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News analysis Health Business

'World must stand with High blood pressure; Kansai Plascon’s top
Uganda on refugees' is it always bad? management shake-up

Issue No. 564 March. 22 - 28 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

The Museveni,
Kagame letters
Details and implication on
border tension

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March. 22 - 28 2019
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Issue No. 564 March. 22 - 28 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
The Museveni, Kagame letters
Details and implication on border tension

4 The Week
30 Comments
Kadaga wants special fund
for women refugees
Banking on Refugees: Contrary
to popular belief, refugees are on
9 The Last Word par with non-refugees when it
comes to loan repayment
Uganda’s strategic dilemma
Part2: Why Uganda’s economy is
dominated by multinational capital
32 Health
and what cannot be done about it
High blood pressure; is it always
14 Analysis bad?: New findings question that
assumption it should always be
'World must stand with Uganda on cause for concern
refugees': What UNHCR Chief learnt from
recent visit to Uganda’s refugee settlements
35 Arts & Culture
27 Business
A brainy affair: Artist
Inside Kansai Plascon’s top attempts to talk politics
management shake-up: MD shown without propaganda
exit as sales and marketing manager
faces investigations over misconduct

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.
INVESTIGATIONS EDITOR: Haggai Matsiko DESIGN/LAYOUT: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 | Fax: +256-312-637-396 E-mail: editor@independent.co.ug | advertising@independent.co.ug
circulation@independent.co.ug | Website: www.independent.co.ug

2 March. 22 - 28 2019
Offline

“I want to thank the gallant


intellectuals of Makerere for speaking
loud and clear and overwhelmingly
voting for People Power in the Guild
elections yesterday. It was resounding
to see that the two leading contenders
both identified with People Power.”Bobi
Wine, People Power leader congratulating the
Makerere University Guild-president elect

Boeing 737
MAX 8 planes
from Shanghai
Airlines parked at
Shanghai Hongqiao
International Airport
in Shanghai after
their suspension
following the
Ethiopian Airline “We have highly placed Omanis who
crash. were born here, but now serving in
their home governments and we still
have a big number of Omanis here with
us; that is why trafficking of Ugandans
to Oman is an easy job.” Janat Mukwaya,
Austin, United States: Minister of Gender, Labour and Social
According to experts
gathered at the South Development
by Southwest festival in
Austin, Texas, flying taxis
expected to take to the
skies by 2025.

Nairobi, Kenya: With the


world’s forests increasingly
under threat from climate
change and logging, leaders “That on the face of the charge sheet,
and top bank chiefs pledged
billions to help reverse the
grave inconsistencies are exhibited
steep decline in Africa’s and that the act of the DPP to continue
woodland areas. East has lost prosecuting me basing on the same is in
around 6 million hectares of bad faith” Mubarak Munyagwa, COSASE chair
forest this century.
in his affidavit to block his trial on fraud charges
at the Anti-Corruption Court

Civil servants indicted Years a UPDF soldier was Residents facing


17 after arrest by State House
Anti-Corruption Unit
80 jailed by a military division
court for murder and robbery
400 eviction in Kamwokya
due to alleged trespass

March. 22 - 28 2019 3
week
Rwandan businessman
speaks out on Kagame-
Museveni row
Tribert Rujugiro Ayabatwa, a Rwandan
businessman with vast interests in Uganda
spoke out on the row between President
Kagame and his Ugandan counterpart
Museveni in an interview with New Vision.
Ayabatwa accuses Kagame of dictatorship
and cites this as the reason he fled Rwanda
years ago. There were media reports recently
that Rwanda had demanded Uganda to
expel Ayabatwa because he allegedly spon-
sors rebel groups hostile to the Rwandan
government. Ayabatwa says Kagame’s gov-
ernment seized his mall in Kigali thinking it
would force him to go back. In the interview,
the businessman reveals that there have
been several attempts of mediation between
Kadaga wants special fund for women refugees him and the Rwandan government but they
failed because of unacceptable demands by
A special fund to cater for women raising suffering in those troubled areas. On the the latter. He says Rwanda’s closure of the
families in refugee camps should be created, sidelines of the PUOIC, Kadaga held talks common border with Uganda is instead
Speaker Rebecca Kadaga said during the with the Speaker of the Shura Council of hurting ordinary Rwandans. Ayabatwa has a
14th session of the Parliamentary Union of Qatar, Ahmed Abdullah bin Zaid, where tobacco company in West Nile.
the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation the two agreed to closer engagements in
Conference (PUOIC) in Rabat, Morocco. future. Kadaga said the best solution lies
“Motherhood in refugee camps is a devas- in ensuring opportunities are created at
tating experience; single mothers in conflict home for youths dying in the conflicts, as
areas are faced with the difficult task of rais- well as those taking dangerous journeys to
ing families because the fathers are either flee the wars. Kadaga is leading a delega-
dead or active combatants,” she said. The tion comprising MPs Latif Sebaggala, Sarah
conference, which attracted speakers from Nakawunde, and Zaitun Driwaru, Ogama
OIC Parliaments, discussed conflicts in the Alli Ismail, Abbas Agaba and the Clerk to
Middle East and North Africa, and centered Parliament, Jane Kibirige.
on how to bring an end to wars, death and

WFP in food poisoning NRM caucus endorses Museveni for 2021 election
saga in Karamoja In a repeat of what happened in 2014,
two years before the general election, the
Region PWDs representative Hellen Asamo
moved a motion saying Uganda needed
NRM parliamentary caucus has again Museveni now more than ever before for
At least two people have been reported endorsed President Museveni, the party his “firm guidance and mentorship of the
dead and several others hospitalised in Amu- chairman, as the sole candidate for the Party Membership.” The 2021 election race
dat district in the Karamoja sub-region after 2021 presidential election. The NRM MPs is already taking shape since Kyadondo
eating porridge supplied by World Food adopted the resolution after a presentation East legislator declared his intentions to
Programme, UN’s frontline agency against by party Secretary General Justine Kasule challenge Museveni for the presidency.
hunger. The Super Cereal flour is provided Lumumba entitled “Towards 2021: Four time presidential candidate Dr. Kizza
by WFP through 44 government health cen- Milestones & Strategies for the NRM Party”. Besigye is also expected to make his fifth bid
tres across Karamoja and aims to improve After Lulumba’s presentation, the Eastern for Uganda’s highest office.
nutrition among pregnant or breastfeeding
women, and children aged 6 and below. Just
days after WFP distributed the flour, scores
were admitted in health centres while vomit-
ing and with high fever. The global agency
released a statement saying investigations
are underway to establish the cause of the
incident. “From the outset, WFP has treated
this as a matter of extreme urgency and as
a precaution in case, Super Cereal is linked
to outbreaks of sickness, WFP is stopping
distributing Super Cereal in all its operations
in Uganda including in refugee settlements
across the country and in its Maternal Child
Health and Nutrition (MCHN) programme
in Karamoja”, it read in part.

4 March. 22 - 28 2019
Week
LDUs will sort urban criminals- Museveni
During a pass out parade for 6000 new trainees. Museveni said while the trainees. Museveni also said that due to
Local Defence Unit (LDU) trainees in UPDF had defeated cattle rustlers and the the time it was taking to install CCTV
Kaweweta UPDF Recruit Training School ADFrebels in DR Congo, not much had cameras across towns, it was strategic to
in Nakaseke District, President Museveni been done to sort out urban criminals. train youth to defend their country. At
said criminals who have infiltrated The president made the coments after the ceremony, Museveni said the LDUs
Kampala City and are killing innocent watching maneuvers and target shooting will be paid for the four months they have
people will soon be eliminated by the demonstrations by a section of the LDU spent in training.

People Power sweeps MUK, Kyambogo varsity polls


A political movement led by Kyadondo eleven candidates and the other nine
East MP Bobi Wine is causing more contained two backed by NRM and FDC.
upheavals in Uganda. Over the weekend, Across town, Jonathan Tunduru was elected
candidates allied to ‘People Power’ swept the next Guild President of Kyambogo
university guild elections at Makerere and University. Through the campaigns, the
Kyambogo. Julius Kateregga, a student People Power candidates donned red berets
of Bachelor of Arts in Education scooped and donned red outfits (red is People Power
3912 beating his closest challenger, Joshua preferred colour) as they chanted people
Bamugemereire queries Mukisa, an independent candidate who
scored 3365 votes. The MUK race had
power slogans with their followers.

Immigration board
The absence of a substantive
Immigration board could be worsening
Uganda’s murky land administration
system by aiding foreigners claim
land ownership without adequate
documentation. The commission of
inquiry into land administration headed
by Justice Catherine Bamugemereire
warned officials of the Directorate of
Citizenship and Immigration who
were appearing before the commission
recently. The commission learnt that
the Immigration Directorate has only
the chairperson, Rtd Maj. Gen. Emilio
Mondo, as the only person of the seven
member board. The officials told the
commission hearing in Kampala that
the board has not been fully constituted
for two years now. The officials pointed
out that an improperly constituted
board was hampering work. According
to Ugandan laws, foreigners are barred
from freehold land ownership. Only
leases are granted to foreigners.

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

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Regulated by Uganda Communications Commission

for more bundles

March. 22 - 28 2019 5
Week

Controversy over Mayiga warns district leaders on Kabaka premises


Bullion van robbery Charles Peter Mayiga, amounts of money in lease ors from Buganda King-
the Katikkiro of Buganda fees and nominal ground dom. He advised district
A foiled robbery of a Stanbic Bank- Kingdom has issued a stern rent and it is high time leaders to emulate Matia
owned bullion van early this month in warning to district lead- they paid up their dues. Lwanga, LCV of Wakiso
Kyambogo, Kampala has exposed the ers whose administrative Buganda Kingdom’s sec- who has consistently ful-
rivalry between Police and Internal Security units are on the Kabaka’s ond ranking official said filled his obligations. May-
Organisation (ISO). The two institutions premises: to either pay their this while attending a meet- iga singled out Mukono
have given different accounts of what arrears or vacate them as ing in Kampala with district which has been occupying
transpired nearly three weeks ago when soon as possible. Mayiga chairpersons, chief adminis- Kabaka’s land and has now
two hijackers of the bullion van were shot said a number of districts trative officers, sub-county started building its head-
dead by ISO operatives. ISO boss Kaka owe the Kabaka various chiefs and municipal may- quarters there.
Bagyenda says their operatives intercepted
the bullion van as the suspected robbers
had started removing cash from the van
and putting it into a smaller car. It is also
reported that ISO operatives prevented
police from taking over the van as it
spent days parked at ISO headquarters in
Kampala. Meanwhile Police has disputed
the ISO version of events especially from
the point where the van was intercepted
from. Some witnesses have also refuted
both accounts of Police and ISO. Meanwhile
Police is still on the hunt for the driver of
the bullion van. He is said to have colluded
with a guard formerly attached to President
Museveni’s security team. It is also unclear
how the driver escaped from the scene.

6 March. 22 - 28 2019
Humour Did you know?
Google employee shattered
record for Pi calculations

The mathematical number `Pi’ begins


with 3.14 and goes on endlessly based
on infinite series. In practical terms,
President Uhuru Kenyatta met with Presidents Paul Kagame and all scientific applications require no
Yoweri Museveni amid border tensions between Rwanda and Uganda. more than a few hundred digits of Pi,
but mathematicians have since ancient
times battled to extend the decimal
representation of Pi until it hit trillions of
digits after the decimal point.
Today, the quest is about finding
more efficient algorithms for calculating
lengthy numeric series and the desire to
break records. The extensive calculations
involved have also been used to test
supercomputers and high-precision
multiplication algorithms.
But the value of Pi, the ratio of a circle’s
circumference to its diameter, has new
meaning on this Pi Day. Emma Haruka
Iwao, a Google employee, has broken the
Guinness world record for calculating the
most digits of Pi.
In the latest case, Emma Haruka Iwao,
a Google employee and a Google team
computed Pi to 31.4 trillion decimal places
or Pi multiplied by 10 to the 13th power.
MPs of the ruling National Resistance Movement (NRM) party have
endorsed President Museveni sole candidate I the 2021 poles. It broke the Guinness world record for
calculating the most digits of Pi set in
2016 of 22.4 trillion digits. Iwao’s effort
marked another first by relying on cloud
technology, which had never been used for
such a massive Pi calculation.
An advocate who helps developers use
cloud products, Iwao used more than two
dozen virtual machines to churn away
at the calculation, which took about 121
days to complete. The process required
a staggering 170 terabytes, or about
the same amount of data found in the
print collections of the entire Library of
Congress which is the largest in the world.
“We use Pi for everything in our daily
lives — designing buildings, building
bridges, highways,” Iwao said in a video
about her achievement. “Pi is one of the
most important constants in mathematics.”
President Yoweri Museveni has halted the creation
of more districts citing high administrative costs.

March. 22 - 28 2019 7
News analysis Health Business
Is the Boeing 737 A cure for BUBU initiative gathers
Max safe? HIV finally? steam amid criticism

Issue No. 563 March. 15 - 21 2019


Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Mutebile, Kasekende,
Muhakanizi set to leave

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Letters are Kagame, Museveni: Put evidence on table


There are people who want opening should there be war a war between the two neigh-
welcome ! President Paul Kagame of between Rwanda and Uganda. bours, there will be no winners,
The Editor welcomes short and Rwanda to fail and fall; same Back to the article, the theme even though some may and will
concise letters from our esteemed for President Yoweri Musev- of which is; “let both sides put win battles.
readers on topical issues. Please eni. They are failed politicians, their complaints and evidence Mwenda, you should be
send them to: people with personal vendetta, on the table”, my addition is; appreciated for your boldness.
The Editor, The Independent hate mongers with tribal hatred, “in the presence of a mutually Where simple minds see one
Publications Ltd,
people in the business to ensure agreed, trusted and respected sided view, sober minds see a
P.O Box 3304,
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St, that Africans should never regional or world leader” since desire to have a problem genu-
Kamwokya. succeed, plain opportunists both presidents feel right about inely solved.
Kampala,Uganda. and scavengers, they all see an their positions. Otherwise, in Joe K.

Email: editor@independent.co.ug
Museveni, Kagame and cassava chips
Mwenda on Refer to: “The Rwanda-
Uganda conflict” (The Inde-
Rwandan kings felt safe to flee
into Uganda up to the time the
Northern Uganda, the Basongo-
ra in the Rwenzoris. The Presi-
Museveni, Kagame pendent March 08). While the Ugandan constitution recog- dent of Uganda is a wrong man
arms merchants in their homes nised Banyarwanda as one of carrying the correct message.
are smiling at the little storm Uganda’s tribes. Mark you the Times are his worst judge hence
Refer to: “The Rwanda-
in in an old teacup, I sincerely same did not apply to the Con- the arms dealers in Europe are
Uganda conflict” (The Indepen-
believe that the current crop golese, Sudanese or Indians that assured of their place at the
dent March 08). Is this really
of decision makers in both the have been part of this nation. corporate table while Africa’s
Mwenda writing or has someone
media and the government Recall also the communities in breed of new leaders scheme
else “hacked” his column? The
can put a finger to what would which pan-nyarwanda peoples of how to smuggle a few spies
Mwenda I am used to would make the two countries relate are neighbours or linked i.e. into each other’s bedroom. Did
back contentions with names, as states. It is important to look the Banyamulenge and Hema anyone notice the cargo that
places and figures. Take for at the relationship between the in in DR Congo and the Balalo was stuck at the closed border?
example the statement: “CMI has two countries from the time in Uganda evidenced by recent Cassava chips- in 2019!
been detaining Rwandan nation- of kept written records when expulsions of herdsmen in Godfrey Kambere
als in illegal facilities, torturing
and deporting them to Rwanda.
CMI accuses these people of spy- Rwandans and Gambling with economy
ing but has never produced them
before courts of law”. Ugandan citizenship Refer to: “Mutebile, Kas- has progressed and trans-
Never mind the veracity or ekende, Muhakanizi set to formed over the years.
President Paul Kagame of leave” (The Independent Entrusting it in the hands of
otherwise of this statement;
Rwanda expects to be given leeway March 15). Old age usually younger economists is some-
wouldn’t the Mwenda we are
to operate in Uganda as if he were comes with experience, but thing of a gamble but one
used to give us some numbers,
operating in its own territory. He we should not disdain from that could eventually pay off.
names, dates and places etc., wants to be given the privilege to
as he is well informed? It is just the fact that our economy Tumanye
act as if he were Ugandan without
not like A.M. to generalise and being one. Many of his countrymen,
issue such grave accusations
without providing supporting
formerly of Uganda citizenship,
suffer from this schizophrenic afflic-
Term limits for Rest in Peace Ongom
information; to expect us to take
his word for it, on faith! And
tion; a Ugandan citizenship hang- BoU governor? Refer to: “Former UNEB chief
over. The social and political access
say, you forgot, and said not a that accrued privileges to Rwandan Refer to: “Mutebile, Ongom dead” (The Indepen-
word about alleged abductions exiles in Ugandan life cannot be Kasekende, Muhakan- dent online March 16). We shall
of Rwandese refugees (President switched on at will. President Yow- izi set to leave” (The remember him (David Living-
Paul Kagame’s opponents) from eri Museveni does not have the kind Independent March stone Ongom) for the great work
Uganda which is said to be con- of power over the Ugandan state 15). How long does he has done to the nation i.e.
tributing greatly to the bad blood that Kagame holds over Rwanda one have to be a gov- Uganda when he was the execu-
between the two countries. Any — he is massively constrained by ernor of the Central tive secretary of the Uganda
truth in that? Andrew Mwenda, numerous forces that he must bend Bank of Uganda? National Examinations Board
I hope all is well with you, to over Kagame’s whining and petty Does Uganda have a (UNEB).Father rest in Peace.
brother! internal beefs. policy on that one? Bob Ogwang
Chwa Maceni Dan

8 March. 22 - 28 2019
The Last Word Opinion

Uganda’s strategic dilemma Part2


By Andrew M. Mwenda
Why Uganda’s economy is dominated by multinational
capital and what cannot be done about it

W
e begin from where we stopped Most of Uganda’s reform was carried finance capital.
last week. Uganda’s growing out by civil servants led by Tumusiime Donors began integrating leading voices
economy served three critical Mutebile in the Ministry of Planning which in the media into this process. These were
purposes: It increased govern- later merged with the Ministry of Finance. given scholarships and fellowships at Har-
ment revenues, gave greater confidence Around him was a group of officials like vard, Stanford, Oxford and Cambridge
to donors to give more aid, and increased Chris Kasami, Keith Muhakanizi, Lawrence where they were indoctrinated into the free
resources available to government to pay for Kiiza, Damon Kitabire (left for ADB, later to market ideology. For always articulating
patronage, provide basic public goods and IMF), Mary Muduli (left for ADB) and Mary these policies in the press and liberalised
services and fight armed insurgency thereby Kutesa (left for IMF) etc. This group was airwaves, they were feted at international
aiding legitimacy and political consolida- inherited from the Milton Obote II adminis- conferences organised by the IFIs as
tion. Consequently, Museveni gradually tration where they had tried to reform Ugan- speakers, invited to dinners and luncheons
shifted from implementing these reforms as da’s economy to a more liberal dispensation. at local embassies and at IMF and World
an opportunistic beneficiary and became a They were convinced that liberal reforms are Bank conferences. This author is one of those
believer in their efficacy. necessary for Uganda’s economy to recover. Ugandans.
The donors also were keen to cultivate Donors proved adept at patronage. They Privatisation and liberalisation progres-
political support among Uganda’s elite pampered them, supplemented their sala- sively displaced and/or stifled the growth of
class – politicians, the civil service, the mass ries with dollar stipends, organised trips local/domestic/national/indigenous capital.
media, academia, private sector and “civil abroad for conferences and workshops for As multinational corporations took over the
society” (a motley collection of NGOs). them. They took them to do fellowships commanding heights of the economy, they
To understand the trajectory Uganda at prestigious universities in America and recruited those Ugandans who had gradu-
took from the late 1980s, one has to first Britain. They also gave them internships at ated from Western universities. Well paid
understand how the donors shaped our post the head offices of IMF and World Bank in by multinational firms, these also became
conflict recovery by building the ideological Washington DC. defenders of multinational capital in the pri-
base for these policies among key individ- Donors made these civil servants their vate sector. Here ideological conviction and
uals and groups. We shall see the interests internal surrogates within the state by self-interest merged.
that consolidated during this period. actively and deliberately bolstering their At Makerere University, the World Bank
Every reform benefits some and disadvan- influence inside government. Whenever financed the creation of the Economic Policy
tages others. The losers become militants government sent these particular civil ser- Research Centre (EPRC) to train a cadre of
determined to resist it. The beneficiaries vants abroad to negotiate for aid money, economists of the type they needed to pro-
form the cadre of individuals and groups to they came back with signed loans and mote its particular policy preferences. They
defend the new order. These reforms gener- grants –with generous terms. Since govern- funded NGOs that articulated the policy
ated resistance, most especially from Mak- ment of Uganda relied heavily on donors’ preferences international donors wanted.
erere University students whose allowances funding for its fiscal survival, Museveni was Even in politics, being identified with a
were removed. But resistance was limited quick to see where his bread was being but- donor project was a sure ticket to being
because economic collapse had discredited tered. Increasingly, if the president needed elected a Member of Parliament (MP), and
the beneficiaries of the old order. to promote anyone to a strategic office in the being in their good books landed you a stra-
For example, it was not difficult to return civil service, he picked one who had good tegic cabinet post.
businesses, properties and industries con- relations with donors. Consequently, in Henceforth, from within the state, mass
fiscated by Amin in 1972 to their previous all strategic ministries, Museveni began to media, academia and “civil society” there
owners because those who had taken them sideline those of his colleagues who retained were consistent and vitriolic attacks on
over had run them down. Failure had dis- their Marxist/leftist leanings in favour of local capital. Thus, when a local bank
credited their cause and their resistance to those who embraced the free market ide- got into trouble, there was unanimity of
reform did not attract much public sym- ology. Over time all strategic positions in opinion both within the state and in the
pathy. Equally, the corruption, favouritism both the civil service and cabinet were filled civic sphere of public debate that such
and incompetence in public enterprises had with persons with donor promoters. outcomes were because of “bad practices
discredited them as vehicles for serving the It is in this context that the local/domestic/ typical of Africans.” The conclusion was
common good. And most importantly the national/indigenous business class – in inescapable: we should let multinational
NRM had been a largely rural based move- manufacturing, banking, construction etc. banks take over. Mutebile once told me
ment and these institutions and their office – lost out. They had little or no say in policy point blank in a radio show that he would
holders did not form its core political base. formulation. Influence favoured interna- never licence any Ugandan to own a bank,
So there were hardly any bureaucratic and tional donors with their local allies in the regardless of the capital they had. Why?
political insiders to sabotage reform from bureaucracy. While local and international They cannot be trusted to behave well
within as happened to many other African bureaucrats who work in the public sector with depositors’ money. Colonial preju-
countries. Besides, Museveni enjoyed such and international organisations may be dices had been recreated in Uganda. We
widespread dominance inside the NRM that ideologically convinced about the soundness shall finish this next week.
his left-wing allies simply deferred to him of these policies, these policies represent the
on these reforms. interests of multinational capital; especially amwenda@independent.co.ug

March. 22 - 28 2019 9
cover story

The Museveni,
Kagame letters
Details and implication
on border tension

10 March. 22 - 28 2019
cover story

T
By Haggai Matsiko

hree letters exchanged by


Rwanda President Paul
Kagame and his counterpart
Yoweri Museveni that might
point to how the tension be-
tween them possibly escalated
have emerged.
Most importantly, the contents of the let-
ters shed light on what might have led to
the escalation and how complicated resolv-
ing these tensions might be.
It is also important that details of these
letters are emerging at a time when, The
Independent understands, there are intense
regional diplomatic efforts towards reso-
lution. President Museveni, in one of the
letters also hinted on it and the role of a
joint Rwanda-Uganda team working on the President Museveni, President Uhuru Kenyatta and President Paul Kagame
issues.
In the latest, Uganda and Rwanda are just what could have led to the recent deci- were arrested on their way from Uganda
said to have armies on standby following sions and statements by Kigali? The letters to Tanzania, where they intended to cross
the high watermark of Rwanda’s closure Kagame exchanged with Museveni offer to Burundi and then into DR Congo. They
of its border with Uganda at Gatuna in late some clues. found that the person who was trying to
February. smuggle them was from Uganda’s Chief-
Rwanda has denied it closed the border Kagame writes taincy of Military Intelligence (CMI). Ugan-
and traffic to and fro continues. But most President Kagame was the first to write to dan police arrested them and they were
of it is transit traffic through not originat- President Museveni late last year. His letter taken to court and charged with terrorism
ing from Uganda. The Foreign Minister arrived in September and Museveni replied but later released.
of Uganda, Sam Kutesa, has said Rwanda in October. Kagame did not reply and He also noted that there was a son of the
has imposed a trade embargo and ordered Museveni wrote again on March 10. former Justice Patrick Tabaro, and another
a raft of high cost and non-tariff barriers. In his letter, Kagame raised six points of man called Ruvuma, who are involved
Faced with this situation, regional leaders concern. His first concern was that Rwanda in activities of helping people linked to
are scrambling a response. The most open had requested Uganda to grant Rwandan Kayumba Nyamwasa’s RNC recruit from
has been a visit by Kenyan President Uhuru Airways freedom rights to pick passen- Uganda. He also raised an issue that there
Kenyatta to both Kigali and Kampala on gers from Entebbe to several destinations, was another man called Rwigyema and
March 11 to meet with Kagame and Musev- including London. While the Civil Aviation another called Mukombozi who are also
eni respectively. Authority pledged to respond it, they did key points people for Kayumba Nyam-
The border incident is clearly a high not. Yet Uganda and Rwanda had a bilateral wasa’s people in recruiting rebels to go to
stakes move by Kagame. It is not clear, agreement on the same matter. DR Congo.
however, if the incident was pre-planned or President Kagame also raised concerns More than anything, accusations that
forced on him. that while Uganda had agreed to extend Kampala is supporting elements seeking
Part of the confusion is about the timing an electricity transmission line to Rwanda to cause regime change in Kigali and vice
- when President Kagame has just assumed to allow it purchase electricity from Kenya, versa have been at the centre of the tensions
the chair of the East African Community. Uganda had constructed the line only up to between the two countries.
If the border incident was preplanned, somewhere between Mbarara and Masaka.
it means Kagame must have a strategy on The other concern was that Ugandan Museveni replies
how to use it to advantage. migration officers were harassing Ugandan In his reply, Museveni responded issue
If the incident was a result of knee-jerk Rwandans trying to go through migration by issue. On the issue of Rwanda Airways,
reaction to a situation, then it sends a and confiscating their passports claiming Museveni said that Kagame should have
missed signal about Kagame who has been that they had obtained the same illegally raised this issue with him. He reminded
the model advocate of free movement of and were Rwandans purporting to be him that he had earlier on told him that he
goods and services. Ugandans. He also raised the issue of should have raised this with him.
Under him, Rwanda has consistently alleged arrest of Rwandans in Uganda and Museveni added that when Kagame
scored highly on the Ease of Doing Business their torture by CMI. raised this concern at a meeting in Addis
index of the World Bank. In 2014 he led Another concern was that Uganda hosts Ababa, he promised to get back to him after
moves that abolished visa and work permit people sponsoring terrorism activities consulting with the officials at the Uganda
requirements in Kigali for east Africans. against Rwanda. In particular, President Civil Aviation authority (CAA). Museveni
And last year, on March 21, President Kagame pointed out businessman Tribert explained that when he talked to the CAA
Kagame also hosted the signing of the Afri- Rujugiro. people, they said that since Uganda was in
can Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), Kagame said Rujugiro was financing the process of starting its own airline grant-
which was signed on by 44 of Africa’s 55 the Rwanda National Congress (RNC), ing Rwanda these rights would disadvan-
states and requires members to remove which he said was allied to FDLR, an outfit tage Uganda.
tariffs from 90% of goods, and allow free responsible for terrorism in Rwanda. The better option for us, Museveni noted,
movement of commodities, goods, and ser- Also, Kagame wrote, there were people is discussing how we can cooperate with
vices across the continent. who had been recruited in Uganda to join Rwanda Air or merging Rwanda Air and
With all this weighing on his shoulders, anti-Rwandan activities in DR Congo. They Uganda Airlines or since East Africa is very

March. 22 - 28 2019 11
cover story
small, we should start East African Airways. the latter had agreed. He added that just on Feb.28 when Ugandan customs officials
On electricity, Museveni said there was before he wrote the letter, he had called and raised concerns that Rwanda had closed the
no attempt to sabotage Rwanda. The prob- asked Rujugiro about the same and Ruju- Katuna border.
lem, he said, was stemming from compen- giro had said that he had not yet found a Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister, Rich-
sation issues. To further make his point, buyer giving him a good price for the busi- ard Sezibera called a presser and insisted
he said many projects have been delayed ness. Then Museveni said that he was pro- that Rwanda had not closed the border.
or stalled by these compensation issues. posing to Kagame that any of the Rwandan Instead, he said, the border was under reno-
These were now being resolved and the line businesses should offer Rujugiro a good vation. But Ugandan authorities insisted
would be extended to Rwanda. price and he leaves. Rwanda had closed the border, halting
On the issue of Ugandan Rwandans, On the issue of Burundi, Museveni said trade between the two countries.
Museveni said that as a Pan Africanist, he that while at their meeting in Addis, he
did not think that Rwandan Ugandans had offered to help mediate issues between Uhuru Kenyatta intervenes
should be disturbed. If Ugandan immi- Rwanda and Burundi but Kagame had This escalation, insiders say, is what
gration officers were doing it, Museveni refused. He said he was proposing again forced President Uhuru Kenyatta to embark
added, that is a wrong thing. However, that Kagame accepts and he mediates the on what many see as diplomatic efforts to
he asked why, if the people harassed are issues between Rwanda and Burundi. normalcy between the two countries or at
Ugandan and not Rwandan citizens, why On the issue of Rwandans who are least prevent them from going to war.
was Kagame bothered? This, he said, was a arrested in Uganda, Museveni said these The East African Community secretariat
sovereign matter of Uganda. would be produced in court. He said that appears paralysed and unable to arbitrate;
On Rujugiro, Museveni said he did not these were spying for Rwanda. He said partly because its chairman; Kagame, is
know Rujugiro when Kagame told him that Rwandan intelligence was trying to a disputant. The EAC Secretary General
about him. However, Museveni added that infiltrate Uganda without coordinating with Libérat Mfumukeko has not taken any ini-
he later remembered that Rujugiro had Ugandan intelligence. tiative partyly because his home country,
come to Rwakitura and talked to him at the He said that if Rwanda felt any security Tanzania, fears to antagonise Rwanda and
time RPF was involved in the struggle to threat, they should be willing to coordinate Uganda for business reasons.

Trucks stuck at the Katuna boarder following its closure by Rwanda. Tanzania's President John Pombe Magufuli with Rwanda's Pr

capture power. First of all, Museveni added, with Uganda and Uganda helps if there are But, insiders say, while in Rwanda Uhuru
he had told Kagame that it was not good to elements trying to fight Rwanda. But for told his counterpart that even if Rwanda has
mix politics with business. If he disagreed the Rwandan government to send elements troubled dealings with Kampala, closing the
with a person politically, he should not to conduct private intelligence missions in border was an extreme measure.
attack his businesses. But if he is involved Uganda was a big problem. Earlier, Kagame had been on a two-day
in financing terrorism, give us the evidence Museveni wrote this in September. visit to Tanzania to meet President John
and we reconsider our position, Museveni Kagame did not reply. Museveni wrote Magufuli. Apparently, Magufuli relayed the
wrote. However, Museveni added, he had again on March 10. This time Museveni same message.
invited Rujugiro and told him the situation. dwelt specifically on his alleged dealings The question now is whether this or any
Museveni explained that when he told him, with RNC. Museveni denied he supports diplomatic effort can resolve the border
first, Rujugiro denied being involved in RNC. Museveni wrote: “As I told you when incident. The main act now appears to be
financing terrorism. Rujugiro also denied we met, there is no question of Uganda Kagame acting tough versus Museveni act-
being in contact with either Kayumba or supporting anti-Rwanda elements. Indeed I ing indifferent.
Theogene Rudasingwa of RNC. However, have not heard Rwanda saying that Uganda Museveni is consistently acting indif-
Museveni added that Rujugiro admitted `supports’ those elements. What I heard and ferent. But days before Uhuru’s mediation
that his only friend was David Himbara; a what you told me when we met was that effort, Museveni in a veiled salvo at Kigali
former presidential principal private sec- some of these elements were `recruiting, told business people in Mbalala Mukono
retary turned critic of Kagame. Rujugiro etc’.” where he was commissioning factories that
said he would never abandon him simply Kagame had not replied by the time we Uganda is stable and anyone attempting to
because Kagame disapproves. Museveni went to press. And tensions appeared far destabilise would be shown its capacity.
also noted that even after this, he had asked from abating. “It is big,” Museveni said, “once we
Rujugiro to sell his business and leave and The climax of this escalation appeared mobilise, you cannot survive if you are a

12 March. 22 - 28 2019
cover story
trouble-maker.” Kagame responded almost efforts by international and regional players power. Museveni also bestowed upon
immediately. “When I hear somebody say had failed. Former British Prime Minister Kagame the highest medal the state of
‘no one can destabilise our country, I agree. Tony Blair had attempted to resolve the Uganda can give – only reserved for heads
No one should actually be destabilising that tensions and failed. Former Tanzanian of state – the Pearl of Africa Medal.
country, but that country should also not President Benjamin Mkapa had also tried The 2011 rapprochement appears distant
be destabilising others. I think it is fair deal, and failed. today but not impossible.
isn’t?” To initiate such a delicate process, Part of the reason is Kagame has revealed
President Paul Kagame has responded Muhoozi sought and got a nod from one of a very firm hand which, for resolution,
with shuttle diplomacy. He has travelled to the most influential people on such matters, requires that Museveni looks at the causes
Tanzania and met Magufuli. The Indepen- his uncle, Gen. Caleb Akandwanaho aka of the tension from the Kigali perspective.
dent also understands that when President Salim Saleh. But that is unlikely because Museveni has
Kagame left Tanzania Magufuli talked to With Gen.Saleh on board, other players; more immediate business – the 2021 presi-
President Museveni and the issue of the especially security organisations that were dential election.
border came up. What they spoke about feeding each side with toxic intelligence, Apart from this, while the heads of Ugan-
remains tightly guarded. picked the signal of contact between the two dan security in 2011 were seen as friendly
at close family level, and the standoff eased. to Rwanda, those in charge now are viewed
Muhoozi works on reconciliation Muhoozi now needed to find out if with suspicion. In 2011, the Uganda Police
This is not the first time tensions are Kagame would welcome the olive branch. which was at the apex of Uganda’s internal
emerging between Kampala and Kigali. He sent an emissary to the Rwandan security system was headed by Gen. Kale
Way back in 1997 the two countries clashed president suggesting a meeting with him to Kayihura, who owing to his close family
in DR Congo. But Museveni and Kagame begin the process. Kagame welcomed the ties with Kagame was seen as friendly to
appeared reconciled and warming to each idea and gave Muhoozi a go-ahead to be the Rwanda. Kayihura enjoyed trust from Presi-
other as recently as 2011. contact between him and Museveni. With dent Museveni.
After 13 years of rivalry and mutual dis- Kagame on board, Muhoozi brought his The Internal Security Organisation (ISO)
trust, with accusations of mutual sabotage plans to his father’s attention. was under Ronnie Balya, who was also seen

resident Paul Kagame President Musveni and his counterpart President Paul Kagame at the latter's farm in Muhazi in Rwanda in 2011

and assassination plots, the two presidents “I have known Paulo (Kagame) for many as friendly to Rwanda. Also at the time, Lt.
rebuilt their friendship largely relying on years and no one knows him better than Gen. Muhoozi Kainerugaba, the president’s
family ties. me,” Museveni reportedly said when he son was actively involved and more influ-
The reconciliation caught many by sur- was brief on Muhoozi’s move, “So I will ential in both police because of a good rela-
prise because only eleven months earlier, personally travel to Rwanda for a visit and tionship with Gen. Kayihura and the army
Museveni had summoned Rwanda’s High open the dialogue myself.” because he headed Special Forces. Indeed,
Commissioner to Uganda, Frank Mugam- That masterstroke by Museveni unlocked it was not surprising that the talks were
bagye and given him a message for his pres- diplomatic momentum and on April 21, Muhoozi’s initiative.
ident, that Kagame had allied with Libyan Museveni wrote a letter to Kagame. The circumstances are completely dif-
leader at the time, Muammar Gadaffi, to “I would like to come and visit your ferent. Col. Kaka Bagyenda and Brig. Abel
overthrow his government. country so that we can sit and iron out these Kandiho who took over respectively at the
The Independent learned from insiders differences amicably,” Museveni said in Internal Security Organisation (ISO) and
at the time that the President’s son, Lt.Gen. the letter. It was a bold and unprecedented the Chieftaincy of Military Intelligence
Muhoozi Kainerugaba sat with friends and move that, sources say, took Kagame by (CMI) and are calling the shots at the apex
decided to take the initiative to bridge the complete surprise. of Ugandan security are seen as unfriendly
communication gap that had fed the dis- After the visits, in January 2012, Musev- by the Rwandan establishment. Rwandan
tance between the two presidents and their eni crowned this process by officially intelligence has even linked Kahindo to
establishments. recognising the role Rwandans played in rebel activity against them.
Apparently, Muhoozi initiated plans to Uganda’s liberation when he bestowed These circumstances, insiders say, are
travel to Rwanda as an informal contact the Kagera Medal on Kagame and Fred at the heart of what stands in the way of
between the two presidents. It was a tough Rwigyema (posthumously) during the any diplomatic efforts to reconcile Kigali
gamble because, outside of family, many 26th anniversary of NRM’s coming to and Kampala.

March. 22 - 28 2019 13
news analysis

Presidents; Uhuru Kenyatta, Yoweri Museveni and Paul Kagame. Some analysts say the East African integration process is still a leaders’ affair.   NET PHOTO

New NGO steps into


Rwanda, Uganda conflict
AIRIS proposes a cautious approach but its
conference on integration proves explosive
By Ian Katusiime Integration Studies (AIRIS) held the to offer research, training, and advisory

F
conference on March 15 under the theme, consultancy on regional integration, the
or anyone trying to understand the `Legal, Economic and Business implications timing of its first annual EAC conference
current spat between erstwhile BFFs of East African Integration.’ could not have been better. Well, maybe not.
Rwandan President Paul Kagame The venue at Naguru Skyz Hotel The AIRIS chairman, James Ogoola,
and his Ugandan counterpart was packed with lawyers, academics who is a retired distinguished judge of
Yoweri Museveni, attending a recent and business people and they appeared the High Court of Uganda renowned for
conference in Kampala by a new NGO determined to unpack the integration interesting word-games sought to flag off
on regional integration in Africa seemed agenda and some of the complexities facing the discussion with some cautious views.
perfect. the East African integration process. He called the integration of Uganda,
The NGO, African Institute of Regional For an NGO formed just last October Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi,

14 March. 22 - 28 2019
news analysis
and South Sudan under the East Africa Many speakers saw the conference as the EAC Treaty that allows partner states
Community (EAC), now in its 20th year, an an opportunity to brainstorm on a way to progress with integration activities at
“experiment”. forward on the tiff between Museveni and different paces.
“There have been numerous experiments Kagame. The two have traded accusations Ojakol said whereas there is an
on integration in the EAC since its first of plotting to destabilise each other’s arbitration revolution on the African
days in the sixties because there was governments. Many expressed concern that continent, its use in majority of East
a common currency and a common the two leaders appeared fixed on talking Africans still lags behind in spite of it being
services organization,” Ogoola said, “This tough instead of pursuing reconciliation. provided for at the EACJ.
conference is dedicated to a review of the Many spoke of the need for arbitration. “People should embrace arbitration
impact of this new experiment of the East It was pointed out that it is ironic that two because it is cheaper and faster,” he said.
Africa Integration.” of its members are just shy of declaring war But then he watered down the effort in his
Then, quite aware that what was on on each other; the EAC is short of solutions. next utterance.
everyone’s mind was the closure of the It cannot intervene. The EAC institutions, “But there is a lack of proper and
common border with Uganda, Ogoola including the East African Court of Justice specialist training for both lawyers and
attempted to bring similar caution in that (EACJ) appear toothless. judges on arbitration,” he said, “and clients
debate. “Why aren’t businessmen going to do not trust both the entire process.”
“What is happening between Rwanda the court?” Bakayana asked. What
and Uganda has totally nothing to do advantages would they get from going to Economic implications
with EAC but a lot to do with the bilateral Arusha - the seat of the court? His answer: While presenting a paper on the
relations between the two countries,” he Businesspeople do not want their time to be economic implications of the East African
said. It was a dexterous fumble. wasted in lengthy court processes. integration, journalist and economic
Other speakers, such as Francis Gimara, Bakayana also queried the behavior of commentator Andrew Mwenda said
a former president of the Uganda Law some of the EAC countries. whereas integration is a popular idea
Society (ULS) and Managing Partner of “When you look at the laws coming from globally, integration works best for richer
ALP Advocates and Isaac Bakayana, a Tanzania, you get concerned,” he said, countries and tends to work against poorer
lawyer and lecturer at Makerere University “They are inward looking and are all about nations.
immediately rejected it. ‘protect Tanzania’. “In the EAC, investors will flock to Kenya
“Bilateralism cannot be pleaded when it Uganda’s southern neighbor has gained at the expense of the rest mostly because it
comes to international obligations,” Gimara notoriety for its protectionist tendencies in is the largest economy in the bloc,” he said.
said and advised partner states to always the last few years. Mwenda also disputed the theory usually
honour international obligations under the promoted by President Museveni that
EAC Treaty. growth of economies of African states lags
“I am handling a case where Kenyans are behind because of a small population.
appealing to the ministry of internal affairs Bilateralism “The President always argues that we

cannot be pleaded
over denial of work permits,” he said. need a bigger market for each other but
Gimara said Kenya is also denying work what is more crucial is purchasing power
permits to Ugandans in large numbers and
that requiring permits for minerals to cross
when it comes not population,” he argued.
But other speakers said size matters and a
borders was another hurdle in the EAC.
And he blamed the problems in the EAC
to international critical population mass is the key.
Patrick Kaboyo, the MD of Alpha Capital
integration on its leaders. obligations,” Gimara Partners; a Ugandan financial services
said and advised
He said whereas the leaders are always firm that specialises in sovereign asset
appearing glossy at EAC summits management, said having the region as
purporting to make the integration a
smooth process, lawyers like him are
partner states to one big market would lead to increased
productivity.
always handling cases of ordinary people always honour “Integration leads to increased trade
caught up in inter-state hurdles. and an integrated approach for one market
“The harmonisation of laws across international facilitates full movement of all factors of
services and sectors in East Africa is far
from completion,” he said. obligations under production,” Kaboyo said, “if these factors
are efficiently allocated, there will definitely
“Is a poor woman from Kapchorwa
crossing the border into Kenya, for example,
the EAC Treaty be increased productivity.
He cited examples like the Standard
violating the treaty?” he asked. Yet, he said, Gauge Railway under construction as fruits
such people are routinely arrested. of integration and better bargaining power
Other speakers cited an incident in 2017 He also criticised national trade of 174 million people- the total population
when over 1000 cows belonging to Kenyan programmes such as Uganda’s Buy Uganda of the EAC.
pastoralists were auctioned off by the Build Uganda (BUBU) which he dubbed a Citing more benefits from the perspective
Tanzanian government over alleged grazing protectionist policy and demanded, instead of capital markets, Kaboyo revealed that the
in Tanzanian national parks. for laws that facilitate integration. East African region was the top destination
Emmanuel Elau, a lawyer and lecturer The issue of protectionism was heavily for private equity funds with a total of
of East African Community law at Uganda debated as some speakers insisted it as an $2billion for the year ending June 2018.
Christianity University (UCU) said the initiative of individual countries moving on “These investors were targeting East
region needs lawyers well-versed with their own. Africa as a regional bloc,” he said.
regional integration legal principles as “A little protectionism is not bad,” Putting all bickering aside, be it between
East African nations look for ways of Ivan Ojakol, a regional integration and EAC leaders or speakers at the conference,
harmonisation at many levels. He said it international trade lawyer, working with it was established that a number of legal
is one of the ways of bringing down the KTA Advocates, said. He cited the principle and other complexities make the integration
integration process to the citizens. of variable geometry under Article 7 of process a difficult one.

March. 22 - 28 2019 15
news analysis
By Ronald Musoke

K
elly Clements, the Deputy High
Commissioner for the UN refugee
agency UNHCR, recently saw first-
hand the ever-growing task of car-
ing for hundreds of thousands of vulnerable
South Sudanese refugees when she visited
Uganda.
“My lasting memory in Moyo was meet-
ing primary and secondary school students,
their parents and their teachers under a very
big tree,” she told journalists in Kampala,
“We did that because this is a school that is
bursting at the seams.”
She saw a primary school with an enroll-
ment rate of 94% because education is free
but learnt that less than 20% of refugee
children are able to attend secondary school
because they cannot afford school fees.
She was moved by a story of a 22-year
old refugee woman who committed sui-
cide after learning she would not be able
to pay school fees to complete her last year
of secondary education. The dropout rates
among refugees have had a damaging effect
including alcoholism, teenage pregnancy
and early and forced marriage.
This was Clements’ second visit to Ugan-
da in three years but it appears the scale of
refugee needs in the country still amaze her.
She was in the country for five days
starting March 07 and specifically toured
refugee settlements in the northwestern
Ugandan districts of Adjumani, Moyo and
Yumbe where 67% of refugees in the coun-
try are hosted. Clements jokes with refugee women in a market in Bidibidi refugee settlement, Yumbe District.   COURTESY PHOTO.
Flanked by Joël Boutroue, the UNHCR

'World must stand with


Country representative in Uganda and
Raouf Mazou, the director UNHCR for the
Africa regional bureau, Clements said dur-
ing a media briefing in Kampala on March
12 that keeping girls in school is a higher
priority for UNHCR and its partners. She
said the UNCHR intends to offer more sup-
port by, for instance, paying for teachers,
Uganda on refugees'
providing learning materials and furniture.
“We all want to prevent a generation of What UNHCR Chief learnt from recent
young people from being lost because they
feel the future holds so little for them,” she
said, “It is in places like Parolinya (Moyo
visit to Uganda’s refugee settlements
District) that more global solidarity with
countries and people hosting refugees must “We know that some of the schools that improve conditions in secondary schools
be demonstrated.” have been set up certainly to respond to and provide small, but critical supplies that
When Clements crossed over to Adju- the emergence are not sufficient and are can affect school attendance, like sanitary
mani to interact with women entrepreneurs overcrowded but that equally applies to pads for female students.
and refugee leaders, she was told education, Ugandan schools as it does in refugee settle- Besides partnering with international
health and environmental issues are the ments.” development agencies like the World Bank
primary concerns in the sub-region. As part of UNHCR’s focus on education, and the UNDP, the UNHCR is also looking
Clements was, however, impressed by she announced that the UN refugee orga- at partnering with the private sector in the
the good working relationship between the nization intends to re-allocate over Shs 375 areas of education, energy, technology and
refugees and local communities, particu- million (US$100,000) to ensure young stu- connectivity.
larly in Moyo District. dents can continue studying in secondary “We will identify the types of activities
“It is good that the refugees and local school in Parolinya refugee settlement. that we want to help the government of
communities are working together, are The funds will cover school fees for more Uganda with to build additional schools,
schooling and training together and they than 500 refugees and Ugandan youth who classrooms, teachers, helping with school
are conserving the environment together cannot afford to stay in school, she said. fees and supplies to ensure that more refu-
and they are co-existing peacefully.” The new support will also help to gee children go to school.”

16 March. 22 - 28 2019
news analysis
Despite having one of the best refugee
policies in the world, the country has been
struggling to meet most of its obligations
spelt out in UN refugee conventions, includ-
ing the provision of education for refugee
children.
The 1989 Convention on rights of chil-
dren and the 1951 refugee convention note
that education is a human right but many
refugee children currently residing in Ugan-
da are not studying.
By the end of 2017, about 345,000 refugee
children were reported by UNHCR to be
studying in all the 13 refugee settlements
but, almost all of them study in overcrowd-
ed classrooms, with inadequate learning
materials and other resources.
In response, the government through the
Ministry of Education and Sports, donors,
civil society organisations and other UN
agencies last year came up with an “educa-
tion response plan” for refugees and host
communities targeting close to 700,000 chil-
dren every year.
Close to 20 local and international organ-
isations involved with responding to the
refugee crisis in Uganda welcomed the pro-
gramme in a joint communiqué.
“We see countless children forced to drop
out of school; crumbling and overcrowded
classrooms; schools without buildings or
safe water and sanitation; and pupils hav-
ing to walk miles to and from school every
day.”
“What shines through is the children’s
desire to learn and build a better future
“We will also have discussions on how to year for Uganda and the international for themselves and their communities but
help the government on further certification community since the Global Compact on the global response to the unprecedented
of schools so that students can take exami- Refugees was signed in December last year movement of refugees has to date been
nations and issues related to decongesting calling for increased collaboration and inadequate.”
schools by looking at whether schools can responsibility sharing for host communities But, while the plan sets out the ambition
do double shifts.” and governments. and concrete steps to achieve this, close to
“We know that the hospitality and gener- “This is a critical time for the operation US$390 million should be found if the pro-
osity of Ugandan people cannot be taken for and our aim is to keep the spotlight on the gramme is to be implemented.
granted and that refugees and the host com- important work that is being done in Ugan- Meanwhile, the UNHCR also intends to
munities in the country must receive more da by the government, host communities concentrate on environmental restoration
global support,” Clements said. and a number of partners who have joined projects in both the refugee settlements and
Uganda continues to host the biggest with UNHCR,” she said. the host communities.
refugee population in Africa with over 1.2 “It’s a very competitive global environ- Although Clements noted that the nega-
million refugees, 800,000 of whom are from ment with regards to resources; so our inter- tive environmental impact is not unique to
South Sudan. est is to look at various programmes, look areas where refugees are, the UNHCR will
During her visit, Clements saw firsthand at the programme interventions that we make environmental restoration a high pri-
why Uganda is praised around the world wanted to place high priority coming into ority in 2019.
for having one of the most progressive refu- 2019.” “We will be working with the National
gee asylum policies. “Uganda represents the Global Compact Forestry Authority and the Ministry of
Clements said her team had been in action, but the country can’t do it alone,” Water and Environment to replant the
impressed with “the generosity of the she said, “more global support is needed, trees that have been felled for purposes of
Ugandan people and the resourcefulness particularly in the areas of education, eco- firewood,” she said, “Large scale environ-
and resilience of refugees.” nomic opportunities and the environment.” mental protection and restoration will go on
“I’ve been extremely impressed at how Although the influx of refugees into the both in refugee settlements and the adjacent
Uganda’s inclusive policies have improved country seems to have slowed down a bit communities.”
the lives of refugees and the communities in recent months, the emergence is not over Boutroue, the UNHCR Country repre-
hosting them,” said Clements. and the humanitarian response needs con- sentative in Uganda noted that in order
But the ever-growing task of caring for tinue to rise. to preserve the country’s environment,
hundreds of thousands of vulnerable South In Parolinya refugee settlement, Clements they are looking at planting 20 million
Sudanese refugees could soon overwhelm met with teachers, students and their par- trees per year.
the effort if new support is not found. ents and saw some of the myriad challenges
Clements said 2019 is a very important they face every day.

March. 22 - 28 2019 17
news analysis

Reviving Katwe By Patricia Akankwatsa

A
cool breeze and a pungent smell
like rotten eggs is what welcome

salt factory
you to the shores of Lake Katwe.
That is the hydrogen sulfide; a
poisonous and corrosive gas that occurs
naturally in the salt caves of the volcanic
crater Lake. But the men and women
scrapping the bottom of the lake for

UDB launches ambitious salt cannot smell the gas because, after
working in it for some time, it kills their
sense of smell.

hunt for investor So the women continue using hoes to


scoop the salt as the men extract the rock

18 March. 22 - 28 2019
news analysis
manufactured neither is it processed. (UDB) wants to change. It wants to revive
Miners depend on the natural salt which the long dead factory.
naturally forms within their pans. “As a bank, we are involved in a lot
Mining in the center of the lake is of activities and one of them is project
only done by licensed individuals. An preparation,” says Mohamud Andama,
association for Rock Salt Extraction issues the UDB director for investment, “With
the licenses for extraction of rock salt this we connect an idea and turn it into a
from the middle of the lake. Everything bank proposal for a potential funder.”
appears orderly and designed to ensure He says the government identified the
that the salt is extracted without causing revival of the salt factory on Lake Katwe
its extinction. as an investment project but there has
been no progress.
Hope for the factory revival. “This where we stepped in,” says
Salt mining at Lake Katwe is one of Andama, “We are doing a feasibility
Uganda’s oldest industries. For centuries study of revamping the factory and if we
people have mined the salt by hand as find that it is a viable activity, then we
their major means of livelihood. Mining write a proposal.”
has also played a significant political and
economic role in the history of the area. What locals say
According to Katwe Information “I have been mining salt since 1989 and
Tourism Centre Lake Katwe is the chief the pay is good,” says Eliason Bwambale
producer of salt in Uganda. It was formed a salt miner. He says on a good day, he
as a result of volcanic eruption about can get around US$150.
10,000 years ago. The lake is about 9km “That is not bad,” he says, “but because
wide and very shallow, with the deepest we use rudimentary methods to extract
point being six feet. There is a raised salt, we get hurt. We normally use hands
settlement near the lake which people and go into the lake bare footed. Some
from neighboring areas who came to buy of these salt rocks have sharp edges that
salt called “Katwe” hence the name. may injure our legs and arms when we
This is an area of crater lakes and are scrapping the salt.”
cones. Lake Katwe, Lake Munyanyange, “I would be very glad if some investors
and Lake Kasenyi are among the biggest. came in and renovated the factory
All of them are said to have a salt rock because that way, work can be made
deep below them but only Lake Katwe efficient and easy,” he adds.
and Lake Kasenyi can produce salt. The Miners also say that the weather
lakes are shallow depressions where patterns have not been favorable to them.
the salt liquid brine collects. This is Salt is only extracted during the dry
because the two lakes have streams that season that is from January to March and
bring fresh water to the lake which fills from July to September when there is
numerous vents or holes which sink to much sunshine.
the main salt rock below and dissolve “We want to find an appropriate way of
part of the rock it into salt brine. Volcanic extracting salt during the wet season. This
pressure then pushes the compressed can be done by industrialisation, using
liquid back on top where it is dissolved modern solar panels to evaporate the salt
to become a salt solution which solidifies water like how it is done in other parts
into salt when the water in it evaporates. of the world instead of depending on the
There are three major types of salt mined sunshine,” says Nicholas Kagongo; one of
from Lake Katwe; the crude salt for the custodians and environmentalists at
animal leak, edible salt (sodium chloride) the salt mines. He says they welcome the
and unwashed salt. idea of reviving the factory because they
Starting in the late 1970s, the need to improve the salt mining sector.
salt. The water in this lake is 60% salty. government development agency, “With industrialisation, we can be
And in a region that is semi-arid, with Uganda Development Corporation able to get a brand because there we can
soils that do not favour agricultural (UDC), built a factory in the area to produce purified salt that meets the world
activities, salt mining has become the process the salt brine. Construction was standards and get market. Thus, boosting
major economic activity in Kasese district, interrupted by the wars of the period, the salt mining activity,” he told The
western Uganda. but the factory was completed in 1982. Independent.
Salt is mined from small ponds known However, it operated for less than a year
as pans. Pans are man-made features and close when the salt corroded the About Lake Katwe
around Lake Katwe but the salt forms machinery. According to Katwe Information
naturally within them. These ponds Today, bats, rats, and other creatures Tourism Centre, Lake Katwe is about 550
which are about 10 by 12 feet or so are the only inhabitants of the factory kilometers west of Kampala, in Kasese
wide and 3 to 5 feet deep are the `plots’ on the edges of Lake Edward which is District, Kabatoro/Katwe Town Council.
demarcating sections of the shores of about half a kilometre from Lake Katwe. It is one of about 52 explosion crater lakes
the lake owned by private individuals Meanwhile Uganda spends billions of found in Queen Elizabeth national park.
or families. Some are inherited from dollars importing salt. It is an undesirable
parents to children. The salt brine is not situation that Uganda Development Bank

March. 22 - 28 2019 19
interview

Katuntu did a good job but…


Kawempe South MP Munyagwa Mubarak Sserunga is the new Chairperson of Committee on State
Authorities and Statutory Enterprises (COSASE). He spoke to The Independent’s Agnes E. Nantaba.

What is your comment on baseless allegations. beginning but I can’t change my


your appointment as COSASE identity. The world has accepted me

I
chairperson? The appointment also attracted a the way I am and my constituents
am forever grateful to Forum lot of cynicism especially on social believe in me. Expect results through a
for Democratic Party (FDC) for media with many a commentator different style of work.
giving me the opportunity to serve saying it is a downgrade given your
as head of the biggest oversight comical character. What are your What do you make of the state
committee in parliament. I am known thoughts on this? of affairs in COSASE; including
to be an activist for a long period of One of Uganda’s biggest problems allegations of corruption that have
time and most elites have never taken is the elites and social media
me to be serious but FDC came out to commentators who hold themselves
disprove the country that Munyagwa in high regard as though they
can do something else that is more came as Mars. We all went to
challenging. The party leadership schools with some of them
wasn’t limited for options because but it was a choice for
there are other senior leaders and MPs some of them to become
who have served in the house for more corporates while we
than one term and would be equally chose political activism.
deserving. The appointment wasn’t That explains why
expected for someone of my character some people doubt if
to replace a senior lawyer and more Dr Besigye is a medical
experienced MP (Bugweri MP Abdu doctor because of what
Katuntu). Here I am ready to take the he chose to do.
mantle. We are different
brands which translate
What is your take on the appointment into a different style
being seen as a reward for stepping of work. It is true that
down for FDC president Patrick is the way I
Amuriat during the party’s last branded and
presidential race? presented
FDC doesn’t use positions to reward myself
people. All the party leadership did at the
was to prove that a different style or very
philosophy of work can also deliver.
If it was about being rewarded, we
wouldn’t see people like MP Betty
Nambooze being appointed as
spokesperson of the Minority
government or shadow
cabinet. Even the leader
of opposition, Betty Aol
Ochan was never seen
moving with President
Amuriat, Opposition
Chief Whip Ibrahim
Ssemujju Nganda
supported
Mugisha Muntu
in the FDC
presidential
race but was
named on
the cabinet.
Those
are just

20 March. 22 - 28 2019
interview
shrouded the committee? of some agencies or entities sufficient,
It is unfair to hold such baseless there will be no need for interaction.
allegations since no past leader of What is your strategy to dealing
COSASE has been proven guilty with the cyclical backlog problem that
of corruption charges during their saw your predecessor handle only 14
tenure. Even under the law, there is a entities out of the 112?
presumption that anyone is innocent
until proven guilty. Such allegations
my Backlog is a problem that has
persisted from many regimes. Most
cannot shadow our positive energy philosophy of our predecessors apart from Hon
and efforts to make Uganda a better
country. lies in Ssemujju tethered themselves on
entities with big budgets leaving out

How different is your philosophy?


interacting smaller ones. For instance entities
like Allied Health Professional
My predecessor believed in budget with all Council, Uganda Dental and Medical
size; targeting where government has
invested a lot. But my philosophy entities Practitioners Council and Uganda
Nurses and Midwives Council have
lies in interacting with all entities
regardless of budget size because
regardless budgets ranging from Ushs1-2
billion which is very low compared
they are all equally important. We of budget to entities like Uganda National

size because
intend to interact with all entities and Roads Authority with a budget of
recommend accordingly but where Ushs2 trillion. Budgets should not
necessary probe. We have already
written to all entities; asking them
they are dictate which entity to interact with
or probe. They are equally important
to submit responses in regard to the all equally because the above regulate the entire

important
auditor general’s report. We have also medical profession; therefore hold
tasked them to serve us with lists of the country’s health sector. Once the
all origins of all employees and the auditor general’s report highlights
districts of origin, salary structure, issues regarding their mode of
and dates of engagement and expiry operation, COSASE must interact with
for those on contract; including board them.
members. They are required to share
with the committee their challenges What is your say on the COSASE
and achievements. Our mandate report into the fraudulent closure and
ranges from processing auditor disposal of seven commercial banks?
general’s report to supervision. We Hon Katuntu did a commendable
may rush at probing financial abuses job considering the observations.
and indiscipline forgetting that some Sometimes facts speak for themselves
entities are lacking in other areas. and in this case, the facts were
For instance some agencies don’t a second degree- bachelor of laws. substantive. He deserves credit for
guarantee fair competition for jobs trying hard to fish for facts. Although
because some conduct head hunting. How do you intend to maintain the the recommendations weren’t
I don’t need to copy anything from standard set by your predecessor of commensurate to the observations, the
my predecessor because I am up to having COSASE as one of the most observations were glaring. We should
the task. We have the capabilities active committees of Parliament? accept differences in character because
that require me and the team to do I don’t intend to turn the committee some people might be lenient and not
this. The educational requirement into an only probe committee. Our others.
for someone to become MP is work entails processing the auditor What is not in contention however
advanced level certificate general’s report to presenting the is that my predecessor’s style of
which makes every findings before the house. Probing work doesn’t match the interests
MP eligible to chair will come in but where necessary. My and expectations of Ugandans. The
any committee in assessment is that it has not done well challenge is that majority of Ugandans
parliament including if less than a quarter of the expected are oppressed and angry people who
me. I am above entities interacted with the committee. expected harsh treatments to some
the minimum To start with, we expect all entities of the individuals who were probed
qualification to have submitted their responses by and indicated to being fraudulent.
with a degree March 22 and thereafter embark on Ugandans are waiting for redemption
in science and a marathon of interaction which will from all corners so for an opportunity
now pursuing see all of them covered by end of our like the BOU probe only had them
tenure. expect COSASE to go their way by
As a committee, we have agreed to being harsh. The committee did a
divide ourselves into subcommittees great job.
that will be tasked to handle a number
of agencies, have them processed and
report to the meeting of the entire
committee. Once we find the responses

March. 22 - 28 2019 21
(L-R) Kansai Plascon Uganda Ltd outgoing Managing Director, Chris Nugent, President Hiroshi Ishino , Vice President, Kalpana
Abe, and MD Kansai Plascon East Africa, Wim Bramer, during the launch of anti-mosquito paint in Kampala on Feb. 05.

Inside Kansai Plascon’s top


management shake-up
MD shown exit as sales and marketing manager
faces investigations over misconduct

K
By Isaac Khisa Abe, the company’s vice president and On top of the executives’ minds was
Hiroshi Ishino, the president during the “poor performance” of the com-
ansai Plascon Uganda the launch of an anti-mosquito paint pany which has registered a drop in
Limited has over the last in Kampala. annual turnover, estimated at more
couple of months hosted But The Independent has learnt that than 40% in an industry that has
several senior executives behind the visit, the executives sought recently become very competitive.
from the parent com- to know the inner operations of Plas- However, in trying to understand
pany, Kansai Paint, based con Uganda Limited since it acquired the Uganda operations, The Inde-
in Osaka, Japan. the assets of the former holder of the pendent investigations show that the
The executives’ stopover climaxed Sadolin brand in East Africa, two years executives unearthed a network of
on Feb. 05 with the visit of Kalpana ago. unscrupulous deals linked to the top

22 March. 22 - 28 2019
business
managers of Kansai Plascon Uganda owned by Nugent as he is yet to be share of the Ugandan market. It took
Limited. equipped well with the company back- Sadolin over a month to shake off the
This, sources said, triggered the ground. injunction, a period Plascon exploited
Kansai Plascon executives to fire some “Specialised Coatings was origi- in its favour.
of the top employees in its subsidiary nally set up so that (the) two entities  Plascon not only claimed that “Sado-
for conflict of interest and supplying existed, one a paint manufacturer and lin is now Plascon”, influencing public
goods to their employer. the other an application business,” he perception, but also changed the entire
The sources, for example, said Plas- said. Sadolin distribution and value chain.
con Uganda Managing Director, Chris “With the change to Kansai Plascon,  Sadolin Paints was caught off guard
Nugent, was found to be the owner the company was Specialised Coatings in that although it owned the Sadolin
of a paintings company – Specialized was absorbed into Kansai Plascon and paint formula and quality assurance,
Coatings – that also buys paints from no longer exists, any ongoing or long it never owned the distribution and
the paint maker. term projects is place is being com- value chain, which was Sadolin Paints
Santosh Gumte, who had been the pleted by Kansai Plascon.” East Africa’s.
company’s commercial director since He also denied claim that the Kan- This made Sadolin to partner with
2007, was found to be the owner of sai Plascon has lost its market share. the closest rival, Nairobi-based Crown
one of the local plastics manufacturing Instead, Immelmann said the company Paints, to set up a US$ 10 million plant
firm that supplies plastic tins for paint has enjoyed a successful brand migra- the Kampala Business and Industrial
packaging to his employer. tion and is proud of its achievements Park, Namanve, to manufacture and
It is Santosh’s association with the in managing its dealer network, work distribute Sadolin paints.
company that Sadolin Paint switched force and 60% market share. Since then, competition has
the plastic tins supplier to Friendship “The suggestion of underperfor- remained tense with Sadolin coming
Plastics, which also supplies to Crown mance or loss of 40% (turnover) in up with new strategies including set-
paints, the producer of Regal Paints. business is fabricated and untrue,” ting up its new distribution network
Interestingly, Santosh had not been Immelmann said. altogether, training painters as well
fired; instead he was promoted as extending support to upcoming
to become a co-managing direc- entrepreneurs.
tor with Nugent for a year as the
latter exited the paint company, Plascon performance in East
according to an internal memo Africa
that The Independent has seen.
“I am sure all members of staff However, Plascon seems to have
will give Santosh their full sup- made inroads in the market and has
port in his role,” Nugent said in recorded high sales on the year-on-
an internal memo circulated to the year basis for the East African busi-
staff on Feb.08. ness for the third quarter of the year
Sources said Kansai Paints now ending March.
plans to fly in an executive to be The company’s net sales grew
in charge of finance following the 23.7% to 29,733 million yen
promotion of former commercial (Shs981.5billion) on year on year cit-
director. ing increase in sales volume.
Nilesh Jani, who has been the Nilesh Jani Santosh Gumte Still, despite a rise in sales com-
company’s sales and marketing pared with the same period last
manager, has been suspended pending Regarding Nilesh suspension, year, profitability faced significant
investigations for misconduct. Immelmann said it is an internal affair pressure from the rise of raw material
When contacted for a comment over and requires the necessary due process prices due to currency depreciation
the development on March 01, Nugent to take place. and the intensified price competition.
said indeed there is a plan for him to Since the entry of Plascon in Ugan- This development comes as latest
retire although it is still work in prog- da’s paint market through the acquisi- statistics show that the Middle East
ress. tion of assets that held Sadolin brand, and Africa Powder Coating Market
In terms of decline in company per- competition has heightened that at is expected to register a healthy com-
formance, Nugent, who was appointed one point the paint firms got caught pound annual growth rate in the fore-
to the company’s helm in 1994 but has up in mudslinging and carrying out cast period 2018 to 2025.
served for nearly 30 years in various misleading advertisements. AkzoNobel is expected to dominate
capacities, said the company’s growth According to the terms of the the powder coating market followed
has been fantastic. He said the compa- Sadolin franchise, Sadolin Paints East by Kansai Paint, Asian Paints, Jotun
ny recorded a 5% growth in turnover. Africa was supposed to keep Sadolin and Evonik Industries AG among oth-
However, he declined to comment Paints products on the market for a ers.
on the suspension of Nilesh, who has year, in case it wanted terminate the The new market report that contains
worked for the company for about deal. Surprisingly, this clause was data for historic year 2016 and 2017
12 years. Nilesh, on the other hand, breached as Plascon immediately went as the base year of calculation, says
denied to have been suspended, refer- on a rebranding campaign of all Sado- increasing technological advance-
ring this publication to the outgoing lin products. ments, growth of stringent environ-
managing director. Plascon moved a step further by ment regulations and rising applica-
Tyron Immelmann, the company’s going to the courts seeking an injunc- tions across end-user industries are
Marketing Manager East Africa on tion on Sadolin not to be in the mar- driving the market.
March 14 could neither confirm nor ket. This move infuriated the Sadolin
deny that Specialised Coating was executives who still wanted to save its

March. 22 - 28 2019 23
business

Stanbic’s conference
awakens entrepreneurs
What local businesses need to reap from the lucrative sector
By Julius Businge

T
here is need for partnerships, con-
nections, networking, trust, perse-
verance, access to credit, and prom-
ising what you can deliver.
These were the messages that most
speakers that took part in Stanbic Bank’s
second edition of the annual enterprise con-
ference held at Hotel Africana on March 12
told heads of businesses in the gas and oil
industry.
Held under the theme ‘unlocking the oil
and gas opportunities for local enterprises,’
the conference attracted slightly over 500
high minded entrepreneurs to share expe-
riences on how to sustainably grow their
businesses Tony Otoa, the head of Stanbic’s business incubator makes a presentation at the enterprise conference.
It comes at the time Uganda is in the
process of developing its oil and gas sector, structure, and administrative bureaucracy ness as usual…we have to change if we are
a head of oil and gas production in the next as some of the barriers that would hamper to benefit from the sector,” he said.
three to four years. Ugandans from working in the sector. While sharing her sector experience, one
Stephen Segujja, the Stanbic Bank head It also revealed that only 25 industries of the entrepreneurs, Juliana Keilungi from
for enterprise banking said as Uganda out of the 420 surveyed in Uganda had high Atacama, a consulting firm that has won
becomes an oil and gas producing nation, potential to supply the sector with various several contracts in the oil and gas sector
it is important to ensure businesses prepare goods and services. advised entrepreneurs to build capacity,
early enough to maximise the sector oppor- Tony Otoa, the head of the Stanbic Bank and skills in all corporate governance areas
tunities. Business Incubator said at the conference instead of giving up when things appear to
“Small and medium enterprises are eager that the lack of entrepreneurial manage- fail to workout.
to be in this space and we are here to sup- ment and business skills, poor banking and “The beginning is always tough. You
port them,” Segujja said. borrowing history, lack of business plans have to be ready with solutions to deal with
Available data from the ministry of ener- and financial records, low corporate gov- the challenges.”
gy indicates that Uganda’s oil and gas sector ernance and fierce local and international Keilungi urged businesses to register in
is expected to attract investments of about competition were the leading deadlocks the National Suppliers Database; recruit
$20billion, with about $6billion expected to facing Ugandan enterprises. competent team; invest in human and finan-
be retained into Uganda’s economy in the Possible solutions cial capital; invest in quality management
development stage of the sector. As part of the solutions, Otoa said Stan- systems; generate consistently high quality
“It is therefore important to prepare bic’s incubator was set up to deal with these work; get good lines of credit and promise
SMEs to help them tap into these oppor- challenges and make businesses get ready only what they can deliver.
tunities, win contracts and be part of the to tap into oil and gas opportunities. On his part, Kevin Wingfield, the head
value chain that is going to deliver first oil,” He said over 500 entrepreneurs from of personal and business banking, urged
Segujja added. over 150 businesses have benefited from the businesses to prepare enough ahead of oil
According to Uganda Bureau of Statis- initiative and that some have been directly production.
tics, Ugandan small businesses contribute linked to sector partners and are already “We have to be proactive when taking up
40-50% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) making money. opportunities,” Wingfield said.
making them engines of growth that He urged businesses that have not yet He added that opportunities are in big
account for up to 99% of Ugandan busi- taken part in the free of charge training to projects like the refinery, development of oil
nesses. do so if they are to benefit from the sector. fields, the oil pipeline, the airport and other
There are 250,000 registered SMEs in the “This is proof that our local businesses supporting infrastructure.
country but most of these are informal and are capable of taking up opportunities in He also urged participants to read up,
lack the tools to keep them sustainable. the sector and should therefore not be left network, form partnerships as one way of
The 2014 Industrial Baseline Survey (IBS), out but rather should be empowered,” Otoa understanding the oil and gas sector value
titled, “a survey to foster opportunities for said. He said the training lasts three months chain if they are to win contracts.
Ugandans in the oil and gas sector”, shows and thereafter, beneficiaries are given men- “Partnerships are not a threat; they are an
that Uganda’s petroleum sector will gener- tors to ensure that all the knowledge and opportunity,” he said. “Be organised. Have
ate 100,000 to 150,000 direct and indirect skills attained are put into use. a clear story before you approach banks for
jobs. However, the survey identified, lim- “I understand we have been doing busi- funding.”
ited information, lack of skills, poor infra-

24 March. 22 - 28 2019
Executive Style

Sadolin sees a bright future


in Uganda’s paint market
Following the sale of bright year.
assets belonging to the
former holder of Sadolin Which products do you
Paint brand in the region plan to unveil this year and
nearly two years ago and your market share?
your decision to invest in We are in a competitive
your own plant to start environment and I may
paint production locally not be able to reveal the
and protect your market products we plan to launch
share, what progress have this year. The same applies

W
you made so far? to our market share.
e have made
significant What does the progress
progress. We made so far mean to you as
have set up a commercial director for
a production plant, and Sadolin in East Africa?
we now have products I am very proud of
on the Ugandan market. achievements we have
Initially, we didn’t have made so far. Our local team
any product. We have also has done a fantastic job.
been in position to launch We wanted to be on the
a product specifically Ugandan market and I am
for the Ugandan market. happy we have done that.
This followed a thorough We have developed a good
research and investment platform for the company’s
that enabled us come up future growth. Sadolin has
with a kind of paint that been one of our shining
is suitable for this tropical In 2017, the holder of Sadolin franchise stars in Africa and we want
climatic conditions. in East African sold its business to Kansai it to continue.
Some of these products Plascon. But for fear of losing the market,
included Wallquard that is How has the company
specifically made to combat Sadolin brand owner – AkzoNobel – handed managed to rebuild the
mold as well as a whole over the license to the rival firm, Crown supply chain?
range of exterior products. Paints. Deon Nieuwoudttal, the commercial We are basically
We also embarked on setting up a very unique
training our painters to director for E. Africa at AkzoNobel, talked to distribution channel. We
make them experts in The Independent’s Isaac Khisa about their have been able to bring a
matters painting. We progress and the prospects that lie ahead. whole new generation of
realized that we could not dealers into the market.
tackle the issue of good We are also encouraging
paintings without skilling entrepreneurship. We
and imparting knowledge What strategies are you to launch products that are are supporting upcoming
to our painters on not only undertaking to grow your relevant to the Ugandan entrepreneurs who can build
how to use our paints but business and the market market and not merely our brand moving forward.
also advise consumers. share? launching paint products.
Currently, we are running We are focusing on Where do we see Sadolin in
two sessions per month in training our dealers and What is your assessment of the next five years?
various parts of the country; painters and setting up a paint market in Uganda at We want to re-establish
imparting them with skills distribution in a proper the moment? Sadolin as a major player
in paint composition, way. This is to showcase Since the last half of 2018, in the provision of quality
importance of following our products and ensure paint demand is still under paint. We want to be seen as
painting systems as well that when consumers visit pressure. But we have made a renewed company and use
as how do deal with the us, they indeed get colour good progress and we are our global credentials and
problems that our consumers experience. We are also comfortable where we are technologies to ensure that
are trying to combat. expanding our product range based on our achievements. our Ugandan consumer can
in a sensible way. We want We are now looking to a really benefit from it.

March. 22 - 28 2019 25
Business
csr csr

dfcu trains women in business NBL sinks Shs300mn in 2019 scholarship programme

N
ile Breweries
Limited (NBL) an-
nounced it is sink-
ing Shs303 million
in its equality scholarship
programme for the benefit
of the secondary school and
university students enrolled
on it. NBL Country Director
for Uganda, Thomas Kam-
phuis and its Legal and

N
Corporate Affairs Director,
inety women have successfully Onapito Ekomoloit said the students; 20 university stu- farming communities that
completed a two year business money would go towards dents and 45 orphans who supply the company with
management training course and the 2019 school fees and lost their parents in the July inputs like sorghum and
awarded with certificates at Maker- welfare expenses for the 11, 2010 bombing in Kam- barley under what officials
ere University Business School (MUBS). The 102 beneficiaries, who com- pala. School going benefi- described as a ‘performance
training is funded by dfcu bank and dates prise 42 secondary school ciaries are picked from the based criterion’
back to 2016 when the latter signed an MOU
with MUBS to start a business acceleration telecom
program for women entrepreneurs. The pro-
gramme seeks to empower women entrepre-
neurs in the business space. Speaking at the Africell introduces OTT inclusive bundles

A
graduation ceremony held at MUBS recently,
the University’s Vice Chancellor Prof. Waswa fricell Uganda has introduced It is in respect to this pledge that we are
Bulunywa said the launch of the innovation SWIFT bundles where customers announcing a much better and more com-
and incubation center at MUBS will bolster will not have to worry about pay- petitive SWIFT bundle than we had the last
ing OTT tax for them to enjoy the time.’ The SWIFT bundles will be sold only
progress in empowering women as they will
internet experience. The SWIFT bundles through three key channels which are Afri-
be able to acquire necessary skills and ex-
were first launched by Africell Uganda and cell shops countrywide, the Africell money
pertise to start their own businesses with the
they enabled the company achieve an edge platform accessible and also through se-
help of dfcu bank. Dfcu’s Women in Business
in the data market becoming the top selling lected vendors like Payway, whose network
(WiB) program Manager, Victoria Byenkya,
bundle. Africell Uganda CEO Mohammad reaches far and wide. SWIFT stands for
said: “As dfcu Bank we are fully committed Ghaddar said, “We made a pledge to our SnapChat, WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook
to this cause and our doors will always be customers to always avail quality, afford- and Twitter.
open to women.” able and timely communication solutions.

aviation innovation

Boeing’s 737 Max grounded to a halt UAP Old Mutual hosts

I
t is just March but is turning out to be the aircraft maker Boeing has decided start up boot camp

D
a very difficult year for the aviation to ground its entire 737 Max fleet after isruptive start-ups seeking solutions
industry. After an Ethiopian Airlines a global backlash for its most commer- for positive change in Africa have a
Boeing 737 Max crashed just six min- cially successful plane. Just a month ago, chance to receive support from UAP
utes after take-off from Bole International Airbus announced that it was stopping Old Mutual. The insurance firm
Airport in Addis Ababa, airlines across production of the iconic Airbus 380. The alongside SBC AfriTech and SBC Ambassador,
the world reacted by grounding the 737 giant aircraft was being shunned in fa- Outbox, will co-host the Kampala FastTrack on
Max aircrafts as a safety precaution. vour of smaller planes for shorter routes. March 20 where top-tier tech start-ups can meet
China was swift in its decision to ban Besides the 380 was proving too costly with investors, mentors and corporate sponsors.
the plane and it was quickly followed by to maintain for some airlines. The final Startupbootcamp AfriTech’ is one of the most
Ethiopian airlines and a host of others in blow was when Airbus’ biggest customer sought-after programmes for Africa-focused
Europe, Asia and the United States. Now Emirates cut its fleet order significantly. tech start-ups. The Startupbootcamp pro-
gramme was founded in 2010 with a simple goal
in mind: to support the world’s best innovators
through all stages of growth. This led to the
first-ever Africa-focused accelerator of its kind,
namely Startupbootcamp AfriTech (SBC AfriT-
ech), to launch in Cape Town in 2017. In SBC
AfriTech’s first two years, twenty companies in
the portfolio signed 52 pilots and commercial
agreements with large corporations. In 2018, the
programme was named the Top Accelerator on
the continent by the Global Startup Awards.

26 March. 22 - 28 2019
Business

AfDB pledges US$25bn


to climate finance
By The Independent African Financial Alliance for

P
Climate Change (AFAC) to
an-African develop- link all stock exchanges, pen-
ment lender, African sion and sovereign wealth
Development Bank, funds, central Banks and other
will double its climate financial institutions in Africa
finance commitments on the to mobilize and incentivise the
continent for the period 2020- shift of their portfolios towards
2025, according to its President, low carbon and climate resil-
Akinwumi Adesina. ient investments.
Adesina, who was speaking Adesina revealed that the
during the One Planet Summit lender will also unveil the
in Nairobi, Kenya, on March ‘green baseload’ facility under
14, in the presence of President the Sustainable Energy Fund
Uhuru Kenyatta and French for Africa to provide conces-
President Emmanuel Macron, sional finance and technical
said the Bank would commit assistance to support the pen-
Alice Nassanga (C ) an Airtel Money agent from Gayaza receives a brand
at least US$25 billion towards etration and scale-up of renew-
new motorcycle as the lucky weekly winner in the 13th draw of the Beera
climate finance. able energy on the continent.
Millionaire with Airtel Money Promotion on March 15, 2019.   Courtesy Photo.
He said the financial institu- Several donors, including
tion is on course to achieve its Canada, Denmark, Germany,
target of allocating 40% of its Norway, Italy, the UK and
funding to climate finance by USAID have indicated their
2020. interest in this transformative
The Bank’s commitment on instrument, which will also
the target, the highest among help to replace coal, the lender
all multilateral development said.
banks, has progressed steadily So far, AfDB has invested
from 9% in 2016 to 28% in 2017 US$10bn in the ‘Desert to
and 32% in 2018. Power” program, an initia-
“The required level of tive to build a 10 GW solar
financing is only feasible with zone across the Sahel region
the direct involvement of the and also co-financed the 510
entire financial sector,” he said. MW Ouarzazate Solar Com-
This comes four months plex in Morocco.
State Minister for Foreign Affairs, Okello Oryem (2nd R) and MTN since the Bank launched the
executives handover the refurbished Cwero Health Centre III, located
along Gulu – Kitgum road on March 15 to address the health challenges
around the community.   Courtesy Photo.

Weekly share price movement (March. 05)


Security March 05 Feb.15 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 134 134 00
CENT 1,190 1,242 4.2
QCL 292 200 46
DFCU 670 690 00
EABL 7,181 8,154 11.9
EBL 1,515 1,568 3.3
JHL 15,585 16,090 3.1
KA 224 328 31.7
KCB 1,541 1,607 4.1
NIC 14 14 00
NMG 2,221 2,526 12.0
NVL 336 336 00
MultiChoice’s Head of Marketing Albert Nga (L) and Retention Manager, SBU 29 28 3.5
Sauya Nakiyaga, unveil the DStv Step Up Campaign. The campaign will UCHM 22 27 18.5
see all active DStv customers given opportunities to upgrade to new UCL 17 18 5.5
packages.  Courtesy Photo. UMEME 292 300 2.6
ALSI -- -- --

March. 22 - 28 2019 27
High blood pressure;
At the 6-year mark, the investigators per-
formed a statistical analysis to find out how
blood pressure could affect a person’s mor-
tality risk. They also adjusted for potential

is it always bad?
confounding factors, such as sex, lifestyle
choices, body mass index (BMI), and how
many drugs for high blood pressure each
person took.
New findings question that assumption They saw that people aged 80 and over
who had a lower blood pressure — of

it should always be cause for concern 140/90 mm Hg or under — actually had a


40 percent higher mortality risk than peers
with blood pressure exceeding those thresh-

H
By Maria Cohut keep monitoring their own blood pressure olds.
and keep it in check. Even people who’d already had a stroke
ypertension, or high blood This is to make sure that it does not reach or a heart attack presented a similar link
pressure, is a risk factor for the threshold for hypertension, which between blood pressure levels and mortal-
several health conditions, many healthcare professionals consider to ity risk.
including cardiovascular be a risk factor for heart disease and stroke, The team also emphasizes that people
problems, diabetes, and among other things. with blood pressure lower than 140/90 mm
other metabolic issues. Now, however, a study that researchers Hg had a 61 percent higher risk of death
However, is high blood pressure always a at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in than those whose blood pressure remained
cause for concern? New findings question Germany carried out suggests that some high in spite of their antihypertensive drug
that assumption. older people may not face other health regimen.
What is high blood pressure? Well, it is problems if they have high blood pressure. “Our results show clearly that, within
hard to accurately answer that question, as In fact, the researchers note, some people these groups of patients, antihypertensive
specialists are still debating what counts as in their 80s may even see some benefits. treatment should be adjusted based on the
normal blood pressure. needs of the individual,” notes first study
Different organisations currently offer Moving ‘away from a blanket author Dr. Antonios Douros.
different guidelines on high blood pressure. approach’ “We should move away from the blanket
For instance, the National Heart, Lung, approach of applying the recommendations
and Blood Institute explain that, among The new study — the findings of which of professional associations to all groups of
adults, hypertension is a “consistent systolic appear in the European Heart Journal — patients,” said Antonios Douros
reading of 140 mm Hg [millimiters of mer- looked at a cohort of 1,628 women and men In the future, the scientists aim to have
cury] or higher.” with a mean age of 81 years. All were 70 or a more in-depth look at blood pressure-
However, the American Heart Asso- older when they joined in 2009, and they lowering medication to establish when it is
ciation (AHA) suggests that hypertension were all following antihypertensive treat- actually most likely to help.
occurs when a person has a systolic blood ments. “As a next step, we want to study which
pressure of 130 mm Hg or above. Mean- Researchers collected data about the par- groups of patients actually benefit from
while, the CDC consider people with sys- ticipants’ health status through the Berlin antihypertensive treatment,” concludes
tolic blood pressure of 120–139 mm Hg as Initiative Study, a Charité research project. study co-author Prof. Elke Schäffner.
being only “at risk” of hypertension. They questioned participants every 2 years
Generally speaking, doctors advise their and assessed their blood pressure, among Source: Medical News Today
patients — especially older adults — to other health measurements.

28 March. 22 - 28 2019
health

How often should


can also irritate sensitive skin and eczema.
For what it’s worth, you don’t want
to wash your hair too often either. Over-
washing can make your hair dry and frizzy,

you bath, shower?


especially if your hair is naturally dry, curly,
or coarse. It can make your scalp feel dry
and itchy too.
And if you think showering often helps
protect you from bad bacteria, the exact
opposite may be true. Showering can break
The biggest problem with too frequent showering down the skin’s natural barrier, called the
is that it strips your skin of natural oils acid mantle. The acid mantle is slightly
acidic. Showering too often, especially with
alkaline soap or washes, can change the pH
of your skin and leave your skin more sus-
By Agencies you work out daily, live in an especially hot

A
ceptible to bacterial and viral invasion.
or humid area, work a job where you get
hot shower is the usual start of dirty/sweaty, or are prone to body odor,
your morning; along with brush- you will want to shower every day to rinse
Not Showering Enough
ing your teeth and combing your Most people shower more than neces-
away sweat and dirt. sary, and you don’t want to completely
hair, but you may want to take a Hands should be washed several times
new look at your showering routine. It’s ditch this hygiene ritual. There are times,
daily. Even if you’re not showering daily though, that maybe you go days on end
possible your daily shower is actually too you should still wash your hands with soap
much for your skin. without a shower. Say, you’re camping in
and water several times per day. Hands a remote area, or you’re feeling under-the-
are the germ-magnets. It’s the bacteria and
So how often should you bath, shower? viruses that you pick up on your hands
weather and peeling yourself from the bed
The honest, albeit utterly vague, answer is the last thing on your mind. Are there any
and transfer to your eyes, mouth, and nose risks of going too long between bathing?
to the question is it depends. There really
that make you sick. This will help keep you Beyond the obvious (you start to develop
isn’t a magic number that is right for every
healthier, especially during cold and flu some wicked B.O.) you could be setting
person. But, there is a general consensus
season. Your face should be cleansed daily yourself up for blackhead and acne devel-
among dermatologists that as a society
as well. Just like with your hands, your face opment. You have a ton of oil glands on
we shower too often. Dermatologists vary
should be given special treatment. Even on your face, so your face will get extra oily fast
in their recommendations, so advice runs
days you’re skipping the shower, wash your if you’re skipping a daily wash. But going
the gamut from showering once or twice a
face with a gentle cleanser at least at night too long between showers can also trigger
week to once every two to three days.
before you go to bed. Removing makeup, body breakouts, especially if you are prone
Why the disparity? Everybody’s skin and
grime, and excess oil is important to keep to them.
lifestyle is unique. So, you have to take into
breakouts from forming and keep your skin Skipping showers when you’re sweaty is
account your personal situation.
healthy. a bigger issue than an accumulation of dirt,
A shower every other day or so is a good
guideline. Most people can shower every oil, and bacteria, though. Sweat can irritate
second or third day and still be clean and
Showering Too Often the skin, and leaving your skin moist for
If you’re used to a daily shower, the long periods of time (like sitting around in
unlikely to offend your family and co-work- thought of skipping a day (or two or more)
ers. Babies and young children shouldn’t be your sweat-soaked post-workout clothes)
may seem gross. But truly, we’ve been can raise your risk of developing a bacterial
bathed every day. And as you get older you socially conditioned to feel the need to
will probably want to cut back on the num- or fungal infection like jock itch.
shower every day. Showering too often can, If you go for long periods without bath-
ber of showers you take a week as well. in some cases, cause more troubles than it
Showering more often doesn’t make you ing, you can develop a skin condition called
prevents. dermatitis neglecta, where brown patches
healthier, and there is no need to shower The biggest problem with too frequent
more often to cleanse away bacteria. The develop on your skin. These plaques are a
showering is that it strips your skin of natu- mix of dead cells, dirt, sweat, and grime that
human body is teeming with bacteria, the ral oils. Human skin is covered with a fine
vast majority being helpful (or at least not have accumulated on your skin. Thankfully,
layer of oil called sebum. This oil is meant this only happens if you’re going weeks or
harmful.) A daily shower, in many cases, is to protect the skin and keep the skin mois-
just not necessary. months without stepping in the shower.
turised. Frequent cleansing removes this oil
Some people do need a daily shower. and can make your skin dry and itchy. It
There are exceptions to this, of course. If Source: Verywelhealth

March. 22 - 28 2019 29
comment
By Jacqueline Musiitwa
Banking on Refugees
Contrary to popular belief, refugees are on par with
non-refugees when it comes to loan repayment

E
very minute, on average, 31 people soft, Accenture, and the United Nations making it difficult to conduct credit
are displaced around the world – that will use biometric data and the checks. These workers of the future thus
forced to leave their jobs, homes, and blockchain (distributed ledgers) to create raise many of the same challenges for tra-
even their families. These refugees an encrypted, permanent, and shareable ditional financial services that refugees
often arrive, after arduous journeys, in new means of identification for all refugees. do. Alternative credit-scoring methods
countries with no money or identification, It is in the interest of FSPs themselves that are created for refugees today could
and few possessions. Yet, far from securing to make use of the blockchain. True, be applied much more widely in the
a safer, more prosperous future, they often the technology – which facilitates direct future.
find themselves marginalised, excluded, transactions among parties, creating a Given all of this, banks should act now
and even demonised, denied opportunities permanent and immutable record – has to expand their services to refugees. They
to integrate into their host societies or con- the potential to displace FSPs in the long could follow the example of the financial-
tribute to the local economy. One straight- term, by ending their monopoly on inter- technology (fintech) company MyBucks,
forward way to empower refugees is to give mediating trust. But, in the short term, which has already opened a banking
them access to financial services. its adoption by banks could slash costs branch in Malawi’s Dzaleka refugee
Financial service providers (FSPs) and reduce the risk of fraud, thereby camp to provide loans, mobile banking,
have long neglected this population, enabling the rapid expansion of services and training services.
owing to accessibility and identification to refugees, among others. In this sense, Of course, resolving the refugee crisis
challenges, together with perceptions the blockchain could revolutionise credit and tapping the economic potential
of refugees as a high-risk group. But access for refugees. of the more than 25 million refugees
technological advances in the last decade Already, the blockchain is being used worldwide will also require changes in
have made providing financial services to help refugees. For example, in Jordan, other areas, beginning with destination-
to refugees easier, safer, and more cost- the Zaatari refugee camp distributes country political narratives. In many
effective than ever. humanitarian aid using the blockchain countries, politicians and the media have
Thanks to digital and mobile technolo- and cryptocurrency. Each refugee is been portraying refugees as a threat to
gies, banking no longer happens pri- issued a digital wallet, into which money security, cultural cohesion, and public
marily in brick-and-mortar branches, but for food and supplies is deposited, with resources.
rather on people’s phones, wherever they facial recognition being used to verify Former US Secretary of State Hillary
are. This has facilitated the rise of digital transactions. The results have been com- Clinton blamed her loss to Donald
wallets that enable users to receive, pelling: fair and accurate aid distribu- Trump in the 2016 presidential election,
store, and spend money using only their tion, a 98% reduction in transaction fees, and the Brexit vote that preceded it, on
phones. In recent years, mobile money and fewer cases of misappropriation of the public backlash against immigra-
has become wildly popular in Sub- funds. tion, and recently suggested that Europe
Saharan Africa in particular, and it can In Finland, MONI, a blockchain startup, should admit fewer refugees, in order to
be a game changer for the world’s mas- and the Finnish Immigration Service stem the rise of populism. Gunter Nooke,
sive unbanked population – 1.7 billion have issued refugees a digital ID stored Germany’s Africa Commissioner, had an
people – two-thirds of whom already on the blockchain. With a MONI account, even more unpalatable proposal: African
own a mobile phone that could act as a refugees can access government benefits, countries should cede land to be admin-
gateway to financial services. even if they have lost their passports. istered by the European Union as special
There is little reason to distinguish Such uses of the blockchain reduce reli- economic zones, in what would amount
refugees from the rest of the world’s ance on government-issued identifica- to “voluntary colonialism.”
unbanked. Contrary to popular belief, tion, as they encourage the acceptance of Such solutions are not only unethical;
refugees are not a higher-risk demo- other forms, such as a UN-issued refugee they would not end the crisis. Humani-
graphic: the Kiva Refugee Impact Report ID. tarian aid alone will not work, either,
found that, when it comes to loan repay- There is another, long-term rationale except as a stopgap measure. To pre-
ment, refugees are on par with non- for FSPs to expand services to refugees. serve long-term stability and dyna-
refugees. Moreover, thanks to facial-rec- Doing so would allow them to collect mism, host countries must unlock eco-
ognition and artificial-intelligence tech- data and learn valuable lessons that can nomic opportunities for refugees. FSPs
nologies, banks can now instantly verify help shape their approach to increas- and fintech companies, known for their
users’ identities, using, for example, a ingly mobile global customers, who are capacity for disruption, can play a key
quick iris scan run through an open- shifting from full-time jobs to remote and role in that process.
source identity-verification application freelance work in the “gig economy.”
programming interface (API). The creditworthiness of freelancers – Jacqueline Musiitwa, a 2014 Aspen New
As a result, refugees’ lack of an iden- expected to represent 43% of the work- Voices Fellow, is a regulatory attorney and
tity card, loan collateral, and/or a fixed force by 2020 – can be difficult to deter- an inclusive finance specialist in Uganda.
address is becoming irrelevant. This will mine, owing to their irregular and unpre-
be all the more true with the introduction dictable incomes. And so-called digital Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
of ID2020, a collaboration among Micro- nomads often lack a permanent address,

30 March. 22 - 28 2019
comment
By Agnes Igoye
Fighting human trafficking
Empower and train survivors cooperate with law
enforcement to help dismantle trafficking networks

H
uman trafficking is on the rise, ment to help dismantle trafficking paid facilitators or trainers – training
and a new report from the United networks. After all, survivors know first- programs for law enforcement.
Nations Office of Drugs and hand how people are recruited, coerced, Programs that deepen the relationship
Crime reveals that perpetrators manipulated, and exploited. They under- between survivors and law enforcement
face “hardly any risk” of punishment. As stand not only the physical and psycho- would go a long way toward dispelling
long as impunity is the rule, the problem logical tactics that traffickers use, but also the narrative of fear perpetuated by traf-
will continue to grow, and more people will how victims respond to these tactics. fickers, who are understandably eager to
continue to suffer at traffickers’ hands. A Ugandan survivor of nearly two keep the two groups apart. The mutual
To be sure, most countries now have years of sexual exploitation in the Middle trust this engendered could strengthen
anti-trafficking laws, some with very East once described how traffickers survivors’ cooperation in investigations
stringent penalties. In my home country would deliberately interact with the and prosecution of traffickers, further
of Uganda, for example, the 2009 Preven- police in front of their captives, creating contributing to an increase in conviction
tion of Trafficking in Persons Act man- the impression that the police could not rates.
dates a death sentence for aggravated be trusted to protect victims, thereby dis- To reinforce this connection further,
trafficking in children. Globally, there are couraging reporting. Such insights could law enforcement officials should become
117 signatories and 173 parties to the UN be integral to effective counter-trafficking involved in survivor rehabilitation pro-
Palermo Protocol on trafficking. operations and interventions. grams. This would also foster improved
Worldwide, however, 21 million people To leverage the knowledge and capa- relations between law enforcement and
remain trapped in slavery, and millions bilities of survivors in the fight against NGOs and could even lead to shared
of them are victims of human trafficking human trafficking, law-enforcement responsibility for rehabilitation, which
for labour and sexual exploitation. officers would need to train survivors in currently is often left to the NGO sector.
And, as the UN report emphasises, the areas ranging from the law to investiga- Of course, the specific programs in
number of convictions for human traf- tive techniques. Such efforts would not which a government invests should fit
ficking remains very low. only enable survivors to help dismantle that particular country’s needs, identi-
Change could come partly from a human-trafficking networks, but would fied on the basis of improved data. Even
largely untapped source: survivors. also give them transferable job skills. more important, survivors must be pro-
Through my work with human-traf- At the same time, law-enforcement tected during this process, to avoid re-
ficking victims – including at the rehabil- officers would have to learn from survi- traumatisation. This means making sure
itation center that I founded – I have seen vors, working with them to gain valu- that they give their consent, and have
firsthand the great potential survivors able insights into the functioning of been rehabilitated, before being put on
have to help in the fight against human trafficking networks. In fact, survivors the frontline of the fight against human
trafficking. That is why survivors should should be supported in conducting – as trafficking.
not just be supported with services; they Willing and rehabilitated survivors,
should also be empowered to be part of however, should be empowered to
the solution. pursue meaningful engagement with
There are already attempts to do just law enforcement. They have insights and
that. In India, a “school for justice” – a
partnership between Free A Girl Move-
While its intelligence that could prove to be game
changers in counter-trafficking opera-
ment and a top Indian law school – was impact has tions. And nobody is more passionate
founded in 2017 to train human-traf-
ficking survivors to become lawyers. yet to become about dismantling human-trafficking
networks than those who have been vic-
More lawyers specialised in sexual-
exploitation cases, it is hoped, will help
fully apparent, timised by them.

increase conviction rates. giving a voice Agnes Igoye is the founder of Dream
In the United States, the State Depart-
ment’s Office to Monitor and Combat to survivors in Revival Center for survivors and heads
the Uganda Immigration Training
Trafficking in Persons has established an
advisory council on human trafficking,
shaping policy Academy. She is a 2018 Aspen New
Voices Fellow.
which serves as a formal platform for already amounts
survivors’ participation in policy discus-
sions. While its impact has yet to become to an important Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.

fully apparent, giving a voice to survi-


vors in shaping policy already amounts
step forward
to an important step forward.
But there are other, overlooked areas
where survivors can contribute. Notably,
they could cooperate with law enforce-

March. 22 - 28 2019 31
interview
By James K. Galbraith
Modern monetary realism
MMT is essentially a description of how money is
created and destroyed by governments and by banks

I
s Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) From this description, certain straightfor- “parent company, the U.S. Treasury Depart-
a potential boon to economic poli- ward facts flow. Governments create money ment” creates a misleading impression of
cymakers, or, as Harvard’s Kenneth by spending and extinguish it via taxation. the actual relationship between the Fed and
Rogoff recently argued, a threat to “the It follows, therefore, that a large country, the government as a whole.
entire global financial system” and the front borrowing in its own currency, cannot be The 1913 Federal Reserve Act gave the
line of the “next battle for central-bank forced into default. That is why the U.S. is new central bank’s leaders long terms in
independence”? For Rogoff, the threat not Greece, and cannot become Venezuela office, and therefore independence from
seems to stem partly from the fear that or Zimbabwe. the executive branch (of which the Trea-
MMT adherents may come to power in the Does this mean that “deficits don’t sury Department is a part). They do not
United States in the 2020 elections. But he matter”? I know of no MMT adherent who serve – as Treasury secretaries do – at the
also makes several substantive arguments, has made such a claim. MMT acknowledges pleasure of the president. The Fed is also
common to many critics of the MMT move- that policy can be too expansionary and self-financing, which gives it independence
ment. push past resource constraints, causing as well from the Office of Management and
First, there is the claim that, as Rogoff puts inflation and exchange-rate depreciation – Budget in the White House.
it, MMT is all about “using the (US Federal which may or may not be desirable. (Hyper- But the Fed is not and never has been
Reserve’s) balance sheet as a cash cow to inflation, on the other hand, is a bogeyman, independent of the U.S. Congress. It is cre-
fund expansive new social programs.” which some MMT critics deploy as a scare ated by statute and subject to regular con-
Second, Rogoff and other MMT opponents tactic.) gressional oversight, codified by the 1978
strongly reject the idea that, quoting Fed But the issue with budget deficits isn’t Humphrey-Hawkins Act, which specified
Chair Jerome Powell, “deficits don’t matter interest rates, which remain under gov- the Fed’s famous “dual mandate” of price
for countries that can borrow in their own ernment control. Nor is it the possible stability and full employment. (As a young
currency.” crowding out of private investment, which staff member of the House Banking Com-
Yet, as Rogoff admits, “the Fed itself is assumes that the pool of finance is fixed. mittee at the time, I drafted the monetary-
responsible for … confusion surrounding The issue is real resources. Here, MMT’s policy provisions of that law and super-
the use of its balance sheet.” Indeed, while proposed job guarantee would keep real vised the hearings.)
Rogoff decries the Fed’s “quantitative resource use exactly at the level required True, Congress exercises this oversight
easing” – involving the purchase of tril- for full employment – not less, but also not power loosely and with considerable defer-
lions of dollars in public (and private) debt more. ence. At least formally, though, the Fed is
after the financial crisis – his argument is What about the fraught topic of central- – and always has been – subject to congres-
that QE didn’t really work, not that it was bank independence? Rogoff sees the sional instruction.
destabilizing or inflationary. He sees no political threat to the Fed as a very serious And MMT is not about Congress ordering
threat to the global financial system in that issue. But to describe the Fed as having a the Fed to use its “balance sheet as a cash
experiment. cow.” Rather, it is about understanding
Similarly, despite his full-throated backing how monetary operations actually work,
of Powell on deficits, Rogoff reverts to cau- how interest rates are set, and what eco-
tious realism about the U.S. national debt. nomic powers the US government has. This,
As he points out, today’s long-term real
interest rates are “about half their 2010 level,
MMT’s proposed in turn, requires recognising that the dual
mandate is not a collection of empty words,
far below what markets were predicting job guarantee but something that can – and should – be

would keep
back then.” And he acknowledges that pursued on a regular and sustained basis.
inflation has remained lower than “virtu- There are practical, straightforward, and
ally any economic model would have pre-
dicted,” while “the US dollar has become
real resource realistic ways for policymakers to meet
this mandate. Implementing them would
increasingly dominant in global trade and use exactly strengthen the country, not bankrupt it.

at the level
finance.” Perhaps the U.S. budget deficit And, contrary to opponents’ fears, global
is not an immediate cause for panic after all? investors would not flee in terror from US
MMT is not, as its opponents seem to
think, primarily a set of policy ideas. Rather,
required for full government bonds and the US dollar.

it is essentially a description of how a


modern credit economy actually works –
employment James K. Galbraith is a professor at the
Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public
how money is created and destroyed, by – not less, but Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. His
governments and by banks, and how finan-
cial markets function. Nor is MMT new: also not more most recent books are ‘Inequality: What
Everyone Needs to Know’ and `Welcome to
it is based on the work of John Maynard the Poisoned Chalice: The Destruction of
Keynes, whose A Treatise on Money pointed Greece and the Future of Europe’.
out back in 1930 that “modern States” have
functioned this way for thousands of years. Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.

32 March. 22 - 28 2019
interview
By Patrick M. Omony
Danger to the accounting profession
Close to 80% of local accounting practices are in survival
mode and 20% of tax agents service 75% of taxpayers

A
ccountants in practice recently held would have guided the exchange of ideas practice is based on persuasion, on value,
their annual half- day practitioner’s on how to counter them. Offering superior and ramping up service innovations.
forum organised by the Institute value in services might be better than opting Practitioners need to talk to and listen
of Certified Public Accountants of for coercive means, greater regulation, and more to the market/consumers than to
Uganda (ICPAU).This is where they share enforcement. These measures ignore the themselves. This should be through well
experiences and challenges in their practice, real problem and are counterproductive. structured dialogue sessions. They should
address identified bottlenecks, and forge The harsh business environment that strive to change the negative consumer
a way to grow the industry by serving the accountants in practice face has seen many mindset by crafting new and fresh mas-
market/ clients better. practitioners; especially in the Small and sages through infomercial-like advertising.
The forum this year came at a time of con- Medium Practice (SMP) tier, threaten to Infomercial advertising is where the con-
tinuous decline in growth of the Ugandan exit the trade. This will negatively affect the sumer is educated more on how to identify
accounting industry. Close to 80% of local economy yet the problems are not unique and use a service/product to solve his/her
accounting practices are in survival mode to Uganda. problem. Developing a market is an uphill
and Uganda Revenue Authority figures World over, the profession is under task. Practitioners will require active leaders
show that only 20% of tax agents service serious threat from technological advance- who know what to do and not those who
75% of the 1.4 million taxpayers. This leaves ment which is enabling quick implementa- hold positions to build CVs or engage in
a high number of Certified Public Accoun- tion of cost cutting management innova- sterile adoration PR. They need leaders who
tants (CPAs) unemployed. President tions. This has led to the growing trend of will be rated by real value addition to the
Yoweri Museveni has also recently ques- entities thinning accounting departments industry defined as happy clients who want
tioned the value of accounts and a council and employing fewer accountants. more service, more money in the hands of
member reechoed his statement during the These are the issues that should have practitioners, and more jobs for accountants;
meeting. Practitioners at the forum, there- taken center stage at the ICPAU Forum, leaders who will not be rated on perception.
fore, should have had quite a mouthful to with mitigation measures being solicited to Practitioners will also have to create well
discuss. Unfortunately, that was not the minimise their negative impact to the pro- thought out relationships with other associ-
case. fession, practice and others. ations for strategic synergies e.g. the Private
Instead, the forum showed that the event, Going by the discussions, it was evident Sector Foundation, KACITA, Uganda Man-
which is in its 7th year running, has a lot to that practitioners did not have a good grasp ufacturers Association, Uganda Investment
improve in terms of methodology, quality, of the business aspect of their practice and Authority etc. This leverage will build the
and relevance of topics discussed. were thus heading in the wrong direction consumptive end of the trade; by advancing
It appears ICPAU lacks the ability to on how to improve the economic perfor- skills such as the auditee audit enhancing
address the many problems faced by mance of accounting firms. This lack of skills, management and cost accounting for
accountants in practice and employment. clarity curtailed their ability to visualise the non-accountants, and integrated reporting
These are far beyond the limited ICPAU business dynamics of the trade. skills on sustainability issues.
mandate which is basically to regulate Practitioners need to appreciate that a Organisers of future ICPAU forums
the profession by offering guidelines and practice is a business whose services will should endeavour to furnish members with
ensuring adherence to standards of practice have to compete against substitute services. enough quantitative data, indicating the
and code of ethics. This is evident in more and more enter- potential value and size of the market and
Experts have placed the accounting prises and organisations spending less on broken down into possible annual revenues
profession among the top five professions services of accounting firms, reallocating the that the different tiers of practice could ide-
being rapidly transformed by technology. resources to engage monitoring and evalu- ally generate.
Accountants all over the world are dog- ation experts and business analysts for their The future of accountants in both employ-
gedly pre- occupied with searching for annual management reviews, and limiting ment and practice is grim. The light at
better ways to adapt and remain relevant audit services to simple checks to comply the end of the tunnel is coming from a
in practice and in employment. The race with regulations. full-speed train loaded with tech and biz
is on to upgrade individual skills to move innovation heading towards them. To avoid
away from routine tasks. Accounting firms Untapped Opportunity for SMPs in the being crashed, accountants need to tone
are formulating strategies, testing business private sector down on pride and academic posturing
modules, bettering services, and bridging There is huge untapped business poten- filled with over-rated claims of value in
gaps. These are issues that should have tial for Small and Medium Practices (SMP) their services. They must begin to acquire
dominated the forum. in the private sector. But to monetise this new skills, stop fearing each, and cooperate
Instead practitioners appear to believe that market, accountants need to a turn away and interact more. They must exchange
their profitability is being undermined by from making those fussy claims of service information and ideas to better understand
quacks in the market. And solution is more benefits. They need to invest in creating the consumer and grow their industry.
regulation. However, the best way would more real value and repackage and tailor
have been to first understand who these services that suit this market. They will The writer is the C.E.O, Founder and Principal
quacks are and why the market deliber- also need to acquire real skills on effective consultant with Omony Consulting Co. Ltd
ately prefers their services over the legally customer acquisition and retention. A good jwauditors@gmail.com
recognised accountants. This knowledge Tweeter @ p_omony

March. 22 - 28 2019 33
interview

By Barbara Kasekende
Education sector needs attention
The system needs to be supplemented to support students
who drop out through the different education levels

U
ganda’s Ministry of Education, in between government and Enterprise
line with the National Develop-
ment Plan 2020, expects at least 20 Illustration Uganda that seeks to instill entrepreneur-
ship and business development skills
million children and young adults 3-5yrs among the youth. So far, this program
between the age of 3 and 24 to pass through has trained 62,443 youth and households
Male :1,885,663
the education system. This is informed by and 4,150 women entrepreneurs.
the fact that 80 percent of the country’s Female: 1,771,263 While private sector players may not
population is under the age of 30. Totals: 3,656,926 be in a position to influence curriculum
The reality on the ground, however, or teacher qualifications, or their salaries,
6-12yrs
is that school enrollment numbers con- they can get involved in the entrepre-
tinue to decline as students advance Male: 3,727,967 neurship and life skills space.
through the different education levels. Female:3,631,907 Stanbic Bank, for example, through its
For example, according to the 2017 Edu- annual National Schools Championships
cation Monograph report released by Totals:7,359,874 (NSC) has been working with different
UBOS in partnership with UNFPA and 13-18yrs schools around the country to equip
UKAID, about 11 million children went Male :2,586,964 young adults with the much needed life
through Primary school. This represents and financial skills that will enable them
54.7% of the number of children expected Female:2,661,741 to start their own businesses and become
to go through the education system. Totals:5,248,705 the entrepreneurs of tomorrow. Through
About 26% (5.2 million) of this same 19-24 this program, the students together with
number went through secondary school their teachers have been able to come up
while 19.2% were enrolled into tertiary Male:1,749,786 with business ideas and execute them
institutions. These statistics indicate a Female:2,108,967 into full-fledged small enterprises. Since
decline in enrollment (from the number inception of the NSC, over 180 secondary
Totals: 3,858,753
of students who start their education schools have been involved.
cycle at primary level to those that Final totals: 20,124,258 Students have been empowered with
advance to Secondary and finally reach Source: UBOS 2017 Education confidence to think beyond the class-
tertiary level). This begs the question, Monograph Report room and be able to think critically in the
what is happening to the students who various stages of the competition. As a
drop out at the various levels? result, social skills have been improved
Some of the challenges identified the majority as dependents on the small and networks built which are vital for
include late school starting age, early number of jobs available. Additionally, students to find their way in the work
marriages, lack of sanitary pads, as well it also means we have a massive chal- environment.
as other unforeseeable challenges such as lenge for a country that seeks to attain its Projects such as these equip students
lack of tuition and death. Aside from the vision 2040 of achieving a ‘transformed with the ability to be self-reliant, have
students, there aren’t enough teachers; Ugandan Society from a peasant to a a financial literacy background and be
with one teacher in charge of a class of modern and prosperous country within the job creators of tomorrow. We need
43 students against the ideal ratio of one 20 years.’ more of these kinds of initiatives to solve
to 25 students per class. In addition, 40% For us to achieve this, we need to sup- some of the problems facing the Educa-
of the said teachers are unqualified, have plement our education system. We need tion sector and see more youth become
high salary expectations, and therefore all hands on deck to make the learning empowered in the future. To achieve
have no job satisfaction. experience inspirational to the youth. this, we need strong partnerships and
Further, of the students who make it The key focus areas that need to be more attention from the private sector
through tertiary institutions, many find it addressed to solve these challenges at to play a role in giving the youth guid-
difficult to get jobs. In fact, statistics from the different levels of education include ance and support where the current cur-
the International Labour Organisation actual literacy (curriculum), financial riculum falls short.
(ILO) show the youth unemployment literacy, entrepreneurship, and life skills. We can’t afford to have a future of over-
rate in Uganda rose from 2.7% in 2013 to Certainly, there has been a concerted zealous unemployed youth if we are to
2.9% in 2017. effort by players both in the public and achieve national development.
This means, the number of unemployed private sectors to train the youth in a
youth continues to grow, yet we all have bid to turn them from job seekers to job Barbara Kasekende is the Stanbic Bank Head
to co-exist in an economy that simply has creators. Case in point is the partnership of Corporate Social Investments (CSI)

34 March. 22 - 28 2019
ART | BOOKS | SOCIETY | TRAVEL | CULTURE

A brainy affair
Artist attempts to talk politics without propaganda

T
By Dominic Muwanguzi
capitalism, that are difficult, if not impos- Nations and African Union. But they are
he painted brains come in sible, to resolve at an individual level. But silent as fire-arms are peddled from Russia,
many colours; they are white, at other times, he shows the brain linked to USA, and China to sow instability, discord,
blue, red., and occasionally other body parts; alluding to co-ordination and pain in African states.
green. They are the colours of and ability to act on the conflict. In another painting; ` Who Controls the
the flags of countries like the Adoption of such `tools’ in his work is Media, 2018?’ the international media is
USA, France, UK, Syria and typical Ssekubulwa who likes the tools best deaf and dumb. It is complex irony as these
Libya and, for artist John Baptist Sseku- when their attributes occur naturally in global mouth-pieces, owned by rich nations,
bulwa they are metaphors of conflict in the the community. He deploys the figure of a perpetuate the notion of “exotic corruption”
brain and in the world. crow, for example, to suggest exploitation that is played out by the West.
The title of his exhibition is `Brain Dam- as the bird is renowned for its intelligence Nothing is new. The injustices we see
age’. It is his maiden solo exhibition and it and adaptability, yet it is a scavenger bird today are a replication of yesterday’s trag-
has sparked critical conversations on global that lives off dead carcasses. edies like racism, slavery and colonialism.
social-politics with the brain- a critical Among his Baganda people, the crow is International news shows images of dead
human organ- as a recurring motif. linked to bad luck. Seen in his art, the crow African bodies washed up on European
Ssekubulwa uses brains as `tools’ that suggests evil looming large. In a surrealistic shores as thousands of refugees from Syria,
represent communities that are either vic- metaphor, the crow is depicted carrying Libya, Somalia, Afghanistan and many Sub-
tims or villains of human evils like war, cor- away the brain; a metaphor of a community Saharan African countries endure untold
ruption, racism, and forced migration and succumbing to evil! But he also paints white suffering on the seas; just like in the slave
displacement. He wants viewers of his art to flowers; symbol of hope and a new begin- trade days. Those who make it to the other
experience the vulnerability of the human ning. side are faced with racism, humiliation, and
beings in communities where conflict pre- In one painting, `Amour Fashionsitas, deportation.
vails. So he presents the brain as a solitary 2018’, world leaders and senior executives The works on show are bold, researched,
tool to suggest its vulnerability. of multinational companies meet at interna- authentic and relevant to our times. It is a
When the brain stands alone, it becomes tional conferences to endorse policies, trea- brainy approach by an artist communicat-
vulnerable. It is a metaphor of helpless ties that have perilous implications for vul- ing vital messages.
people, lacking control on the incidents that nerable nations; especially in sub-Saharan
happen to them. The conflicts they suffer Africa. They make a show in international Brain Damage is showing now at Afriart
are presented as results of systems, like and regional peace agencies like United Gallery.

March. 22 - 28 2019 35
College course on tobacco allows students to smoke in class
A series of photos showing students Yunan Agricultural University, the contro- taste it leaves in the mouth, and the post-
casually lighting up cigarettes in what versial photos were taking during a class combustion ash. Although Zhao empha-
looks like a college classroom have been on tobacco. The teacher brought various sized that the students were not required
doing the rounds on Weibo, China’s ver- brands of cigarettes into the classroom and to smoke, most of them did it anyway.
sion of Twitter, leaving everyone puzzled invited the students to try them as a way to Teen smoking is frowned upon in China,
as to what is going on. As it turns out, better understand tobacco, its flavors, the as it is pretty much everywhere else.
according to Zhao Zhengxiong, the dean of irritation it causes to the throat, the after-

Bibles, wooden Woman fakes own kidnapping to break up with “poor” boyfriend
crosses miraculously andNosubsequent
one ever said that ending a romantic relationship was easy, but planning your own kidnapping
murder just to avoid telling someone “it’s over” sounds ridiculous. And yet, one Chi-
survive church fire nese woman did just that. The 37-year-old Yu from Wuhan, in central China learned he was poor after
visiting his home during the Chinese New Year and decided to leave him. But fearing that he would get
clingy and refuse rejection if she simply told him she wanted to end the relationship, Yu devised a plan
Firefighters in West Virginia to make herself disappear. She sent him text messages pretending to be her kidnapper, warning him that
were stunned to find that not she would be killed if he dared call the police, and finally that she had been killed and her body had been
one of the over a dozen paper thrown in a lake. But police investigating the case tracked down Yu to a small motel and were shocked to
bibles and several wooden cross- find the alleged victim casually lying on the bed, watching TV.
es at the Freedom Ministries
Church were destroyed by the
devastating fire that engulfed
Religious movement
the holy place recently. stores positive
In a Facebook post that
quickly went viral, the Coal spiritual energy in
City Fire Department shared
photos of nearly two dozen
special batteries!
bibles and three wooden crosses
that survived flames so massive Members of the Aetherius
that the church will have to be Society, a fringe religious
rebuilt, and firefighters them- movement founded in the
selves admit that judging by the 1950s, believe that spiritual
intensity of the flames every-
thing inside should have been Mother abandons 12-year-old power is a tangible type of
energy, like electricity, so they
turned to ashes, and yet none
of the bibles and crosses were
child in the street for `failing’ exam store it in special “spiritual
power batteries” for release
destroyed. A strict mother in China reportedly abandoned her 12-year-old son in case of global catastrophes.
in the middle of a busy street in Luoyang City after he only managed Spiritual energy released by
to score 81% on an exam, which apparently wasn’t good enough. praying members during
She stopped her car, pulling the boy out, scolded and hit him before `Operation Prayer Power’ is
leaving him there by himself. CCTV footage shows the child was directed at a trained leader
disoriented when police found. His mother wanted him to score 95% which mentally directs it into a
or higher. “I don’t want him anymore,” she told police who returned spiritual power battery, where
the child, “You can do whatever you want with him. You can even it can be stored indefinitely.
charge me.” The boy was taken by an uncle. China’s school exams This concentrated energy is then
are very serious business, with the dreaded Gaokao national exam directed by the Cosmic Masters
responsible for shaping the future of millions of young students. at a specific target where it
is needed the most, such as a
Scientific experimental to pay someone to do nothing for life crucial peace negotiation, or a
denuclearisation summit. The
If the idea of getting paid job with just one very simple As long as they return to Aetherius Society claims to have
a decent monthly wage to requirement; show up at a the station to clock out and prevented several international
do nothing, or whatever you train station every day and turn off the lights when their crises by releasing the
want, for the rest of your life punch a time clock. This will shift is over, they will earn a concentrated spiritual energy
sounds appealing, you may turn on a set of fluorescent monthly salary of about $2,320 stored in these special batteries.
be interested in this Swedish lights over the boarding (Approx. Shs8.6), plus annual The Aetherius Society was
experimental art project that platform to let everyone know raises, benefits, vacation time founded in 1954 by a former
plans to hire a very lucky that the useless employee and a guaranteed pension. taxi driver called David King.
person for a responsibility-free showed up at work that day.

36 March. 22 - 28 2019
Kiira Ev Smack sparks
interest in hybrids
Balance lower fuel consumption
against high cost when buying
By Motoring Guru means it uses both a fuel engine and an more than conventional internal combus-

S
electric engine. It is different from a Plug-in tion engine cars. Part of the reason is that
ince the Ugandan made car, Kiira Ev Hybrid (PHEV) which involves electrical hybrids literally have two engines and the
Smack, got a major road test across charging from an external source. It also high-voltage batteries they require are quite
the country recently; there has been means that the battery bank recharges costly.
increased discussion around hybrid whenever the brakes. This is the power sys- The high voltage batteries are also quite
vehicles. Many people appear determined tem of the Kiira Ev Smack. heavy; meaning that hybrid cars are gener-
to grab a hybrid even if it is not the Kiira Ev According to the designers the two ally quite heavy. This makes them quite
Smack. power sources ensure an unlimited range slow to accelerate. Their breaking system is
The Kiira Ev Smack is Uganda’s first and increase the efficiency of the powertrain also impacted. They are also not as stable as
hybrid. But these engines have been on the (the system which transfers power from the conventional cars because the added weight
market for more than 20 years. The Toyota engine to the wheels), hence enhancing fuel gives them a higher center of gravity. The
Prius is often mentioned although many car economy. Some hybrid cars save as much impact is felt most when driving at high
makers have hybrids. Think Honda Insight, as 35% on fuel consumption. In reality, the constant speeds on highways. The hybrid
Lexus Es 300h, the BMW 7 series, and the external electric charge in the PHEVs might offers lower highway mileage. Generally
Mercedes Benz C 359e. The main ques- be cheaper than the onboard charging. speaking also, the gas engine works more
tion is whether hybrid vehicles are a good Hybrid vehicles generally have lower fuel efficiently than the hybrid.
choice. consumption than other vehicles. The com- But of course hybrids are quieter
Choice in the hybrid segment remains bination of petrol and electric power mean machines on the road. The electric motor
limited. When you visit a car bond, you plenty of fuel is saved daily. This makes is noiseless and when starting the car or
will often one or two and they will be quite them favourites of eco-conscious drivers. driving slowly, the car moves silently.
pricey. They emit less carbon dioxide and, when Also, the electric motor gives additional
Hybrids use a traction motor powered by they run for less time on gas, they cause less torque to the gas engine.
a rechargeable battery bank and an internal wear and tear of engine parts and brakes.
combustion engine-based generator. This Generally, however, hybrid cars cost

March. 22 - 28 2019 37
Munyagwa Mubarak Sserunga: On how
he missed becoming an army general
“I will keep surprising Ugandans by delivering and not just exciting them”
By Agnes E Nantaba For this political journey, Munyagwa has sity,” he says.

M
associated himself with the comical, lead- His father’s dreams of having a pharma-
unyagwa Mubarak Sserunga is ing many to refer to him as a joker. He is cist in Munyagwa were shattered. Being
the current chairperson of the often contrasted with Bugweri MP Abdul born in Kampala and raised in western
committee on Commissions, Katuntu whom he replaced. Munyagwa Uganda, Munyagwa thought of returning
Statutory Authorities and State accepts the label but says it might be mis- to Kampala to start a new life. He started
Enterprises (COSASE). He is also the Mem- leading. “Many Ugandans take me to be part-time teaching as he enrolled for a sec-
ber of Parliament representing Kawempe terribly stupid because of how I branded ond sitting at Nakasero Secondary School.
South. Munyagwa is largely known for his myself,” he says, “(But) my party dis- In 2001, he enrolled at Makerere Univer-
comical character in activism that dates to proved many to point them to the fact that sity for a Bachelor of Science degree but
as far as 2011 during the ‘Walk to Work’ Munyagwa can conduct more serious busi- couldn’t do much for lack of tuition. He
protests against spiralling food and fuel ness”. For the greater part of his life, Mun- switched the programme to an online study
prices in the country. He was among the yagwa says, he has been daringly working arrangement. He returned to Makerere
politicians who were hauled up and jailed towards his dream of becoming a military enrolling for a degree in commerce but still
for allegedly holding unlawful protests general. But as age catches up with him (he dropped out in third year due to financial
and destabilising peace of Ugandans. At is in his 40s), the legislator has given up on constraints. About the same time, Hajji
the time of the protests, Munyagwa had the career path. Nasser Ssebaggala returned to Uganda and
just joined elective politics as the Mayor of He says he was nine years old, while for lack of a job, Munyagwa joined the team
Kawempe division. trekking through the bushes close to to welcome him from the airport. This reig-
And after serving the five years as Kilembe mines in Kasese, western Uganda, nited his dream of becoming a military gen-
mayor, Munyagwa was elected to parlia- he and his mother came close to an army eral and when Ssebaggala announced his
ment. He says it was the long expected parade commanded by Maj. Gen Fred candidature for the president, Munyagwa
victory for someone who has longed to Rwigyema. He was swept away by the vowed to be part of the struggle.
witness change of guard in Uganda’s politi- saluting and respect that one man had from Munyagwa says, “At that time, school
cal arena. hundreds of soldiers. In admiration, he told was not on my agenda because I never
“I wanted to be part of the change move- his mother he would work hard to become thought that academic documents would
ment,” says Munyagwa. a military general like Rwigyema. be of any help”.
Even after returning home near The dream was cut short when Ssebag-
the shores of Lake George where gala was revealed to be on talking terms
his parents worked in fish facto- with President Museveni. To cut his losses,
ries, Munyagwa kept thinking Munyagwa relocated to Kawempe to start
of his dream. a new life. He announced his political bid
During his high school days and emerged victorious in 2011 as Mayor
at St Leo’s College Kyegobe, a fel- representing Kawempe Division at Kam-
low classmate of Rwandan origin pala Capital City Authority. And in 2016,
announced his ambitions of start- he elevated his political position by being
ing a rebel group and capture elected MP.
parts of Congo after senior six Munyagwa highlights challenges in his
exams. Munyagwa was one of political career.
those who welcomed the idea “The biggest challenge was having to
considering that in no time, he fight against the amendment of Article 102
would attain the rank of military (b) in the constitution,” says Munyagwa,
general. The move, however, “Parliament attempted to oust an aged
fell through as him and others president something that took us through a
participated in a strike that saw lot more than we can reveal.”
them locked up in cells. This And today as the chairperson of
meant doing the final exams COSASE, Munyagwa vows to keep surpris-
on police bond. Fear of being ing Ugandans by delivering and not just
imprisoned after exams, Mun- exciting them.
yagwa escaped from the exami- Munyagwa completed primary level
nation room before end of time. at Mahyoro Primary School, Kitagwenda
“The results weren’t pleasant High School for ordinary lever and Nakase-
and when my father learnt of it, he ro Secondary School for advanced level. He
jammed to pay my tuition on holds a diploma of Laws from LDC and is
private sponsorship at currently in third year pursuing a bachelor
Makerere Univer- of laws from Makerere University.
38 March. 22 - 28 2019
Q&A

Munyagwa Mubarak Sserunga’s Liteside


Any three things that we What do you consider me countless times and misery?

I
don’t know about you? the most overrated always gave me a second Every human being
am dependable; virtue? chance. If it wasn’t should be able to at least
you can count on Too much value for her persistence, I afford a daily meal.
me when I take a attached to leisure; we wouldn’t have gone so
decision. I don’t have a wasted generation far in school. What is your favorite
easily get scared and who attend so much occupation?
I am not taken up by value to leisure. The When and where were I would love to join
materialistic things. I am latest is the ‘Miss Curvy’ you happiest? civil society advocacy
satisfied with the little I contest which has When I was elected and offer free legal
have. attracted the attention mayor of Kawempe assistance to the poor
of many but mostly the division in 2011; it meant and vulnerable.
What is your idea of young and energetic. opening up a new career
perfect happiness? Leisure is good but if too thread in my life and What do you most value
A moment in a health much value is put to it was a way of cutting in your friends?
club relieves my mind then it ceases to be good. my losses of becoming Being straightforward.
of stress and renews my a military general. I
strength. What does being was also happy about Who are your favorite
powerful mean to you? my senior four results writers?
What is your greatest The ability to manage in 1996 having scored I am not a good reader.
fear? state of affairs in a good first grade.
Life has pushed me to whatever field. Power Passing Makerere law Which historical figure
become fearless. must be felt by other pre-entry exams was do you most identify
people and it should be another happy moment; with?
What is the trait for majority good and it was indeed survival None that I know
you most deplore in beneficial on my side because of; historical figures
yourself? failure would make news have always been
I don’t fear easily On what occasion do headlines. I disproved exaggerated. What we
which lands me in big you lie? many Ugandans who are doing today is what
mistakes and trouble I can tell a lie anytime consider me to be they did in their times.
sometimes. as a human being but terribly stupid. Their weaknesses and
mostly as a politician. context are sometimes
What is the trait you Politicians tell lies to Which talent would you not captured or revealed.
most deplore in others? escape circumstances. most like to have?
Hypocrisy is a no go I plan to do something What is your greatest
zone for me. What do you most in military film making. regret?
dislike about your I messed up myself
Which living person do appearance? If you could change one the day I decided to
you most admire? I am overweight thing about yourself, join other students in a
Rtd Col Dr Kiiza despite several measures what would it be? strike as we approached
Besigye; I have never to reduce. Anything to do with doing senior six exams.
been under a leader my weight. Heavy If not for that strike
who is as fearless, Which living person do weight undermines good that disorganised me, I
determined and loving you most despise? health. would have made it to
as him. I admire a lot I shouldn’t reveal the pharmacy at Makerere
from him especially the person. Where would you most University because I had
intelligence that guides like to live? the capacity.
him to have a solution What is the quality you I prefer to live in
for every political most like in a woman? Canada where there is How would you like to
puzzle. He is also very Having a big heart. guarantee for life; life in die?
reliable and dependable Uganda has been made Death is death no
so you don’t have to What is the quality you very cheap. matter the path.
keep checking on him. most like in a man?
I admire him for many Standing by what he What is your most What is your motto?
reasons. says. treasured possession? If there is anything
A big heart that shares that a human being has
What is your greatest What or who is the with others. done, then you can also
extravagance? greatest love of your do it.
For the love of good life? What do you regard
life, I travel a lot. My mother stood with as the lowest depth of

March. 22 - 28 2019 39
Global comment
By Tedros Ghebreyesus and Senait Fisseha
Gender parity in global health
New report shows that over 70% of health organisations
are currently headed by men who earn 13.5% less

S
ince the start of the year, we have norms, roles, and expectations placed the center of the WHO’s operations is
traveled from Afghanistan and on men and women – has a profound an important first step, the larger goal
Pakistan, where health workers impact on whether one is exposed is to support our member states in
administering the polio vaccine are to unhealthy products and places, or serving the people whose lives, health,
battling snowstorms to reach children who whether one engages in health-seeking and wellbeing depend on collective
need it, to North Kivu, where officials are and health-protecting behaviors. We also public-health efforts. To that end, three
trying to stop one of the deadliest Ebola know that gender-based discrimination priorities should guide our approach to
outbreaks in history. can have a significant impact on the global health at all levels, from the local
Women comprise 70% of these and delivery of health services. clinic delivering essential care to national
other health workers around the world. And yet, while focusing on gender health ministries and multilateral
And yet a new report from Global Health as a social determinant of health and institutions.
50/50, released on the eve of this year’s establishing gender parity at the WHO’s First, we need to ensure that gender
International Women’s Day, shows that leadership level were no-brainers, the analysis informs all health strategies
men hold a disproportionate share of Global Health 50/50 report shows that and program missions. Without fully
power in the health sector and earn a we are the exception to the rule. Having understanding the gendered factors
disproportionate share of pay. reviewed the policies and practices that drive human health, we cannot
Having spent part of our careers of nearly 200 health organisations, possibly achieve universal and equitable
assembling a force of female health comprising a workforce of more than outcomes.
workers who reduced deaths from AIDS, four million people across 28 countries, Second, we urgently need to close the
malaria, and tuberculosis in Ethiopia by the report finds vast power and pay power and pay gap between men and
half, we know the contributions women asymmetries between men and women. women in the health sector, by pursuing
make to public health. That is why, For example, Global Health 50/50 finds deliberate strategies to level the playing
under Ghebreyesus’s tenure as director- that over 70% of health organisations field for women.
general, the World Health Organisation are currently headed by men, and that And, third, we must recommit to
has a gender-balanced cabinet for the in 40% of the organisations reviewed, transparency and accountability in health
first time in its history. And with gender women occupy fewer than one-third of organisations, including on gender
parity achieved in the institution’s senior senior management positions. And few equality. Only then can we root out toxic
positions at headquarters, we will be will be shocked to learn that the women management cultures, improve quality of
working to ensure that regional and working in these organisations earn care, and foster openness and inclusion
country offices follow suit. 13.5% less, on average, than their male at all levels.
Gender parity is a practical as well counterparts. When people of different genders and
as a moral issue. Having more women Sadly, these findings are in keeping backgrounds come together, they bring
in leadership positions effects positive with what one finds in boardrooms their own experiences and wisdom, and
change throughout an organization; across the corporate and non-profit the result amounts to more than the
it improves performance, innovation, sectors. But such disparities are all the sum of its parts. Diverse organisations
creativity, resilience, and morale. It more worrying when they show up in arrive at better decisions, because they
provides role models and informal the global health sector, given its role in can consider problems from a wide
support systems that have historically protecting the wellbeing and rights of all range of perspectives and draw potential
been lacking for women in the people everywhere. solutions from multiple contexts. When
workplace. And it reduces tolerance for From the WHO’s experience, we know it comes to global health organisations,
toxic workplace behavior such as sexual that gender parity does not emerge government ministries, and national
harassment. organically. Achieving it requires health institutions, gender equality
But gender is also a key social deliberate and directed organisational should be embraced not just for its own
determinant of health, which makes change. Hence, the WHO’s new sake, but also because it works.
gender parity in the health sector a corporate strategy, which is geared
necessary ingredient for reaching the toward the Sustainable Development Tedros Ghebreyesus is Director-General
WHO’s “triple billion” targets. The Agenda’s mission of “leaving no one of the World Health Organization. Senait
organisation’s goal is to ensure that by behind,” features a strong emphasis on Fisseha is Professor of Obstetrics and
2023, one billion more people than today measuring gender distributions, equity, Gynecology at the University of Michigan,
have full access to health care, greater and rights across all of the institutions’ Chief Adviser to the Director-General of the
protection from health emergencies, and programs. That means each department World Health Organization, and a member of
better overall health and wellbeing. will be accountable for upholding gender the Global Health 50/50 advisory council.
Among other things, we know that parity.
gender – that is, the socially constructed But while putting gender parity at Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.

40 March. 22 - 28 2019
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