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Rule 1 it for Rs 84. What is the cost price of the article?

[BSRfi DefhiPO, 2uWf
To find profit or loss when cost price and selling price are
fi) When Selling Price > Cost Price, there is a profit and it 1. (i)Rs 100 profit (ii)Rs201oss
is given by Selling Price - Cost Price, (iii) Rs 2269.50 (iv)Rs 56.40
i ii) When Selling Price < Cost Price, there is a loss and it is 2. (i)Loss = R s l 2 (ii)CP = Rs300
given by Cost Price - Selling Price. (iii) Profit = Rs 4000 (iv) CP = Rs 2395.50
(v) Gain = Rs4
Illustrative Examples
3. a; Hint: Let the cost price of the article be Rs x.
E\ 1: A man buys a toy for Rs 25 and sells it for Rs 30. Find
Then, 2 ( 8 4 - x ) = 9 6 - x
his profit.
or, 168-2x = 9 6 - x
Soln: In this example,
.-. x = Rs72.
Selling Price (SP) of a toy = Rs 30 and
Cost Price (CP) of a toy = Rs 25 Rule 2
Here,SP>CP
The profit or loss is generally reckoned as so much per cent
Now, following the above formula (i), we have
on the cost.
profit = Rs 30 - Rs 25 = Rs 5
Fv 2: A boy buys a Parker pen for Rs 50 and sells it for Rs Loss or Gain
Gain or Loss per cent = — 1
x u u
45. Find his loss.
Soln: In the above example,
Cost Price (CP) of a Parker pen = Rs 50 and Illustrative Examples
Selling Price (SP) of a Parker pen = Rs 45 Ex. 1: A man buys a toy for Rs 25 and sells it for Rs 30. Find
Here.SP<CP his gain per cent.
Now, following the above formula (ii), we have
loss = Rs50-Rs45 = Rs5 Soln: % G a i n = ^ x 100 = ^ x 1 0 0 = 20%

Exercise Ex. 2: A boy buys a pen for Rs 25 and sells it for Rs 20. Find
Given the following values, find the unknown values. his loss per cent.
(i) CP = Rs 500, SP = Rs 600, Profit/Loss = ?
I oss 5
(ii) CP = Rs 1270, SP = Rs 1250, Profit/Loss = ? Soln: % Loss = x 100 = — x 100 = 20%
(iii) CP = ?,SP = Rs 2390, Profit = Rs 120.50
(iv) CP = Rs 72, SP = ? Loss = Rs 15.60 Exercise
2. Fill in the blanks in each of the following 1. Find the gain or loss per cent, i f
(i) CP = Rs 1265, SP = Rs 1253, Loss = Rs (i) CP = Rs 500 and SP = Rs 565
(ii) CP = Rs SP = Rs 450, Profit = Rs 150 (ii) CP = Rs 700 and SP = Rs 630
(iii) CP = Rs 3355, SP = Rs 7355 = Rs 2. If the profit made on a packet of tea is Rs 4 and the cost
(iv) CP = Rs , SP - Rs 2390, Loss = Rs 5.50 price of the packet is Rs 20, then how much is the profit
(v) CP =Rs 6556, SP = Rs 6560, .... = Rs percentage?
3. By selling an article for Rs 96, double profit is obtained a) 20% b)25% c)30% d)15%
than the profit that would have been obtained by selling 3. A box of Alphanso mangoes was purchased by a fruit
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216 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

seller for Rs 300. However, he had to sell them for Rs 255 Answers
because they began to get over ripe. What was the loss 1. (i) 13% gain (ii) 10% loss
percentage? 2. a 3.a
a) 15% ' b)IO% c)20% d) 18% 4. d; Hint: Total CP = Rs (1200 + 200) = Rs 1400 and SP
4. Harish bought a second-hand typewriter for Rs 1200 = Rsl680
and spent Rs 200 on its repairs. He sold it for Rs 1680. SP > CP, Hence profit and profit %
Find his profit or loss. What was his profit or loss per
cent? 1680-1400
-x 100 = 20%
a) 10% loss b) 15% loss c) 20% loss d) 20% gain 1400
5. Karim bought 150 dozen pencils at Rs 10 a dozen. His 5. d; Hint: Total cost price = 150 * 10 + 100 = Rs 1600
overhead expenses were Rs 100. He sold them at Rs 1.20 Total selling price = 150 x 12 x 1.20 = Rs 2160
each. What was his profit or loss per cent? Profit = Rs 2160 - Rs 1600 = Rs 560
a) 30%profit b) 30% loss c) 35% loss d) 35% profit
6. Venkat purchased 20 dozens of toys at the rate of Rs 375 Profit % = ^ r x 100 = 35%
1600
per dozen. He sold each one of them at the rate of Rs 33.
What was his percentage profit? 6. b; Hint: Cost price of 20 dozens toys = 20 * 375 = Rs 7500
IBSRBChennaiPO, 2000] Selling price of 20 dozens toys = 20 x 33 x 12 = Rs7920
a) 6.5 b)5.6 c)3.5 d)4.5 7920-7500
7. By selling twelve notebooks, the seller earns profit equal Profit percentage = x 100 = 5.6%
to the selling price of two note-books, what is his per-
7. a; Hint: Percentage profit
centage profit? [BSRB Delhi PO, 2000|
= t-=—rXl00 = — xl00 = 20%
a) 20% b)25% c) 1 6 y % d) Data inadequate (12-2) 10
[Also see Rule 81]
8. A loss of 5% was suffered by selling a plot for Rs 4,085.
The cost price ofthe plot was: |RRBExam, 1991] f 100
-Rs4300
8. d; Hint: CP = Rs I x 4 0 8 5
a)Rs4350 b)Rs 4259.25
c)Rs4200 d)Rs4300 100
" Hnx: :P = R s | ~ 1 5 0 j = R 2 0 0 x s
9. The CP of an article which is sold at a loss of 25% for Rs
150, is [RRB Exam, 1991] 10. b; Hint: CP of 10 articles = Rs 8
a)Rsl25 b)Rsl75 c)Rs200 d)Rs225 SP of 10 articles = Rs (1.25 x 10) = Rs 12.50
10. A man buys 10 articles for Rs 8 and sells them at the rate Profit = Rs (12.50 - 8) = Rs 4.50
of Rs 1.25 per article. His gain percent is:
(4.50 ^ 1
|CDS Exam, 1991] Gain%= I ~ ^ x l 0 0 j = 5 6 4 %

a) 50% b) 5 6 - % c) 1 9 - % d)20% 11. c; Hint: Total CP of 120 reams = Rs (120 * 80 + 280 + 72 -

120 x 0.4) = Rs 10000.
11. Bhajan Singh purchased 120 reams of paper at Rs 80 per
ream. He spent Rs 280 on transportation, paid octroi at ( 250^
the rate of 40 paise per ream and paid Rs 72 to the coolie. CPofl ream = (10000-120)= Rs
If he wants to have a gain of 8%, the selling price per
ream must be: [Bank PO Exam, 1988] 250
a) Rs 86 b) Rs 89 .-. SP of 1 ream = 108% of Rs — Rs 90.
3
c)Rs90 d)Rs 87.48
12. c; Hint: CP = Rs 10
12. If I purchased 11 books for Rs 10 and sold all the books
at the rate of 10 books for Rs 11, the profit per cent is: 11
| RRB Exam, 1989] ^
; .o^'j-^'o
a) 10% b)ll% c)21% d)100%
13. An umbrella marked at Rs 80 is sold for Rs 68. The rate of 121 , n
21
Clair : y -10
Q Rs
discount is: [RRB Exam, 1989] 10
21
a) b) 15% c) 17 — % d)20% Gain % = Rs -xlOO = 2 1 %
17 10x10
13. b
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Profit and Loss https://telegram.me/pdf4exams 217

Rule 3 Rule 4
If the profit earned by selling an article for Rs x is equal to Theorem: If a reduction of x% in the price of an article
the loss incurred when the same article is soldfor Rsy, then enables a person to buy n kg more for Rs A, then the re-
to make z% profit the sale price of the article should be Rs duced and the original prices per kg of the article are

(x + yXlOO + z ) 1 ' Ax \ Ax
200 per kg and [ ( y ^ ^ per kg respectively.

Illustrative Example
Illustrative Example
Ex.: The profit earned by selling an article for Rs 600 is
Ex.: A reduction of 20% in the price of sugar enables a
equal to the loss incurred when the same article is
person to buy 2 kg more for Rs 30. Find the reduced
sold for Rs 400. What should be the sale price of the
and the original price per kg of sugar.
article for making 25 per cent profit?
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have
Soln: Detail Method: Let the cost price be Rs x.
Now, according to the question, 30x20
the reduced price of sugar =
6 0 0 - x = ;c-400 or,2x=1000 .-. x = Rs500. 100x2
Again, selling price of the article for making 25% profit = Rs 3 per kg and
500x125
30x20 _15
= -w~ = R s 6 2 5
the original price of sugar = ( _2o)2 ~ T
100

Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we

have
h
= Rs 3— per kg.
_ (600 + 400X100 + 25)
= 5x125 =Rs625.
200 Exercise
1. A reduction of 30% in the price of tea enables a person
Exercise
to buy 3 kg more for Rs 20. Find the original price per kg
1. The profit earned by selling an article for Rs 832 is equal
of tea.
to the loss incurred when the same article is sold for Rs
448. What should be the sale price of the article for mak-
a)Rs2| b)Rs2y c)R 2y
S d)R 3y
S
ing 50 per cent profit? jBSRB Chennai PO, 2000|
a)Rs960 b)Rsl060 c)Rsl200 d)Rs920 2. A reduction of 15% in the price of coffee enables a per-
2. The profit earned by selling an article for Rs 482 is equal son to buy 2 kg more for Rs 30. Find the original price per
to the loss incurred when the same article is sold for Rs kg of coffee.
318. What should be the sale price of the article for mak-
ing 30 per cent profit? „11 *H 10 „ 1
a)Rs2— b)Rs3— c)Rs2- d)R 2- S

a)Rs560 b)Rs520 c)Rs540 d)Rs580

3. The profit earned by selling an article for Rs 317 is equal 3. A reduction of 25% in the price of rice enables a person
to the loss incurred when the same article is sold for Rs to buy 4 kg more for Rs 40. Find the reduced and the
233. What should be the sale price of the article for mak- original price per kg of rice respectively.
ing 20 per cent profit?
10 10
a)Rs390 b)Rs370 c)Rs350 d)Rs330 b)Rs2.5,Rs
a)Rs y ,Rs2.5
4. The profit earned by selling an article for Rs 515 is equal
to the loss incurred when the same article is sold for Rs
n
475. What should be the sale price of the article for mak- c) Rs3.5,Rs d) Can't be determined
3
ing 40% per cent profit?
a)Rs693 b)Rs707 c)Rs683 d)Rs673 4. A reduction of 10% in the price of salt enables a person
5. The profit earned by selling an article for Rs 680 is equal to buy 2 kg more for Rs 18. Find the reduced and the
to the loss incurred when the same article is sold for Rs original price per kg of salt respectively.
420. What should be the sale price of the article for mak- a)Rel,Rs0.9 b)Rs0.9,Rel
ing 60 per cent profit? c)Rs2,Rsl.9 d)Rsl.9,Rs2
5. A reduction of 10 per cent in the price of potatoes en-
a)Rs870 b)Rs890 c)Rs880 d)Rs990
ables me to obtain 25 kg more for Rs 225. What is the
Answers reduced price per kg? Find also the original price per kg.
La 2.b 3.d 4.a 5.c a)Rs0.9,Rel b)Rel,Rs2
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218 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

c)Rs0.8, Rs2 d) None of these Exercise

6. A reduction of 20 per cent in the price of onions enables 1. A 15% hike in the price of wheat forces a person to
a purchaser to obtain 8 kg more for Rs 80. What is the purchase 2 kg less for Rs 46. Find the original price of
reduced price per kg? What was the price per kg before the wheat.
reduction? a) Rs 3 per kg b) Rs 2 per kg
a)Rsl.50,Rs2 b)Rs2,Rs2.50 c) 3.5 per kg d) Data inadequate
c)Rs3,Rs2.50 d)Rel,Rs2.50 2. A 20% hike in the price of wheat forces a person to
7. A reduction of 25 per cent in the price of clay would purchase 1 kg less for Rs 20. Find the original price of
enable a purchaser to obtain 25 kg more for Rs 45. What the wheat.
is the reduced price per kg and what was the price per kg
before reduction? a) Rs 3 per kg b) Rs 3 - per kg
a)40P,60P b)45P,50P c)45P,60P d)45P,48P

8. A reduction of 12— per cent in the price of oranges c) Rs 3 — per kg d) Data inadequate

enables one to purchase 15 oranges more for Rs 42. Find 3. A 25% hike in the price of tea forces a person to pur-
the price per orange before and after reduction. chase 2 kg less for Rs 75. Find the original price of the
a)40P,35P b)30P,40P c)45P,35P d)35P,45P tea:
9. If a reduction of 25 per cent were made in the price of a)Rs7 b)Rs8 c)Rs7.5 d)Rs8.5
sweets it would enable a purchaser to obtain 10 more 4. A 12% hike in the price of coffee forces a person to
than before for Rs 7.20. Find the reduced price, and the purchase 2 kg less for Rs 56. Find the original price of
present price. the coffee.
a)18P,25P b)25P,30P a)Rs2 b)Rs2.5 c)Rs3.5 d)Rs3
c)l8P,24P d) None of these
10. A reduction of 40 per cent in the price of bananas would Answers
enable a purchaser to obtain 60 more for Rs 45. What is l.a 2.b 3.c 4.d
the reduced price? Rule 6
a)50P b)40P c)60P d)30P Theorem: If a man purchases 'x' items for Rs 'y' and sells
Answers 'y' items for Rs 'x', then the profit or loss [depending upon
l.b 2.a 3.b 4.b 5.a 6.b 7.c the respective (+ve) or (~ve) sign in thefinal result} made by
8. a 9c 10. d
2 2
Rule 5 him is x -y xlOO %
y
Theorem: If a hike ofx% in the price of an article forces a
person to buy n kg less, then the new and the original prices Illustrative Example
Ex.: I f a man purchases 11 oranges for Rs 10 and sells 10
Ax
per kg of the article are per kg and oranges for Rs 11. How much profit or loss does he
100K make?
Soln: Detailed Method: Suppose that the person bought 11
Ax
per kg respectively. x 10= 110 oranges.
{\Q0 + x)n
C P o f l 10 oranges = y y x l l ° =Rs 100
Illustrative Example
Ex.: A 10% hike in the price of rice forces a person to
SP of 110 oranges = J ^ x l l ° =Rs 121
purchase 2 kg less for Rs 110. Find the new and the
original prices of the rice. .-. Profit = R s l 2 1 - R s l 0 0 = Rs21
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
and % profit = y ^ - x 100 = ^ x 100 = 21%
10x110 1
the new price = = Rs 5 — per kg and
IUU x z. 2. Quicker Method: Applying the above formula, we
have,
10x110
the original price : = Rs 5 per kg
110x2 x 100 = 21%.
^10^
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Profit and Loss 219

Since the sign is +ve, there is a gain of 21%. Exercise

Exercise 1. A person buys 8 oranges for Rs 15 and sells them at 10
1. If a man purchases 12 mangoes for Rs 10 and sells 10 for Rs 18. What does he gain or lose per cent?
mangoes for Rs 12. How much profit or loss does he a) gain of 4% b) loss of 4% c) gain of 2% d) loss of 2%
make? 2. A person buys 4 apples for Rs 5 and sells them at 5 for
a) 40% loss b) 40% profit c) 44% loss d) 44% profit Rs 4. What does he gain or lose per cent?
2. I f a man purchases 15 bananas for Rs 12 and sells 12 a) loss of 36% b) gain of 36%
bananas for Rs 15. How much profit or loss does he c) loss of 30% d) gain of 30%
make? 3. A person buys 16 bananas for Rs 5 and sells them at 12
a) 56.25% profit b) 56.25% loss for Rs 5. What does he gain or lose per cent?
c) 56.75% profit d) 56.75% loss
3. If a man purchases 4 apples for Rs 5 and sells 5 apples a) 33 y % loss b) 33% loss
for Rs 4. How much profit or loss does he make?
a) 36% profit b) 36% loss c) 36.5% profit d) 36.5% loss
c) 3 3 - % profit d) 3 3 y % profit
4. I f a man purchases 7 oranges for Rs 8 and sells 8 or-
anges for Rs 7. How much profit or loss does he make? 4. A person buys 12 eggs for Rs 15 and sells them at 10 for
275 Rs 14. What does he gain or lose per cent?
0/
2 7 5

a) *—- /o loss a) 10% loss b) 12% profit c) 12% loss d) 15% profit
16
b) — % profit
0/
3 7 5
Lb 2. a 3.c 4.b
c) ~rr loss
16 375
d) T 7 - Profit
%
A grocer buys eggs at 10 for Rs 816and sells at 8 for Rs 10. Rule 8
Find his gain or loss per cent. Problems Based on Dishonest Dealer
1 3 Error
a) gain per cent of 56— b) gain per cent of 56— -xlOO
% gain =
True value - Error

True weight - False weight

or, % gain = xlOO
c) loss per cent of 56^- d) gain per cent of 56-^- False weight

: d 2. a 3.b 4.c 5.d Ex.: A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost
price, but he uses a weight of960 gm for the kg weight.
Rule 7 Find his gain per cent.
Theorem: If a man purchases 'a' items for Rs 'b' and sells Soln: Detailed Method: Suppose goods cost the dealer Re
-' items for Rs'd', then the gain or loss [depending upon 1 per kg. He sells for Re 1 what cost him Re 0.96.
tie respective (+ve) or (-ve) sign in thefinal result] made by ;•. Gain on Re 0.96 = Re 1 - Re 0.96 = Re 0.04
ad-be .-. Gain on Rs 100= 7 r ^ 7 ° =Rs t
un is -xlOO 0.96
x l 0 4
6
be
Vote.- Rule - 6 is the special case of this rule. In Rule - 6, we .-. Gain%= - %
4

have, 6
Quicker Method: Applying the above Rule, we have
a = d = x and b = c = y.
Illustrative Example 40 1
A boy buys 9 oranges for Rs 16 and sells them at 11 the required gain % = 1 Q 0 Q _ 4 0 x 1 0 0 = 4 T%

for Rs 20. What does he gain or lose per cent?

tin: Following the above formula, we have Exercise
1. A dishonest fruit vendor professes to sell his goods at
9x20-16x11 , J 3 n /
cost price but he uses a weight of900 g for the kg we ight.
% profit or loss = —— x 100 = 2 — %
16x11 11 Find his gain per cent. |RRB Exam, 19911

Since the sign is +ve, there is a gain of 2 — % . a ) 9 TT% b)ii- c) d) 9—%

11
;
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220 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

A cloth dealer professes to sell poplin at cost price, but Exercise

uses a metre having a length of 92 cm only and charges 1. A grocer sells rice at a profit of 5% and uses a weight
for the metre. Find his gain per cent. which is 20% less. Find his total percentage gain.
a) 31.25% b) 1.5% c)31% d) Data inadequate
a) 8 ^ % b) 9 - ^ % 2. A grocer sells rice at a profit of 10% and uses a weight
; 23 ; 23
which is 25% less. Find his total percentage gain.

c) 7 ^ % d) Data inadequate
; 23 a) 3 6 y % b) 4 6 i | % C ) 461% d) 3 6 j %
A dishonest fruit vendor professes to sell his goods at 3. A grocer sells rice at a profit of 20% and uses a weight
cost price but he uses a weight of950 g for the kg weight. which is 20% less. Find his total percentage gain.
Find his gain per cent. a) 25% b)50% c)75% d)45%
4. A grocer sells rice at a profit of 25% and uses a weight
a) 5*3-% b) 5—% which is 25% less. Find his total percentage gain.
19 } 19
1 3 2
a) 66% b) 66-% C ) 66-% d) 6 6 - %
c) 5—% d) Data inadequate
19 5. A grocer sells rice at a profit of 20% and uses a weight
4. A dishonest fruit vendor professes to sell his goods at which is 25% less. Find his total percentage gain,
cost price but he uses a weight of 800 g for the kg weight. a) 50% b)55% c)60% d)65%
Find his gain per cent.
a) 20% b)40% c)25% d)50%
l.a 2.c 3.b 4.d 5c
5. A cloth dealer professes to sell bedsheet at cost price,
but uses a metre having a length of 80 cm only and Rule 10
charges for the metre. Find his gain per cent. Theorem: If the shopkeeper sells his goods at x% loss on
a) 25% b)20% c) 16% d)30% cost price but usesygm instead of z gm, then his % profit or
l.b 2. a 3. a 4.c 5. a loss is [l 00 - x]— -100 according as the sign is +ve or - -MB
y
Rule 9
Illustrative Example
% profit + % less in wt 1
Total percentage profit = x 100 Ex.: A dishonest dealer sells goods at 6—% loss on c
1 0 0 - % less in wt
4
Illustrative Example price but uses 14 gm instead of 16 gm. What is hs
Ex.: A grocer sells rice at a profit of 10% and uses a weight percentage profit or loss?
which is 20% less. Find his total percentage gain. Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the cost price is Rs x per
Soln: Detail method: 25^
Suppose he bought at Rs x/kg. 100- —
4_
Then he sells the goods for Rs x
'110*' 100
80
Then he sells at Rs
100 p e r Too k g

11 Ox 100 llx 15x

or, at Rs * — per kg or, at Rs — per kg = Rs — per kg

Now, suppose he bought y kg of goods.

llx Then, his total investment = Rs xy
Now, % profit 8 -x 100 = — = 37.5%
:
15x (16^ 15
and his total return = Rs "jg" A x J Rs — 4=

Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have

the total % profit 15
—-xy-xy 5 Q

.-. his % profit = 2S x 100 = — ll4

1 0 - x , 0 0 = ^ l M = 37.5%.
+ 2 0
7
100-20 80 xy 7
Quicker Method: In the above case,
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Profit and Loss 221

% profit or loss 100-61 H -100

:
4 14 or loss is -xlOO according as the sign is +ve or -
100-y

1500-1400 100 50 ve.

3 7 5 1 6 lor
X 10C : 14 14 ~ 7 Illustrative Example
4 14 1
Since the sign is +ve, there is a profit of y % . 7
Ex.: A dishonest dealer sells the goods at 6—% loss on
Exercise
1. A merchant professes to lose 4% on a certain tea, but he cost price but uses 1 ^ ~ % l e s s weight. What is his
uses a weight equal to 840 g instead of 1 kg. Find his real
loss or gain per cent. percentage profit or loss?
Soln: Following the above formula we have
a) 14 y % loss b) 1 6 - % loss 25_25
2 4 ^ , 0 0 = ^ = 7-1%.
% loss or gain =
c) 14—% gain d) \6-% gain 25 14
100-

1 A merchant professes to lose 10% on a certain tea, but

he uses a weight equal to 900 g instead of 1 kg. Find his Since sign is +ve there is a profit of 7—% .
real loss or gain per cent, 7
a) 10% gain b) 10% loss
Exercise
c) neither gain nor loss d) Data inadequate
1. A dishonest dealer sells the goods at 10% loss on cost
I A merchant professes to lose 8% on a certain tea, but he
price but uses 20% less weight. What is his percentage
uses a weight equal to 460 g instead of 1 kg. Find his real
loss or gain per cent. profit or loss?
a) 50% gain b) 100% gain c) 200% gain d) 75% gain
a) 1 2 ^ % loss b) 12.5% gain
I A cloth dealer professes to lose 9% on a certain gar-
ments, but he uses a metre having a length of 91 cm only c) 13.5% gain d) 12% gain
and charges for the metre. Find his gain or loss per cent, 2. A dishonest dealer sells the goods at 20% loss on cost
a) 10% gain b) 9% loss price but uses 15% less weight. What is his percentage
c) 9% gain d) Neither gain nor lose profit or loss?
: A dishonest fruit vendor professes to lose 20% on his
goods, but he uses a weight of 720 gm for the kg weight.
a) 5—% loss b) 5—% loss
Find his gain or lose per cent.

11.
a) 11—% gain b) *k% gain c) Jj-
5 /o gam d) 5—% gain

3. A dishonest dealer sells the goods at 20% loss on cost

c) 1 1 - % gain d) H - % lose price but uses 25% less weight. What is his percentage
profit or loss?
A merchant professes to lose 6% on a certain tea, but he
uses a weight equal to 900 gm instead of one kg. His real a) 6 y ° gain
0// b) 6 j % gain
gain per cent is: [Clerks' Grade Exam, 1991]
c) 6% gain d) 6--% loss
a)5^/o b)6% c)4% d) 4 J%
4. A dishonest dealer sells the goods at 44% loss on cost
price but uses 30% less weight. What is his percentage
profit or loss?
2.c 3.b 4.d 5.c 6.d
a) 20% gain b) 28% gain c) 20% loss d) 25% loss
Rule 11 5. A dishonest dealer sells the goods at 5% loss on cost
price but uses 24% less weight. What is his percentage
TVorem: A dishonest dealer sells the goods atx% loss on
profit or loss?
me price but uses y% less weight, then his percentage profit
a) 25% loss b) 20% gain c) 20% loss d) 25% gain
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222 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Answers a) 20% gain b) 15% gain

l.b 2.b 3.a 4.c 5.d c) 25% gain d) 30% gain
4. A seller uses 1250 gm in place of one kg to sell his goods.
Rule 12 Find his actual % profit or loss, when he sells his article
Theorem: If a seller uses 'X' gm in place of one kg (1000 on 25% gain on cost price.
gm) to sell his goods and gains a profit of x% on cost price, a) 10% loss b) 15% gain
then his actual gain or loss percentage is c) Neither loss nor gain d) Can't be determined
5. A seller uses 870 gm in place of one kg to sell his goods
1000
(100+x) 100 according as the sign is +ve or -ve. Find his actual % profit or loss, when he sells his article
on 16% gain on cost price.
Illustrative Example
Ex.: A seller uses 840 gm in place of one kg to sell his a) 3 3 - % loss b) 331% loss
goods. Find his actual % profit or loss, when he sells
his article on 4% gain on cost price.
c) 33—% gain d) 3 3 - % gain
Soln: Detail Method: Selling price of840 gm
= Rs(100 + 4) = Rs 104
.-. Profit = S P - C P = 104-84=Rs20
l.b 2. a 3.c 4.c 5.d

v CP of 840 gm = - — - x 840 = Rs 84
1000
Rule 13 V /

If a dealer wants to earn x% profit on an article after offer-

20x100
c .17 ing y% discount to the customer. To arrive at label price.
.-. % profit = — = 23—%
84 21 x+y
the marked price should be increased by 10C
Quicker Method: Applying the above formula, we Too^v
have per cent.

(.00 + 4{lMK 0 0 = 23ll% Illustrative Example

\0 j 21 Ex.: If a dealer wants to earn 20% profit on an article afta-
offering 30% discount to the customer, by what per-
Since sign is +ve, there is a profit of 2 3 — % centage should he increase his marked price to arn*e|
at the label price?
Soln: Applying the above rule, we have
Exercise
1. A seller uses 900 gm in place of one kg to sell his goods. 20 + 30
the required answer :
xlOO 71-%
Find his actual % profit or loss, when he sells his article 100-30
on 20% gain on cost price.
Exercise
a) 33% gain b) J J ~ / o gain 1. I f a dealer wants to earn 5% profit on an article ana
offering 10% discount to the customer, by what perce-r*
age should he increase his marked price to arrive at ~m
2
c) 33--% loss label price? (NABARD, 199%
d) 33—% gain
2. A seller uses 990 gm in place of one kg to sell his goods. a) 15 b)16| c)15i d)16|
Find his actual % profit or loss, when he sells his article
on 10% gain on cost price. 2. I f a dealer wants to earn 10% profit on an article ar
offering 15% discount to the customer, by what perced
a) ' ' ^ 0 / o gain b) 9 — % gain age should he increase his marked price to arrive at •
label price?

c) 1 1 - % loss d) 9 — % loss a) 1 7 — % b) 2 9 ^ % C )29A% d)29Ao.

' 29
3. A seller uses 920 gm in place of one kg to sell his goods. 3. If a dealer wants to earn 15% profit on an article sM
Find his actual % profit or loss, when he sells his article offering 20% discount to the customer, by what pero
on 15% gain on cost price. age should he increase his marked price to arrive at
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Profit and Loss https://telegram.me/pdf4exams 223

label price? of 5 per cent and the shopkeeper makes a profit of 12 per
a)34.75% b)43.25% c)43.75% d)34.25% cent by selling itforRs 141.12. Find the cost of the manu-
4. I f a dealer wants to earn 20% profit on an article after facturer.
offering 25% discount to the customer, by what percent- a)Rs 100.50 b)Rsl00 c)Rsl50 d)Rs 142.51
age should he increase his marked price to arrive at the 4. A sells a good to B at a profit of 10% and B sells it to C
label price? at a profit of 15%. If C pays Rs 1265 for it, what was the
a) 60% b)50% c)45% d)55% cost price for A?
5. I f a dealer wants to earn 15% profit on an article after a)Rsll00 b)Rs950 c)Rsl000 d)Rsl250
offering 25% discount to the customer, by what percent- 5. A sells a good to B at a profit of 15% and B sells it to C
age should he increase his marked price to arrive at the at a profit of 20% . If C pays Rs 690 for it, what was the
label price? cost price for A?
a)Rs600 b)Rs500 c)Rs630 d)Rs580
a) 53% b) 5 3 - % J5±% d) 5 3 1 %
l.c
750x100x100x100
l.b 2.b 3.c 4. a 5.d 2. a; Hint: Required answer = Rs384
125x125x125
Rule 14 3. b 4.c 5.b

Goods passing through successive hands Rule 15

Theorem: A sells a goods to Bat a profit ofx% and B sells
Theorem: A sells a goods to Bat a loss ofx% and B sells it
it to Cat a profit ofy%. If C pays Rs Xfor it, then the cost to Cat a loss ofy%. IfC pays Rs Xfor it, then the price at
100 X
2
price for A is Rs which A buys is Rs
(lOO + xXlOO + y ) (l00-*Xl00-v)
Illustrative Example Illustrative Example
i_t: A sells a good to B at a profit of 20% and B sells it to Ex.: A sells a horse to B at a loss of 20% and B sells it to C
C at a profit of 25%. I f C pays Rs 225 for it, what was at a loss of 25%. I f C pays Rs 900 for it, at what price
the cost price for A? did A buy?
- In: During both the transactions there are profits. So our Soln: Following the above formula, we have
calculating figures would be 120, 125 and 100. A's the required answer
cost price is certainly less than C's selling price.
100 100 900x100x100
« J? ioo loo „ ; t _
m
= 900x-
100-20 100-25 80x75
• Required price = 225 x x - — = Rs 150
120 125 = Rsl500.
Since we need a value which is less than the given Exercise
value, so our multiplying fractions should be less than 1. A sells a horse to B at a loss of 5% and B sells it to C at
100 a loss of 10%. I f C pays Rs 855 for it, at what price did A
one. That is why we multiplied 225 with 7120 ^ and buy?
100
a)Rs955 b)Rsl000 c)Rsl050 d)Rsll00
Y25 2. A sells a horse to B at a loss of 10% and B sells it to C at
Exercise a loss of 20%. I f C pays Rs 1440 for it, at what price did A
\s a horse to B at a profit of 5% and B sells it to C at buy?
a profit of 10%. I f C pays Rs 2310 for it, what did it cost a)Rs2000 b)Rs2500 c)Rsl800 d)Rsl840
I A? 3. A bicycle passes through the hands of three dealers
a 1 Rs 2300 b)Rs2200 c)Rs2000 d)Rs2050 each of whom loses 5%. I f the third sells it for Rs 6859,
\e passes through the hands o f three dealers what did the first pay for it?
each of whom gains 25%. I f the third sells it for Rs 750, a)Rs6900 b)Rs7000 c)Rs8000 d)Rs7950
what did the first pay for it? Answers
; a)Rs384 b)Rs483 c)Rs564 d)Rs374
l . b 2.a
The manufacturer of a machine sells it to a wholesale
100x100x100x6859
zealer making a profit of 20 per cent on its cost, the
3. c; Hint: Required answer = -, ~
-holesale dealer sells it to shopkeeper, making a profit 95x95x95
= Rs8000
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224 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Rule 16 Illustrative Example

Theorem: A sells a goods to B at a profit of x % and B sells Ex: A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 20% and B sells it
it to C at a loss of y%. If C pays Rs X for it then the price at to C at a profit of 25%. Find the resultant profit per
cent.
lOO ^ 2
Soln: Following the above formula,
which A buys is Rs [ ( o + x)(lOO-v) 1 0
The resultant profit per cent
Note: I f A sells a goods to B at a loss of x% and B sells it to 20x25
C at a profit of y%, then the formula for cost price will be = 20 + 25 + - = 50%
100
(l00) Jf
2 Exercise
(l00-x)(l00+v) 1. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 5% and B sells it to C
at a profit of 10%. Find the resultant profit per cent.
Illustrative Example
a) 15% b)16.2% c)15.2% d) 15.5%
Ex.: A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 30% and B sells it
2. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 10% and B sells it to C
to C at a loss of 20%. If C pays Rs 520 for it, at what
at a profit of 15%. Find the resultant profit per cent.
price did A buy?
a) 25% b)26.5% c)25.6% d)26.2%
Soln: In the whole transaction there is a gain of 30% and a
3. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 15% and B sells it to C
loss of 20%, so our calculating figures would be 130,
at a profit of 20%. Find the resultant profit per cent.
80 and 100.
a) 3 8% b)35% c)36% d)34%
100
B's cost of price = 520 x — -
4. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 7 — % and B sells it to
J-i 100 100
As cost price = 5 2 0 x - ^ r 777: =Rs500.
x

80 130 C at a profit of 17 — %. Find the resultant profit per cent

Exercise
1. A sells an article to B at a profit of 5% and B sells it to C
at a loss of 5%. I f C pays Rs 23.94 for it, what did it cost a) 25% b) 2 5 77 % c)26^% d ) 16^%
A? 10 16 26
a)Rs24 b)Rs25 c)Rs26 d)Rs30 5. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 25% and B sells it to C
2. A sells an article to B at a profit of 20% and B sells it to at a profit of 30%. Find the resultant profit per cent,
C at a loss of 20%. I f C pays Rs 19.20 for it, what did it a) 55% b)62.5% c)63.5% d)60.5%
a)Rs25 b)Rs23 c)Rs20 d)Rs24 l.d 2.b 3.a 4.c 5,b
3. A sells an article to B at a profit of 15% and B sells it to
C at a loss of 10%. If C pays Rs 207 for it, what did it cost Rule 18
A? r
Theorem: When there is a profit ofx% and loss ofy% in «
a)Rsl97 b)Rsl99 c)Rs201 d)Rs200 transaction, then the resultant profit or loss per cent is givt
4. A man sells a car to his friend at 10% loss. If the friend
sells it for Rs 54000 and gains 20%, the original CP of the xy
car was: [SSCExam, 1987J
by JQQ j according to the + ve and the -ve signs
a) Rs 25000 b)Rs 37500 c)Rs 50000 d)Rs 60000
respectively.
Illustrative Example
l.a 2.c 3.d
Ex.: A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 30% and B sella :
4. c; Hint: See 'note' in the given formula,
to C at a loss of 20%. Find the resultant profit or loss.
100x100x54000 I Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
Cost price = ( f _ ^
0 0) =Rs 50000.
1 0 0 0 + 2 0

the resultant profit or loss = 3 0 - 2 0 - ^ x 2 0 = 4%|

Rule 17 100
Theorem: When there are two successive profits ofx% and profit, because sign is +ve.
y% , then the resultant profit per cent is given by
Exercise
xy 1. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 15% and B sells it tc 1
x +y +
100 at a loss of 5%. Find the resultant profit or loss,
a) 9.75% loss b) 9.75% gain
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Profit and Loss

c) 9.25% gain d) 10.25% gain for Rs 15 more, 17% would have been gained. Find the
2. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 10% and B sells it to C cost price.
at a loss of 20%. Find the resultant profit or loss. a)Rs550 b)Rs650 c)Rs600 d)Rs500
a) 12% loss b) 12% gain c) 22% loss d) 22% gain 4. I sold a book at a profit of 5%. Had I sold it for Rs 17
3. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 20% and B sells it to C more, 15% would have been gained. Find the cost price.
at a loss of 15%. Find the resultant profit or loss. a)Rs85 b)Rsl70 c)Rsl50 d)Rsl80
a) 2% loss b) 2% gain c) 8% gain d) 8% loss
4. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 15% and B sells it to C
La 2.b 3.d 4.b
at a loss of 10%. Find the resultant profit or loss.
a) 3.5%gain b) 3.5% loss c) 2.5% gain d) 4.5% gain Rule 20
5. A sells a bicycle to B at a profit of 20% and B sells it to C Theorem: If a person sells a goods at a loss of x%. Had he
at a loss of 5%. Find the resultant profit or loss. been able to sell it at a gain ofy%, it would havefetched Rs
a) 15% gain b) 14% gain c) 16% gain d) 13% gain X more than it did, then the cost price is given by Rs
l.c 2. a 3.b 4. a 5.b -xlOO
x+ y
Rule 19
Theorem: If a person sells a goods at a profit ofx%. Had he Illustrative Example
sold itfor Rs X more, y % would have been gained. Then the Ex.: A man sold a horse at a loss of 7%. Had he been able
to sell it at a gain of 9%, it would have fetched Rs 64
more than it did. What was the cost price?
cost price is given by Rs -xlOO . In other words, cost
Soln: Detail Method:
Here 109 % of cost - 93% of cost = Rs 64
More gain .-. 16%ofcost = Rs64
price - Difference in percentage profit-xlOO
64x100
.-. cost= —rz— =Rs400.
16
Illustrative Example
Ex: I sold a book at a profit of 12%. Had I sold it for Rs 18 Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have
more, 18% would have been gained. Find the cost 64x100 64x100
price. the cost price = ^ ^
+ Rs 400
16
Soln: Detailed Method: Here,
118% of cost -112% of cost = Rs 18 Exercise
.-. 6%ofcost = Rs 18 1. A chair was sold at a loss of 10 per cent. I f it was sold for
Rs 84 more, there would have been a gain of 4 per cent.
18x100
.-. cost= — =Rs300. For how much was the chair sold?
6 a)Rs600 b)Rs640 c)Rs540 d)Rs500
Quicker Method: Following the above formula, we 2. A man sells a machine at 10% below cost price. Had he
have received Rs 1494 more than he did, he would have made
18x100 1
cost = . „ = Rs300. a profit of 12—%. What did the machine cost?
18-12
a)Rs6640 b)Rs6650 c)Rs6460 d) Rs 6440
Exercise 3. A man had a table to sell. I offered him a sum of money
1 for the table which he refused as being 13% below the
1. A man sold a table at a profit at 6— per cent. Had he value of the table. I then offered Rs 450 more and the
second offer was 5% more than the estimated value.
sold it for Rs 1250 more, 19 per cent would have been
Find the value of the table.
gained. Find the cost price.
a)Rs2250 b)Rs2750 c)Rs2400 d)Rs2500
a) Rs 10000 b)RslOO0
4. I sold a book at a loss of 8% . Had I sold it for Rs 120
c) Rs 100000 d) Can't be determined
more, 7% would have been gained. Find the cost price.
2 I sold a pen at a profit of 15%. Had I sold it for Rs 24
a)Rs900 b)Rs800 c)Rs600 d)Rs750
more, 21% would have been gained. Find the cost price.
5. I sold a book at a loss of 5%. Had I sold it for Rs 72 more,
a)Rs300 b)Rs400 c)Rs450 d)Rs600
13% would have been gained. Find the cost price.
I A person sold a chair at a profit of 14%. Had he sold it
a)Rs450 b)Rs500 c)Rs300 d)Rs400
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226 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Ex: A person sells an article at a profit of 10%. I f he had
84
1. c; Hint: Cost price of the chair = xlOO =Rs600 bought it at 10% less and sold it for Rs 3 more, he
10 + 4
would have gained 25%. Find the cost price.
600x90 Soln: Detail Method: Let the actual cost price = Rs 100
.-. Selling price of the chair = Rs540.
100 Actual selling price at 10%profit=Rs 110
2. a 3.d 4.b 5.d Supposed cost price at 10% less = Rs 90
Supposed selling price at 25% gain
Rule 21
125
Theorem: When there are two successive loss of x% and = Rs90 x = Rs 112.5
y%, then the resultant loss per cent is given by 100
the difference in the selling prices
x+y-- = Rs 112.5- R s l l 0 = Rs 2.5
00 I f the difference is Rs 2.5, the CP = Rs 100

Illustrative Example
If the difference is Rs 3, the CP = y j ^ x J = Rs 120.
Ex.: A sells a good to B at a loss of 20% and B sells it to C
at a loss of 25%. Find the resultant loss per cent. Quicker Method: Applying the above formula, we
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have, the have

required loss per cent = 20 + 25 - ^ ^ = 40%.

z x 2 3
Cost Price = xlOO
100 25x10
Exercise 25- 10 + 10 +
100
1. A sells a good to B at a loss of 5% and B sells it to C at
a loss of 10%. Find the resultant loss per cent.
a) 15% b) 15.5% c)14.5% d) 14% = — x l 0 0 = Rs 120.
2.5
2. A sells a good to B at a loss of 10% and B sells it to C at
a loss of 15%. Find the resultant loss per cent. Exercise
a) 26.5% b)23.5% c)25.5% d)25% 1. A bookseller sells a book at a profit of 10 per cent. If he
3. A sells a good to B at a loss of 5% and B sells it to C at had bought it at 4 per cent less and sold it for Rs 6 more.
a loss of 15%. Find the resultant loss per cent.
a) 19.75% b) 20.75% c) 19.25% d)20% he would have gained 18— per cent. What did it cost
4. A sells a good to B at a loss of 15% and B sells it to C at
a loss of 20%. Find the resultant loss per cent. him?
a) 32% b)38% c)35% d)32.5% a)Rs75 b)Rsl25 c)Rsl50 d)Rs200
5. A sells a good to B at a loss of 10% and B sells it to C at 2. A man bought a chair and sold it at a gain of 10%. If he
a loss of 20%. Find the resultant loss per cent. had bought it at 20% less and sold it for Rs 10 more, he
a) 30% b)32% c)26% d)28% would have gained 40%. Find the cost price of the chair-
a)Rs500 b)Rs600 c)Rs550 d)Rs650
Answers 3. A man bought a chair and sold it at a gain of 20%. If he
l.c 2.b 3.c 4. a 5.d had bought it at 20% less and sold it for Rs 60 more, he
would have gained 50%. Find the cost price of the char
Rule 22 a)Rs3200 b)Rs2400
Theorem: A person sells an article at a profit ofx%. If he c)Rs3000 d) Can't be determined
had bought it at y% less and sold it for Rs 'X' more, he 4. A man bought a chair and sold it at a gain of 15%. If he
would have gained z%, then the cost price is given by Rs had bought it at 15% less and sold it for Rs 160 more, he
would have gained 40%. Find the cost price of the chair.
X a)Rs4000 b)Rs3000 c)Rs3600 d)Rs3200
xlOO 5. A man bought a chair and sold it at a gain of 5%. If hd
zv 1
y + x + ^— had bought it at 5% less and sold it for Rs 45 more, h j
lOOj
would have gained 20%. Find the cost price of the char
a)Rs400 b)Rs500 c)Rs450 d)Rs550
.YxlOO 2

or Rs 6. A man sells an article at a profit of 10%, if he had bougi

(l 00 + z\\0 -y)-\l 00 + x)
it at 5% less and sold it for Rs 160 more he would hav
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Profit and Loss 22"

made profit of 20%. Find the cost price of the article. price of the article.
a)Rs4000 b)Rs8000 c)Rs4500 d)Rs7500 a)Rs850 b)Rs950 c)Rs900 d)Rs800
Answers 4. A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 15%.
I f he had bought it for 5% less and sold it for Rs 87 more
l.c 2. a
he would have had profit of 20%. Find the cost price of
60 the article.
3. d; Hint: Required answer = xlOO
20x50 a)Rs200 b)Rs400 c)Rs350 d)Rs300
5 0 - 20 + 20 + 5. A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 15%.
100
If he had bought it for 20% less and sold it for Rs 114
60 more he would have had profit of 30%. Find the cost
x 100 = Can't be determined
50-50 price of the article.
60 a)Rs600 b)Rs500 c)Rs700 d)Rs650
- = — = not defined 6. A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 10%.
50-50 0
If he had bought it for 20% less and sold it for Rs 55
4. a 5.b 6. a
more, he would have had a profit of 40%. The CP of the
Rule 23 1 article is: [Central Excise & I Tax, 1988|
Theorem: A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of a)Rs200 b)Rs225
x%. If he had bought itfory% less and sold itfor RsXmore c) Rs 250 d) None of these
he would have had a profit of z%, then the cost price of the Answers
V —'—~- ~ V La 2.b 3.c 4.d 5.a 6.c
X
xlOO Rule 24
article is Rs zy_
z+ x-y- Theorem: A man buys an article and sells it at a profit of
100 x%. If he had bought it aty% less and sold it for Rs X less,
Illustrative Example he would have gained z%, then the cost price is Rs
Ex.: A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of
10%. If he hacfbought it for 20% less and sold it for
X
Rs 55 more he would have had profit of 40%. Find the xlOO
cost price of the article. zy
x + y-z + ^—
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have 100
cost price Ilustrative Example
Ex.: A man sells an article at a profit of 20%. If he bought
it at 20% less and sold it for Rs 75 less, he would have
55 gained 25%. What is the cost price?
x l 0 0 = —xlOO
40x20 22 Soln: Following the above theorem, we have
40+ 10-20- Cost price
100
75
= Rs250. xl00 = —xlOO
25x20^1 20
Exercise 20+ 2 0 - 2 5 +
100
1. A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 5%. I f
he had bought it for 10% less and sold it for Rs 78 more = Rs375.
he would have had profit of 20%. Find the cost price of Exercise
the article. 1. A man sells out an article at a profit of 25%. Had he
a) 600 b)Rs500 c)Rs650 d)Rs550 bought it at 25% less and sold it for Rs 25 less, he would
1 A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 10%. have still gained 25%. Find the cost price.
If he had bought it for 15% less and sold it for Rs 58 more a)Rs90 b)Rs80 c)Rs70 d)Rs60
he would have had profit of 40%. Find the cost price of
2. A man sells an article at a gain of 15%. If he had bought
the article.
it at 10% less and sold it for Rs 4 less, he would have
a)Rs300 b)Rs200 c)Rsl50 d)Rs250 gained 25%. Find the cost price.
3. A person bought an article and sold it at a loss of 10%. a)Rsl60 b)Rs260 d)Rs610 d)Rsl80
If he had bought it for 20% less and sold it for Rs 270 3. A man sells an article at a profit of 10%. If he bought it at
more he would have had profit of 50%. Find the cost 10% less and sold it for Rs 110 less, he would ha\
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228 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

gained 10%. What is the cost price?

_ 100(112.5)
a) Rs 1100 b) Rs 1050 c) Rs ! 000 d) Rs 950 = Rs 1125.
7.5 + 2.5
4. A man sells an article at a profit of 30%. If he bought it at
15% less and sold it for Rs 54.75 less he would have 100x100
gained 10%. What is the cost price? Cost Price = = Rs 1000
7.5 + 2.5
a) Rs 1500 b) Rs 1600 c) Rs 150 d)Rs 160
5. A man sells an Stick at a profit of 40%. If he bought it at Exercise
30% less and sold it for Rs 140 less, he would have 1. A dealer sold a chair at a loss of 5%. Had he sold it for Rs
gained 20%. What is the cost price? 150 more, he would have gained 10%. For what value
a)Rs250 b)Rsl50 c)Rs200 d)Rs300 should he sell it in order to gain 20%? Find the initial
co.V. I'rice also.
a) Rs 1200, Rs 1000 b) Rs 1300, Rs 1000
l.b 2.a 3.c 4.c 5.a
c) Rs 1000, Rs 850 d) Rs 1000, Rs 950
Rule 25 2. A dealer sold a table at a loss of 10%. Had he sold it for
Rs 75 more, he would have gained 15%. For what value
Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a loss of x%. Had he
should he sell it in order to gain 25%?
sold itfor RsX more, he would have gainedy%. In order to
a)Rs475 b)Rs575 c)Rs375 d)Rs300
gain z%, the selling price and the initial cost price of the
3. A dealer sold a pen at a loss of 15%. Had he sold it for Rs
X(\00+z)~ 35 more, he would have gained 20%. For what value
article are given by Rs , or
x+ y should he sell it in order togain 5%?
a)Rsl50 b)Rsl05 e)Rsl25 d)Rsll5
„ ,, More rupees (100 + % final gain)
Selling Price = - s - — ' - and 4. A dealer sold a TV set at aloss of 20%. Had he sold it for
% gain + % loss Rs 9000 more, he would have gained 25%. For what value
100JC should he sell it in order to gain 30%?
Rs respectively.
x+y a) Rs 27000 b)Rs 36000
c)Rs 28000 d)Rs 26000
Illustrative Example
5. A dealer sold a camera at a loss of 13%. Had he sold it for
Ex.: A dealer sold a radio at a loss of 2.5%. Had he sold it
Rs 6300 more, he would have gained 17%. For what value
for Rs 100 more, he would have gained 7.5%. For what
should he sell it in order to gain 32%?
value should he sell it in order to gain 12'/2%? Find
a) Rs 72720 b)Rs 27270
the initial cost price also.
c)Rs 72270 d)Rs 27720
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose he bought the radio for Rs x.
Then selling price at 2.5% loss Answers
l.a 2.c 3.b 4.d 5.d
100-2.51 97.5x
= Rsx Rule 26
100 100
Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a profit of x%. If he
100 + 7.5 increases its price by Rs X, he earns a profit ofy%, then the
and selling price at 7.5% gain = Rs x
100 cost price and the initial selling price of the article are Rs

107.5* ~\oox~ ~(\oo+x)x'

Rs and Rs respectively.
100 .y~ x - y-x
107.5* 97.5x Illustrative Example
From the question, jtt7-=Rs100
Ex: A hawker sells oranges at a profit of 25 per cent. If he
or, 10x= 100 x 100 .-. x = Rsl000 increases the selling price of each orange by 30 paise.
Therefore to gain 12.5%, he should sell for he earns a profit of 40%. Find the cost price and the
'100 + 12.5" initial selling price of each orange.
Rs 1000 Rsll25 Soln: Following the above theorem,
100
100x30 _ n n
Quicker Method: We have the following formula, Cost Price = ———" = 2 0 0 paise
40-25
More rupees (100 + % final gain)
Selling Price 1
, . . „ „ . (l00 + 25)x30
% gain + % loss Initial Selling Price = ^ ;
: 250 paise.
40-25
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Profit and Loss

Exercise Exercise
1. A dealer sells an article at a profit of 15%. If he increases 1. A man had to sell rice at a loss of 5%. If he increases the
its price by Rs 120, he earns a profit of 20%. Find the price by Rs 3 per kg, he would make a profit of 10%. Find
cost price and the initial selling price respectively. the cost price and initial selling price per kg of rice.
a)Rs2760,Rs2400 b) Rs 2400, Rs 2760 a)Rs20,Rsl9 b)Rsl9,Rs20
c)Rs 2400, Rs 2670 d) Rs 2670, Rs 2400 c)Rsl8,Rsl9 d)Rsl9,Rsl8
2. A dealer sells an article at a profit of 10%. I f he increases 2. A man had to sell coffee at a loss of 15%. If he increases
its price by Rs 49, he earns a profit of 17%. Find the cost the price by Rs 7 per kg, he would make a profit of 20%.
price and the initial selling price respectively. Find the cost price and initial selling price per kg of cof-
a) Rs 700, Rs 770 b) Rs 770, Rs 700 fee.
c)Rs600,Rs660 d) Rs 660, Rs 600 a)Rsl8,Rs20 b)Rs20,Rsl8
3. A dealer sells an article at a profit of 12%. If he increases c)Rs20,Rsl7 d)Rsl7,Rs20
the its price by Rs 81, he earns a profit of 21%. Find the 3. A man had to sell tea at a loss of 5%. If he increases the
cost price and the initial selling price respectively. price by Rs 4 per kg, he would make a profit of 15%. Find
a)Rs 1008, Rs 800 b) Rs 800, Rs 1008 the cost price and initial selling price per kg of tea.
c) Rs 900, Rs 1008 d) Rs 900, Rs 1000 a)Rsl9,Rs21 b)Rs20,Rsl9
c) Rs 19, Rs 20 d) Can't be determined
' „ 1
4. A hawker sells oranges at a profit of 12— per cent. I f he 4. A man had to sell pulse at a loss of 10%. If he increases
the price by Rs 5 per kg, he would make a profit of 15%.
increases the selling price of each orange by 60 paise, he Find the cost price and initial selling price per kg of pulse.
earns a profit of 20%. Find the cost price and the initial a)Rs20,Rsl8 b)Rsl8,Rs20
selling price of each orange, c)Rsl5,Rsl8 d)Rsl8,Rsl5
a) 900 P, 700 P b)700P,900P
5. A hawker sells oranges at a profit of 30 per cent. If he La 2.c 3.b 4. a
increases the selling price of each orange by 20 paise, he
earns a profit of 50%. Find the cost price and the initial
Rule 28
selling price of each orange. Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a profit ofx%. Had he
a)100P, 130P b) OOP, 100P sold itfor Rs x less, he would have still gained y%. In order
c)150P, 100 P d)100P, 150 P to gain z%, selling price and the initial cost price of the

Answers ~X(\00 + z)~ \oox~

l.b- 2. a 3.c 4.d 5. a article are given by and respec-
x-y . ~y.
x

Rule 27 tively.
Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a loss ofx%. If he sells Illustrative Example
it at RsXmore he makes a profit ofy%, then the cost price Ex: A dealer sold a radio at a profit of 20%. Had he sold it
"lOOX for Rs 100 less, he would have gained 15%. For what
and the initial selling price of the article are Rs x ^+ value should he sell it in order to gain 25%? Also find
the initial cost price?
(l00-x)x Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have the
and Rs respectively.
x+ y 100x(l00 + 25)
Illustrative Example selling price = 20-15 = ^ S anC *
Ex: A man had to sell wheat at a loss of 10%. I f he in-
100x100 _
creases the price by Rs 5 per kg, he would make a initial cost price = —— ~ 2000.
profit of 20%. Find the cost price and initial selling
price per kg of wheat. Exercise
Soln: Applying the above theorem, 1. A dealer sold a TV set at a profit of 10%. Had he sold it
100x5 r * per
5 0 2 for Rs 200 less, he would have gained 8%. For what
the required cost price = — =Rs 16y
10 + 20 value should he sell it in order to gain 5%?
kg and a) Rs 12500 b)Rs 10500
(l00-10)x5 c) Rs 9500 d) Data inadequate
the initial selling price = Rsl5 per kg 2. A dealer-sold a camera at a profit of 12%. Had he sold it
10 + 20
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230 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

for Rs 240 less, he would have gained 7%. For what X(\00 + z)
value should he sell it in order to gain 20%? article are given by Rs and Rs re-
x-y
a)Rs5760 b)Rs6760 c)Rs7560 d)Rs6750
3. A dealer sold a sofa set at a profit of 18%. Had he sold it spectively.
for Rs 450 less, he would have gained 12%. For what Illustrative Example
value should he sell it in order to gain 14%? Ex: A dealer sold a radio at a loss of 20%. Had he sold it
a)Rs5880 b)Rs5850 ^)Rs8550 d)Rs8850 for Rs 100 more, he would have lost 15%. For what
Answers vafue should he self it in order to gain 25%. A/so find
l.b 2.a 3.c the initial cost price.
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have
Rule 29 100x(l00 + 25)
Rs 2500 and
Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a profit ofx%. Had he selling price = 20-15
sold itfor Rs X more, he would have gained y%. In order to 100x100
gain z%, selling price and the initial cost price of the ar- initial cost price = = Rs 2000.
20-15
X(l00 + z)~ \oox Exercise
tide are given by Rs and Rs re- 1. A dealer sold a CD player at a loss of 25%. Had he sold
V- y-x
it for Rs 135 more, he would have lost 20%. For what
spectively. value should he sell it in order to gain 35%.
Illustrative Example a)Rs3645 b)Rs3465 c)Rs3545 d)Rs3655
Ex: A dealer sold a radio at a profit of 15%. Had he sold it 2. A dealer sold a TV set at a loss of 27%. Had he sold it for
for Rs 100 more, he would have gained 20%. For what Rs 500 more, he would have lost 17%. For what value
value should he sell it in order to gain 25%? Also find should he sell it in order to gain 40%.
the initial cost price. a)Rs6000 b)Rs5000 c)Rs7000 d)Rs8000
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have 3. A dealer sold a chair at a loss of 12%. Had he sold it for
Rs 150 more, he would have lost 3%. For what value
100(100 + 25) „
should he sell it in order to gain 8%.
selling price = i = Rs 2500 and
5 F 20-15 a)Rsl600 b)Rsl800 c)Rs2100 d)Rsl500
l.a 2.c 3.b
initial cost price = - ^ r — — - R s 2000.
Rule 31
Exercise Theorem: If an article is sold at a profit ofx%. If both the
1. A dealer sold a camera at a profit of 5%. Had he sold it cost price and selling price are Rs A less, the profit would
for Rs 120 more, he would have gained 15%. For what (x + y)xA
value should he sell it in order to gain 10%? bey% more, then the cost price is
a)Rsl320 b)Rsl330 c)Rsl230 d) Data inad- y
In other words, cost price
equate
2. A dealer sold a TV set at a profit of 20%. Had he sold it [initial Profit % + Increase in profit %]x A
for Rs 525 more, he would have gained 25%. For what Increase in profit %
value should he sell it in order to gain 40%?
Illustrative Example
a) Rs 17400 b)Rs 14700 c)Rs 15700 d)Rs 17500
Ex: An article is sold at a profit of 20%. If both the cost
3. A dealer sold a pen at a profit of 12%. Had he sold it for
price and selling price are Rs 100 less, the profit
Rs 3 more, he would have gained 18%. For what value
would be 4% more. Find the cost price.
should he sell it in order to gain 28%?
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the cost price of that article
a)Rs68 b)Rs60 c)Rs64 d)Rs54
is Rs x.
l.a 2.b 3.c (120
Rule 30 The selling price = Rs x I y^Tj
Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a loss ofx%. Had he
New cost price and selling price is Rs (x -100) and Rs
sold it for Rs X more, he would have still losty%. In order
to gain z%, the selling price and the initial cost price of the 120" 100 respectively.
100
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Profit and Loss 231

Rule 32
New profit = Rs H°__ o|-(*-100)
1 0
Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a profit of.x%. If he
100
reduces the price by Rs X, he incurs a loss ofy%, then the
cost price and the initial selling price of the article are Rs

120 20 ]Q0X (\00 + x)x~

= Rs = Rs x and Rs respectively.
,100 100 x+ y x+ y
.-. New percentage profit
Illustrative Example
20 Ex: A man sells wheat at a profit of 5%. I f he reduces the
100 20x price by Rs 4 per kg, he would make a loss of 15%.
xl00 = % Find the cost price and the initial selling price per kg
x-100 100
of wheat.
We are also given that the new percentage of profit Soln: Applying the above theorem,
= 20+4 = 24%
100x4
20* cost price 7 Rs 20 and
or, — = 24 r , 4x = 2400
0
15 + 5
x-100
... • (100 + 5)4 D
.-. x = 600 selling price = i '— = Rs 21.
Thus cost of the article = Rs 600 15 + 5
Quicker Method: When cost price and selling price Exercise
are reduced by the same amount (say A) then 1. A man sells rice at a profit of 10%. If he reduces the price
Cost price by Rs 3 per kg, he would make a loss of 20%. Find the
[initial profit % + Increase in profit %]x A initial selling price per kg of rice.
Increase in profit % a)Rsl0 b)Rsll c)Rs9 d)Rs21
2. Ram sells pulse at a profit of 15%. If he reduces the price
(20 + 4)xl00 by Rs 4 per kg, he would make a loss of 25%. Find the
In this case, Cost price = Rs = Rs 600
initial selling price per kg of pulse.
a)Rsll b)Rs 11.25 c ) R s l l . 5 d)Rs 11.75
Exercise
3. Anubhav sells tea at a profit of 20%. I f he reduces the
1. An article is sold at a profit of 10%. If both the cost price
price by Rs 10 per kg, he would make a loss of 30%. Find
and selling price are Rs 25 less, the profit would be 5%
the initial selling price per kg of tea.
more. Find the cost price.
a)Rsl2 b)Rsl6 c)Rs20 d)Rs24
a)Rs65 b)Rs60 c)Rs75 d)Rs72
4. Shakshi sells coffee at a profit of 12%. If he reduces the
2. An article is sold at a profit of 13%. If both the cost price
price by Rs 29 per kg, he would make a loss of 17%. Find
and selling price are Rs 36 less, the profit would be 6%
the initial selling price per kg of coffee.
more. Find the cost price.
a)Rsll2 b)Rsll7 c)Rsl29 d)Rsll3
a)Rsll9 b)Rsll4 c)Rsl08 d)Rsll2
5. Shashank sells salt at a profit of 18%. I f he reduces the
3. An article is sold at a profit of 14%. I f both the cost price
price by Rs 8 per kg, he would make a loss of 22%. Find
and selling price are Rs 132 less, the profit would be
the initial selling price per kg of salt.
12% more. Find the cost price.
a)lRs23.5 b)Rs32.6 c)Rs32.5 d)Rs23.6
a)Rs286 b)Rs268 c)Rs266 d)Rs276
4. An article is sold at a profit of 15%. If both the cost price Answers
and selling price are Rs 56 less, the profit would be 7% l.b 2.c 3.d 4. a 5.d
more. Find the cost price.
a)Rsl76 b)Rsl86 c)Rsl56 d)Rsl96 Rule 33
5. An article is sold at a profit of 14%. If both the cost price Theorem: A dealer sells an article at a profit of x%. If he
and selling price are Rs 117 less, the profit would be 9% reduces the price by Rs X, he makes a profit ofy% then the
more. Find the cost price. cost price and the initial selling price of the article are Rs
a)Rsl99 b)Rs399
~(\00 + x)X~
c) Rs 299 d) Data inadequate and Rs respectively.
x-y
l.c 2.b 3.a 4.a 5.c
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232 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Illustrative Example the percentage profit increases by 10%. Find the cost
Ex.: A hawker sells oranges at a profit of 40%. If he re- price.
duces the selling price of each orange by 30 paise, he a)Rs50 b)Rs75 c)RslO0 d)Rs40
earns a profit of 25%. Find the cost price and the 3. An article is sold at 25% profit. I f its cost price and sell-
initial selling price of each orange. ing price are less by Rs 20 and Rs 17.5 respectively and
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have the percentage profit increases by 15%. Find the cost
price.
100x30 a)Rs75 b)Rs80 c)Rs70 d)Rs65
cost price - 200 paise and
40-25

(100 + 40)30 4. An article is sold at 12 — % profit. I f its cost price and

selling price :
= 280 paise.
40-25 selling price are less by Rs 10 and Rs 8.85 respectively
Exercise
and the percentage profit increases by 7 — %. Find the
1. A hawker sells mango at a profit of 35%. I f he reduces
the selling price of each mango by 10 paise, he earns a cost price.
profit of 20%. Find the initial selling price of each mango,
a)Rs21 b)Rs32 c)Rs52 d)Rs42
a) 90 paise b) 80 paise c) 95 paise d) Re 1
5. An article is sold at 30%profit. I f its cost price and sell-
2. A hawker sells apple at a profit of 40%. If he reduces the ing price are less by Rs 25 and Rs 19 respectively and
selling price of each apple by 40 paise, he earns a profit the percentage profit increases by 20%. Find the cost
of 20%. Find the initial selling price of each apple. price.
a) 140 paise b) 280 paise c) 160 paise d) 260 paise
3. A hawker sells orange at a profit of 25%. I f he reduces a)Rs97 b)Rs92.5 c)Rs98.5 d)Rs98
the selling price of each orange by 60 paise, he earns a Answers
profit of 5%. Find the initial selling price of each orange, l.d 2. a 3.c 4.d 5.b
a) 375 paise b) 400 paise c) 475 paise d) 360 paise
Rule 35 >
Answers Theorem: An article is sold at P% profit. If its cost price
l.a 2.b 3.a and selling price are increased by Rs c and Rs s respec-
tively and percentage profit decreases by p%, then the cost
Rule 34 \
~c{P-p)-\00(s-c)]
Theorem: An article is sold at P% profit. If its cost price is
lowered by Rs c and at the same time its selling price is also price of that article is Rs
lowered by Rs s, and the percentage of profit increases by
p%. Then the cost price of that article is Illustrative Example
_ c(P + p)-\00(s-c) Ex: An article is sold at 25% profit. I f its CP and SP are
increased by Rs 20 and Rs 4 respectively, the per-
centage of profit decreases by 15%. Find the cost
Illustrative Example price.
Ex: An article is sold at 20% profit. I f its cost price and Soln: Quicker Method: Applying the above formula,
selling price are less by Rs 10 and Rs 5 respectively Cost Price :

and the percentage profit increases by 10%. Find the 20(25 -15) 15 15
-100(4 - 2 0 ) _ 1800
cost price. Rs 120.
Soln: Using the above formula: Exercise
10(20 +10)-100(5-10)_ 800 1. An article is sold at 10% profit. I f its CP and SP are
Rs 80. increased by Rs 15 and Rs 5 respectively, the percent-
10 • 10
age of profit decreases by 5%. Find the cost price.
Exercise a)Rs215 b)Rs213 c)Rs512 d)Rs312
1. An article is sold at 10% profit. I f its cost price and sell-
ing price are less by Rs 5 and Rs 2.5 respectively and the 2. An article is sold at 1 2 - % profit. If its CP and SP are
percentage profit increases by 5%. Find the cost price.
a)Rs40 b)Rs45 c)Rs60 d)Rs65 increased by Rs 10 and Rs 2 respectively, the percent-
2. An article is sold at 15% profit. If its cost price and sell-
age of profit decreases by ^ —%. Find the cost price.
ing price are less by Rs 10 and Rs 7.5 respectively and
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Profit and Loss 233

Cost price of the chair

2 1 1
a ) R s H 6 j b ) R s H 4 - c)Rs 113- d)Rs 113
3 25
25 x
An article is sold at 5% profit. I f its CP and SP are in-
xl00 = Rs 240
creased by Rs 7.50 and Rs 2.50 respectively, the percent-
„1
age of profit decreases by 2 — %. Find the cost price. Exercise
1. A person sells his table at a profit of 25% and the chair at
a)Rs215 b)Rs207.5 c)Rs215.5 d)Rs270.5
a loss of 20% but on the whole he gains Rs 18. On the
An article is sold at 25% profit. I f its CP and SP are
other hand if he sells the table at a loss of 20% and the
increased by Rs 16 and Rs 6 respectively, the percent-
chair at a profit of 25% then he neither gains nor loses.
age of profit decreases by 20%. Find the cost price.
Find the cost price of the table and the chair.
a)Rs45 b)Rs58
c) Rs 54 d) Data inadequate a) Rs 200, Rs 160 b) Rs 160, Rs 200
An article is sold at 50% profit. I f its CP and SP are c)Rs250,Rsl80 d)Rs210,Rs 170
increased by Rs 32 and Rs 12 respectively, the percent- ,„ 1
2. A person sells his table at a profit of 12— % and the
age of profit decreases by 40%. Find the cost price.
a) Rs 58 b)Rs60 chair at a loss of 10% but on the whole he gains Rs 9. On
c)Rs68 d) Rs 54 the other hand if he sells the table at a loss of 10% and

Answers the chair at a profit of 12 — % then he neither gains nor

l.a 2.c 3.b 4.c 5.a
loses. Find the cost price of the table and the chair.
Rule 36 a)Rs210,Rsl70 b)Rs200,Rs 160
c) Rs 250, Rs 160 d) Data inadequate
Theorem: If a person sells an item 'A' at a profit ofx% and
the other item 'B' at a loss ofy% but on the whole he gains 3. A person sells his table at a profit of 15% and the chair at
Rs X. On the other hand if he sells the item 'A' at a loss of a loss of 5% but on the whole he gains Rs 16. On the
y% and the item 'B' at a profit ofx% then he neither gains other hand i f he sells the table at a loss of 5% and the
chair at a profit of 15% then he neither gains nor loses.
t ^
Xx Find the cost price of the table and the chair.
nor loses, then the (i) Cost Price ofAisRs -xlOO
x -y a)Rsl20,Rs40 b)Rsl50,Rs90
\ c) Rs 40, Rs 120 d) Data inadequate
Xy
x 100 4. A person sells his table at a profit of 30% and the chair at
and the (ii) Cost Price of B is Rs
) a loss of 10% but on the whole he gains Rs 32. On the
other hand if he sells the table at a loss of 10% and the
Illustrative Example
chair at a profit of 30% then he neither gains nor loses.
Find the cost price of the table and the chair.
Ex: A person sells his table at a profit of 12—% and the
a)Rsl40,Rs20 b)Rsl50,Rs40
c)Rsl20,Rs40 d)Rsl80,Rs40
chair at a loss of 8 — % but on the whole he gains Rs 5. A person sells his table at a profit of 40% and the chair at
a loss of 20% but on the whole he gains Rs 60. On the
25. On the other hand if he sells the table at a loss of other hand if he sells the table at a loss of 20% and the
chair at a profit of 40% then he neither gains nor loses.
8—% and the chair at a profit of 12—% then he Find the cost price of the table and the chair.
3 2 a)Rs200,Rsl00 b)Rs 100,Rs200
neither gains nor loses. Find the cost price of the c)Rs250,Rsl50 d)Rs 150,Rs250
table and the chair.
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have Answers
l.a 2.b 3.a 4.c 5.a
25
25 x
Rule 37
Cost price of the table = -xlOO
Theorem: If cost price of x articles is equal to the selling
price of y articles, then the profit percentage =
fj"
^^xl00%
= Rs360.
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234 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Illustrative Example If cost price of 12 articles is equal to the selling price of

Ex: The cost price of 10 articles is equal to the selling 8 articles. Find the profit per cent,
price of 9 articles. Find the profit per cent. a) 50% b)40% c)60% d)30%
Soln: Detail Method: Let the cost price of 1 article be Re 1 A man sells 320 mangoes at the cost price of 400 man-
.-. Cost of 10 articles = Rs 10 goes. His gain per cent is:
.-. Selling price of 9 articles = Rs 10 |Asstt. Grade Exam. 1987|
a) 10% b)25% c)15% d)20%
10x10 100
Selling price of 10 articles = Rs Rs Answers
l.a 2.b
100 10
•. gain on Rs 10 = Rs — - Rs 10 = Rs —
1-
3. b; Hint: Required answer = -x 100 = 25%
100 ,,1
•. gain on Rs 100 = Rs — =Rs H -

4. c; Hint: Here, x - y = 22 metres.

.-. profit per cent is H — %. 5. a 6.b

Another Method: Rule 38

To avoid much calculation we should suppose that Theorem: An article is sold atx% profit. If its cost price is
the total investment = 1 0 x 9 = Rs 90 increased by Rs A and at the same time if its selling price is
also increased by Rs B, the percentage profit becomes y%,
Then cost price of 1 article = y r = Rs 9
Ay)
A-B +
I r ! ! : S y u : : ; l ^ : k- t
; 90 \ 100
and selling price of 1 article = — =Rs 10 then the cost price of the article is xlOO.

.-. % profit = x 100 = I x 100 = 111%

Note: (x -y) is the difference in the profits.
By Direct Formula (given in theorem) Illustrative Example
Ex: An article is sold at 20% profit. I f its cost price is
% profit = ^ - ^ x l 0 0 = l l i % increased by Rs 50 and at the same time i f its selling
price is also increased by Rs 30, the percentage of
Exercise
2
1. The cost price of 24 articles is equal to the selling price profit becomes 1 6 y % . Find the cost price. [The last
of 18 articles. Find the gain per cent.
statement of the question may be written as "the per-
1
<s>/LW„ .1
centage o f profit decreases by -*y% le
2. I sell 16 articles for the some money as I paid for 20.
What is my gain per cent?
a) 24% b)25% c)30% d)35% 2 1 ^
20%-16-% = 3-%
3 3
3. If the selling price of — of a number of books be equal
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
to the cost price of the whole, find the profit per cent. 50x50
50-30 +
1 2 300
a)20% b)25% c) 3 3 - % d) 16-% Cost Price = xlOO =Rs850.
10
4. By selling 66 metres of cloth, I gain the cost of 22 metres. 3
Find my gain per cent.
Exercise
2 1 I. An article is sold at 10% profit. I f its cost price is in-
a)25% b) 6 6 - % c )33-% d)20%
creased by Rs 25 and at the same time if its selling price
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Profit and Loss 235

is also increased by Rs 15, the percentage of profit be- 25% profit.

comes 5%. Find the cost price.
20 5x1' 2 4 '
a)Rs325 b)Rs525 c)Rs225 d)Rs255 Now, profit •Rs 62
An article is sold at 25% profit. I f its cost price is in- 100J 4 100 T2l Joo
creased by Rs 60 and at the same time if its selling price
is also increased by Rs 40, the percentage of profit be- x x x
or, — + — + - 62
comes 15%. Find the cost price. 20 20 10
a)Rs390 b)Rs290
4x 62x20
c) Rs 190 d) Data inadequate
o r , — = 62 :.x = — - — = R 3 1 0 . S

An article is sold at '2—% profit. I f its cost price is Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have
the
increased by Rs 30 and at the same time i f its selling value of commodity
price is also increased by Rs 20, the percentage of profit
62x100 62x100
becomes 7 — % . Find the cost price. - x l 5 + - x 2 0 + —x24 5+5+10
3 4 12
a)Rs225 b)Rs245 c)Rs345 d)Rs249
Rs310.

increased by Rs 40 and at the same time i f its selling 2 1

1. — of a commodity is sold at 30% profit, — is sold at
price is also increased by Rs 35, the percentage of profit
becomes 15%. Find the cost price. 16% profit and the rest at 12% profit. If a total profit of
Rs 75 is earned, then find the value of the commodity.
2 2 1
a ) R 1 4 6 y b ) R s ! 5 6 y ) R s 146-
s c d)Rsl56 a)Rs300 b)Rs250 c)Rs350 d)Rs325
3
An article is sold at 45% profit. I f its cost price is in- 3 1
2. — of a commodity is sold at 16% profit, — is sold at
creased by Rs 80 and at the same time if its selling price
is also increased by Rs 70, the percentage of profit be- 18% profit and the rest at 60% profit. If a total profit of
comes 30%. Find the cost price. Rs 67 is earned, then find the value of the commodity.
a)Rs345 b)Rs335 c)Rs385 d)Rs435
a)Rs246 b) Rs 2 2 6 - c) Rs 2 9 3 - d) Rs 2 2 6 -
1 1
Answers 3. — of a commodity is sold at 24% profit, 77 is sold at
Ic 2.b 3.b 4. a 5.b 24% profit and the rest at 60% profit. If a total profit of
Rs 90 is earned, then find the value of the commodity.
Rule 39 a)Rsl00 b)Rs300 c)Rs200 d)Rsl50
TWorem: Ifxpart is soldatm%profit,ypart is sold atn%
ft®fit, z part is sold at p% profit and Rs P is earned as 1 1
4. — of a commodity is sold at 25% profit, — is sold at
mmerall profit then the value of total consignment =
IP x 100 40% profit and the rest at 30% profit. If a total profit of
tr^r+~pz' ( <
Where x+y+z=Mai). Rs 150 is earned, then find the value of the commodity.
a)Rs550 b)Rs450
•nstrative Example c)Rs650 d)Rs500
1 1
fc. - of a commodity is sold at 15% profit, — is sold at 3 1
5. — of a commodity is sold at 15% profit, — is sold at 15%
20% profit and the rest at 24% profit. I f a total profit of
Rs 62 is earned, then find the value of the commodity. profit and the rest at 15% profit. Ifa total profit of Rs 37.5
SBB : Detail Method: Suppose the value of the commodity is earned, then find the value of the commodity.
a)Rs250 b)Rs200
x x
was Rs x. Then — was sold at 15% profit, — was c)Rs350 d)Rs300
3 4
sold at 20% profit and ; — + —_ 5 x
l.a 2.b 3.c 4.d 5.a
4 - 7y was sold at
x
3
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236 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Rule 40 a)Rs6500 b)Rs5700 c)Rs5600 d) Data inadequate

4. 4/7th of a consignment was sold at a profit of 42% and
Theorem: Ifx part is sold atm% profit and the resty part is
the rest at a loss of 28%. I f there was an overall profit of
sold at n% loss and Rs P is earned as overall profit then the
Rs 84, find the value of the consignment.
( PxlOO" a)Rs650 b)Rs750 c)Rs600 d)Rs700
value of the total consignment is Rs . 5. 5/9th of a consignment was sold at a profit of 27% and
XTfi fly .
the rest at a loss of 18%. I f there was an overall profit of
Illustrative Example Rs 112, find the value of the consignment.
Ex.: Two-thirds of a consignment was sold at a profit of a)Rsl600 b)Rs 1400 . c)Rs 1500 d)Rsl200
6% and the rest at a loss of 3%. I f there was an overall Answers
profit of Rs 540, find the value of the consignment. l.a 2.b 3.c 4.d 5.a
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the value of consignment
Rule 41
was Rs x. Then — x was sold at 6% profit, i.e., for Rs Theorem: If a person bought two items for Rs P. He soli
one at a loss of x% and the other at a gain of y% and he
2 106 found that each item was sold at the same price, then the
cost prices of two items are given as follows:
3 1100
P(l00+y)
97
And — part is sold at Rs ^
^ 100 (i) Cost price of the item sold at loss is (1 QO - x) + (l 00 + \

\lx( 106 | x( 97
N Yl and
(ii) Cost price of the item sold at gain it
Now,profit= 3 ( io J 3ilOO
0 + '
P(l00-x)
_ 212*+ 97* _ 309*-300* _ 9x (l00-.r)+(l00+v)'
300 ~ 300 ~300
X
Illustrative Example
9 x tiAn Ex.: A person bought two watches for Rs 480. He SCJC
Since = 540 one at a loss of 15% and the other at a gain of 1
since, 3 0 Q

540x300 and he found that each watch was sold at the sane
.-. x = Rs =Rs 18,000. price. Find the cost prices of the two watches.
Soln: Direct Formula : CP o f watch sold at loss
Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have
480 x ( l 00 + % profit)
Total Profit xlOO
the value of Consignment = ( l 0 0 - 1 5 ) + ( l 0 0 + 19)
2 f
% profit x — % loss x -
3 3
480x119
540x100 = Rs280.
= Rs 18,000. 204
r i
2 1
CP of watch sold at gain = 480 - 280 = Rs 200.
6x — 3 x -
3 3 480 x ( l 0 0 - % loss)
Exercise Note: CP of watch sold at gain
(lOO-15)+(lOO + 19)
1. 3/5th of a consignment was sold at a profit of 15% and
the rest at a loss of 10%. I f there was an overall profit of = Rs200.
Rs 32, find the value of the consignment. Exercise
a)Rs640 b)Rs960 c)Rs460 d)Rs740 1. A person bought two horses for Rs 960. He sold one
2. 4 '5th of a consignment was sold at a profit of 25% and a loss of 20% and the other at a gain of 60% and
the rest at a loss of 35%. I f there was an overall profit of found that each horse was sold at the same price. F
Rs 910, find the value of the consignment. the cost price of two horses.
a)Rs6000 b)Rs7000 c)Rs7500 d)Rs8000 a)Rs640,Rs320 b) Rs 540, Rs 420
3. 3/8th of a consignment was sold at a profit of 32% and c)Rs440,Rs520 d)Rs650,Rs310
the rest at a loss of 16%. I f there was an overall profit of 2. A person bought two goats for Rs 630. He sold one
Rs 112, find the value of the consignment. loss of 10% and the other at a gain of 20% and he f
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Profit and Loss 237

that each goat was sold at the same price. Find the cost
5568
price of two goats. Rs
a)Rs350,Rs280 b) Rs 360, Rs 270
c)Rs340,Rs290 d)Rs300,Rs330 5568 768
X A person bought two oxen for Rs 410. He sold one at a Profit = 960 = R S

loss of 20% and the other at a gain of 25% and he found

that each ox was sold at the same price. Find the cost 768x100
price of two oxen. ••• p r o f , t -Tx^6ir^ 1 6 %

a) Rs 240, Rs 170 b) Rs 230, Rs 180 Quicker Method:

c) Rs 260, Rs 150 d) Rs 250, Rs 160 Percentage profit
I A person bought two tables for Rs 201. He sold one at a
loss of 14% and the other at a gain of 15% and he found (First part x % profit on first part + )
that each table was sold at the same price. Find the cost [second part x % profit on second part j
price of two tables. Total of two parts
a)Rsll5,Rs86 b)Rsll4,Rs87
Here, total ^ 20 dozens are sold in two parts;
c)Rsll6,Rs85 d)Rsll9,Rs82
first part = 8 dozens and second part ~ 12 dozens.
I A person bought two chairs for Rs 380. He sold one at a
loss of 22% and the other at a gain of 12% and he found 8x10+12x20 320
.-. % profit = 16%
that each chair was sold at the same price. Find the cost 20 20
price of two chairs.
a)Rs225,Rsl55 b) Rs 226, Rs 154 Exercise
c) Rs 224, Rs 156 d) Data inadequate
\nswers 1. A person buys 50 mangoes at Rs 2 each. He sells . th of
l.a 2.b 3.d 4. a 5.c the mangoes at 5% profit and the remaining mangoes at
15% profit. What is his total profit percentages in this
Rule 42 transaction?
Theorem: A person buys certain quantity of an article for a) 20% b) 13% c) 16% d) 14%
Ms A. If he sells mth part of the stock at a profit ofx% and 2. Rachana purchased 25 dozens Jackets at Rs 5000 pe-
ak<? remaining nth part aty% profit, then the per cent profit dozen. He sold 12 dozens at 15% profit and the remain-
rnx + ny ing 13 dozens at 25% profit. What is his profit percent-
this transaction is age in this transaction?
m+n
a)20% b)25.5% c)20.5% d)20.2%
First part x % profit on first part + Second part 3. Radha purchased 13 dozens pens at Rs 70 per dozen. I ! ;
x % profit on sec ond part sold 10 dozens at 7% profit and the remaining 3 doze: 1

Total of two parts at 7% profit. What is his profit percentage in this (re-
action?
a) 8% b)7% c)10% d) 14%
lustrative Example 4. Ramesh purchased 30 bananas at Rs 3 each. He so'J I
L: Nandlal purchased 20 dozen notebooks at Rs 48 per bananas at 15% profit and the remaining at 30%pr6lit.
dozen. He sold 8 dozen at 10% profit and the remain- What is his profit percentage in this transaction?
ing 12 dozen at 20% profit. What is his profit percent- a) 33% b)22% c) 17% d)31%
age in this transaction?
: Cost price of 20 dozen notebooks = 20 * 48 = Rs 960 Answers

.„ . (no) 1. b; Hint: Here m = 50 x - = 10 mangoes and n 50 10

Selling price of 8 dozen notebooks = Rs 8 * 481 JTJjjj

Selling price of 12 dozen notebooks = 40 mangoes

2. d 3b ^4.b
120)
100 J
= Rs 12 x 481 " Rule 43
Theorem: If xpart is sold at m% loss, y part is sold at u%
2112 3456 loss, the rest part z is sold at p% loss and Rs P is overall
.-. total selling price = Rs Rs
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238 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

PxlOO Exercise

loss, then the value of total consignment is x m + n y + p z - 3

1. - of a consignment was sold at 8% loss and the rest at
Illustrative Example aprofitof4%. Iftherewas an overall loss of Rs 120, find
the value of the consignment.
Ex: y of a commodity is sold at 15% loss, — is sold at
a)Rs2450 b)Rs2500 c)Rs2400 d)Rs2600
20% loss and the rest at 24% loss. I f a total loss is Rs
62, then find the value of the commodity. 4
2. - of a consignment was sold at 10% loss and the rest at
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have
62x100 a profit of 5%. If there was an overall loss of Rs 840, fine
Total value = Rs310.
the value of the consignment.
- x l 5 + - x 2 0 + —x24
3 4 12 a) Rs 12000 b) Rs 16000 c) Rs 14000 d) Data inadequate

Exericse 4
3. — of a consignment was sold at 21 % loss and the rest at
2 1
a profit of 14%. I f there was an overall loss of Rs 600.
1. - of a commodity is sold at 15% loss, — is sold at 12%
find the value of the consignment,
loss and the rest at 18% loss. I f a total loss is Rs 45, then a) Rs 60000 b)Rs 10000 c)Rs 15000 d)Rs 12000
find the value of the commodity.
a)Rs200 b)Rs250 c)Rs300 d)Rs450 4. — of a consignment was sold at 16% loss and the rest a
8
1 1
2. - of a commodity is sold at 16% loss, — is sold at 24% a profit of 8%. Iftherewas an overall loss of Rs 140, fire
4 » the value o f the consignment.
loss and the rest at 32% loss. If a total loss is Rs 54, then a)Rs2000 b)Rs2500 c)Rsl800 d)Rs2400
find rbu value of the commodity.
3
a)Rs200 b)Rs300 5. — of a consignment was sold at 15% loss and the rest x
c) Rs 150 d) Data inadequate
1 2 a profit of 10%. If there was an overall loss of Rs 15, fir
3. — of a commodity is sold at 12% loss, ~ is sold at 15% the value of the consignment.
loss and the rest at 30% loss. I f a total loss is Rs 72, then a)Rs200 b)Rs250 c)Rs350 d)Rs300
find the value of the commodity. Answers
a)Rs360 b)Rs450 l.c 2. a 3.b 4. a 5.d
c) Rs 400 d) Data inadequate
Rule 45
l.c 2.a 3.c Theorem: A person buys certain quantity of an article]
Rs A. If he sells nth part of the stock at a loss of x%, them^
Rule 44 make an overall profit of y% on the total transaction
Theorem: Ifx part is sold atm% loss and the other rest part should sell the remaining stock at the per cent profit
y is sold atn% profit andRsP is overall loss, then the value y + xn
f PxlOO A
l-n
of total consignment is Rs
xm — yn Illustrative Example
Ex: I f goods be purchased for Rs 450, and one thira m
Illustrative Example
sold at a loss of 10 per cent, at what gain per i-m
should the remainder be sold so as to gain 20 per ?m
Ex: — of a consignment was sold at 6% loss and the rest
on the whole transaction?
at a profit of 3%. Iftherewas an overall loss ofR^540, Soln: Detail Method:
find the value of the consignment. 1
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have the Cost of one third of goods = - of Rs 450 = Rs Ira

total value = 5 4 0 x 1 0 0 = Rs 18000. I The selling price of one-third of goods = Rs 150 >-
2 1
6x x3 = Rsl35
3 3 > x
Profit and Loss 255
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to make an overall profit ofy% on the total transaction he
. . . 120
The total selling price is to be Rs 450 x — rRs540 O
should sell the remaining stock at the per cent profit or loss

Hence the selling price of the remaining two-thirds of y-xn

of according to the f+ve) or (-ve) sign.
the goods must be (Rs 450 - Rs 135) or Rs 405. l-n
But the cost of this two-thirds = Rs 300
.-. gainonRs300 = Rs405-Rs300 = Rs 105 Illustrative Example
*sa isq iiwiw JA J?b I jto ego! 1
.-. gain on Rs 100 = - of Rs 105 = Rs 35.
Ex: A man buys rice for Rs 4400. He sells r rd of it at a
.-. gain % is 35.
profit of 5%. At what per cent gain should he sell
Quicker Method: Applying the above formula, we
have remaining ~ rd so as to make an overall profit of 10%

1 on the whole transaction?

20 + lOx
Soln: Following the above theorem,
the required % profit = : 35%
1
10-5x
the required % profit : ^ = . I %
2

Exercise 2 2
A distributor buys books for Rs 8000 from a publisher.
He had to sell one-fourth at a loss of 20%. At what per
Exercise
cent gain he should sell the remaining stock so as to
make an overall profit of 10% on the total transaction?
a) 20% b)25% c) 18% d) 16% 1. A man buys wheat for Rs 5200. He sells' — rd of it at a
1 If goods be purchased for Rs 840, and one fourth be profit of 6%. At what per cent gain should he sell re-
sold at a loss of 20 per cent, at what gain per cent should
the remainder be sold so as to gain 20 per cent on the
mauling —rd so as to make an overall profit of 12% on
whole transaction.
the whole transaction?
a) 3 3 - % b)33% c) 3 3 - % d) 3 3 - % a) 24% b)20% c)22% d)26%
3 2 3

2. A man buys tea for Rs 8400. He sells — th of it at a profit

If goods be purchased for Rs 380, and — rd be sold at a
of 15%. At what per cent gain should he sell remaining
loss of 15 per cent, at what gain per cent should the
remainder be sold so as to gain 10 per cent on the whole
— th so as to make an overall profit of 20% on the whole
transaction.
a) 60% b)70% c)90% d)40% transaction?
a) 27% b)27.5% c)28% d) Data inadequate
If goods be purchased for Rs 480, and — th be sold at a
3. A man buys pulse for Rs 4800. He sells — th of it at a
loss of 25 per cent, at what gain per cent should the
remainder be sold so as to gain 25 per cent on the whole profit of 25%. At what per cent gain should he sell re-
transaction.
maining — th so as to make an overall profit of 19% on
a) 37% b) 3 7 y % c) 3 2 ^ % d) Data inadequate
the whole transaction?
Answers a) 15% b)18% c)21% d) 12%
2.d 3. a 4.b
A man buys coffee for Rs 7200. He sells ~ t h of it at a
o
I Rule 46 profit of 24%. At what per cent gain should he sell re-
Theorem: A person buys certain quantity of an article for
Ms 4. If lie sells nth part of the stock at a profit ofx%, then maining — th so as to make an overall profit of 21% on
8
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240 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

the whole transaction? he should sell the remaining stock so as to make an

overall no profit no loss on the total transaction?
a) 18^% b) 2 0 - % C ) 1 9 - % d) Data inadequate 3 2 2 .
a) 1 4 - % b) 1 6 y % c) 1 4 - % d) Data inadequate

5. A man buys rice for Rs 5520. He sells — th of it at a profit 4. A distributor buys books for Rs 670 from a publisher. He

of 14%. At what per cent gain should he sell remaining had to sell - t h at a loss of 16%. At what per cent gain
o

— th so as to make an overall profit of 18% on the whole he should sell the remaining stock so as to make an
overall no profit no loss on the total transaction?
transaction?
a) 28% b)24% c) 27% d) Data inadequate a) 9 | % b) 9 | % C ) 9y% d) « | %
A distributor buys books for Rs 5400 from a publisher.
l.a 2.b 3.a 4.c 5.a

Rule 47 He had to sell ~ th at a loss of 6%. At what per cent gain

6
Theorem: A person buys certain quantity of an article for he should sell the remaining stock so as to make an
Rs A. If he sells nth part of the stock at a loss ofx%, then to overall no profit no loss on the total transaction?
make an overall no profit no loss on the total transaction, a) 20% b)30% c)32% d)25%
he should sell the remaining stock at the per cent profit of
% l.d 2. a 3.c 4.a 5.b

Rule 48
Illustrative Example Theorem: A person buys certain quantity of an article for
Ex: A distributor buys books for Rs 8000 from a pub- Rs A. If he sells nth part of the stock at a profit ofx%, then
lisher. He had to sell one-fourth at a loss of 20%. At to make an overall no profit and no loss on the total trans-
what per cent gain he should sell the remaining stock action he should sell the remaining stock at the per cem
so as to make an overall no profit no loss on the total
transaction? %
loss of
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have .1-/7

20x1 Illustrative Example

4 5x4
the required per cent profit = 1
1-1 Ex: A man buys rice for Rs 4400. He sells - rd of it at a
4
profit of 5%. At what per cent loss should he seB
Exercise
1. A distributor buys books for Rs 6000 from a publisher. remaining — rd so as to make no profit no loss on the
He had to sell one-third at a loss of 30%. At what per
cent gain he should sell the remaining stock so as to whole transaction?
make an overall no profit no loss on the total transac- Soln: Following the above theorem, we have
tion?
a) 25% b) 12% c)10% d) 15% 5x- ,
2. A distributor buys books for Rs 750 from a publisher. He the required per cent loss = = — = 2—%
2
had to sell — th at a loss of 15%. At what per cent grin 1 1 2 2

he should sell the remaining stock so as to make an

overall no profit no loss on the total transaction? Exercise
a) 10% b)9% c)12% d) 15%
3. A distributor ouys books for Rs 510 from a publisher 1. A man buys coffee for Rs 4500. He sells ~ rd of it

tm^li^iih^i^iici^sde^^c^ dJ" oakum profit of 6%. At what per cent loss should he sell re
had to sell — th at a loss of 18%. At what per c*.:
Profit and Loss
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Illustrative Example
ing — rd so as to make no profit no loss on the whole Ex: A man buys 400 oranges at 4 a rupee and 500 oranges
at 2 a rupee. He mixes them together and sells them at
transaction? 3 a rupee. Find his per cent loss or gain.
a) 10% b)6% c) 12% d)18% Soln: Applying the above formula,
2 (400 + 500)x4x2
% profit or loss -1 x l 0 0 %
A man buys tea for Rs 4600. He sells — th of it at a profit (400x2 + 500x4)x3

of 15%. At what per cent loss should he sell remaining

j 7 7
-ve sign shows that there is a loss in the transaction.
- th so as to make no profit no loss on the whole trans-
% loss 14-%
action? :
7
a) 10% b) 12% c)14% d)8%
A man buys wheat for Rs 4800. He sells — th of it at a Exercise
1. A man buys 200 bananas at 8 a rupee and 250 bananas at
profit of 14%. At what per cent loss should he sell re-
4 a rupee. He mixes them together and sells them at 6 a
2 rupee. Find his per cent loss or gain.
maining — th so as to make no profit no loss on the
whole transaction? b) 1 4 - % profit
a ) 1 4 y /« loss
5

a) 25% b)30% c) 35% d) Data inadequate

A man buys grains for Rs 4750. He sells — th of it at a c) 16—% loss d) 16—% profit
o
profit of 16%. At what per cent loss should he sell re- 2. A man buys 300 oranges at 5 a rupee and 450 oranges at
„1
maining — th so as to make no profit no loss on the 2 — a rupee. He mixes them together and sells them at 4
8
whole transaction? a rupee. Find his per cent loss or gain.
a) Approx. 28% loss b) Approx. 28% profit
a) 9 - % b) 9 - % c) Approx. 22% loss d) Approx 29% profit
5 5 3. A man buys 25 apples at 8 a rupee and 35 apples at 4 a
rupee. He mixes them together and sells them at 6 a ru-
c) 9 - % d) Data inadequate pee. Find his per cent loss or gain.
5
a) 15% b)16% c) 16.78% d) 15.78%
4. A person purchased 100 oranges at 4 a rupee and 200
A man buys cereals for Rs 6000. He sells — th of it at a oranges at 2 a rupee. He mixed them and sold at 3 or-
profit of "18%. At what per cent loss should he sell re- anges a rupee. Find his per cent loss or gain.
a) 20% loss b) 25% loss c) 20% profit d) 25% profit
5. A person buys 100 toffees at 10 a rupee and 200 toffees
maining ~ th so as to make no profit no loss on the
at 5 a rupee. He mixes them together and sells at 4 a
whole transaction? rupee. Find his per cent profit.
a) 64% b)60% c)65% d) 63% a) 20% b)25% c)40% d)50%

c 2. a 3.c 4. a 5.d l.a 2.c 3.d 4. a 5.d

Rule 49 Rule 50
Theorem: A man purchases m articles atx a rupee and n Theorem: A man purchases a certain number of articles at
articles aty a rupee. He mixes them together and sells them a rupee and the same number aty a rupez. He mixes them
x
ml z a rupee. Then his gain or loss per cent is together and sells them atza rupee. Then his gain or loss %

• (m + n)xy 2xy
xlOO /o according as the +ve or -ve sign. -1 x 100 according as the sign is +ve or -ve.
I {my + nx)z z{x + y)
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242 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Note: This rule is the special case of Rule - 49. If we put m Exercise
= n in the Rule - 49 we get Rule - 50. 1. A man purchases a certain number of oranges at 5 per
Illustrative Examples rupee and the same number at 6 per rupee. He mixes
Ex. 1: A man purchases a certain number of mangoes at 3 them together and sells them at 8 per rupee. What is his
per rupee and the same number at 4 per rupee. He gain or loss per cent?
mixes them together and sells them at 3 per rupee.
What is his gain or loss per cent? a) 33—% loss b) 3 1 — % loss
Son: By the theorem:
"2x3x4 c) 31 — % loss d) 33 — % profit
Profit or loss per cent = xlOO
3(3 + 4)
2. A man purchases a certain number of oranges at 6 pe-
24 00
xl00 = J rupee and the same number at 8 per rupee. He mixes
21 them together and sells them at 6 per rupee. What is his
gain or loss per cent?
Since the sign is +ve, there is a gain of 14—% .
a) 14—% gain b) 1 6 - % loss
Ex.2: A man purchases a certain number of toffees at 25 a
rupee and the same number at 20 a rupee. He mixes
them together and sells them at 45 for 2 rupees. What V» loss d ) i e | % loss
does he gain or lose per cent in the transaction?
Soln: By the theorem: A man purchases a certain number of toffees at 20 a
45 rupee and the same number at 15 a rupee. He mixes the-
x = 25, y = 20 and z = = 22.5 together and sells them at 40 for 2 rupees. What does he
gain or lose per cent in the transaction?
2xy
.-. % profit or loss - 1 xlOO
{x + y) b) 14—% loss
a) l 4 y % gain
2x25x20 "
xlOO
22.5(25 + 20) c) 14—% gain d) 1 4 - /» loss
5

1000-1012.5 12.5 4. A man purchases a certain number of toffees at 15 •

xl00 = — xlOO
1012.5 1012.5 rupee and the same number at 10 a rupee. He mixes then
together and sells them at 35 for 2 rupees. What does
100
ii- gain or lose per cent in the transaction?
"IT 81 h "
;ii 1—7 % gain b)31y%gain
Since the sign is -ve there is a loss of 1i —
i. %
81
Ex.3: Oranges are bought at 11 for a rupee and an equal C) 3 1 y % loss d) 3 1 - 9/° loss
3

number more at 9 for a rupee. If these are sold at 10 for

a rupee, find the loss or gain per cent. 5. Oranges are bought at 12 for a rupee and an equal nur
Soln: By the theorem: ber more at 8 for a rupee. I f these are sold at 15 for
"2x11x9 rupee, find the loss or gain per cent,
% profit or loss :
xlOO a) 36% loss b) 36% profit c) 38% loss d) 38% profit
10(11 + 9)
6. Oranges are bought at 16 for a rupee and an equal num-
198 -2 ber more at 14 for a rupee. I f these are sold at 20 fc
- 1 xl00 = — x l 0 0 = - l %
200 200 rupee, find the loss or gain per cent,
Since the sign is -ve there is a loss of 1%. a) 25% loss b) 25.3% profit
Note: (1) From the above two eamples, we find that w i n * z c) 25.6% loss d) 25.3% loss
7. A man buys a certain number of oranges at 20 per ruad
x+v
there is always loss. and an equal number at 30 per rupee. He mixes them ami
sells them at 25 per rupee. What is his gain or loss pal
(2) If there is x = y = z, there is neither gain nor loss. cent?
Do you agree? a) 4% profit b) 4% loss c) 20% profit d) 20% lc
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Profit and Loss 243

A man buys a certain number of oranges at 5 a rupee and prices of the two chairs.
an equal number at 3 a rupee. He mixes them together a)Rs375,Rs360 b)Rs385,Rs350
and sells at 4 a rupee. Find his per cent profit or loss. c) Rs 370, Rs 365 d) Data inadequate
3. A person bought two goats for Rs 920. He sold one at a
a) 6 ^ % profit b) 25% profit gain o f 18% and the other at a gain of 12% and he found
that each goat was sold at the same price. Find the cost
prices of the two goats.
c) 6—% loss d) Data inadequate a)Rs462,Rs458 b) Rs 472, Rs 448
c) Rs 482, Rs 43 8 d) Data inadequate
9. A man buys toffees at 6 a rupee and an equal number of
4. A person bought two oxen for Rs 500. He sold one at a
toffees at 3 a rupee. He mixes them together and sells at
gain of 23% and the other at a gain of 27% and he found
4\ rupee. Find his per cent loss or profit,
that each ox was sold at the same price. Find the cost
a) Neither loss nor profit b) 100% loss
prices of the two oxen.
c) 100% profit d) Can't be determined
a)Rs264,Rs236 b) Rs 244, Rs 266
Answers c) Rs 254, Rs 246 d) Data inadequate
l.b 2. a 3.b 4.d 5. a 6.d 7.b 5. A person bought two sofa-sets for Rs 2800. He sold one
8.c 9. a at a gain of 35% and the other at a gain of 45% and he
found that each sofa-set was sold at the same price.
Rule 51 Find the cost prices of the two sofa-sets.
Theorem: If a person bought items A and B for Rs R He a)Rs 1430, Rs 1370 b)Rs 1440, Rs 1360
sold A at a gain ofx% and the other at a gain ofy% and he c)Rs 1460, Rs 1340 d)Rs 1450, Rs 1350
found that each item A and B was sold at the same price,
then the
l.a 2. a 3.b 4.c 5.d
(l00+y)x/>
(0 cost price of A = ( 1 0 0+c ) ( l 0 0 + y) and the
J + Rule 52
Theorem: If certain article is bought at the rate of 'A 'for a
(l00 + s)x/> rupee, then to gain x%, the article must be sold at the rate
(ii) cost price of B
(l00 + x)+(l00 + y)-
( 100 )
Illustrative Example °f V100 + x j * ^ f or a ru P
ee (R e m e m D e r the rule of frac-
Ex: A person bought two horses for Rs 690. He sold one
at a gain of 10% and the other at a gain of 20% and he tion).
found that each horse was sold at the same price. Illustrative Example
Find the cost prices of the two horses. Ex: I f toffees are bought at the rate of 25 for a rupee, how
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have the many must be sold for a rupee so as to gain 25%?
(i) cost price of the first horse 125 5
(l00 + 20)x690 Soln: Detail Method: SP of 25 toffees = Re 1 x — = Rs -
100 4
= (100 10)+(100 + 2 0 )
+ = R S 3 6 °-
(ii) cost price of the second horse No. of toffees sold for Rs — = 25
4
(100 + I0)x690
Rs330 25x4
(l00 + 10)+(l00 + 20) No. of toffees sold for Re 1 = 20

Exercise Short-cut Method (Method of Fraction):

1. A person bought two tables for Rs 860. He sold one at As there is 25% gain so our calculating figure would
a gain of 5% and the other at a gain of 10% and he found be 125 and 100. Now, to gain a profit the number of
that each table was sold at the same price. Find the cost articles sold for one rupee must be less than the num-
prices of the two tables. ber bought for one rupee. Thus the multiplying frac-
a) Rs 440, Rs 420 b) Rs 460, Rs 400 100
c) Rs480, Rs 380 d) Data inadequate tion is
125
2. A person bought two chairs for Rs 735. He sold one at a
gain of 20% and the other at a gain of 25% and he found 100
• required no. of toffees = 25 x = 20 .
that each chair was sold at the same price. Find the cost 125
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244 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Exercise
Px-\WX
1. I f oranges are bought at the rate of 21 for a rupee, how (ii) one item of B is
many must be sold for a rupee so as to gain 5%? m(x + y) _
a)20 b) 18 c) 16 d) 19 Ex: If a man buys 10 pens and 5 pencils for Rs 500, and
2. I f apples are bought at the rate of 11 for a rupee, how sells the pens at a profit of 10% and the pencils at a
many must be sold fr>r a rupee so as to gain 10%? loss of 15%, and his whole gain is Rs 25. What price
a) 10 b) 12 c)15 d)8 does he pay for a pen and a pencil?
3. If bananas are bought at the rate of 30 for a rupee, how Soln: Following the above theorem, we have the
many must be sold for a rupee so as to gain 20%?
100x25 + 500x15
a) 24 b)25 c)28 d)30 price of a pen : Rs 40 and
4. A man buys oranges at 6 a rupee. For how many a rupee 10(10 + 15)
he should sell them so as to gain 20%.
500x10-100x25
a) 4 oranges a rupee b) 5 oranges a rupee the price of a pencil ;
Rs 20
c) 3 oranges a rupee d) Data inadequate 5(10 + 15)

Answers 2. If a man buys n items ofA and m items ofB for Rs P,

and sells the items of A at a loss ofx% and the items
l.a 2.a 3.b 4.b
ofB at a loss ofy%, and his whole loss is Rs X, then
Rule 53 the price he pays for
Theorem: If a man buys n items of A and m items ofBforRs \WX-Py
P, and sells the items of A at a profit ofx% and the items of one item of A is and
n(x-y)
B at a profit of y%, and his whole gain is Rs X, then the
price he pays for
~Px-\00X~ ~\00X-Px
one item of B is or
100 A" -Py m(x-y) m{y-x)
(i) one item of A is and
n(x - y) J Ex: A man buys 5 horses and 7 oxen for Rs 5850. He sells
the horses at a loss of 10% and oxen at a loss of 16%
' Px-\ 00 A" 'mx-Px and his whole loss is Rs 711. What price does he pay
(ii) one item of B is or
m(x - y \ m(y-x) for a horse and a ox?
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have the
Illustrative Example
Ex: A man buys 5 horses and 7 oxen for Rs 5850. He sells 100 + 711-5850x16
price of a horse • Rs750 a n d

the horses at a profit of 10% and oxen at a profit of 5(10-16)

16% and his whole gain is Rs 711. What price does he
pay for a horse and a ox? 5850x10-100x711 „ „„
price of a ox = -7———\ Rs 300 .
Soln: Following the above theorem, 7U0-16J
100x711-5850x16 3. If a man buys n items ofA and m items of Bfor Rs P.
Price of a horse = and sells the items of A at a loss ofx% and the items
-22500 ofB at a profit ofy%, and his whole loss is Rs X.
= Rs750 then the price he pays for one item of A is
•30
5850x10-100x711
Price of a ox = and one item of B is
7(10-16)

58500-71100
= Rs 300.
-42
m(x + y)
Note: 1. If a man buys n items of A andm items ofB for Rs P,
Ex: I f a man buys 10 pens and 5 pencils for Rs 500, and
and sells the items of A at a profit of x% and the
sells the pens at a loss of 10% and the pencils at a
items of B at a loss ofy%, and his whole gain is Rs
profit of 15% and his whole loss is Rs 25. What price
X, then the price he pays for
does he pay for a pen and a pencil?
\00X+ Py Soln: Following the above,theorem, we have the
(i) one item of A is and
n(x + y) . , 100x25 + 500x15 „ , „
price of a pen = -. = Rs 40 and the
5

10(10 + 15)
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* 9x
500x10-100x25 Then his total investment
price of a pencil = 5(10 + 15) Rs20 :
4 20"= R S

2*x2 4*
Exercise Total selling price = Rs — ~ — = Rs ~9~
9
1. A man buys 20 pens and 16 books for Rs 360. He sells 9* 4x 81*-80x x
pens at a profit of 40% and books with a gain of 25%. I f total loss = — " ~9 " 180
180
his overall gain is Rs 120, the CP of the pen is .
a)Rsl3 b)Rsl2 c)Rsl5 d)Rsl0 then Rs Rs3 x = 180x3 = 540
2. 6 horses and 8 cows cost me Rs 37500.1 sell them for Rs 180
44625 making a profit of 25 percent on the horses and 10 Therefore he bought 2 * 540 = 1080 oranges in total.
per cent on the cows. What is the average cost of each Quicker Method: In the above question:
horse and of each cow. I f * oranges/rupee and y oranges/rupee are mixed in
a)Rs3750,Rs!875 b) Rs 3650, Rs 1975 same numbers and sold at z oranges/rupee then
c) Rs4750, Rs 2875 d) Data inadequate loss rupees x 2xyz
3. A man buys5 horses and 7 oxen for Rs 58500. He sells Number of total oranges bought = z(x + y)-2xy
the horses at a profit of 10 per cent and oxen at a profit of
16 per cent and his whole gain is Rs 7110. What price 3x2x5x4x4.5 120x4.5
= 1080 oranges.
does he pay for a horse? 4.5(5 + 4 ) - 2 x 5 x 4 40.5-40
a) Rs 7500 b) Rs 3000 Exercise
c) Rs 8500 d) Rs 5700 1. A person bought some oranges at the rate of 6 per ru-
4. A man buys 3 tables and 12 chairs for Rs 2400. He sells pee. He bought the same number of oranges at the rate
the tables at a profit of 20% and chairs at a profit of 10% of 4 per rupee. He mixes both the types and sells at 10 for
and makes a total profit of Rs 300. At what price did he rupees 2. In this business he bears a loss of Rs 4. Find
buy tables and chairs? out how many oranges he bought in all?
a)Rs600,Rsl800 b)Rs200,Rs350 a) 480 oranges b) 840 oranges
c) Rs 800, Rs 1400 d) Can't be determined c) 490 oranges d) Data inadequate
5. Raman buys 5 pens and 30 pencils for Rs 1000. He sells 2. A person bought some oranges at the rate of 3 per ru-
the pens at a profit of 15% and pencils at a profit of 10% pee. He bought the same number of oranges at the rate
and makes a total profit of Rs 120. Find the cost of a pen of 2 per rupee. He mixes both the types and sells at 5 for
and of a pencil. rupees 2. In this business he bears a loss of Rs 2. Find
a)Rs70,Rs30 b)Rs85,Rsl5 out how many oranges he bought in all?
c) Rs 80, Rs 20 d) Data inadequate a) 240 oranges b) 120 oranges
Answers c) 180 oranges d) Cann't possible
1. d 3. A person bought some oranges at the rate of 6 per ru-
2. a; Hint: Here ' X ' = gain = Rs 44625 - Rs 37500 = Rs 7125 pee. He bought the same number of oranges at the rate
Now apply the above rule and get the answer. of 5 per rupee. He mixes both the types and sells at 10 for
3. a rupees 2. In this business he bears a loss of Rs 4. Find
4. a; Hint: By the formula we calculate price of one table out how many oranges he bought in all.
and one chair ie Rs 200 and Rs 150 respectively. a) 240 oranges b) 680 oranges
.-. required answer = the price of 3 tables c) 480 oranges d) Cann't possible
= 3 x200 = Rs600 4. A person bought some oranges at the rate of 12 per
and the price of 12 chairs = 12 x 150 = Rs 1800. rupee. He bought the same number of oranges at the
5. c rate of 8 per rupee. He mixes both the types and sells at
20 for rupees 2. In this business he bears a loss of Rs 8.
Rule 54 Find out how many oranges he bought in all?
Ex.: A person bought some oranges at the rate of 5 per a) 1680 b)1820 c)1920 d) 1290
rupee. He bought the same number of oranges at the Answers
rate of 4 per rupee. He mixes both the types and sells l.a 2.b
at 9 for rupees 2. In this business he bears a loss of Rs
3. d; Hint: Applying the given formula, we get no. of or-
3. Find out how many oranges he bought in all?
anges = -240, that is not possible.
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose he bought x oranges of each
4. c
quality.
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246 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Rule 55 l O x - 1 0 0 - x = 100
Theorem: If a tradesman marks his goods atx% above his
• x= = 22 —%
cost price and allows purchasers a discount ofy% for cash, • 9 9

( k_l Exercise
1. A shopkeeper labels the price of articles 20% above the
then there is \~y~ J % profit or loss according to cost price. If he allows Rs 31.20 off on a bill of Rs 312;
find his profit per cent on the article.
+ve or —ve sign respectively. }BSRBMumbaiPQ, )999}
x
100 2
-ve sign
note: wnen x = y, tnen lormuia oecomes 1 „2 lD

indicates that there will be always loss. m b)12j c) 1 1 - d)8j

Illustrative Examples 2. A trader allows a discount of 5 per cent for cash pay-
Ex. 1: A tradesman marks his goods at 25% above his cost ment. How much per cent above the cost price must he
mark his goods to make a profit of 10 per cent?
& 1

price and allows purchasers a discount of 12 — % for

a) 15—% b l 15—% C ) 19 — % d) 15—%
cash. What profit % does he make? ' 19 ; 19 ; 19 ; 19
Soln: Detail Method: Let the cost price = Rs 100 3. A tradesman marks his goods 30 per cent above cost
Marked price = Rs 125
price but makes a reduction of 6 — per cent on the marked
Discount = 12-o/oofRs 125 = Rs 1 5 -
2 8 price for ready money, find his gain per cent.
to 520J s - ^ ^ a u g H M f t f t 5 3
• reduced price = Rs 125-Rs 1 5 - = R 109- S a) 2 6 — % b)27l% c ) 2 1 Zo / o d ) 2 2 7„ / o

8 8 ' 10
4. A tradesman's charges are 20 per cent over cost price. If
.-. gain per cent = 109 J - 1 0 0 = 9 ^ % he allows his customers 10 per cent off their bills for
8 8
cash payment, what is his gain per cent?
Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we
|RRB Exam 1999]
have
a) 4% b)8% c)10% d) 12%
5. A tradesman marks his goods at 30 per cent above the
x = 25%,y= 1 2 - %
2 cost price. I f he allows a discount of 3 paise in a Re off
the marked price, what percentage of profit does he make 0

a) 25% b)27% c)28% d)26%

x-y-
100 6. How much per cent above the cost price should a shop-
keeper mark his goods so that after allowing a discount
,J 25 x25 V 3 of 10%, he should gain 26%.
'2 1% = 9 j % profit
2 200 a) 16% b)40% c)30% d)36%
7. The marked price is 10% higher than CP. A discount of
Note: Thus we see that i f
10% is given on marked price. In this kind of sale the
x = marked percentage above CP
seller. [RRB Exam 19911
V = discount in per cent
a) bears no loss, no gain b) gains
z = profit in per cent
c) loses d) loses 1%
Then there exists a relationship;
xy
z= x-y- 31 20
100 l.a; Hint: Here,* = 20%, v = —312 x 100 = 10%
Ex. 2: A trader allows a discount of 10% for cash payment.
How much % above cost price must he mark his goods
5*
to make a profit of 10%? 2.b; Hint: x-S-— = 10
Soln: I f we use the relationship discussed above, we have
Iflv 300 ..15..
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J. c 4.b Exercise
5. d; Hint: Here x =30% and y = discount = 3 paise in 1 Re 1. A man buys two chairs for Rs 1250. He sells one so as to
lose 5% and the other so as to gain 20%. On the whole
ie x ' 00 = 3% . Now apply the given formula and he neither gains nor loses. What does each chair cost?
a)Rsl000,Rs250 b)Rs 1100, Rs 150
get the answer. c)Rs900,Rs350 d) Rs 950, Rs 300
x 10x 2. A man buys two tables for Rs 1750. He sells one so as to
6. b; Hint: ^ - 1 0 - ^ ^ - = 26 lose 10% and the other so as to gain 15%. On the whole
he neither gains nor loses. What does each table cost?
.-. x = 40%
a) Rs 1000, Rs 750 b) Rs 1050, Rs 700
7. d; Hint: See 'Note" given in the formula
c) Rs 950, Rs 800 d) Can't be determined
3. A man buys two oxen for Rs 3000. He sells one so as to
loss%= ^ - = 1% lose 5% and the other so as to gain 25%. On the whole
100
he neither gains nor loses. What does each ox cost?
Rule 56 a)Rs2500,Rs500 b)Rs2100,Rs900
c)Rs 2400, Rs 600 d) Rs 2700, Rs 300
Theorem: If a man buys two items A and B for Rs P, and
4. A man buys two goats for Rs 440. He sells one so as to
sells one item A so as to losex% and the other item B so as
lose 12% and the other so as to gain 28%. On the whole
to gain y%, and on the whole he neither gains nor loses,
he neither gains nor loses. What does each goat cost?
Py x
a)Rs306,Rsl34 b) Rs300, Rs 140
then (i) the cost of the item A is and
x+ y c) Rs 308, Rs 132 d) Can't be determined
5. A man buys two horses for Rs 1550. He sells one so as
Px
(ii) the cost of the item B is to lose 23% and the other so as to gain 27%. On the
yj whole he neither gains nor loses. What does each horse
Illustrative Example cost?
Ex.: A man buys two horses for Rs 1350. He sells one so a)Rs807,Rs743 b)Rs817,Rs733
as to lose 6% and the other so as to gain 7.5%. On the c)Rs827,Rs723 d)Rs837,Rs713
whole he neither gains nor loses. What does each
horse cost?
l.a 2.b 3.a 4.c 5.d
Soln: Detail Method: Loss on one hors e= gain on the other
.-. 6% of the cost of first horse = 7.5% of the cost of
Rule 57
the second.
Theorem: By selling a certain item at the rate of 'X' items a
Cost of first horse _ 7.5% _ 15 _ 5 rupee, a man loses x%. If he wants to gain y%, then the
" Cost of second horse 6% 12 4 number of items should be sold for a rupee is
Dividing Rs 1350 in the ratio of 5 :4,
^100-x^
Cost of first horse = Rs 750
100+v
Cost of the second = Rs 600
Quicker Method: The above rule may be written as Illustrative Example
given below. Ex: By selling oranges at 32 a rupee, a man loses 40%.
Cost of first horse How many for a rupee should he sell in order to gain
CP of both x % loss or gain on 2nd 20%?
% loss or gain on 1 st + % loss or gain on 2nd Soln: Applying the above formula, we have,
Cost of second horse /100-40 | N 32x60
the required answer = 32i 16
U 0 0 + 20 120
CP of both x % loss or gain on 1 st
% loss or gain on 1 st + % loss or gain on 2nd Exercise
1. By selling bananas at 21 a rupee, a man loses 30%. How
Now, applying the formula, we have the
many for a rupee should he sell in order to gain 5%?
1350x7.5 a) 15 b) 12 c)14 d) 16
cost of 1 st horse = — — — r ~ = Rs 750 and the
6 + 7.5 2. By selling apples at 46 a rupee, a man loses 15%. How
1350x6 many for a rupee should he sell in order to gain 15%?
cost of 2nd hose = — — r - r = Rs 600. a) 17 b)34 c)27 d)24
6 + 7.5
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248 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

3. By selling mangos at 44 a rupee, a man loses 20%. How

1
many for a rupee should he sell in order to gain 10%? 5. By selling an article for Rs 77 a person gained — of his
a) 32 b)30 c)33 d)28
4. By selling oranges at 35 a rupee, a man loses 25%. How outlay. What would he have gained or lost per cent by
many for a rupee should he sell in order to gain 25%? selling it for Rs 63?
a)35 b)21 c)25 d)30 a) 10% profit b) 20% loss
5. By selling 12 oranges for one rupee a man loses 20%. c) 10% loss d) Data inadequate
How many for a rupee should he sell to get a gain of Answers
20%? (CDS Exam 1989| 1. b
a) 5 b)8 c)10 d) 15 2. a; Hint: From the given formula we have to find the
Answers value y as given below.
l.c 2.b 3. a 4.b 5.b 100+y
x 5060 = 4370 .-. y = -5%
Rule 58 100+10,
Theorem: By selling an article for RsA,a dealer makes a Here, -ve sign shows that there is a loss.
profit of x%. If lie wants to make profit of y%, then he 3. b

y- 100 + ^ 6 3 247.50
should increase his selling price by Rs and 4. b; Hint:
100 + x 100 + 5 J12 50
• y = - 1 % [-ve sign shows loss]
100+y .-. required answer = 1% loss
the selling price is given by Rs xA
100 + x
100+y ?
5. c; Hint: 77 = 63
Illustrative Example 100 + 10
Ex.: By selling an article for Rs 19.50 a dealer makes a
profit of 30%. By how much should he increase his [* = ^ o f o u t l a y = 100 = 10%]
selling price so as to make a profit of 40%. Find the
selling price also. .-. y = -10% .-. there is a loss of 10%.
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
Rule 59
40-30 Theorem: By selling an article for Rs A, a dealer makes a
increase in selling price 19.50 = Rs 1.5
100 + 30 loss of x%. If he wants to make a profit of y%, then he
and
x+ y
should increase his selling price by Rs and
100 + 40 lOO-x
the selling price :
19.50= Rs 21
100 + 30
'(100 + y
Exercise the selling price is given by Rs
100
1. By selling wheat at Rs 2.34 a kg a grocer gained 17%. At
what price should he have sold it to gain 20%? Illustrative Examples
a)Rsl.40 b)Rs2.40 c)Rs3.40 d)Rs3.50 Ex. 1: By selling an article for Rs 160 a dealer makes a loss of
2. A machine is sold for Rs 5060 at a gain of 10%. What 20%. By how much should he increase his selling
would have been gained or lost per cent i f it had been price so as to make a profit of 25%. Also find the
sold for Rs4370? selling price.
a) 5% loss b) 5% gain c) 22% gain d) 22% loss Soln: Following the above theorem, we have
3. A time piece is sold for Rs 64 at a gain of 28%. What
would be gained or lost per cent by selling it for Rs 47.50 25 + 20
P?
a) 4% profit b!5%loss c) 4% loss d) 5% profit increase in selling price = —— x 160 = Rs 90 and
4. By selling 12 kg of onions for Rs 63,1 gain 5%. What do the selling price : xl60 = Rs250
1 gain or lose per cent by selling 50 kg of the same on- 100-20
100 + 25
ions for Rs 247.50? Ex. 2: A man bought a certain quantity of rice at the rate of
a) 20% loss b) 1 % loss c) 5% loss d) 1% profit Rs 150 per quintal. 10% of the rice was spoiled. At
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what price should he sell the remaining to gain 20% Answers

of his outlay? l.c 2. a 3.d 4. a 5.c
Soln: "10% of the rice is spoiled" may be considered as i f
he bought the rice at 10% loss, ie if he sells the rice at
6 b-
o.o, Hint- ( ( j
Mini. m 0 0+ _
y 1 8 l>
^ 1 6 0 0

Rs 150 per quintal, 10% loss will occur. Now, applying

the above formula, we have
the selling price A o/ •
2 0 2

... V = — = 6 - % gain
100 + 20
Rs 150 R s l 5 0 x ^ ° - = Rs200 7. a
100-10 90
f \
Exercise 100+y
1. By selling salt at Rs 55.80 per quintal a dealer lost 7 per 8. c; Hint: x "60 = 77
100
cent. At what price should he have sold it to gain 7 per 100
cent?
a)Rs64 b)Rs 64.02 c)Rs 64.20 d)Rs 64.25
2. By selling a carriage for Rs 570,1 would lose 5%. At what x = I of outlay = - x 100 = — %
7 7 7
price must I sell it to gain 5%?
a)Rs630 b)Rs840 c)Rs420 d)Rs730 .-. y = 10% .-. required answer = 10% gain.
3. By selling a book for Rs 14 a book seller would lose 9.c

12—% . At what price should he sell it to gain 12*i% . Rule 60

Theorem: A dealer buys an item atx% discount on its origi-
a)Rsl6 b)Rs28 c)Rs24 d)Rsl8 nal price. If he sells it at a y% increase on the original
4. By selling clay at Rs 38 a kilogram, a dealer lost 5%. At
what price should he have sold it to gain 30%? y+x
price, then the per cent profit he gets is xlOO
a)Rs52 b)Rs78 c)Rs54 d)Rs64 100-

Illustrative Example
5. I f 6 — per cent is lost by selling an article for Rs 9.35, for
Ex: A dealer bought a horse at 20% discount on its origi-
what price should it be sold to gain 13%? nal price. He sold it at 40% increase on the original
a)Rsll b)Rs 12.30 c)Rs 11.30 d)Rs 13.30 price. What percentage profit did he get?
6. A horse is sold for Rs 1230 at a loss of 18%. What would Soln: Following the above theorem, we have
have been gained or lost per cent i f it had been sold for
Rsl600? dealer's profit per cent = ^ q ^ o x 1 0 0 = 7 5 % •

Exercise
a) y % loss
6 b) 6 y % gain
1. A dealer bought a horse at 10% discount on its original
price. He sold it at 20% increase on the original price.
c) 6—% gain d) Can't be determined What percentage profit did he get?

7. I f 13% is lost by selling goods for Rs 295.80, what would 3)33^% b)9^-% c)ll|% d)9j-%
be gained or lost per cent by selling them for Rs 323?
a) 5% loss b) 5% gain c) 3% loss d) 10% gain 2. A dealer bought a horse at 5% discount on its original
price. He sold it at 10% increase on the original price.
B E r ^ A U * w « > a itmj v\$L\m<- 1 What percentage profit did he get?
S. If by selling an article for Rs 60, a person loses — of his
outlay. What would he have gained or lost per cent by c) 7 — % d) 5—%
a) 5 f % b ) 5 f ' 19 19
selling it for Rs 77? ;

a) 20% gain b) 20% loss c) 10% gain d) 10% loss 3. A dealer bought a horse at 25% discount on its original
9. On selling an article for Rs 240, a trader loses 4%. In price. He sold it at 45% increase on the original price.
order to gain 10%, he must sell that article for What percentage profit did he get?
[NDA Exam, 1990] 1 2 1
a)Rs264.00 b)Rs273.20 c)Rs275.00 d)Rs280.00 a) 2 6 - % b) 1 6 - % C ) 9 3 - % d) Data inadequate
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250 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Answers turned to his hand.

l.a 2. b 3.c 810
.-. A's% loss = ^ x l 0 ° = 9 %

Rule 61
Theorem: If a trader buys an article atx% discount on its B gains Rs 810 (the same as A loses) and his invest-
original price and sells it at y% increase on the price he ment in this transaction is Rs 8100.
buys it, then the percentage of profit he makes on the origi-
.-. B's % gain = 100 = 10%
8100
nal price is y-x- Quicker Maths (direct formula): In such case,
100
the first buyer bears loss and his % of loss is given
Illustrative Example
% gain ( 1 0 0 - % loss)
Ex: A trader bought a car at 20% discount on its original by
100
price. He sold it at 40% increase on the price he bought
it. What percentage of profit did he make on the origi- 10(100-10)
nal price? In this case, A's loss% 9%
100
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have
40 x 20 9 ^
% profit = 4 0 - 2 0 — = 12%. and loss amount = 9000 [j^j =R 1 '

Exercise Exercise
1. A trader bought a car at 15% discount on its original 1. A horse worth Rs 16000 is sold by A to B at 5% loss. B
price. He sold it at 30% increase on the price he bought sells the horse back to A at 5% gain. Find the value of
it. What percentage of profit did he make on the original loss amount.
price? a)Rs860 b)Rs760 c)Rsl260 d)Rs960
a) 11.5% b) 10.5% c)ll% d) 10% 2. A horse worth Rs 12000 is sold by A to B at 15% loss. B
2. A trader bought a car at 10% discount on its original sells the horse back to A at 15% gain. Find the value of
price. He sold it at 20% increase on the price he bought loss amount.
it. What percentage of profit did he make on the original a)Rsl530 b)Rsl630 c)Rsl350 d)Rsl550
price? 3. A horse worth Rs 8000 is sold by A to B at 20% loss. B
a) 8% b)6% c)10% d) 12% sells the horse back to A at 20% gain. Find the value of
3. A trader bought a car at 5% discount on its original loss amount.
price. He sold it at 10% increase on the price he bought a)Rsl380 b)Rsl480 c ) R s l l 8 0 d)Rsl280
it. What percentage of profit did he make on the original 4. A horse worth Rs 5000 is sold by A to B at 25% loss. B
price? sells the horse back to A at 25% gain. Find the value of
a) 5.5% b)6.5% c)4.5% d)3.5% loss amount.
a) Rs 937.5 b)Rs938
c)Rs 938.5 d) Can't be determined
l.b 2.a 3.c
Rule 62 l.b 2. a 3.d 4. a
Ex: A horse worth Rs 9000 is sold by A to B at 10% loss.
B sells the horse back to A at 10% gain. Who gains Rule 63
and who loses? Find also the values. Theorem: A person marks his goods x% above the cost
Soln: Detail Method: price but allows y% discount for cash payment. If he sells
the article for Rs X, then the cost price is
(90)
A sells to B for Rs 9000 I T T T J =RS8100 100 100
100 + x 100- yj
110
Again, B sells to A for Rs 8100 = Rs8910 Illustrative Example
100
Ex: Satish marks his goods 25% above the cost price but
Thus, A loses Rs (8910 - 8100) = Rs 810.
allows 12.5% discount for cash payment. If he sells
In this whole transaction, A's investment is only Rs
the article for Rs 875, find his cost price.
9000 (the cost of the horse) because the horse re-
Profit and Loss 251
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Soln: Applying the above formula, we have the 3. A milkman buys some milk. If he sells it at Rs 8 a litre, he
100 Y 100 N
loses Rs 233, but when he sells it at Rs 9 a litre, he gains
cost price = 875 100 + 25 A 100-12.5 = Rs 800 Rs 317. How much milk did he purchase?
a) 550 litres b) 450 litres c) 600 litres d)_/>0liri
Exercise
1. Ramesh marks his goods 20% above the cost price but
l.c 2.b 3.a
allows 20% discount for cash payment. If he sells the
article for Rs 960, find his cost price. Rule 65
a)Rs800 b)Rs900
Ex: A fruit merchant makes a profit of 25% by selling
c) Rs 1000 d) Data inadequate
mangoes at a certain price. If he charges Re 1 more on
2. Rakesh marks his goods 10% above the cost price but
each mango, he would gain 50%. Find what price per
allows 10% discount for cash payment. I f he sells the
mango did he sell at first. Also find the cost price per
article for Rs 1980, find his cost price.
mango.
a)Rs3000 b)Rs2400 c)Rs2500 d)Rs2000
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the cost price of a mango be
3. Ritesh marks his goods 15% above the cost price but
Rsx.
allows 25% discount for cash payment. If he sells the
article for Rs 3450, find his cost price. 100 + 25 5x
a)Rs4000 b)Rs4200 c)Rs4300 d)Rs4125 Then, first selling price = Rs x Rs
100
4. Rishav marks his goods 30% above the cost price but
If he charges Re 1 more and gets 50% profit then
allows 30% discount for cash payment. If he sells the
there exists a relationship.
article for Rs 2730, find his cost price.
a)Rs3500 b)Rs2800 c)Rs2950 d)Rs3000 5x , (100 + 50^1 3x
— +\ x\ —
Answers 4 I 100 J 2
2.d 3.a 4.d
3x 5x .
Rule 64 <*> Y " T = 1

Ex. A milkman buys some milk. If he sells it at Rs 5 a litre, .-. x = R<= 4

he loses Rs 200, but when he sells it at Rs 6 a litre, he
.-. Cost price/mango = Rs 4
gains Rs 150. How much milk did he purchase?
Soln: Detail Method: Difference in selling price = Rs 6/litre f 125 Rs5.
-Rs5/litre = Re 1/litre. and first selling price = 41
If he increases the SP by Re 1/litre, he gets Rs 200 + Quicker Maths (direct formula):
Rsl50 = Rs350more.
100 x More charge
Rs350 Cost price = % D i f f e r e n c e i n p r o f i t and
.-. he purchased = 350 litres milk.
Re 1/litre
More charge (100 + % first profit)
Quicker Maths (direct formula) Selling price !
% Difference in profit
Quantity of milk
Thus in this case
Difference of amount 150 (-200)
Difference of rate 6-5 100x1 1x125
CP = Rs4,SP = Rs5.
50-25 50-25
350
= 350 litres. Exercise
1
1. A fruit merchant makes a profit of 15% by selling or-
Exercise anges at a certain price. I f he charges Rs 2 more on each
A milkman buys some milk. If he sells it at Rs 10 a litre, he orange, he would gain 35%. Find what price per orange
loses Rs 400, but when he sells it at Rs 12 a litre, he gains did he sell at first. Also find the cost price per orange.
Rs 300. How much milk did he purchase? a)Rsll.5,Rsl0 b)Rs 10.5, Rs 11
a) 360 litres b) 700 litres c) 350 litres d) 175 litres c)Rsl2,Rsll.5 d)Rsll.5,Rs9
1 A milkman buys some milk. I f he sells it at Rs 2 a litre, he 2. A fruit merchant makes a profit of 5% by selling apples
loses Rs 125, but when he sells it at Rs 7 a litre, he gains at a certain price. If he charges Rs 2 more on each apple,
Rs 125. How much milk did he purchase? he would gain 30%. Find what price per apple did he sell
a) 100 litres b) 50 litres c) 75 litres d) Data inadequate
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252 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

at first. Also find the cost price per apple, Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
a) Rs 8.4, Rs 6 b) Rs 8, Rs 6.4 12.5x9x14x2x11
c) Rs 8.4, Rs 8 d) None of these the required answer = Rs 462.
2.5x4x1.5x5
3. A fruit merchant makes a profit of 10% by selling ba-
nanas at a certain price. If he charges Re 1 more on each
Exercise
banana, he would gain 20%. Find what price per banana 1. 5 chairs cost as much as 12 stools, 7 stools as much as 2
did he sell at first. Also find the cost price per mango. tables, 3 tables as much as 2 sofas, if the cost of 5 sofas
a)Rs24,Rs20 b)Rsl2,Rsl0 be Rs 8750, find that of a chair.
c)Rs24,Rsl2 d)Rs20,RslO a)Rs800 b)Rs875
4. A fruit merchant makes a profit of 10% by selling man- c)Rs950 d) Can't be determined
goes at a certain price. I f he charges Re 1 more on each 2. I f 2 horses are worth 3 camels, and 9 camels are worth 10
mango, he would gain 25%. Find what price per mango bicycles and 100 bicycles are worth 3 motor cars, what is
did he sell at first. Also find the cost price per mango. the price of a horse, if a motor car costs Rs 192000?
a)Rs960 b)Rs9600 c)Rs320 d)Rs3200
1 2 3. If 3 cups cost as much as 2 plates and 9 plates as much
a)Rs 8 - , R s 6- b)Rs 8 - R S 6-
3 3 ' 3 3 as 2 kettles and one kettle as much as 3 dishes, what is
the price of a cup, if a dish costs Rs 13.50?
c)Rs 6 y , R S 5- d) Can't be determined a)Rs6 b)Rs3 c)Rs9 d)Rsl2
4. A gets Rs 3 as often as B gets Rs 4, B gets Rs 5 as often
Answers as C gets Rs 6, C gets Rs 8 as often as D gets Rs 15, if A
gets Rs 3.25, what will D get?
l.a 2.c 3.b 4. a
a)Rs9.50 b)Rs9.25
Rule 66 c)Rs9.75 d) Can't be determined
Theorem: The rule of column: x kg of milk costs as much as 5. 10 kg of rice costs as much as 20 kg of wheat, 25 kg of
y kg of rice, z kg of rice costs as much as p kg ofpulse, w kg wheat costs as much as 2 kg of tea, 5 kg of tea costs as
of pulse costs as much as t kg of wheat, u kg of wheat costs much as 25 kg of sugar. Find the cost of 6 kg of sugar if
as much as v kg of edible oil. Ifn kg of milk costs Rs A, then 4 kg of rice costs Rs 32.
a)Rs60 b)Rs50 c)Rs65 d)Rs45
Axxxzxwxuxm
the cost of m kg of edible oil is Rs 6. 20 kg of potato costs as much as 5 kg of tomato, 12 kg of
nxyxpxtxv tomato costs as much as 30 kg of onion, 15 kg of onion
Note: 1 x kg of milk costs as much as y kg of rice, z kg of costs as much as 18 kg of cabbage. I f 10 kg of cabbage
rice costs as much as p kg of pulse, w kg ofpulse costs Rs 50. Find the cost of 24 kg of potato.
costs as much as t kg of wheat, u kg of wheat costs a)Rs90 b)Rs72 c)Rsl08 d)Rs96
as much as v kg of edible oil. If k kg of edible oil Answers
costs Rs B, then the cost of n kg of milk is Rs 1. a; Hint: See Note:
Bxvxtxpxyxn x rupees = 1 chair
kxuxwxzxx 5 chairs = 12 stools
7 stools = 2 tables
Ex.: 9 kg of rice costs as much as 4 kg of sugar, 14 kg of
3 tables = 2 sofas
sugar costs as much as 1.5 kg of tea, 2 kg of tea costs
5 sofas = Rs 8750
as much as 5 kg of coffee. Find the cost of 2.5 kg of
rice, i f 11 kg of coffee costs Rs 462. 1x12x2x2x875 o n n

Soln: Applying the above theorem, • x= • 800

5x7x3x5
.-. the price of a chair si Rs 800.
462x2.5x4x1.5x5 „ ,„ „, 2. b; Hint: Here cost of one motor car is given as Rs 192000
= = Rs 12.50
11x2x14x9 .-. cost of 3 motor cars is as Rs 192000 x 3.
2. For detail please consult "Magical Book on 1x3x10x3x192000
.-. required answer = -—-—— = Rs 9600
Quicker Maths" 2x9x100
Illustrative Example 3.a 4.c
Ex: 9 kg of rice costs as much as 4 kg of sugar, 14 kg of
sugar costs as much as 1.5 kg of tea, 2 kg of tea costs 10x25x5x6x32
5. a; Hint: Cost of 6 kg of sugar = — _ _,—:— =Rs60
as much as 5 kg of coffee, find the cost of 11 kg of 20x2x25x4
coffee, if 2.5 kg of rice costs Rs 12.50.
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5x30x18x50x24 Illustrative Examples

a; Hint: Cost of 24 kg of potato : Ex. 1: Each of the two cars is sold at the same price. A profit
20x12x15x10
of 10% is made on the first and a loss of 7% is made
R&90.
on the second. What is the combined loss or gain?
Soln: By the theorem, we have
Rule 67
rheorem: A person saves x% of his income. If his income 1 0 0 ( l 0 - 7 ) - 2 x l 0 x 7 _ 160,
% gain as the sign is
ncreases byy% and he decides to save z% of his increased 200 + 1 0 - 7 203
ftcome, then the per cent by which his saving is increased +ve.
Ex.2: Each of the two horses is sold for Rs 720. The first
100+ v
given by 100 one is sold at 25% profit and the other one at 25%
loss. What is the % loss or gain in this deal?
ate: If he sticks to his previous saving habit ofx% then by Soln: Detail Method: Total selling price of two horses = 2 x
the direct formula, 720 = Rs 1,440
100
100 + y The CP of first horse = 720 x — =Rs576
% increase in saving = \ x
100
100
=iy%, which is same as the percentage increase in The CP of second horse = 720 x — = Rs 960
income. Total CP of two horses = 576 + 960 = Rs 1,536
•lustrative Example Therefore, loss = Rs 1,536-Rs 1,440 = Rs 96
ilx: A person saves 10% of his income. I f his income in- 96x100
creases by 20% and he decides to save 15% of his % loss : : 6.25%
1536
income, by what per cent has his saving increased?
Direct Formula: (See theorem; note):
ffh: Applying the above rule, we have the
In this type of question where SP is given and profit
(100 + 20)15-10x100 and loss percentage are same, there is always loss
% increase in saving = = 80%
10 and the

rcise (25) 2 _ 625

% loss = = 6.25%
A person saves 20% of his income. I f his income in- 100 100
creases by 40% and he decides to save 30% of his in- [The above example is a special case when percent-
come, by what per cent has his saving increased? age values of loss and gain are the same.]
- ^0% b) 100% c)160% d)110% Note: 1. In the special case when P = L we have
A person saves 25% of his income. I f his income in-
100xQ-2P'
.-eases by 15% and he decides to save 24% of his in-
come, by what per cent has his saving increased? 200 100
0% b)15% c)10.4% d) 10.5% Since the sign is -ve, there is always loss and the
A person saves 15% of his income. I f his income in-
(% value) 2

creases by 25% and he decides to save 20% of his in- value is given as
come, by what per cent has his saving increased? 100
2. When each of the two commodities is sold at the
ja)66-% b) 66^-% c) 33~% d) 3 3 ^ % same price Rs A, and a profit of P % is made on the
first and a profit of L % is made on the second, then
\00(P + L)+2PL
the percentage gain is
i 2.c j.a (IOO + />)+(IOO+Z,)'
Rule 68 Ex: A man sells two articles, each for the same price Rs
500. He earns 25% profit on the first and 15% profit
trim: When each of the two commodities is sold at the
on the second. Find his overall per cent profit.
trice RsA, and a profit of P% is made on thefirst and
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have
of L % is made on the second, then the percentage
% profit
]Q0(P-L)-2PL
r loss is (]00 + />) + (l00-Z,) a c c o r d i " S to the+ve or 100(25 + 1 5 ) + 2 x 2 5 x l 5 _ 4750
•19.79%
(l00 + 25) + (l00 + 15) ~ 240
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254 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATH

3. When each of the two commodities is sold at the

/ixl00x(l00+y)
same price Rs A and a profit of P% is made on the = Rs-
first and a profit of P% is made on the second, then p n c e ™(ioo) -(ioo+yXioo-x)
2

the percentage gain is [P%].

Difference in profit x 100 x (lOO + y)
Ex.: A man sells two articles, each for the same price Rs
or (ioo) -(ioo+vXioo-x)
300. He earns 20% profit on the first and 20% profit 2

on the second. Find is overall per cent profit.

Illustrative Example
Soln: Following the above theorem, we have
Ex: Rakesh calculates his profit percentage on the sell
the required per cent profit = 20%
price whereas Ramesh calculates his profit on the cc
Exercise price. They find that the difference of their profits
1. A man sells two goats at Rs 120 each and by doing so he Rs 150. I f the selling price of both of them are I
gains 15% on one goat and loses 15% on the other. same, and Rakesh gets 25% profit and Ramesh ge
What is the % loss or gain in this deal? 20% profit, then find their selling price.
a) 22.5% gain b) 2.25% gain Soln: Applying the above formula, we have the
c)2.25%loss d)2.25%gain
150xlQ0x(l00 + 20)
2 A person sells two horses at Rs 240 each and by doing
so he gains 27% on one goat and loses 27% on the S e l l i n g p d c e = (l00) 2 -(100 + 20X100-25)
other. What is the % loss or gain in this deal?
150x100x120
a) 7.29% gain b) 7.29% lossc) 8.29% loss d) 6.29% loss = Rsl800
A man sells two articles, each for the same price Rs 890. 100x100-120x75
He earns 20% profit on the first and 14% profit on the Note: A person calculates his profit percentage on the s-.
second. Find his overall per cent profit. ingprice where the other person calculates hisp r

on the cost price. They find that the different

0/
1 6 0 3 2 0 0/ their profits is Rs A. If the selling price of boi
loss
a) % gain b) % them are the same and both of them gets x% pr
' 203 ; 203
20 - 40 . ^ x l 0 0 x ( l 0 0 + .n
c) % gain d) — % gam then the selling price = Rs ^
K)3
4. A man sells two articles, each for the same price Rs 640.
Difference in profit x 100 x (l 00 + x)
He earns 20% profit on the first and 10% profit on the 2
second. Find his overall per cent profit. x
a) 14.78% b) 14.08% c) 14.58% d) None of these Ex: Rakesh calculates his profit percentage on the se.
5. A man sells two articles, each for the same price Rs 550. price whereas Ramesh calculates his on the cost i
He earns 25% profit on the first and 35% profit on the They find that the difference of their profits is Rs
second. Find his overall per cent profit. I f the selling price of both of them are the sam;
a) 29.8% b)29% c)30.6% d)30.8% both of them get 25% profit, find their selling
A man sells two houses at the rate ofRs 1.995 lakh each. Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the selling price for
On one he gains 5% and on the other he loses 5%. His them is Rs x.
gain or loss per cent in the whole transaction is: 100-25
[Central Excise & I . Tax 1988) Now, cost price of Rakesh =
100
a) 0.25% loss b) 0.25% gain
c) 2.5% loss d) neither loss nor gain
100
Answers and cost price of Ramesh = *|
100 + 25,
l.c 2.b 3.c 4. a 5.a
6. a; Hint: See 'note' in the given rule. 3 x
Rakesh's profit = x — x = —
4 4
Rule 69
Theorem: A person calculates his percentage on the sell- 4 x
ing price whereas the other person calculates his profit on Ramesh's profit = x - — x - —
the cost price. They find that the difference of their profits
is Rs A. If the selling price of both of them are the same, and Now, difference of their profits
one gets x% profit and the other getsy% profit then selling Rs 100 (given)
4 5
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Rule 70
or, = 100
20 Theorem: A man sells two items for Rs A. The cost price of
thefirst is equal to the selling price of the second. If the first
.-. x = Rs2000
is sold atx% loss and the second aty% gain, then the total
Thus selling price = Rs 2000
Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have
100 2

Diff.in profitxl00x(l00 + 25) (l00-x)-

100 + y
the selling price : gain or loss is Rs x A according as
(25f !00 + ( l 0 0 - x )
100x100x125
Rs2000.
25x25
the +ve or -ve sign.
Exercise Illustrative Example
Sunil calculates his profit percentage on the selling price
Ex: A man sells two horses for Rs 1710. The cost price of
whereas Sujeet calculates his profit on the cost price.
the first is equal to the selling price of the second. If
They find that the difference of their profits is Rs 900. I f
the first is sold at 10% loss and the second at 25%
the selling price of both of them are the same, and Sunil
gain, what is his total gain or loss (in rupees)?
gets 50% profit and Sujeet gets 40% profit, then find
Soln: Detail Method: We suppose that the cost price of the
their selling price.
first horse is Rs 100. Then we arrange our values in a
a)Rs4200 b)Rs4500 c)Rs4000 d)Rs4800
tabular form:
I Ajay calculates his profit percentage on the selling price
1st horse 2nd horse Total
whereas Vijay calculates his profit on the cost price. They
find that the difference of their profits is Rs 130. If the 100
CP 100 100 80 180
selling price of both of them are the same, and Ajay gets 125
15% profit and Vijay gets 10% profit, then find their sell-
ing price. 90
a)Rs220 b)Rs2200 c)Rs2300 d)Rs230 SP 10( \i^J ° = 9 ioo 190
I Pankaj calculates his profit percentage on the selling
.-.CP:SP= 180:190=18:19
price whereas Chandan calculates his profit on the cost
price. They find that the difference of their profits is Rs
• Profit = 1 9 ~ 1 8 xl710=Rs90
135. If the selling price of both of them are the same, and
Pankaj gets 30% profit and Chandan gets 25% profit, Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have
then find their selling price.
a)Rsl250 b)Rsll50 c)Rsl450 d)Rsl350 100
(IOO-IO)-IOO!
Vineet calculates his profit percentage on the selling price 100 + 25
profit = xl710
whereas Roshan calculates his profit on the cost price. 100 + (l00-10)
They find that the difference of their profits is Rs 275. I f
the selling price of both of them are the same, and Vineet 90-80
xl710 = Rs 90
gets 25% profit and Roshan gets 15% profit, then find 190
their selling price.
a)Rs2350 b)Rs2300 Exercise
c)Rs2100 d)Rs2250 1. A man sells two horses for Rs 1850. The cost price of the
Miheer calculates his profit percentage on the selling first is equal to the selling price of the second. If the first
price whereas Safya calculates his profit on the cost is sold at 15% loss and the second at 25% gain, what is
price. They find that the difference of their profits is Rs his total gain or loss (in rupees)?
110. If the selling price of both of them are the same, and a) Rs 50 loss b) Rs 500 loss
Miheer gets 10% profit and Satya gets 5% profit, then c) Rs 50 gain d) Rs 500 gain
"~nd their selling price. 2. A man sells two horses for Rs 1950. The cost price of the
a)Rs2200 b)Rs2250 first is equal to the selling price of the second. If the first
c)Rsl750 d)Rs2100 is sold at 5% loss and the second at 25% gain, what is
his total gain or loss (in rupees)?
Answers a) Rs 150 loss b)Rs 150 gain
2.b J.d 4.b 5.d
c) Rs 250 gain d) None of these
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256 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

3. A man sells two horses for Rs 1475. The cost price of the a)Rs4000 b)Rs2000 c)Rs4500 d)Rs2500
first is equal to the selling price of the second. If the first 2. A dealer sells a horse for Rs 460, making a profit of 15° c
is sold at 20% loss and the second at 25% gain, what is He sells another horse at a loss of 5%, and on the whole
his total gain or loss (in rupees)? he makes neither profit nor loss. What did the secon;
a) Rs 60 loss b) Rs 60 gain horse cost him?
c) Rs 80 gain d) Neither gain nor loss a)Rsl200 b)Rsl250
4. A man sells two horses for Rs 11900. The cost price of c)Rsll00 d) None of these
the first is equal to the selling price of the second. If the 3. A dealer sells an ox for Rs 1260, making a profit of 2 0 V
first is sold at 30% loss and the second at 25% gain, He sells another ox at a loss of 10%, and on the whole he
what is his total gain or loss (in rupees)? makes neither profit nor loss. What did the second ox
a) Rs 600 loss b) Rs 700 loss cost him?
c) Rs 750 gain d) Rs 700 gain a)Rs2000 b)Rs2200
5. A man sells two horses for Rs 1760. The cost price of the c) Rs 2100 d) Data inadequate
first is equal to the selling price of the second. If the first 4. A dealer sells a goat for Rs 260, makjng a profit of 30 > c

is sold at 24% loss and the second at 25% gain, what is He sells another goat at a loss of 20%, and on the whole
his total gain or loss (in rupees)? he makes neither profit nor loss. What did the second
a) Rs 40 gain b) Rs 40 loss goat cost him?
c) Rs 60 loss d) Neither loss nor gain a)Rs300 b)Rs360 c)Rs350 d)Rs290
5. A dealer sells a table for Rs 405, making a profit o f ?

He sells another table at a loss of 30%, and on the whce

l.c 2.b 3.d 4.b 5.b
he makes neither profit nor loss. What did the secor
Rule 71 table cost him?
Theorem: If a dealer sells an item for Rs A, making a profit a)Rs360 b)Rs350 c)Rs340 d)Rs300
ofx%, and he sells another item at a loss ofy%, and on the Answers
whole he makes neither profit nor loss, then the cost of the l.b 2.a 3.c 4.a 5.b
100 Rule 72
second table is Rs
\00 + x)y
Theorem: If a discount of x, % is given on the marked p
Illustrative Example of an article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of P%. If he offc
Ex: A dealer sells a table for Rs 400, making a profit of a discount of x % on the same article, then his per c
2

25%. He sells another table at a loss of 10%, and on

the whole he makes neither profit nor loss. What did
profit is given by (l 00 + P) ^ * 2 100.
the second table cost him? 100-x,
Soln: Detail Method: Profit on the first table
In other words, required % profit
= 4 0 0 f ^ = Rs80 100 -%2nd discount
{\25 = (l 00 + % profit) - -100
100 -%\st discount
He loses Rs 80 on the second table (since there is
neither profit nor loss) Illustrative Example
80 Ex.: If a discount of 10% is given on the marked price'
.-. Cost price of second table : 100 = Rs 800 an article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 20%. F
10'
his % profit if he offers a discount of 20% on the sa
Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have article.
cost price of the second table Soln: Detail Method:
lOOY 25 s Suppose the marked price = Rs 100
400 = Rs 800
.125 A T O . Then selling price at 10% discount = Rs (100 - 1G
= Rs90
Exercise
Since he gets 20% profit, his cost price
1. A dealer sells a chair for Rs 600, making a profit of 20%.
He sells another chair at a loss of 5%, and on the whole
= 9of—^ = Rs75
\e makes neither profit nor loss. What did the second (,120
\chaircost him?
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Profit and Loss 257

Now, at 20% discount, the selling price = Rs (100 - 20) individual cost price of the cow and the calf.
= Rs80 Soln: Quicker Method: (i) For cost of cow:
Thus his % profit Cow Calf
(1) 110%+ 125% = 760
80-75 500 20
XlOO: (2) 125%+ 110% = 767.5
75 75 3
Quicker Method: Applying the above rule 125% of 767.5 -110% of 760
Cost of cow
(l25%) -(l!0%)
2 2

the required % profit = (l 00 + 20^ ' ' ' ' ' ' •100
1 2

100-10
5-x 767.5 - — x 760
320 20 4 10
-100 = -100 = — = 6 - %
1.90 3 3 3 ' (1.25) -(L1)
2 2

Exercise
1. I f a discount of 15% is given on the marked price of an
959.375-836 123.375
article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 30%. Find his % Rs350.
profit if he offers a discount of 30% on the same article. (l.25 + l . l X l . 2 5 - l . l ) 2.35x0.15
(ii) For cost of calf:
a) 7 — % c) 1 7 - % d) 17-9Vo Cow Calf
' 17 (1) SP 110%+ 125% = 760
(2) SP 125%+110% 767.5
If a discount of 12—% is given on the marked price of
125% of 760 -110% of 767.5
an article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 25%. Find his Cost of calf=
(125%) -(110)
2 2

% profit i f he offers a discount of 25% on the same ar-

ticle. 950-844.25
2.35x0.15 Rs300.
2 5 1
a)7y% b) 7 ^ % c )7y% d) Data inadequate Exercise
1. A farmer sold a horse and a mule for Rs 1520 and got a
If a discount of 5% is given on the marked price of an profit of 20% on the horse and 50% on the mule. I f he
article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 10%. Find his % sells the horse and the mule for Rs 1535 and gets a profit
profit if he offers a discount of 10% on the same article. of 50% on the horse and 20% on the mule, find the indi-

•>
vidual cost price of the horse and the mule.
a) 4 — % b) 4 - % z) 4 — % a) Rs 590.74, Rs 540.74 b) Rs 590.84, Rs 540.84
; 19 ; 19 4
c) Rs 580.74, Rs 550.74 d) Can't be determined
If a discount of 15% is given on the marked price of an
2. A farmer sold a cow and a ox for Rs 800 and got a profit
article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 25%. Find his %
of 20% on the cow and 25% on the ox. If he sells the cow
profit if he offers a discount of 20% on the same article.
and the ox for Rs 820 and gets a profit of 25% on the cow
0/
1 0 0 0/
3 0 0 o/ 3 0 0 and 20% on the ox, find the individual cost price of the
a) b) %
7 % d) 17 %
W
17 c) 7 % _ / cow and the ox.
If a discount of 20% is given on the marked price of an a) Rs 530.6, Rs 130.6 (Approx)
article, the shopkeeper gets a profit of 30%. Find his % b) Rs531.5,Rsl35.5(Approx)
profit if he offers a discount of 25% on the same article. c) Rs 515.6, Rs 115.6 (Approx)
d) Cannot be determined
a) 2 1 - % b)ll-% c) 2l -% 7
l.a 2.a
\nswers
i. a 2.c 3.d 4.d 5.c Rule 74
Theorem: An article is sold at a certain price. If there is a
Rule 73 1
Ex: A farmer sold a cow and a calf for Rs 760 and got a
profit of 10% on the cow and 25% on the calf. I f he loss of x% when the article is sold at — of the previous
sells the cow and the calf for Rs 767.50 and gets a selling price, then the percentage profit is [n(\0 - x) -100]
profit of 25% on the cow and 10% on the calf, find the
or [«(l 00 - % loss)-100].
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258 PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

Ex: What will be the percentage profit after selling an l.b 2.a 3.a 4.d 5.c
article at a certain price i f there is a loss of 12V4%
when the article is sold at half of the previous selling Rule 75
price? Ex: 5% more is gained by selling a cow for Rs 1010 than
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the previous selling price = by selling it for Rs 1000. Find the cost price of the
Re v cow.
Soln: Detail Method: Suppose the cost price = Rs x
-A
Now, the later selling price = Rs — 100-x ' . 1010-x . ] n

Then xl00 + 5= xlOO

1 x
There is a loss of 12 — % when selling price = —
2 2 100
or, — [ l 0 1 0 - x - 1 0 0 0 + x] = 5
x
x( 100 ^ _ lOOx _ 4x
• cost price = 2 ^ ^ " " 100
1 7 5 7
or, (10) = 5
x
Now, when selling price is Rs x, % profit .-. x = Rs200
Quicker Method:
4x 5% of cost price = Rs (1010 - 1000) = Rs 10
x - 10x100
7 xl00= 7 *~ 4 X x l 0 0 = - x l 0 0 = 75% • CP = = Rs200.
4x 4x
Direct Formula:
7
Quicker Method: lOOxDiff.inSP 100x10
Cost price :
Required % profit = 100-2 x % loss [•.• Here, n = 2 % diff. in profit or loss 5
.-. n(100-x)-100 = 2 0 0 - 2 x - 1 0 0 Rs200.
= 100 - 2x or, 100 - 2 x % loss.]
Exercise
= 100-2 x 1 2 - = 100-25 1. 10% more is gained by selling an ox for Rs 750 than b\
2
selling it for Rs 730. Find the cost price of the ox.
= 75%.
a)Rs250 b)Rs300 c)Rs200 d)Rsl50
Exercise 2. 12% more is gained by selling a goat for Rs 248 than b>
1. What will be the percentage profit after selling an article selling it for Rs 224. Find the cost price of the goat.
at a certain price if there is a loss of 40% when the article a)Rs200 b)Rsl00 c)Rsl50 d)Rs250
is sold at 1/3 rd of the previous selling price? 3. 15% more is gained by selling a camel for Rs 1260 than
a) 20% b)80% c)75% d)60% by selling itforRs 1215. Find the cost price ofthecame!
2. What wi 11 be the percentage profit after selling an article a)Rs350 b)Rs300 c)Rs250 d)Rs325
at a certain price if there is a loss of 30% when the article 4. 16% more is gained by selling a cow for Rs 760 than bj
is sold at half of the previous selling price? selling it for Rs 720. Find the cost price of the cow.
a) 40% b)30% c)50% d)35% a)Rs250 b)Rs300
3. What will be the percentage profit after selling an article c)Rs200 d) Not possible
at a certain price if there is a loss of 35% when the article 5. 20% more is gained by selling a horse for Rs 800 than b>
is sold at half of the previous selling price? selling it for Rs 880. Find the cost price of the horse.
a) 30% b)25% c)35% d)20% a)Rs400 b)Rs300
4. What will be the percentage profit after selling an article c) Rs 500 d) Not possible
at a certain price if there is a loss of 25% when the article Answers
is sold at half of the previous selling price? l.c 2.a 3.b 4.a
a) 45% b)60% c)55% d)50% 5. d; Hint: 20% more can not be gained by selling a horse
5. What will be the percentage profit after selling an article for Rs 800 than Rs 880. Hence, it is not possible.
at a certain price if there is a loss of 60% when the article
1 Rule 76
is sold at — th of the previous selling price? Theorem: A shopkeeper uses a false scale (or weight) ft
a) 65% b)80% c)60% d) Can't be determined selling and purchasing an article. If, on purchasing, he
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Profit and Loss 259

deceives the seller by x% and on selling, he deceives the pen by 2 times. Initial gain per cent is given as 5%. Find
customer byy%, then the overall per cent gain in the whole out the new gain per cent.
"(l00 + ;r)(l00 + y ) a) 10% b) 110% c)170% d) 140%
transaction is -100 2. A shopkeeper increases the original selling price of a
100
pen by 2 times. Initial gain per cent is given as 15%. Find
Illustrative Example out the new gain per cent.
Ev: A shopkeeper, on purchasing, deceives the seller by a) 130% b)30% c)140% d)40%
20% and on selling, deceives the customer by 30%. 3. A shopkeeper increases the original selling price of a
What is the overall per cent gain in the whole trans-
action? pen by 3 times. Initial gain per cent is given as 2—% .
- 'In:
Applying the above theorem, we have
Find out the new gain per cent.
(100 + 20X100 + 30)--100 = 56% a) 192°, b)207.5% c) 193.5% d) 194.5%
7o gain :
100 4. A shopkeeper increases the original selling price of a
Exercise pen by 2 times. Initial gain per cent is given as 20%. Find
out the new gain per cent,
1. A shopkeeper, on purchasing, deceives the seller by
a) 120% b)20% c)140% d)40%
10% and on selling, deceives the customer by 5%. What
is the overall per cent gain in the whole transaction? Answers
a) 15.5% b) 15% l.b 2.a 3.b 4.c
c) 25.5% d) Neither lose nor gain
E A shopkeeper, on purchasing, deceives the seller by Rule 78
15% and on selling, deceives the customer by 10%. What Theorem: If a person sells ri\ of the property at Xi %
is the overall per cent gain in the whole transaction?
a) 26.25% b)26.6% c)26.5% d)26% gain, n partof the property at x
2 2 % gain and the remain-
? A shopkeeper, on purchasing, deceives the seller by
ing part at x % loss, then the over all gain or loss per cent
3

10% and on selling, deceives the customer by 20%. What

is the overall per cent gain in the whole transaction? is given by «,x, + n x + « (- x ) according as the +ve or -
2 2 3 3

a) 32% b)33% c)31% d)26%

ve sign. Here, «, + n +n 2 3 = the whole part.
I A shopkeeper, on purchasing, deceives the seller by
20% and on selling, deceives the customer by 25%. What Note: This formula is applicable to any number of parts of
is the overall per cent gain in the whole transaction? the property, incurring different % gain and % loss
a) 25% b)40% * c)60% d)50% on each part and when overall % gain or % loss is to
; A shopkeeper, on purchasing, deceives the seller by be found out. Put +ve for profit and -ve sign for loss
25% and on selling, deceives the customer by 30%. What in the formula.
is the overall per cent gain in the whole transaction? Illustrative Example
a) 62.2% b)62.5% c)72.5% d)63.2%
Answers Ex: A person sells — th part of his property at 20% gain,
l.a 2.c J. a 4.d 5.b

Rule 77 rd part of the property at 2 1 % gain and the remain-

3
T heorem: A shopkeeper increases the original selling price ing part at 12% loss what is the overall % gain or %
n times. If initial gain per cent isx%, then the new gain loss incurred by him.
\is [(l 00 + JC)« -100]. Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
1 2 1
Illustrative Example % gain or % loss = - x 20 + - x 21 + — x (-12)
Ex.: A shopkeeper increases the original selling price of a = 5 + 1 4 - 1 = 18%.
pen by 3 times. Initial gain per cent is given as 5%. -ve sign indicates that there is a loss in transaction.
Find out the new gain per cent. .-. %loss= 18%
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
new gain per cent = ( 100 + 5) 3 - 100 = 215%. Exercise

Exercise
1. A merchant buys 1260 kg of corn, — of which he sells at
I A shopkeeper increases the original selling price of a
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260 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

From the question, we have

1
a gain of 5 per cent, — at a gain of 8 per cent, and the 103
1 1 % - — % = Rs 72.80
remainder at a gain of 12 per cent. I f he had sold the 10
whole at a gain of 10 per cent, he would have gained Rs
27.30 more. Find the cost price per kg. or — % = Rs 72.80
• 10
a)Rs2 b)Rs2.5 c)Rs3 d)Rs3.5
2. A merchant buys 4000 kg of wheat, one-fifth of which he .-. 100% = Rs 10400 = cost price
sells at a gain of 5 per cent, one-fourth at a gain of 10%, 10400
one-half at a gain of 12 per cent, and the remainder at a .-. cost price of the corn per k g :
= Rs2.60
4000
gain of 16 per cent. I f he had sold the whole at a gain of
3.c 4.b
11 per cent, he would have made Rs 72.80 more. What
was the cost price of the corn per kg? Rule 79
a)Rs2 b)Rs2.60 c)Rs2,50 d) None of these
Theorem: If a merchant, by selling his goods, has a gain of
1 x% of the selling price, then his real gain per cent on the
3. A person sells — rd part of his property at 15% gain,

cost price is -xlOO

1 100-x
~ th part of the property at 12% gain and the remaining
6 Note: Real profit per cent is always calculated on cost price
part at 10% loss what is the overall % gain or % loss and real prcfit per cent is always more than the %
incurred by him. profit on selling price.
a) 2% loss b) 12% gain c) 2% gain d) 2.5% gain Illustrative Example
1 Ex: I f a merchant estimates his profit as 20% of the selling
4. A person sells — th part of his property at 25% gain, price, what is his real profit per cent?
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have
— th part of the property at 25% gain and the remaining [ 20
-xlOO =25%.
the real gain per cent = JQQ_2O %

part at 25% loss what is the overall % gain or % loss

incurred by him. Exercise
a) 5% loss b) 5% gain 1. I f a merchant estimates his profit as 25% of the selling
c) 25% gain d) None of these price, what is his real profit per cent?

a)20% b) 3 3 y % C ) 16_|% d)25%
t 1 „ 1 5 107
l.a; Hint: % profit = 5 X 4 + 8 X 3 + 1 2 x ] 2 ~ ~KT
= 2. I f a merchant estimates his profit as 15% of the selling
price, what is his real profit per cent?
From the question,
107 a) 1 7 — % b) 1 1 — % c)17—% d)7—%
10% - % = Rs 27.30 ; 17 ; 17 ; 17 ; 17
12 3. I f a merchant estimates his profit as 5% of the selling
price, what is his real profit per cent?
or, — % = Rs 27.30
12
a) 5—% M 6—%
2730x12 >
a 1 9 u> 1 9
c ) 5 ii % d ) l 9 j9 %

100%: Rs 2520 = cost price

13 I f a merchant estimates his profit as 10% of the selling
price, what is his real profit per cent?
2520
.-. cost price of corn per k g : Rs2 1
1260 a)H~% b ) l l | % c)9U d)ll-%

2. b; Hint: % profit = y * 5 + ^ - x l 0 + ^-x 12 + ^ x 1 6 5. I f a merchant estimates his profit as 30% of the selling
price, what is his real profit per cent?
103
% a)42|% b) 43-|% C ) « | % d)43^-%
To"
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Profit and Loss

6. A man purchased a watch for Rs 400 and sold it at a gain Rule 81

of 20% of the selling price. The selling price of the watch
Theorem: If a merchant, by selling A' articles gains the
is: [Clerks' Grade Exam 1990]
selling price of n articles, then the gain per cent is
a)Rs300 b)Rs320 c)Rs440 d)Rs500
n
N-n
l.b 2. a 3.c 4.d 5.a
Illustrative Example
20
6.d; Real gain per cent :
-xl00 = 25% Ex: By selling 66 metres of cloth, I gain the selling price of
100-20 22 metres. Find the gain per cent.
Soln: Following the above formula, we have
Selling price = 4 0 0 (^ 0 1 ) = R s 5 0 0
22
gain % = -xl00 = 50%
66-22

Rule 80 Exercise
Theorem: If a merchant, by selling his goods, has a loss of 1. By selling 15 metres of cloth, I gain the selling price of 7
x%, of the selling price, then his real loss per cent on the metres. Find the gain per cent.
a) 77.5% b)87.5% c)37.5% d) None of these
xlOO 2. By selling 75 metres of cloth, I gain the selling price of 25
cost price is
100 + ; metres. Find the gain per cent.

Illustrative Example a) 33~% b)50% c)25% d)45%

Ex: If a merchant estimates his loss as 10% of the selling
3. By selling 25 metres of cloth, I gain the selling price of 5
price, what is his real loss per cent? metres. Find the gain per cent.
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have the a) 20% b)25% c)24% d) 16%
real loss per cent = — — — x l 0 0 = 9—% Answers
100 + 10 11
l.b 2.b 3.b
Note: Real loss % (ie per cent loss on cost price) is always
less than % loss on selling price.
Rule 82
Exercise Theorem: If a merchant, by selling N articles, loses the
I. I f a merchant estimates his loss as 5% of the selling selling price of n articles, then the loss per cent is
price, what is his real loss per cent?
-xlOO %
N +n
a) 4 — % b) 4 ^ 0 / c) 3 — % d) None of these
; 21 ' 21 21 Illustrative Example
If a merchant estimates his loss as 15% of the selling Ex: By selling 66 metres of cloth, I lose the selling price of
price, what is his real loss per cent? 22 metres. Find the loss per cent.
Soln: Applying the above theorem, we have
i) 13 — % b) 23±% c) 1 3 - % d) 22
' 23 25 23
loss % = 2 2 x 100 = 25%
I f a merchant estimates his loss as 20% of the selling 66 + 22
price, what is his real loss per cent? Exercise
1 1. By selling 75 metres of cloth, I lose the selling price of 25
a) 1 4 - % b) 2 6 - < ;) 1 6 - % d) 9—% metres. Find the loss per cent.
3 ~' 3 ' 11
If a merchant estimates his loss as 25% of the selling a)20% b) 3 3 y % c )25% d) None of these
price, what is his real loss per cent?
a) 30% b)24% c)25% d)20% 2. By selling 85 metres of cloth, I lose the selling price of 15
If a merchant estimates his loss as 30% of the selling metres. Find the loss per cent.
a) 12% b) 15% c)18% d)20%
price, what is his real loss per cent?
3. By selling 60 metres of cloth, I lose the selling price of 30
]_ _2_
) 23~% b) 2 3 ^ % ) ' ^y 3 0 / / ° d) None of these metres. Find the loss per cent.
13 13
Answers a)33y% b ) 16y% c)33|% d )50%
l.b 2. a 3.c 4.d 5. a
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262 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

4. By selling 48 metres of cloth, I lose the selling price of 12 4ioo-*)

metres. Find the loss per cent. Selling Price
:

100
a) 24% b)20% c)25% d) Can't be determined (Marked Price - Selling Price = Customer's saving on
marked price due to discount) = Rs 80, given)
A(\00-x)
l.c 2.b 3.a 4.b A-- Rs 80
100
Rule 83 or, A = Rs500
Theorem: If a merchant, by selling N articles, gains or loses 500(100-16)
.-. Selling Price = 1 =Rs420.
the cost price ofn articles, the gain or loss per cent is given

by the 100 Exercise

N 1. How much per cent above the cost price should a shop-
Illustrative Example keeper mark his goods so as to earn a profit of 26% after
Ex: By selling 66 metres of cloth a person gains the cost allowing a discount of 10% on the marked price.
price of 22 metres. Find the gain per cent. a) 40% b)3J)% c)20% d)50%
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have 2. A shopkeeper's price is 50% above the cost price. I f he
allows his customer a discount of 30%, what profit does
% gain 100 = 3 3 ^ / o . he make? [IT Inspectors' Exam, 1991 [
oo 5
a) 5% b) 10% c)8% d)4%
Exercise 3. A man's price is 20% above the cost price. He allows his
1. By selling 48 metres of cloth a person gains the cost customers a discount and makes a profit of 8%. Find the
price of 12 metres. Find the gain per cent. rate of discount. [RBI Exam 1989]
a) 25% b)20% c)28% d)30% a) 20% b) 15% c)10% d)25%
2. By selling 75 metres of cloth a person gains the cost 4. How much per cent above the cost price should a shop-
price of 15 metres. Find the gain per cent. keeper mark his goods so as to earn a profit of 36% after
a) 20% b)25% c)24% d)30% allowing a discount of 15% on the marked price?
3. By selling 96 metres of cloth a person gains the cost a) 60% b)50% c)40% d)65%
price of 16 metres. Find the gain per cent.
1. a; Hint: From the given formula, we have
a) U~% b ) 16|% c) 2 6 - % d)20%
A(100-x) = C(100 + y)
4. By selling 100 metres of cloth a person gains the cost or,A(100-10) = C(100 + 26)
price of 32.5 metres. Find the gain per cent, 126
a) 32.6% b)30% c)32.5% d) None of these or, C = 1.4C = (1 + 0.4)C
~90~
Answers ie A is + 0.4 more than C
l.a 2.a 3.b 4.c .-. Marked price A is 40% above the cost price.
2. a 3. c 4. a
Rule 84
Theorem: A businessman marks an article at Rs A and Rule 85
allows x% discount (on the marked price). He gains y%. If If a person buys an article with x per cent discount on the
the cost price of the article is Rs B, then the selling price of marked price and sells the article with y per cent profit on
the article can be calculatdfrom the equation given below the marked price, then his per cent profit on the price he
A(\00-x) 5(100+y) ( x+ y
xlOO per cent.
1CJ(5 = 100 = s e l l i n S Price. buys the article is given by I JQQ_JC
Note: Remember discount is given on marked price, and Illustrative Example
gain is calculated on the cost price. Ex: Raman bought on article with 20 per cent discount on
Illustrative Example the labelled price. He sold the article with 30 per cent
Ex: A discount of 16% on the marked price of a book profit on the labelled price. What was his per cent
enables a man to buy a pen which costs Rs 80. How profit on the price he bought?
much did he pay for the book? Soln: Detail Method:
Soln: Applying the above formula, we have Let the labelled price of the article be Rs x.
Profit and Loss
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5. Vinay bought an article with 20 per cent discount on the
f 100 - 20 ) 4x labelled price. He sold the article with 12 per cent profit
Cost price = *l m - ^ ,
on the labelled price. What was his per cent profit on the
price he bought?
100 + 30^ _ 13
Selling price = ! x
= Rs a) 35% b)25% c)20% d)40%
ioo ; io
\3x Ax 13x-8x x l.c 2.c 3.b 4. a 5.d
Profit =
10 10
Rule 86
A person sells articles at Rs A each after giving x% dis-
x
5 125 count on marked price. Had he not given the discount, he
2
% Drofit = — x 100 = - x 100 = = 62.5% would have earned a profit ofy% on the cost price. Then
/opium 4x 8 2 the cost price of each article is given by Rs

Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we \W A

2

have (lOO-xXlOO + y )
20 + 30
Illustrative Example
the required per cent profit = I j QQ - •20 xlOO
Ex: A shopkeeper sold certain articles at Rs 425 each af-
ter giving 15% discount on labelled price. Had he not
= - x l 0 0 = 62.5% given the discount, he would have earned a profit of
8 25% on the cost price. What was the cost price of
i
each article?
Exercise
Soln: Detail Method:
1. Jeevan bought an article with 30 per cent discount on
the labelled price. He sold the article with 12 per cent 425x100
profit on the labelled price. What was his per cent profit Labelled price of the article = • Rs 500
85
on the price he bought? [Bankof BarodaPO 1999] Let the cost price be Rs x
a) 40 b)50 c)60 d) Data inadequate Now, according to the question,

x l 0 0 = 25

,-, 1 or x( 100+ 25) = 50000

the labelled price. He sold the article with 17— percent
_ 50000
profit on the labelled price. What was his per cent profit • Rs 400
125
on the price he bought?
cost price of each article Rs400
:

a)35% b)34±% c ) 34|% d) 3 5 ^ % Exercise

1. A shopkeeper sold sarees at Rs 266 each after giving 5%
3. Deepti bought an article with 15 per cent discount on discount on labelled price. Had he not given the dis-
the labelled price. He sold the article with 10 per cent count, he would have earned a profit of 12% on the cost
profit on the labelled price. What was his per cent profit price.. What was the cost price of each saree?
on the price he bought? |SBI Associates PO 1999
a)Rs280 b)Rs260 c)Rs240 d)Rs250
i) 2 8 — % b, 2 9 - Vo
, 2. A shopkeeper sold tables at Rs 2139 each after giving
7% discount on labelled price. Had he not given the
discount, he would have earned a profit of 15% on the
c) 2 9 — % d) Data inadequate
; 17 cost price. What was the cost price of each table?
4. Naval bought an article with 25 per cent discount on the a)Rs2500 b)Rs2100 c)Rs2000 d)Rsl900
labelled price. He sold the article with 5 per cent profit on 3. A shopkeeper sold chairs at Rs 528 each after giving
the labelled price. What was his per cent profit on the 12% discount on labelled price. Had he not given the
price he bought? discount, he would have earned a profit of 20% on the
a) 40% b)45% c)35% d)30% cost price. What was the cost price of each chair?
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264 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

a)Rs500 b)Rs520 c)Rs480 d)Rs490 proximate total selling price? [Guwahati PO 1999]
4. A shopkeeper sold almirahs at Rs 166 each after giving a) Rs 28000 b)Rs 29000 c)Rs31000 d)Rs 28500
17% discount on labelled price. Had he not given the 2. A garment company declared 12% discount for whole-
discount, he would have earned a profit of 25% on the sale buyers. Mr Mohan bought garments from the com-
cost price. What was the cost price of each almirah? pany for Rs 8800 after getting discount. He fixed up the
a)Rsl65 b)Rsl55 c)Rsl60 d)Rsl64 selling price of garments in such a way that he earned a
5. A shopkeeper sold beds at Rs 1134 each after giving profit of 4% on original company price. What is the ap-
19% discount on labelled price. Had he not given the proximate total selling price?
discount, he would have earned a profit of 40% on the a) Rs 10400 b)Rs 14000
cost price. What was the cost price of each bed? c) Rs 10800 d) Data inadequate
a)Rsll00 b)Rsl000 c)Rsl050 d)Rs900 3. A garment company declared 17% discount for whole-
sale buyers. Mr Sameer bought garments from the com-
pany for Rs 1660 after getting discount. He fixed up the
l.d 2.c 3.a 4.c 5.b
selling price of garments in such a way that he earned a
Rule 87 profit of 7% on original company price. What is the ap-
proximate total selling price?
A certain company declares x per cent discount for whole-
sale buyers. If a person buys articles from the company for a)Rs2130 b)Rs2140 c)Rs2410 d)Rs2310
Rs A after getting discount. He fixed up the selling price of 4. A garment company declared 14% discount for whole-
the articles in such a way that he earned a profit y% on sale buyers. Mr Sujeet bought garments from the com-
original company price. Then the total selling price is given pany for Rs 860 after getting discount. He fixed up the
selling price of garments in such a way that he earned a
100 + y profit of 6% on original company price. What is the ap-
byRs proximate total selling price?
100-x
a)Rsl060 b)Rsll60
Illustrative Example c)Rs960 d) Can't be determined
Ex: A garment company declared 15% discount for whole-
sale buyers. Mr Sushil bought garments from the com-
l.c 2.a 3.b 4. a
pany for Rs 8500 after getting discount. He fixed up
selling price of garments in such a way that he earned
Rule 88
a profit of 10% on original company price. What is
A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs A after giving x% dis-
the total selling price?
count on the labelled price and madey% profit on the cost
Soln: Detail Method:
price. Had he not given the discount, the percentage profit
8500x100
Original company price = JQQ _ 15 = R s lu 000. x+ y
xlOO per cent.
would have been
100-x
Let the total selling price be Rs x.
Now, according to the question, Illustrative Example
Ex: A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs 400 after giving
^ 9 0 x 1 0 0 = 10 20% discount on the labelled price and made 30%
10000
profit on the cost price. What would have been the
or, lOOx-1000000 =100000
percentage profit, had he not given the discount?
or, x = Rs 11000.
Soln: Detail Method:
.-. total selling price = Rs 11000.
Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have 400x100
Labelled price = = Rs500
100 + 10 80
the total selling price : x 8500 = R 11000.S

100-15 400x100 4000

Cost price = — — — - Rs - y y -
Exercise
1. A garment company declared 15% discount for whole- Now, according to the question,
sale buyers. Mr Sachdev bought garments from the com-
pany for Rs 25000 after getting discount. He fixed up the 500- 4 0 0 0
13
selling price of garments in such a way that he earned a Profit % = xlOO
4000
profit of 8% on original company price. What is the ap-
13
Profit and Loss
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_ 250 _ 125 Illustrative Example

= 62.5% Ex: I f oranges are bought at the rate of 30 for a rupee,
4 " 2
how many must be sold for a rupee in order to gain
Quicker Method: Applying the above rule, we have
25%?
20 + 30 Soln: Applying he above formula, we have
the required per cent profit : -xlOO
100-20
100
= —xlOO = — = 62.5% the required number of oranges = 301- 24
80 2 U00 + 25,

Exercise Exercise
1. A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs 720 after giving 10% 1. I f bananas are bought at the rate of 24 for a rupee, how
discount on the labelled price and made 20% profit on many must be sold for a rupee in order to gain 20%?
the cost price. What would have been the percentage a)20 b) 18 c)22 d) 16
profit, had he not given the discount? 2. If apples are bought at the rate of 39 for a rupee, how
[GuwahatiPO!999] many must be sold for a rupee in order to gain 30%?
a) 33 b)36 c)30 d) None of these
a) 25% b)23% c) 3 3 y % d)28%
3. If mangoes are bought at the rate of 56 for a rupee, how
A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs 750 after giving 20% many must be sold for a njpee in order to gain 40%?
discount on the labelled price and made 40% profit on a) 44 b)42 c)43 d)40
the cost price. What would have been the percentage 4. I f oranges are bought at the rate of 27 for a rupee, how
profit, had he not given the discount? many must be sold for a rupee in order to gain 35%?
a) 75% b)85% c)60% d)70% a) 26 b)25 c)20 d)24
A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs 880 after giving 12% 5. I f bananas are bought at the rate of 46 for a rupee, how
discount on the labelled price and made 32% profit on many must be sold for a rupee in order to gain 15% 9

the cost price. What would have been the percentage a) 40 b)30 c)35 d)45
profit, had he not given the discount? Answers
a) 25% b)35% c)40% d)50%
l.a 2.c 3d 4.c 5. a
A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs 860 after giving 14%
discount on the labelled price and made 29% profit on Miscellaneous
the cost price. What would have been the percentage 1. An article when sold for Rs 200 fetches 25 per cent profit.
profit, had he not given the discount? What would be the percentage profit/loss i f 6 such ar-
a) 50% b)60% c)45% d)55% ticles are sold for Rs 1056? [BSRB Calcutta PO, 1999)
A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs 210 after giving 16% a) 10 per cent loss b) 10 per cent profit
discount on the labelled price and made 5% profit on the c) 5 per cent loss d) 5 per cent profit
cost price. What would have been the percentage profit, e) None of these
had he not given the discount?
2. A shopkeeper gave an additional 20 per cent conces-
a) 50% b)25% c)30% d)20%
sion on the reduced price after giving 30 per cent stan-
A shopkeeper sells a TV set for Rs 16560 at 10% dis-
dard concession on an article. I f Arun bought that ar-
count on its marked price and earns 15% profit. I f no
ticle for Rs 1120, what was the original price?
discount is offered, then what will be his present per
[BSRB Calcutta PO, 1999]
cent profit? [BSRB Patna PO 2001 ]
a)Rs3000 b)Rs4000 c)Rs2400
d) Rs 2000 e) None of these
a) ?j
2 b)22| c) 25 — d) Data inadequate 3. A shopkeeper bought 150 calculators at the rate of Rs
250 per calculator. He spent Rs 2500 on transportation
Answers and packing. I f the marked price of calculator is Rs 320
be 2. a 3.d 4. a 5.b 6. a per calculator and the shopkeeper gives a discount of
5% on the marked price then what will be the percentage
Rule 89 profit gained by the shopkeeper?
Theorem: If an item is bought at the rate of X items for a [BSRB Hyderabad PO, 1999[
-upee, then the number of items sold for a rupee in order to a) 20% b) 14% c) 15%
d) 16% e) None of these
100
gain x% is X 4. An article when sold for Rs 960 fetches 20% profit. What
100 + x would be the per cent profit or loss i f 5 such articles are
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sold for Rs 825 each? |SBI PO Exam 1987]

[BSRB BhopalPO, 2000] a) Rs 7.50 per kg b)Rs9perkg
a) 3.125% profit b) 3.125% loss c)Rs8.20perkg d) Rs 8.85 per kg
c) Neither profit nor loss d) 16.5% profit 15. The loss incurred on selling an article for Rs 270 is as
e) None of these much as the profit made after selling it at 10% profit. The
5. Two chairs and three tables cost Rs 1025 and 3 chairs CP of the article is: [Bank PO Exam 1989|
and two tables cost Rs 1100. What is the difference be- a)Rs90 b)Rsll0 c)Rs363 d)Rs300
tween the cost of one table and that of one chair? 16. An item costing Rs 200 is being sold at 10% loss. If the
[BSRB BhopalPO, 2000] price is further reduced by 5%, the selling price will be:
a)Rs75 b)Rs35 c)Rsl25 |NDA Exam 1987]
d) Cannot be determined e) None of these a) 179 b)Rsl75 c)Rs!71 d)Rsl70
6. What per cent of selling price would be 34% of cost 17. A retailer purchases a sewing machine at a discount of
price if gross profit is 26% of the selling price? 15% and sells it for Rs. 1955. In the bargain he makes a
[BSRB Bangalore PO, 2000] profit of 15%. How much is the discount which he got
a) 17.16 b) 74.00 c)25.16 from the whole sale? [LIC AAO Exam 1988|
d) 88.40 e) None of these a)Rs270 b)Rs290
7. A sells a horse to B for Rs 4860, thereby losing 19 per c)Rs300 d) None of these
cent, B sells it to C at a price which would have given A 18. A discount series of 10%, 20% and 40% is equal to a
17 per cent profit. Find B's gain. single discountof: [Central Excise & I Tax 1989|
[SBI Bank PO, 1998] a) 50% b) 56.80% c)70% d) 70.28%
a)Rs2160 b)Rs2610 c)Rsl260 d)Rs2260 19. While selling a watch a shopkeeper gives a discount of
8. Profit after selling a commodity for Rs 425 is same as 5%. If he gives a discount of 7%, he earns Rs 15 less as
loss after selling it for Rs 355. The cost of the commodity profit. What is the marked price of the watch?
is: [Bank PO 1989] [LIC AAO Exam 1988]
a)Rs385 b)Rs390 c)Rs395 d)Rs400 a) Rs 697.50 b)Rs 712.50
9. The cost price of an article, which on being sold at a gain c) Rs 787.50 d) None of these
of 12% yields Rs 6 more than when it is sold at a loss of 20. A shopkeeper earns a profit of 12% after selling a book
12%, is [CBI Exam 1990] at 10% discount on the printed price. The ratio of the
a)Rs30 b)Rs25 c)Rs20 d)Rs24 cost price and printed price of the book is:
10. Alok bought 25 kg of rice at the rate of Rs 6.00 per kg |GIC Exam 1988|
and 35 kg of rice at the rate of Rs 7.00 per kg. He mixed a)45:56 b) 50:61
the two and sold the mixture at the rate of Rs 6.75 per kg. c) 99:125 d) None of these
What was his gain or loss in this transaction? 21. Tarun bought a TV with 20% discount on the labelled
[PO Exam 1990] price. Had he bought it with 25% discount he would
a) Rs 16.00 gain b) Rs 16.00 loss have saved Rs 500. At what price did he buy the TV?
c) Rs 20.00 gain d) None of these [PO Exam 1990]
11. When the price of pressure cooker was increased by a)Rs5000 b)Rs 10000
15%, its sale fell down by 15%. The effect on the money c)Rs 12000 d) None of these
receipt was: [SBI PO Exam 1987] 22. A reduction of 20% in the price of mangoes enables a
a) no effect b) 15% decrease person to purchase 12 more for Rs 15. The price of 16
c) 7.5% increase d) 2.25% decrease mangoes before reduction was:
12. A boy buys oranges at Rs 2 for 3 oranges and sells them ] RRB Exam 1989
at a rupee each. To make a profit of Rs 10, he must sell: a)Rs5 b)Rs6 c)Rs7 d)Rs9
[CDS Exam 1991] 23. Therewouldbe 10%lossifriceissoldatRs5.40perkg
a) 10 oranges b) 20 oranges At what price per kg should it be sold to earn a profit o:
c) 30 oranges d) 40 oranges 20%? [SBI PO Exam 1988
9 a)Rs7.20 b)Rs7.02 c)Rs6.48 d)Rs6
13. Subhash purchased a tape recorder at — th of its sell- Answers
ing price and sold it at 8% more than its selling price. His
gain is: [SBI PO Exam 1987] l.b; CP = ^ x l 0 0 = R 1 6 0
S

a) 9% b) 10% c)18% d)20%

.-. CPof6articles = 6x 160 = 960
14. At what price must Kantilal sell a mixture of 80 kg sugar
at Rs 6.75 per kg with 120 kg at Rs 8 per kg to gain 20%?
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Profit and Loss 267

.-. profit =1056-960 = 96 10. d; CP of total 60 kg of rice = Rs (6 x 25 + 7 x 35) = Rs 395.

SP of total 60 kg of rice = Rs (6.75 x 60) = Rs 405.
96
Percentage profit = — * 100 = 10% Gain = Rs(405-395) = RslO.
960 11. d; Let the original cost of each cooker be Re 1 and let the
„ m100 100 number sold originally be 100.
2. d; Original price = 1120 x — x — = R 2000 s
Total sale proceed = Rs (100 x 1) = Rs 100.
/U oU
New rate = (115% of Re 1) = Rs 1.15.
I b: CP of 150 calculators = 150 x 250 = Rs 37500
Number sold now = 85.
.-. total CP = 37500 + 2500 = Rs 40000
.-. Sale proceed now = Rs( 1.15 * 85) = Rs 97.75.
Marked price of 150 calculators =150x320 = Rs 48000
So, there is a decrease of 2.25% in the money receipt.
95 12. c; Suppose he sells x oranges
Selling price after discount = 48000 x — =Rs 45600
Then, CP of x oranges = Rs — x.
45600-40000 t n n t J t m j

r ° v 40000

.-. Cost price of 5 articles = Rs 800 x 5 = Rs 4000

.-. Selling price of 5 articles = 825x5 = Rs4125 . ± = 10: x = 30.
•• 3
•Gain%= 4 1 2 5 - ° x l 0 0 = 3.125%
4 0 Q
13. d; LettheSPbeRsx.
•' 4000
9x
I a: Let the cost of each table and chair be Rs x and y Then, CP paid by Subhash = Rs
10'
respectively.
,-.2y + 3x=1025 and 27*
3y + 2x=1100 SP received by Subhash = (108% of Rs x) = Rs
25~
Solving the above two equations, we get
x = Rs 175andy = Rs250 ( 21 x 9x) (9x)
.-. Diff. between the cost of one table and one chair Gain = Rs
= Rs(250-175) = Rs75
§.c; Let the selling price of the article of Rs 100. f9x 10 |
.-. Profit = Rs 26 Hence, gain % = I ^ x ^ x 100 J % = 2 0 % •
.-. Cost price of the article = 100 - 26 = Rs 74
14. b; Total CP of200 kg sugar=Rs (80 r 6.75 + 120 x 8) = Rs
34x74 ^ ,r r n /
1500
.: Reqd.%= = 25.16%
100
1500^
100 CP of 1 kg = Rs Rs7.50.
Cost of the horse paid by A =4860x 200 J
= Rs6000.
"8T
Gain required = 20%.
117 .-. SP of l k g = (120% of Rs 7.50)
Cost of the horse paid by G = 6000 x - Rs 7020
100
120
Gain ofB = Rs 7020 - Rs 4860 = Rs 2160.
= Rs [j5o"* - J 7 50 =Rs9perkg.
LetCP = RsxThen,
425-x = x-355 => 2x = 780 x = 390. 15. d; Let CP be Rs x. Then,
Let the CP beRsx
'12* \\2x x-270 = 10%of x = ^ orx = 300.
Then, SP when gain is 12% - •+x
100 100 • 16. c; SP = 90%ofRs200 = Rs 180.
\\2x 88* Further, SP = (95% of Rs 180) = Rs 171
=6
100 100 17. c; Let the marked price be Rs x.
Discount availed by the retailer = 15% of Rs x.
24x 600
or, = 6 or, x •• = Rs25 .-. CP of the machine by the retailer
Too 24
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268 P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

17*
= ( * - 1 5 % o f JC) = RS
20 IfSPisRs 100,MP = Rs [^ xl00 J =Rsl25.

17* , „ „ 17* Now, if discount is 25%, then SP = (75% of Rs 125)

So,15o/oof — = 1 9 5 5 - — .
375
= Rs — - .
• + = 1955 r x = 2000 O

400 20 375 25
Discount received by retailer = (15% of Rs 2000) Diff. between two SP = Rs i o o ~ -
v J = R s _
= Rs300.
18. b; Let original price = Rs 100. 25
Price after 1 st discount = Rs 90. I f diff. is Rs — ,SP = Rsl00

i 8 0 n n )

Price after 2nd discount = Rs | "J^Q" I = Rs 72. Ifdiff.isRs500, SP = Rs 100x — x500 = Rs8000.
x 9 0
V 25
22. a; Suppose the price of 1 mango be x paise
Price after 3rd discount = Rs [ x 7 2 J = Rs 43.20
1500
Number of mangoes for Rs 15
.-. Single discount = (100 -43.20) = 56.8%.
19. d; Let the marked price be Rs x.
4*
Then, (7% of x) -15 = (5% of x) New price of one mango = (80% of x) = — paise.
Ix 5x ..
or 'Too Tcw _ = 1 5 o r x = 7 5 0 - 1500x5
Number of mangoes for Rs ' ^ -
20. a; Let the printed price of the book be Rs 100. 4x
After a discount of 10%, SP = Rs 90.
7500 1500 ,„
Profit earned = 12%.
.-. — = 12orx = 31.25
4* *
, ioo n n 1125
Rs
.-. CP of the book = Rs I yyy * 90 14 .-. Cost of 16 mangoes before reduction

1125 f 31.25x16^1
Hence, (CP): (Printed price) = — — : 100 or 45 : 56
= R s { ioo J = R s 5 -
21. d; Let SP of TV (by trader) = Rs 100. 23. a; Let CP per kg be Rsx. Then,
IfSP isRs80, MP = Rs 100. x- 10% of* = 5.40 or* = 6.
.-. SP = Rs [6 + 20% of 6] = Rs 7.20