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SPECIAL CEMENTS

AND THEIR USES


A catalog of special-purpose cements and the specific needs they meet

A number of special cements are


now available to the concrete
construction industry. Each type
cal factor. Strength development
with Type IV is slower than with
Type I cement but ultimate strength
ful control is not practical, air-en-
training cements are useful to in-
sure that at least a significant por-
serves a specific function in terms is comparable. Demand for Type IV tion of the required air content will
of application, performance and has dropped in recent years and be obtained.
d u ra b i l i t y. Although each may be very little is now produced.
used by itself to answer a special Type V (also ASTM C 150) is a sul- Blended hydraulic cements
construction need, some may be fate-resisting cement. Whereas Type The three kinds of blended hy-
used with other standard or special II cement is used as a precaution draulic cements available are port-
types to achieve special esthetic or against moderate sulfate attack, land blast-furnace slag cement,
functional objectives. The following Type V is designed for use in con- portland pozzolan cement and slag
descriptions of various special ce- crete that is to be exposed to severe cement; their ASTM designation is
ments deal only with the basic sulfate attack. It is used principally C 595.
characteristics of the cements and where soils or ground waters show Portland blast-furnace slag ce-
their applications. very high sulfate content. Since the ment is available as Type IS for use
ASTM specifications cover most amount of tricalcium aluminate in in general concrete construction or
types of cement used in construc- Type V cement is low, heat genera- as Type I S-A where entrained air is
tion. Notable current exceptions are tion is relatively low during the first desired. If moderate sulfate resis-
masonry, regulated-set, calcium days of hardening and early tance is specified by the specifica-
aluminate, shrinkage-compensat- strength gains are slower than with tion writer, this is indicated by the
ing, self-stressing, and oil well ce- Type I cement. addition of the letters MS to the se-
ments. lected type designation. Where
In all cases, the first rule in using Air-entraining cements moderate heat of hydration is de-
any special cement is to follow the The improved workability and sired, the letters MH are added.
manufacturer’s recommendations durability of portland cements con- Thus a portland blast-furnace slag
as closely as possible. Properly used, taining entrained air are well cement which is air-entraining and
special cements can serve a va ri e t y known. They are designated as has moderate heat of hydration and
of specialized re q u i re m e n t s. Im- Types IA, Type I IA and Type IIIA of moderate sulfate resistance would
proper application is always costly. ASTM C 150 and are produced by be designated as Type IS-A-MH-MS.
Many of the special portland ce- intergrinding with the cement clink- These cements are produced by
ments with which we are concerned er, during manufacture, acceptable blending portland cement and fine-
here are for the most part simply amounts of air-entraining additions ly granulated blast-furnace slag or
variations of the well-known port- to comply with the ASTM specifica- by intergrinding them. Grinding
land cement types 1, II and III. Some tions. These cements generally pro- fineness is generally greater than for
mention should be made of port- vide a sufficient amount of en- standard portland cement, provid-
land cement Types IV and V also. trained air in concrete to meet most ing the ability to reach a comparable
Type IV (ASTM C 150) is a minimal job conditions. They will not, how- ultimate strength. These cements
heat generating cement for use e ve r, infallibly produce a specified have lower heat of hydration and
principally in those situations amount of air in the concrete and harden more slowly than does stan-
where heat generation must be when this happens it may be neces- dard portland cement. For this rea-
minimized with respect to both rate sary to add air-entraining admix- son, curing time should be length-
and amount. Typical applications tures at the mixer. The air content ened, particularly in cold weather.
include massive concrete structures of concrete made with the agent Concrete made with portland
such as large gravity dams where added at the mixer is more control- blast-furnace slag cement of Types
temperature rise due to heat of hy- lable than in concrete made with IS-MS and IS-A-MS will successful-
dration during hardening is a criti- air-entrained cement. Where care- ly resist attack by sea water and sim-
ilar materials. Such cements are Well-made concrete produced from ty to impart to masonry mortars
t h e re f o re widely used in marine this special cement has increased w o rk a b i l i t y, water retention and
construction, especially in Eu ro p e. resistance to mild chemical attack. plasticity.
They are suitable for use in large In those localities where alkali-ag- When combined with sand and
masses of concrete because of low gregate reaction occurs in concrete, water, masonry cement produces a
heat of hydration. They are not rec- portland pozzolan cement may highly workable mortar. Propor-
ommended for use in pre s t re s s e d serve, with proper mix design, to tions will vary according to need
concrete. p re vent deterioration. from a low of about I to 2 1/2 to a
Portland pozzolan cements are Slag cements are designated high of about I to 5 by volume. (A
specified in four types, designated Types S and SA of ASTM C 595. Slag p ro p o rtion of I to 3 is common.)
Type IP, IPA, P and PA. The first two cement, available in both plain and These mortars have high plasticity,
are used in general concrete con- air-entraining types, is an intimate good water retention, minimum
struction, the latter two in concrete blend of at least 60 percent water- volume change, and no delayed ex-
construction where high strengths quenched blast-furnace slag and pansion. When mixed with washed
at early ages are not required. Those the balance hydrated lime. They are concrete sand they are suitable for
with the A designations are, of used as a blend with portland ce- external rendering and internal
course, the air-entraining counter- ment in making concrete and with plastering.
parts of the other two. h yd rated lime in making masonry If a setting accelerator is used in
Portland pozzolan cement is a mortar. They also have some refrac- cold weather, the quantity required
mixture of ordinary portland ce- tory applications. is usually about half that which
ment and finely ground pozzolan in would be used with ordinary port-
which the pozzolan is 15 to 40 per- Natural cement land cement and no more than this
cent of the bag weight. A poz zo l a n Designated in ASTM C 10 as Type amount should ever be used. Most
is a siliceous or siliceous-aluminous N or, with entrained air as Type NA, masonry cements contain adequate
material that will react chemically in natural cement is produced by fine- a i r- e n t raining agents and, unless
the presence of moisture with calci- ly grinding calcined argillaceous mixing is inefficient, no additional
um hydroxide (which is released limestone. The temperature of calci- agent should ordinarily be required.
during the hydration of the portland nation is only as high as necessary Plasticizers, likewise, should seldom
cement). Typical pozzolanic materi- to drive off carbon dioxide and wa- be added; if they are used it should
als are some of the diatomaceous ter but not to sinter. Natural cement be determined beforehand that they
e a rt h s, opaline cherts and shales, is lower in calcium oxide than are do not detract from strength.
tuffs, volcanic ashes, some fly ash- standard portland cements. It is
es, calcined clays and shales of the now used primarily in making ma- White portland cements
montmorillonite type, and precipi- sonry mortars because these require Types 1, IA, 111 and IIIA meet the
tated silica. high water retention capacity to requirements of ASTM C 150. White
Pozzolans by themselves are often compensate for suction from dry cement has found broad accep-
used as cement replacements. This masonry units that would otherwise tance throughout the modern con-
reduces the quantity of portland ce- inhibit curing and detract from crete construction industry. Its in-
ment per cubic yard of concrete and bond strength. The cement has a herent beauty, especially when used
subsequently the total heat of hy- very high Blaine fineness. It requires to create special architectural ef-
dration, a desirable feature when an extremely long period for full fects, usually offsets its cost, which
large masses of concrete are placed. strength development and for this is nearly twice as much as natural or
Maximum temperature is reduced, reason its use in construction is lim- standard cements. It is currently be-
with a subsequent reduction in ited; in many areas it has disap- ing used rather widely in construc-
thermal stresses and cracking on peared from the market. tion of white or colored walls, ex-
cooling. The reduction in heat gen- posed aggregate surfaces and
eration may require greater precau- Masonry cements similar special concrete applica-
tions when this cement is used in These are available in either gray tions .
relatively thin sections of concrete or white and vary considerably in Manufactured of materials of low
placed in cold weather. chemical composition. They are not iron and manganese content, white
At the sacrifice of lower early covered by ASTM specifications. cement also has an extremely low
strength, portland pozzolan cement Most are mixtures of portland ce- water-soluble alkali content. In oth-
provides economical mass concrete ment, air-entraining additives and er respects, its basic chemical com-
with reduced early heat generation finely ground supplemental materi- position is the same as that of gray
potential. It requires a prolonged als. Over and above the basic setting portland cement. It is ground more
period of moist curing for attain- and strength requirements, they are finely and has a lower range of spe-
ment of normal ultimate strength. formulated primarily for their abili- cific gravity.
The types of white cement meet consistent delay period between ing, consolidating and finishing of
all the requirements of standard time of placing and time of special freshly mixed mortars or concretes
portland cements of the same type finishing. must be completed within the han-
and can be used for exactly the dling time available; revibration or
same purposes as ASTM C 150 ce- Buff-colored cements rework after initial hardening is not
ments. Their strength is generally a Cements that impart a buff or tan feasible. Also to be considered is the
little less than that of ordinary port- hue to the finished concrete are significantly greater heat of hydra-
land cement. To compensate for commercially available. Most of tion, which may or may not be ad-
slightly lower rate of strength gain, these cements depend upon the use vantageous, depending on the cir-
the cement content of white cement of certain raw materials for the color cumstances. Suggested applications
mixes is usually increased by 10 to of the cement. Recent innovations include the manufacture of prod-
15 percent. in the manufacturing process have ucts such as block, pipe, and pre-
White cement is usually chosen made possible the production of stressed, precast or extruded ele-
for use in mixes for colored concrete buff cements that do not require se- ments; paving for airports and
walls and other tinted surfaces be- lected raw materials, a development median barriers; patching and
cause it enhances color brightness. that contributes to the consistency resurfacing of highways and bridge
Colored cements are available that of the buff color in the finished decks; vertical slip-forming; and
are made from white cement and product. There are no ASTM specifi- f i re p roofing columns and beams.
pigments. These have good non- cations for these cements . Specialized uses include lightweight
staining and uniform color proper- insulating concrete, pelletizing iron
ties. They are offered in dry-batched Regulated-set cement ore, foundry molds, shotcrete, win-
form with specially selected aggre- Regulated-set cement is a hy- ter concreting, and underwater
gates. Their use is in cement paints, draulic cement related to portland patching.
precast stone, terra z zo - c o n c re t e cement but containing an addition-
floors, internal and external render- al rapid-setting, rapid-strength-pro- Calcium aluminate cement
ings, and for setting and pointing ducing ingredient. There is as yet no There is no ASTM specification
work. ASTM specification. Various formu- for this type of cement, which is
The use of white cements requires lations provide controllable setting sometimes also called aluminous
careful attention to cleanliness on or handling times that range from cement. Concrete made with calci-
the job site. Mixing and placing one or two minutes to approximate- um aluminate cement hardens very
equipment, form materials and ly 45 minutes. The correspondingly rapidly and gains its maximum
trowels must be absolutely clean rapid strength development levels strength in 24 hours. It contains cal-
and free from rust, dirt and other are also adjustable, depending upon cium aluminates rather than the
contaminants. the needs of the contemplated ap- calcium silicates that make up the
Sand aggregate must be extreme- plication. The Portland Cement As- major portion of portland cements;
ly fine and uniform in color. To pro- sociation has been granted patent its special manufacturing process
duce uniformity over the entire sur- protection on this type of cement makes it costly.
face, mix proportions, mixing time, and currently it is available from five The rapid hardening properties of
and placing and finishing proce- manufacturers. Except for the regu- this special cement make it an ex-
dures have to be identical for the en- lated-set and early strength proper- cellent choice for specialized con-
tire job. Special care must be exer- ties which are of significance during crete applications. In combination
cised in form construction to assure the first few hours in particular, tests with insulating or refractory types of
tight forms that will avoid sand show the physical characteristics of aggregates, it can be used for tem-
streaking. Form oils should be of a concrete made with regulated-set p e ra t u re applications up to 3,000
type that will eliminate the possibil- cement to be similar to comparable degrees F. Its high 24-hour strength
ity of discoloration . mixes made with standard portland makes possible the application of
Surface burns are avoided by cement. full working loads within one day af-
troweling while the surface is moist. Handling time is influenced by ter placing. The use of selected cor-
Curing media used should be care- mix temperatures along with con- rosion-resistant aggregates provides
fully selected to avoid discoloration. trol by basic formulation. Low mix resistance to weak acids and other
Clean nonstaining membrane-cur- t e m p e ra t u res lengthen and high similar corrosive materials.
ing compounds or sheets of plastic t e m p e ra t u res shorten handling Calcium aluminate cement has a
should be used or the concrete times. Ambient temperature to high water demand, combining
cured by ponding. Any subsequent which a mix is exposed has little in- with water in a quantity equal to
surface finishing procedures for fluence. Curing procedures are the about 55 percent of its weight. Oth-
special effects, such as sandblasting, same as those for standard portland er cements and lime are not recom-
should be carefully timed with a cement concretes. Handling, plac- mended for use with this cement.
Retarding admixtures may be used, sulfate. For any of these, the expan- element and the environment to
but their use will depend strictly on sive properties may be varied over a which it will be exposed. The re-
temperature conditions at placing. considerable range. strained expansion induces a com-
The cement is dark in color. It In the United States two basic for- pressive stress in the concrete dur-
tends to produce a rather harsh mulations for expansive cements ing the expanding period which
concrete; this can usually be offset have been developed. One, called helps offset the subsequently occur-
by increasing sand content. shrinkage-compensating cement, is ring shrinkage stresses .
Delayed curing will be harmful, designed to expand and compen- Applications will probably in-
and normal curing procedures may sate for the shrinkage that occurs in clude slabs on ground in uncove re d
not be applicable because curing conventional portland cement con- floor areas of industrial buildings,
must be achieved during the first 24 crete as it hardens. The other, called highway and airport paving, parking
hours after placement. At normal self-stressing cement, is designed to decks, plazas and malls having areas
temperatures curing can be initiat- generate greater expansive forces in below for parking or pedestrian use,
ed at the time of setting, 8 to 10 the concrete when it hardens; if pro- many types of water-holding struc-
hours after mixing. The concrete vision is made for sufficient restraint t u re s, recreational areas, and food
may be sprayed or sprinkled inter- by embedding high-tensile steel in processing or pharmaceutical
mittently for 24 hours after placing the concrete, or other suitable buildings and storage areas where
but must not be allowed to begin to method, prestress will be achieved. c ra c k - f ree surfaces are functional
dry during this period. Self-stressing concrete expands hygienic requirements. Shrinkage-
Caution must be exercised in the as it cures and stretches the rein- compensating concrete, of course,
storage of calcium aluminate ce- forcing steel within it. The tension cannot be expected to ove rc o m e
ment. If stored or mixed at tempera- imparted to the reinforcement pre- cracking caused by settlement,
tures above 85° F., it may lose con- compresses the concrete member overloading, inadequate design or
siderable strength and durability. A by reaction. Self-stressing concrete poor construction.
recommended procedure is to make applications include precast con-
low-slump mixes using ice water, crete pipe, precast arc h i t e c t u ra l Oil well cements
keeping concrete temperatures be- panels, highway pavement, side- A P I Standard I OA, of the Ameri-
low 74°F., and compacting and plac- walks and tunnel linings. can Petroleum Institute Specifica-
ing when ambient temperatures are Data from the Portland Cement tion for oil well cements sets re-
below 85° F. Association indicate that the physi- quirements for six classes. These
cal properties of concrete made special cements were developed for
Expansive cements from shrinkage-compensating ce- concrete used to seal oil and gas
No ASTM specifications have ment are for the most part similar to wells and are designed to set and
been adopted for expansive ce- comparable mixes made with stan- cure at the high temperatures and
ments, but a test to evaluate expan- dard portland cements. Slump loss pressures of oil-well grouting. They
sion will perhaps become a stan- may be greater under some circum- produce a low-viscosity, slow-set-
dard in a year or so. The cements are stances, especially if extended mix- ting slurry which reduces the
h yd raulic cements that expand dur- ing times are involved. Although amount of pressure required for
ing the early hardening period. The strength gain may be low during the pumping into place. Most of these
expansive component is anhydrous period of expansion, subsequent cements include a retarder as well
calcium sulfoaluminate or refixtures s t re n g t h s, modulus of elasticity, as a friction-reducing additive. They
of tricalcium aluminate and gyp- freeze-thaw resistance and abrasion remain fluid for up to four hours
sum in the right proportions. Three resistance are comparable to those and then harden very rapidly.
types have been designated by the obtained with standard cements.
American Concrete Institute, not on Susceptibility to sulfate attack may Plastic cements
the basis of physical properties but be greater than with standard port- These are cements made and
on the basis of the major compo- land cements. The concrete may used only in California. There are no
nents used to make them. Type K is crack as a result of drying or tem- ASTM specifications written for
made up of anhydrous tricalcium perature drop. them, but they must meet require-
aluminate, portland cement clinker, To obtain the crack-reducing ad- ments set forth in California’s Uni-
calcium sulfate and lime. Type M vantage of shrinkage-compensating form Building Code. According to
contains portland cement clinker, c o n c re t e, restraint to expansion this Code, they must meet the
calcium aluminate cement and cal- must be provided, either externally strength and most other provisions
cium sulfate. Type S contains port- or internally, with the amount of re- for ASTM Type I or Type I I portland
land cement that has a high tricalci- straint being dependent on the ex- cements.
um aluminate content and more pansion characteristics of the con- Plastic cements were designed for
than the usual amount of calcium c re t e, design requirements of the use in cement plaster and stucco,
but they are also used in masonry cements. There is no ASTM specifi-
mortar applications. They contain a cation for them.
relatively high amount of entrained
air and the Uniform Building Code Magnesite cement
allows up to 12 percent substitutive This is produced by combining
replacement for the portland ce- magnesium oxide with a solution of
ment content. The replacement ma- magnesium ox yc h l o ri d e. ASTM
terials are added to contribute plas- specifications C 275 and C 276 give
ticity. Their use is not the physical and chemical require-
recommended for general concrete ments of the magnesia and the
construction. magnesium ox yc h l o ri d e, respec-
t i ve l y. A long series of other ASTM
Gun plastic cement specifications set the requirements
A gun plastic cement is available for mixing with water and for mea-
that was developed specifically for suring a number of physical proper-
application by pumps or guns. Man- ties.
ufactured by blending fine asbestos This special cement has good
fibers into regular plastic cement, it strength and elastic properties. Be-
is designed to overcome segregation cause it can readily be polished it is
while it is being pumped . used for floor toppings. It is easily
damaged by water, but water resis-
Waterproof cements tance can be provided by including
Type I or IA cements with water- a small amount of copper in the mix
proofing agents added are used for design.
concrete construction that is sub-
ject to hydrostatic pressure such as
occurs in basement walls and stor-
age tanks for liquids. Caution is ad-
vised in their use since cement al-
kalies may react with the
waterproofing agent and diminish
the effectiveness of these cements.

Hydrophobic cement
This is produced the same way as
o rd i n a ry portland cement but a
small amount of water- re p e l l e n t
material is added that forms a pro-
tective coating around each particle
of cement. This coating retards hy-
dration until the cement is mixed
with water and keeps it from deteri-
orating when stored in humid envi-
ronments. A low water/cement ratio
can be used. It is used in soils stabi-
lization and in concrete mixes to be
pumped.

Strontium and
barium cements
These are cements in which the
calcium has been either completely
or partially replaced by either stron-
tium or barium. Barium cement is
extremely resistant to sea water; PUBLICATION #C730003
strontium cement can withstand Copyright © 1973, The Aberdeen Group
higher temperatures than ordinary All rights reserved

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