 10: Determination of sound levels EN60137: 1996 Insulated bushing for alternating voltage above 1 kV EN60156: 1995 Insulating liquids – Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency – Test method EN 60214: |997 On-load tap-changers EN 60214-1: 2003 Tap-changers – Part 1: Performance requirements and test methods EN 60567: 1992 Guide for the sampling of gases and of oil from oil-filled electrical equipment and for the analysis of free and dissolved gases EN 60599: 1999 Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in service – Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and free gas analysis EN 60726: 2003 Dry-type transformers EN 60814: 1997 Insulating liquids – oil-impregnated paper and pressboard – Determination of water by automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration EN 61065: 1993 Method for evaluating the low temperature flow properties of mineral insulating oils after ageing EN 61099: 1992 Specification for unused synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes EN 61100: 1992 Classification of insulating liquids according to fire point and net calorific value EN 61125: 1993 Unused hydrocarbon-based insulating liquids – Test methods for evaluating the oxidation stability EN 61197: 1994 Insulating liquids – Linear flame propagation – Test method using a glass-fibre tape EN 61203: 1994 Synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes – Guide for maintenance of transformer esters in equipment En 61378-1: 1998 + corrigendum Nov.cadfamily.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.com Page 75 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.please inform us.5 MVA with highest for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 2: Distribution transformers with cable boxes on the high–voltage and/or low-voltage side – Section 1: General requirements www.1 S1: 1992 +A1: 1995 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.

IEEE Standards IEEE Std 259 – 1999 IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Evaluation of Systems of Insulation for Dry-type Specialty and General Purpose Transformers IEEE Std 637 – 1985 (R1992. from 50 to 2500 kVA with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 2: Distribution transformers with cable boxes on the high–voltage and/or low-voltage side – Section 3: Cable boxes type 2 for use on distribution transformers meeting the requirements of HD 428.we will delete .01 – 1998 IEEE Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers Including Those with Solid-Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated Windings IEEE C57.3 S1: 1994 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 76 The document is for study only.2 S1: 1997 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.12.cadfamily.HD 428.if tort to your rights.2.1 HD 428. from 50 to 2500 kVA with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 4: Determination of power rating of a transformer loaded with non-sinusoidal currents HD 428.2.2002) IEEE Guide for the Reclamation of Insulating Oil and Criteria for Use IEEE Std 638 – 1992 (R1999) IEEE Standard for Qualification of Class 1E Transformers for Nuclear Generating Stations IEEE Std 1276 – 1997 IEEE Guide for the Application of High-Temperature Materials in Liquid-Immersed Power Transformers IEEE Std 1388 – 2000 IEEE Standards for Electronic Reporting of Transformer Tests IEEE Std 1538 – 2000 IEEE Guide for Determination of Maximum Winding Temperature Rise in Liquid-Filled Transformers IEEE Std C57. 34500 V and below: Low Voltage 7970/13800 Y V and below – Requirements www. from 50 to 2500 kVA with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 3: Supplementary requirements for transformers with highest voltage for equipment equal to 36 kV HD 428. Power.1 HD 428.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.20 – 1997 American National Standard for Overhead Distribution Transformers 500 kVA and smaller: High Voltage. and Regulating Transfortmers IEEE Std C57.2. from 50 to 2500 kVA with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 2: Distribution transformers with cable boxes on the high–voltage and/or low-voltage side – Section 2: Cable boxes type 1 for use on distribution transformers meeting the requirements of HD 428. from 50 to 2500 kVA with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV – Part 6: Requirements and tests concerning pressurised corrugated tanks HD 565 S1: 1993 Specification for silicone liquids for electrical purposes HD 637 S1: 1999 Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.12.3.6 S1: 2002 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.4 S1: 1994 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.2.1.c.please inform us. R014-001: 1999 Guide for the evaluation of electromagnetic fields around power transformers 11.00 – 2000 IEEE Standard General requirements for – Liquid-Immersed Distribution.12.3 S1: 1998 Three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers 50Hz.

com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Self-Cooled.12.12.50 – 1981 (R1998) American National Standard Requirements for Ventilated Dry-Type Distribution Transformers. Low Voltage. Three-Phase. Voltage. Single-Phase Distribution Transformers with Separable Insulated High-Voltage Connectors.34500 GRYD/19920 Volts and Below.21 – 1992 American National Standard Requirements for Pad-Mounted. Compartmental-Type. with High-Voltage 601 to 34500 Volts. 167 kVA and Smaller IEEE Std C57.-.23 – 2002 IEEE Standard for Underground Type. Three-Phase Distribution Transformers with High Voltage Bushings. SelfCooled.12. Self-Cooled.12.12.12. Low-Voltage. with High-Voltage 601 to 34500 Volts.24 – 2000 American National Standard for Transfomers – Underground-Type. Single-Phase.com Page 77 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. 1990 American National Standard for Transformers – Pad-Mounted. 240/120 volts.12. Compartmental-Type.12. High-Voltage.25.29 – 1999 Errata American National Standard Pad-Mounted Equipment-Enclosure Integrity for Coastal Environments (Replacement Figures Version) IEEE Std C57.12. 167 kVA and Smaller IEEE Std C57.12. www. 240/120 volts. Three-Phase Distribution Transformers. 480 Volts and Below – Requirements IEEE Std C57. Low Voltage 600 V and Below.32 – 2002 IEEE Standard for Submersible Equipment.we will delete  .12.34500 GrdY/19920 Volts and Below. Distribution Transformers with Separable Insulated High-Voltage Connectors. Single-Phase Distribution Transformers With High Voltage Bushings.29 – 1991 American National Standard Switchgear and Transformers-Pad-Mounted EquipmentEnclosure Integrity for Coastal Environments IEEE Std C57. SelfCooled.26 – 1992 IEEE Standard for Pad-Mounted. 2500 kVA and Smaller. Highvoltage. 2500 kVA and Smaller.12. and 15 kVA.52 – 1981 (R1998) American National Standard Requirements for Sealed Dry-Type Distribution Transformers. 34500 GrdY/19920 Volts and below.44 – 2000 IEEE Standard Requirements for Secondary Network Protectors IEEE Std C57. Low Voltage 120 to 600 Volts IEEE Std C57. Single-Phase. Low-Voltage.12. Low-Voltage.please inform us. High-voltage. 501 kVA and Larger.12. 167 kVA and Smaller-Requirements IEEE Std C57. High Voltage 25000 V and Below.22 – 1993 (R1998) American National Standard for Transfomers – Pad-Mounted. 2500 kVA and Smaller) IEEE Std C57.cadfamily.12.35 – 1996 IEEE Standard for Bar Coding for Distribution Transformers IEEE Std C57. 1 to 500 kVA.34500 GrdY/19920 Volts and Below.IEEE Std C57. Compartmental-Type. Low Voltage 208Y/120 to 4160 Volts IEEE Std C57.Enclosure Integrity IEEE Std C57.28 – 1999 American National Standard Pad-Mounted equipment – Enclosed Integrity IEEE Std C57.12.if tort to your rights.40 – 2000 American National Standard for Secondary Network Transformers Subway and Vault Types (Liquid Immersed) – Requirements IEEE Std 2C57. Compartmental-Type.51 – 1981 (R1998) American National Standard Requirements for Ventilated Dry-Type Distribution Transformers.31 – 2002 IEEE Standard for Pole mounted Equipment – Enclosure Integrity IEEE Std C57. Three-Phase.12. SelfCooled. 480 Volts and Below – Requirements IEEE Std C57. Three-Phase Distribution Transformers for Use with Separable Insulated High-Voltage Connectors (34500 GrdY/19920 Volts and Below.

94 – 1982 (R1987/2000) IEEE Recommended Practice for the Installation.19.19.cadfamily.12.19.91 – 1995) IEEE Std C57.91 – 1995/Cor 1 – 2002 IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Transformers Corrigendum 1 (Corrigendum to IEEE C57.Dry-Type Transformers Used in Unit Installations.100 – 1995 IEEE Guide for Application of Power Apparatus Bushings IEEE Std C57. Including Substations.12.70 – 2000 IEEE Standard Terminal Markings and Connections for Distribution and Power transformers IEEE Std C57.90 – 1999 IEEE Standard test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution.56 – 1986 (R1998) IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Thermal Evaluation of Insulation Systems for Ventilated Dry-Type Power and Distribution Transformers IEEE Std C57.please inform us.501 kVA and Larger.19.96 – 1999 IEEE Guide for Loading Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers IEEE C57.91 – 1995 (R2002) IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Transformers IEEE Std C57. and Test Code for Bushings for DC Applications IEEE Std C57.10 – 1998 IEEE Standard Practices and Requirements for Semiconductor Rectifier Transformers IEEE Std C57.59 – 2001 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration IEEE Std C57.03 – 1996 (R2002) IEEE Standard Requirements. Power and Regulating Transformers and IEEE Guide for Short Circuit Testing of Distribution and Power Transformers IEEE Std C57.12.00 – 1991 (R1997) IEEE Standard General Requirements and Test Procedures for Outdoor Power Apparatus Bushings IEEE Std C57. Terminology. Three-Phase. Conformance Standard IEEE Std C57.01 – 2000 IEEE Standard Performance Characteristics and Dimensions for Outdoor Apparatus Bushings IEEE Std C57.12.58 – 1991 IEEE Guide for Conducting a Transient Voltage Analysis of a Dry-Type Transformer Coil IEEE Std C57.12. with High-Voltage 601 to 34500 Volts. Operation. and Maintenance of Dry-Type General Purpose Distribution and Power Transformers IEEE Std C57.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Application.98 – 1993 (R1999) IEEE Guide for Impulse Tests www.55 – 1987 (R1998) American National Standard Requirements for Transformers .80 – 2002 IEEE Standard Terminology for Power and Distribution Transformers IEEE Std C57.if tort to your rights.60 – 1998 IEEE Guide for Test Procedures for Thermal Evaluation of Insulation Systems for Solid-Cast and Resin-Encapsulated Power and Distribution Transformers IEEE Std C57.12.18.91 – 2001 IEEE Standard Test Code for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers IEEE Std C57.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 78 The document is for study only.12.12.12.we will delete . Low Voltage 208Y/120 to 4160 Volts IEEE Std C57.93 – 1995 IEEE Guide for Installation of Liquid-Immersed Power transformers IEEE C57.

134 – 2000 IEEE Guide for Determination of Hottest-Spot Temperature in Dry-Type Transformers IEEE Std C57.131 – 1995 IEEE Standard Requirements for Load Tap Changers IEEE Std C57.105 – 1978 (R1999) IEEE Guide for the Application of Transformer Connections in Three-Phase Distribution Systems IEEE Std C57.123 – 2002 IEEE Guide for Transformer Loss Measurement IEEE Std C57.138 – 1998 IEEE Recommended Practice for Routine Impulse Test for Distribution Transformers TM www.com Page 79 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.if tort to your rights.127 – 2000 IEEE Trial-Use Guide for the Detection of Acoustic Emissions from Partial Discharges in OilImmersed Power Transformers IEEE Std C57.113 – 1991 (R2002) IEEE Guide for Partial Discharge Measurement in Liquid-Filled Transformers and Shunt Reactors IEEE Std C57.cadfamily.100 – 1999 IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Thermal Evaluation of Liquid-Immersed Distribution and Power Transformers IEEE Std C57.120-1991 IEEE Loss Evaluation Guide for Power Transformers and Reactors IEEE Std C57.IEEE Std C57.116 – 1989 (R1994.106 – 2002 IEEE Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in Equipment IEEE Std C57.2002) IEEE Guide for Transformers Directly Connected to Generators IEEE Std C57.2002) IEEE Recommended Practice for the Detection of Partial Discharge and the Measurement of Apparent Charge in Dry-Type Transformers IEEE Std C57.104 – 1991 IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in Oil-Immersed Transformers IEEE Std C57.111 – 1989 (R1995) IEEE Guide for Acceptance of Silicone Insulating Fluids and Its Maintenance in Transformers IEEE Std C57.121 – 1998 IEEE Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of Less Flammable Hydrocarbon Fluid in Transformers IEEE Std C57.124 – 1991 (R1996.we will delete  .please inform us.

4.com Parma. 9.4. 5. 5.2. 10. 10.3. 10 edition EN 45014 General criteria for suplier’s declaration of conformity 89/336/EEC 73/23/EEC 98/37/EC Electromagnetic compatibility Low voltage equipment Safety of machinery th Herbert Baatz: Überspannungen in Energieversorgungsnetzen 1956 Springer-Verlag Rüdenberg: Elektrische Schaltvorgänge 5. 2.2.1. 4.4.2. 4.1. 4. 4.whitefoot@no.4.if tort to your rights.7.1. 13 11.2. 9.11. 11. 6.1.1.cadfamily. 6.2.2. 2. 10.1.stang@no.1 8. Any questions regarding the various subjects can be sent by E-mail to the author with a copy to Egil Stryken.2. 4. 4.4. Roar roar. 4.8. 8.2. 6. 10.2.3. 9. 10.1. Reiulf re-wilhe@online. 0. 4.no Whitefoot.abb.2.2.1. OTHER RELEVANT STANDARDS AND LITTERATURE ABB Switchgear Manual. 10. 5. 4.4. 10. 4.com Wilhelmsen. 7.2. 6.3.parma@ch.1. Stryken. Waters: Neutral Earthing in High-Voltage Transmission 1956 Elsevier Publishing Company New York –Amstwerdam-London-Princeton Giorgio Bertagnolli : -SHORT-CIRCUIT DUTY OF POWER TRANSFORMERS – THE ABB APPROACH Proofing and use of language.5.4. 4.2.2. Geir geir. 2.1. Egil egil.stryken@no. Diego diego. 8. 10.1.3 4.4.karlsen@no. 4. 6.1.com Sund. 6. Wilheim – M.1. Kevin kevin. 3. 10.4.10.com Section 2.5 1. 11.2.abb. 7. 7. 11.2.7. additional subject proposals etc.abb. CONTRIBUTORS The following have contributed to the preparation of this Distribution Transformer Handbook Name Karlsen. 11.8.3. 4. 4.4. 4.11.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 80 The document is for study only.3.5.2 Stang. Auflage 1974 ISBN 3-540-05766-8 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN 0-387-05766-8 Springer-Verlag New York Heidelberg Berlin R. 4. 9.3.1. 10. 10.4.2. FEEDBACK Any feedback regarding editorial changes. 4.1.com 3. 5. 12.2.2. 2. 4. 10.8.7. 1. 4. 10. 9. www.9.4.abb. 3.abb.3. 6. 3.7.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. 10. 6.no 0.2. 10.3.9. 2.2.2. can be sent by E-mail to Egil Stryken. 10. John-Bjarne john-bja@online.4 will delete .6.4. 10. 6. 11. 4. 8.3.8. 7. 4.6. 8. 5. 4.3.2. 4. 4.please inform us. 6. 2.

additional phase-to-phase withstand tests are needed.m.please inform us.2/50 µs (peak value) kV Minimum phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase clearance. Table 1 – Minimum clearances in air – Voltage range I ( 1 kV < Um ≤ 245 kV Nominal voltage of system Un r.m.5 38 95 160 160 95 160 20 24 50 125 220 145 270 145 270 30 36 70 170 320 45 52 95 250 480 66 72. Geneva.we will delete  .12.5 140 325 630 450 900 185 b 110 123 230 550 1 100 185 b 450 b 900 132 145 230 550 1 100 275 650 1 300 550 b 1 100 230 b 150 170 275 650 1 300 325 750 1 500 275 b 650 b 1 300 b b 325 750 1 500 220 245 360 850 1 700 395 950 1 900 460 1 050 2 100 The rated lightning impulse is applicable to phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth. EXTRACTS FROM IEC 61936-1 (2002-10) POWER INSTALLATIONS EXCEEDING 1 KV A. www.m. the installation requires minimum clearances between live parts and earth and between live parts of phases in order to avoid flashover below the impulse withstand level specified for individual tested components of the installation.1 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS General Installations and equipment shall be capable of withstanding electrical. kV 3 Highest voltage for equipment Um r. mechanical. The relevant laws or regulations of an authority having jurisdiction shall have precedence. *Copyright © IEC. N c Indoor installations mm Outdoor installations mm Voltage range I a b c 20 60 120 40 60 120 40 60 120 6 7.c. – PART 1: COMMON RULES The information given in this section is an extract from IEC 61936-1 (2002-10) Power installations exceeding 1 kV a. If values are considered insufficient to prove that the required phase-to-phase withstand voltages are met. see the relevant standard. climatic and environmental influences anticipated on site.com Page 81 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.if tort to your rights. 5 INSULATION As conventional (air insulated) installations cannot be impulse tested. 4 4. For full text. kV 3.ch. The numbering follows the numbering in the standard.6 Rated shortduration powerfrequency withstand voltage r. Common rules . Insulation coordination shall be in accordance with IEC 60071-1. kV 10 Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage a 1.cadfamily.C.2 20 60 90 120 60 90 150 10 12 28 75 120 150 95 160 160 75 120 160 15 17.iec.s.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.s. Switzerland.s. For rod-structure. www.

without resulting in damage that would render the equipment unsafe. safe and proper performance during normal operation and in the event of reasonably expected conditions of overload. Diagrams. protection of personnel during use and maintenance of the equipment. circuit documentation.cadfamily. Operating procedures shall be agreed upon between manufacturer and user. Specific maintenance work.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. installations themselves shall be protected against fire hazard. commissioning. installed and connected to supply. and that protection and environmental compatibility are ensured. Where applicable. A user may specify higher values if necessary. preparation and repair work. The extent of the documentation shall be agreed upon between the supplier and the user. 8 SAFETY MEASURES Installations shall be constructed in such a way as to enable the operating and maintenance personnel to circulate and intervene within the framework of their duties and authorizations.if tort to your rights. If required.1. the requirements applicable at the time of its design and erection may be specified as an alternative. abnormal operation and fault. Where necessary. at any point of the installation.6 6. are carried out observing the rules. Distances.we will delete . safe and proper performance taking into account the external influences that can be expected at the intended location. charts and tables. operational safety and labelling. if any. flooding and contamination. www. additional measures shall be taken to protect important installations against the effects of road traffic (salt spray.please inform us. operation. vehicle accident). maintenance and environmental protection. the documentation shall be provided with each installation to allow erection. which involve working in the vicinity of live parts or actual work on live parts. They are generally based on the minimum values given in the former national standards of the IEC members.1.6 Operational safety Operational safety installations shall be designed so that the escape and rescue paths and the emergency exit can be safely used in the event of a fire. transport routes. according to circumstances.1 6.1 EQUIPMENT General requirements Selection Equipment shall be selected and installed to satisfy the following requirements: a) b) c) safe construction when properly assembled. lighting. NOTE For minimum clearances (N) of live parts. National standards and regulations may require the use of higher clearance values. shall be prepared in accordance with IEC 60617 and IEC 61082.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 82 The document is for study only. 7. procedures and work distances as defined in national standards and regulations. d) 7 7. clearances and dimensions specified are the minimum values permitted for safe operation.3 and to tables 1 and 2 and annex A. refer to 5. Where an existing installation is to be extended. The relevant standards for operation of electrical (power) installations shall additionally be taken into account.1 INSTALLATIONS General requirements This clause specifies only general requirements for the installations regarding choice of circuit arrangement.

a) Precautions to fire victim: i) space separation from origin of fire. fire-resistant separations. For this purpose adequate clearances. are necessary. www. shall be necessary.2. special precautions. resistors. in the event of fire.6. − fire barriers (e. ii) flame propagation prevention: − grading.2 Transformers.we will delete  . Precautions for each category should be taken into account in the installation requirements.1. vaults. switches and fuses. see 6. The fire hazard associated with transformers of outdoor and indoor installations is dependent on the rating of the equipment. G. iii) pressure protection. IEC 61100 classifies insulating liquids according to fire point and net caloric value (heat of combustion). b) Precautions to fire origin: i) electrical protection. iv) fire resistant materials.cadfamily. 8. Equipment in which there is a potential for sparks.if tort to your rights. The same applies to individual sumps which are connected to the catchment tanks of other transformers. for example electrical machines. Where transformers with a liquid volume below 1 000 l are installed near combustible walls.8. reactors In the following subclauses. for example. explosion or high temperature. provincial and local fire protection regulations shall be taken into account in the design of the installation. The user or owner of the installation shall specify any requirement for fire extinguishing equipment. Common sumps or catchment tanks.2. depending on the size and significance of the installation. for several transformers shall be arranged so that a fire in one transformer cannot spread to another. IEC 60726 classifies dry-type transformers in terms of their behaviour when exposed to fire.6. enclosures and containment. be used for this purpose.com Page 83 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. special fire precautions may be necessary depending on the nature and the use of the building.1 Protection against fire General Relevant national. see ISO/IEC Guide 51. 6 8. the escape and rescue paths and the emergency exits can be used (see 7. − extinguishing system. Automatic devices to protect against equipment burning due to severe overheating. the word 'transformer' represents 'transformers and reactors'. REI fire-resistant materials 60/90). Care shall be taken that. shall not be used in operating areas subject to fire hazard unless the construction of this equipment is such that flammable materials cannot be ignited by them. for example fire walls. gravel layers or pipes filled with fluid can. overloading and faults (internal/external) shall be provided. NOTE For definition of risk. The use of one or more recognized safeguard measures shall be used in accordance with the evaluation of the risk.2.please inform us. 8. If this cannot be ensured. the type and proximity and exposure of nearby equipment and structures.g.2. if required.1 Outdoor installations The layout of an outdoor installation shall be such that burning of a transformer with a liquid volume of more than 1 000 l will not cause a fire hazard to other transformers or objects.6. For the identification of coolant types. Arrangements which tend to minimize the fire hazard of the escaped fluid are preferred. the volume and type of insulating mediums. − liquid containment. NOTE Fire hazard and fire risk of electrical equipment is separated into two categories: fire victim and fire origin. ii) thermal protection. Guide values are given in table 3.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.6). arcing. transformers.

see Factory Mutual Global standard 3990. depending upon the direction of the transformer).we will delete .5 0. 8. the clearance G can be reduced. − length: width or length of the sump (in the case of a dry-type transformer.5 15.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. Table 3 – Guide values for outdoor transformer clearances Transformer type Liquid volume L 1 000 <……< 2 000 2 000 ≤……. fire rating of the building wall should be increased.0 None None Dry type transformers (A) F0 F1 / F2 NOTE Enhanced protection means – tank rupture strength. For example EI 60 in accordance with the Official Journal of the European Community.6.2 4. No. fire-resistant separating walls with the following dimensions shall be provided: a..5 30.6 Oil insulated transformers (O) 5 10 10 15.cadfamily.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 84 The document is for study only.< 3 800 ≥ 3 800 Clearance G to other transformers or combustible building non-combustible surface building surface m m 3 7. – high current fault protection. otherwise the top of the transformer tank. – tank pressure relief.9 Fire behaviour class Clearance G to building surface or adjacent transformers Horizontal Vertical m m 1. For example EI 60.2 Indoor installations in electrical power systems Minimum requirements for the installation of indoor transformers are given in table 4.< 20 000 20 000 ≤…. For an example of enhanced protection.2 Less flammable liquid insulated transformers (K) without enhanced protection Less flammable liquid insulated transformers (K) with enhanced protection Clearance G to building surface or adjacent transformers Horizontal Vertical m m 1. C 62/23: − height: top of the expansion chamber (if any). between transformers and buildings (see figure 7) separating walls.< 45 000 ≥ 45 000 1 000 <……. if additional fire separating wall is not provided. or equivalent. If automatically activated fire extinguishing equipment is installed. for example REI 90 in accordance with the Official Journal of the European Community C 62/23. – low current fault protection. www.2.if tort to your rights.5 3.If it is not possible to allow for adequate clearance as indicated in table 3.please inform us. the width or length of the transformer.2 15. b. between transformers (see figure 6) separating walls.6 20 30.

– tank pressure relief.Table 4 – Minimum requirements for the installation of indoor transformers Transformer type Oil insulated transformers (O) Liquid volume l ≤ 1 000 Safeguards EI 60 respectively REI 60 EI 90 respectively REI 90 or EI 60 respectively REI 60 and automatic sprinkler protection EI 60 respectively REI 60 or automatic sprinkler protection > 1 000 Less flammable liquid insulated transformers (K) without enhanced protection Less flammable liquid insulated transformers (K) with enhanced protection ≤ 10 MVA and Um ≤ 38 kV EI 60 respectively REI 60 or separation distances 1. When designing the openings.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.cadfamily. – high current fault protection.9 m horizontally and 1.if tort to your rights.5 m horizontally and 3.0 m vertically Fire behaviour class Dry-type transformer (A) F0 EI 60 respectively REI 60 or separation distances 0. NOTE 2 Enhanced protection means – tank rupture strength. Ventilation openings necessary for the operation of the transformers are permitted. the possible escape of hot gases shall be considered.5 m vertically Non combustible walls F1 / F2 NOTE 1 REI represents bearing system (wall) whereas EI represents non-load bearing system (wall) where R is the load bearing capacity. – low current fault protection.we will delete  . For an example of enhanced protection. E is the fire integrity. Doors which open to the outside are adequate if they are of fire-retardant material and construction.com Page 85 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only. see Factory Mutual Global standard 3990 or equivalent.please inform us. Doors shall have a fire resistance of at least 60 min. Figure 6 – Separating walls between transformers www. I is the thermal insulation and 60/90 refers to time in minutes.

com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 86 The document is for study only. the water from the fire extinguishing (if any) should be considered a Containment: the entire quantity of fluid of the transformer plus rain water Figure 8 – Sump with integrated catchment tank www.we will delete .a The wall in this area shall be designed to avoid spread of fire.cadfamily.if tort to your rights. Figure 7 Fire protection between transformer and building NOTE In addition.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.please inform us.

com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. the water from fire estinguishing installation (if any) should be considered a Containment outdoor: the entire quantity of fluid of the largest transformer plus rain Containment indoor: the entire quantity of fluid of the largest transformer Figure 10 – Sump with integrated common catchment tank NOTE The dotted area denotes the volume of the entire quantity of insulating fluid of the transformer spilled on the floor Figure11 – Example for small transformer without gravel layer and catchment tank www.if tort to your rights.we will delete  .a Containment: minimum 20% of the fluid from the transformer Figure 9 – Sump with separated catchment tank NOTE In addition.cadfamily.please inform us.com Page 87 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.

for power-frequency purposes.1 Fundamental requirements Safety criteria The hazard to human beings is that a current will flow through the region of the heart which is sufficient to cause ventricular fibrillation. Facilities shall be provided for isolating the control circuit of each primary switching equipment or each switchgear bay in order to allow maintenance of high voltage equipment to be performed safely.cadfamily. CONTROL AND AUXILIARY SYSTEMS Monitoring and control systems Monitoring. supply failure. shall be designed and installed in such a way that they minimize the danger from operating failure. body impedance along the current path (based on the 5 % values of table 1 of IEC 604791). 10 10. including cables and cords. Automatic devices. designed to offer selectivity and quick operation. 10. including cables and cords. Annex B shows curves of typical voltage limits. Alarm and fault-indicating equipment shall clearly indicate danger and fault conditions. Basic rules are given in 9.if tort to your rights. should be derived from IEC 60479-1 (curve C1). The control equipment and system. fault current magnitude. influences such as voltage dips. The current limit. Tripping signals shall be displayed on the protection panel if it exists. installation.g. The voltage limits shall take into account the following factors: – – – – – proportion of current flowing through the region of the heart.please inform us. earth electrode). protection.2 10. fault duration. fault duration and presence of human beings are probabilistic in nature. testing and maintenance of an earthing system such that it operates under all conditions and ensures the safety of human life in any place to which persons have legitimate access. Equipment shall comply with the severity class (see IEC 60255) corresponding to the part of the installation in which it is located. be functionally separated. In meeting this requirement. for the correct and safe functioning of the equipment.1 PROTECTION. remote earth. preferably. inadvertent operation or incorrect information. shall be designed and installed to minimize the possibility of damage to the connected equipment due to electromagnetic interference.2. It also provides the criteria to ensure that the integrity of equipment connected and in proximity to the earthing system is maintained. regulating and control devices shall be provided. shall provide protection against the effects of unacceptable overload and internal and external faults appropriate to the size and significance of installation. several signals can be combined as a common signal to be transmitted to a remote control point. fault current magnitude. and/or testing to be carried out on protection and control devices without any danger to personnel or the equipment.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail. It must also be recognized that fault occurrence.com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 88 The document is for study only. maintenance. resistance between the body contact points and return paths (e. as necessary. www. Control circuits and signalling circuits shall. Provision shall be made to allow for repair. insulation faults and electromagnetic interference effects shall be taken into account. The control equipment and system. For substation design. this curve needs to be translated into voltage limits for comparison with the calculated step and touch voltages taking into account the impedance present in the body current path.9 9.5.1 EARTHING SYSTEMS General This clause provides the criteria for design.we will delete .

m.5 24 25 25. www.2/50 µs (peak value) kV 30 45 60 60 45 60 75 60 75 95 75 95 95 110 75 85 110 110 125 150 95 125 150 125 150 95 125 150 Minimum phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase clearance. kV 15 19 19 Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage a 1. Geneva.please inform us.75 4.5 Rated shortduration powerfrequency withstand voltage r.com Page 89 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only.25 8.8 27 a b 27 26 35 35 50 35 38 50 50 50 70 50 The rated lightning impulse is applicable phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth. kV Highest voltage for equipment Um r. kV 2.m.5 15 22 (20) 22 17.25 I 15 15.s.76 5. For rod-structure *Copyright © IEC.s.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.s.we will delete  .ch www.iec. N b Indoor installations mm 60 70 90 90 70 90 120 90 120 160 120 160 160 180 120 150 180 180 220 280 190 210 220 280 160 220 280 290 Outdoor installations med mer 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 150 160 150 160 160 180 150 160 180 Voltage range 8.cadfamily.if tort to your rights.m.1 – Values of rated insulation levels and minimum clearances in air for 1 kV < Um ≤ 245 kV for highest voltages for equipment Um not standardized by the IEC based on current practice in some countries Nominal voltage of system Un r. Switzerland.Annex A (normative) Values of rated insulation levels and minimum clearances based on current practice in some countries Table A.

................................ 81 Insulation materials .............................................. 49 Insulation resistance....................................................................................................... 24 On-load tap changer .... 17 Mechanical forces in the windings.............88 Earthing transformers ...................26 Basic Sl units ....71 Booster transformers ...........................34 Effect of electromagnetic fields on humans66 Efficiency .......15 Fluids ...................................40 Accessories ...........................68 Electrical clearances in air ................................................................................................................16 Contributors ................................................ 54 Limitation of transient overvoltages.................................................................................. 80 Load losses..........59 Cellulose materials...................................... 53 Overvoltages due to earth-fault .............................24 General Electrotechnical formulas ................................................................................................................................................. 56 Litterature.........50 Frequency..........................................67 HSE............................................ 43 Medium distribution transformers ............ 17 Interharmonics ................ 20 Overcurrent protection ...................65 Fundamental requirements ............................................................59 CENELEC Standards.............. 55 Overvoltages generated within the power system........................ 64 Internal overvoltages caused by high frequency oscillations.............................................5 ABB-Group .............................................. 20 Maintenance during operation...................66 EMC. 19 Overcurrents ................................ 20 Inspection during operation......................................................................................................................................... 13 Insulation.......... 53 www..............................................................63........................70 Ability to withstand short circuit currents ......................................................... 24 Oil conservator with rubber sack ................................ 20 Installation.......................................................................................................9 Dry type ................................................50 Disposal after use . 35 Inspection and maintenance during downtime........49 CE-marking..... 16 No load (magnetising) current and no load losses................................................. 25 Large distribution transformers............................ off-circuit/on-load tap changer ........... 88 Multiples and sub-multiples of units ........................ 2 Off circuit tap changer ............................... 80 Electromagnetic disturbances on transformers........................................................14 Information required with enquiry and order ....................................26 Common rules for power installations exceeding 1 kV .................................................................13....................... 7 LCA ...... 65 Overvoltages................................................................................................. 25 Lifetime ..... 50 Miscellaneous ...... 82 Other fluids............................................................................... 7 Mineral oil................... operation and maintenance......... 54 Overvoltages due to ferroresonance ..........................................................31 Electrical and magnetic quantities.................................. 18 Limitation of temporary overvoltages .................................9 Eddy current losses ...................................................... 7 Life cycle assessment (LCA)....................com Distribution Transformer Handbook Page 90 The document is for study only......................................................................................................please inform us..... 24 Operation ................................................................................................................ 69 MDT ..23 CE marking ..........19 Gaskets..... 59 Monitoring and control systems ...64 Electromagnetic field in the vicinity of transformers.................................................74 Choice of system voltage....... safety and environment ............................ 69 Mathematical symbols for electrical quantities (general) .51 Anomalous losses....................81 Conductor materials.........12 Agricultural Ester..........................................................................................we will delete ................................................................ 61 Network connection.................25 DoC................................................................8 Earthing ....................................................................... 20 Mathematical symbols for alternating-current quantities and network quantities ..................................................................17 Environment................................14 Harmonics..67 Declaration of Conformity .... Health.......67 Equipment.............................. 82 installation...........82 Equivalent diagram .......................................................................................................................................64 HSE ..........................................cadfamily.............................................................69 Handling...................48 Connecting transformer terminals to the networks ...................80 Core materials ........48 Customer review of the management systems................................ 18 Operational safety .....................................................28 Erection at site ....9 Bushings and joints.....81 Gas actuated relay........ 7 Mechanical checks.... 20 IP-classification ................. 59 Landfill........... 65 Overvoltages and overvoltage limitation .............................. lifting ............................................................................71 IEEE Standards .............................................59 Declaration of Conformity (DoC) ....16 Electromagnetic compatibility ............................................... 50 Over voltage protection ............. 69 Mathematical symbols for magnetic quantities (general) ................................... 37 Load rejection overvoltages .......................................9 Basic physics of the transformer ......... 25 LDT ...............................................................63 Energizing..............com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.67 Bibliography ..................... 32 Normal information..............................................................................76 Incoterms ................................... 10 Objective ............. 57 Introduction ........................67 IEC Standards .....................................................17 EARTHING SYSTEMS .19 Frequency variation .................................................................................. 68 NEMA................................if tort to your rights.......................19 Dimethyl Silicone ......... 10 Inrush currents ...............................................................70 Differential protection ........ INDEX ABB Power Technology Distribution Transformers .................... 53 Overvoltages caused by atmospheric phenomena ................34 Auto transformers ........ 14 Installation.......................................5 Abbreviations ......................................59 Drives transformers........ 5 Investigation of transformer disturbances ................... 55 Maintenance...

....if tort to your rights.........8 Resin.......... 58 Transformer liquid and insulation ...................................................... 14 Transferred overvoltages in transformers .........................................................................................................25 Routine tests.....................88 Protective equipment .. 28 Voltage unbalance .. 51 Temperature rise and load capacity ....................................................... 67 Synthetic Ester ....46 Special information .................................... 51 Synthetic Hydrocarbon............ 61 small distribution transformers ..................... 52 Units and conversion tables .........................................................................Painted surfaces ......................... 9 Storage .........37 Single phase transformer..... 15 Surface protection .................................................. 61 Testing of transformers .....................please inform us...................................17 PTDT ......5 Quality......49 Solid synthetic insulation materials ............................. 52 Starter transformers .....com Page 91 Distribution Transformer Handbook The document is for study only............................................................... 19 PCB-contaminated oil .......... 57 Special tests..........................................................25 Physical fundamentals .............................................. 6 Transformer-relevant standards ...................8 Short-circuit impedance ......... 18 Terminal designation............ 24 Sustainability development ......................................................................................... 8 Voltage ratio and voltage drop (or rise) ........8 Reuse ........... 24 www......13 SDT........................ 52 Three phase transformer. 61 Tightening torque .............................19 Protection............................................................................................ 71 Transport...com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.....................9...................................... 44 Transformer types and their application ................................................................................................ sustainability........... 65 Zinc coated surfaces .....61 Receiving the transformer at site ..........................................................................................................................................................49 Protection against fire .cadfamily..... environment.......................................................................... 16 Transfer of responsibility ..............52 Safety measures ....... 14 Type tests .................we will delete  ...................11....................24 Parallel operation.................... 48 Transformer sound................ 23 Transformer materials ......67 Quality.. 67 Vacuum cast ........................67 Rating plate...................................11 Special precautions for dry-type transformers ................................82 Safety of machinery ...15 Resibloc ..................26 Porcelain.................80 Safety precautions .................83 Protection devices................................49 Sources of sound generation ....................................................................................................8 Solid insulation materials ..... control and auxiliary systems............

the agreed particulars shall prevail.com EMail:cadserv21@hotmail.we will delete Leaflet Ident.cadfamily. Box 8131 Affolternstrasse 44 8050 Zürich SWITZERLAND Phone: +411317 7111 www. no. 2 The www.com e-Mail: info@abb.please inform us. With regard to purchase orders. ABB does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for potential errors or possible lack of information in this document.Business Area Distribution Transformers Power Technologies Division P.if tort to your rights.O.com Note: We reserve the right to make technical changes or modify the contents of this document without prior notice.03-1000-PPI) . Any reproduction – in whole or in parts – is forbidden without ABB’s prior written consent. Copyright© 2003 ABB All rights reserved.com document is for study only. 1LAC000003 Printed in Germany (11.abb. We reserve all rights in this document and in the subject matter and illustrations contained therein.

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