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Abstract:

The Research gives the grievous effect on different parts of Fiscal policy that is affected by Hartal.

As a result if the situation becomes entangled in a certain stage the wheel of the entire economy

are bound to be halted abruptly and the country’s economy wil be destroyed. For this reason it is

essential for our politician to search an alternate of Hartal. The Research identifies a disappointing

fact that Hartal imposes a large cost on the economy. Also it attempts to explore the negative

impacts on GDP and revenue collection. Based on the findings, a number of suggestive policy

measures that the planners and implementers may consider for the future development of political

situation in Bangladesh are embedded in the end of the Research.

Title of the Research:

“Fiscal Policy and Hartal: A Case Study on Bangladesh from 2013 to 2014; specially on the Last

National Election Period in Bangladesh”.

Intruduction:

Fiscal policy is very much related to the Public Finance in the Macroeconomics. Fiscal policy

means the process by which government’s expenditures, tax rates and budgets would be monitored

the national economy.The term “Hartal” basically comes from Gujarati language. “Hat” means

market and “tal” means tala or lock, which referred to locked market or bazaar“bondh.” Hartal was

first used during the Indian Independence Movement. It is a way of mass protest often involves a

total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law with the object of realizing a demand.

(CPD, 2013). Now it is also related to the politics of Bangladesh,specially in the election year.

Hartal is one of the prime factors of influencing Fiscal Policy.

Statement of the Problem:


Human beings is very much related to economy. Without economy people cannot live in a society

or a state. So there need to be an economic policy to lead human’s society. There are two types of

economic policy: Monetary policy and Fiscal policy. Fiscal policy is the process by which a

government adjusts spending and monitoring tax rates and nation’s economy. Fiscal policy is also

related to public finance. On the other hand, Hartal means the act of suspending tasks and closing

all kinds of shops, educational institutions and official activities. But this term is always used in

political protest. So this is very much related to democracy like Bangladesh. But Fiscal policy is

influenced by Hartal in developing countries like Bangladesh. Hartal has become the major issue

to influence the Fiscal policy in Bangladesh.

Hartal is even more unacceptable when the country is on track of vigorous economic growth in the

coming days in exports and imports activities in bangladesh. Hartal, no matter whether it is violent

or peaceful, is no longer a popular weapon of movement, particularly in the perspective of the

violent movement that people saw before the January-5 national election in 2014. What does really

happen in Hartal? Does it create any difference ? As always found, a Hartal virtually discusses a

serve blow to the economic activities apart from leaving normal life in disarray. For a country’s

economy, which is already under so much of pressure by Hartal In fact, for an economy like ours,

Hartal seems to be a more threatening word by influenceing Fiscal Policy. So government should

now take proper steps against Hartal to protect Fiscal policy in Bangladesh.

Purpose of Research:

The Following objectives are specific in the context of research.

1.To find out the impact of the Hartal in Fiscal Policy of Bangladesh.
2.To examine the culprits, agents or organizations, responsible for Hartal of influencing Fiscal

Policy in Bangladesh.

3. To analysis the existing initiatives of government against Hartal to run Fiscal Policy.

4. To discuss how Fiscal Policy is influenced by Hartal in Bangladesh, specially the last national

election period in Bangladesh.

5. To suggest how the Fiscal Policy can be protected in the painful Hartal.

Research Questions:

The prime research questions of the study are given below:

1.How Fiscal Policy is influenced by Hartal, specially the Last election period in Bangladesh?

2. What are the impacts of Hartal in the Fiscal Policy of Bangladesh?

3. What rules and regulations are taken against Hartal to protect Fiscal Policy by Government?

4. Which organizations or agents are responsible for influencing Fiscal Policy in Hartal Period of

Bangladesh?

5. How government initiarives and people awarness can be strengthen to protect Fiscal Policy in

Bangladesh?

Research Hypothesis:

The following hypothesis may assumed in the study:

Government Steps against Hartal by Police, Army and Mobile court are not much effective that

affect Fiscal policy, but If government can take effective steps against Hartal by saving Fiscal

Policy, it would be more flexible in developing countries like Bangladesh.


Significance of the Research:

There are many significances of this Research. Some of these are given below:

1. By Hartal in 2014,there were cause Tk49, 000cr loss in the Fiscal policy estimated by CPD. So

there need to find out culprits ,responsible for destroying Fiscal policy.

2. Historically, Hartal has been a common form of resistance in Bangladesh, although there was a

three-year period without Hartal from 2007-2010. So there need to be collected informations why

Bangladesh is such kind of country in the democratic world.

3.To study Government policy initiatives againgst Hartal to protect Fiscal policy of Bangladesh.

4. To know how Fiscal Policy is destroyed by Hartal in the impact of Hartal on Stock Return and

Turnover.

Besides these there are many significances which are partially would be led to comparative

analysis of this topic Research.

Literature Reviews:

There is no direct research works in this topic. But partially there some books, journals and

newspapers which could related this study- some of these are given below:

1.The Economy: Looking back and moving forward –Dr Fahmida Khatun

2. Press Reports and Editorials on “Analytical Review of Bangladesh’s Macroeconomic

Performance in FY2013-14 (Second Reading)” by CPD.


3. Political violence causes Tk49, 000cr loss: CPD

The Report analysis about the following:

The losses due to recent Hartal and blockades in four sectors would be Tk49, 018 crore, which is

4.7% of the GDP of the last fiscal, says an independent estimate released in January

2014.Considering the losses, the Gross Domestic Product is apprehended to moderate at a range

between 5.6% and 5.8% this fiscal year. The damages in terms of money were calculated taking

into consideration 55 Hartal and blockades enforced between July 2013 and January 2014 – before

and after the general election held on January 5.The land transport (rail and road) sector incurred

losses of Tk16, 689 crore, highest among the four sectors as estimated by Center for Policy

Dialogue (CPD).It was followed by agriculture and agro-based industries that faced losses of Tk15,

829 crore, clothing and textiles Tk13, 750 crore and tourism Tk2, 750 crore.

4. Hartal: A Violent Challenge to the Socio-Economic Development of Bangladesh by

Mallika Roy, Faria Hossain Borsha

The Research identifies a disappointing fact that Hartal imposes a large cost on the economy. Also

it attempts to explore the negative impacts on GDP and revenue collection. Based on the findings,

a number of suggestive policy measures that the planners and implementers may consider for the

future development of political situation in Bangladesh.

5. Website’s address links :

a.http://www.finmin.nic.in/

b. http://www.uptodate.org.uk/home/welcome.shtml
c. https://www.thedailystar.com

d.http://www.thefinancialexpressbd.com

e. https://www.academia.edu/

After understanding above these studies, there is no specific research in this topic. But these

documents would be helped for collecting and completing this research work.

Research Methodology:

1.Sources of Data:

There are two types of data will be used for effective research:

a.Primary data: The primary data will be gathered from different government’s

agencies,departments and ministries by direct interviews.

b.Secondary data: The Secondary Data will be gathered from newspapers, journals, books and

publications of different organizations and countries.

2. Unit of Analysis:

The unit of analysis is members of Police and Mobile couts, Ministry of Finance, FBCCI and

General public.

Types of sample Sizes of sample

1. Members of Police and Mobile couts 15

2. Ministry of Finance 5
3.FBCCI 5

4.General Public 25

3. Sampling method:

4. Measurement: Triangulation mixed and Nominal and Ordinal scale will be used here.

5. Data Analysis: The gathered data will be presented by Statistical Package for Social

Sciences (SPSS), MS-Excel, and MS-word program.

Ethical Statement:

This Research (Fiscal Policy and Hartal: A Case Study on Bangladesh from 2013 to 2014; specially

on the Last National Election Period in Bangladesh) is unique. There is no research before in

regarding this study.

Expected Results:

From the discussion of this research there would be found a scenario which can help us to realize

the endangerment of Hartal on the overall economy of Bangladesh.

Conclusion:

The opposition doesn‘t have any other platforms to voice their demands and hence use Hartal;

politicians only care about personal gains and do not heed the impact on the economy because they

are immune to the consequences; the government is hostile, leaving few alternatives; options such

as rallies, protests, hunger-strikes are useless. All of these arguments make opposition leaders

appear selfish, irrational, and ignorant. Hartal is a strategic tool for opposition parties utilized in
the years prior to elections. Hartal legitimize the use of violence, which in turn can undermine the

government, thereby raising the chances of electoral success for opposition parties. Hartal put salt

in a wounded economy that affects Fiscal Policy in Bangladesh.

References:

1.Bangladesh Economic News. 2011. Remittance Flashes 17pc Growth in Feb.

2. http://eprothomalo.com/displaypage.php?id=2013_03_22_10_0_b#

3. http://eprothomalo.com/index.php?opt=view&page=1&date=2013-03-27#

4. http://eprothomalo.com/index.php?opt=view&page=.

5.http://www.finmin.nic.in/

6.. http://www.uptodate.org.uk/home/welcome.shtml

7.. https://www.thedailystar.com

8.http://www.thefinancialexpressbd.com

9. https://www.academia.edu/

10. CPD (2013). Bangladesh 2013: Assessing economic implications of the present Political

shocks.

11. Rashid, M. (2012). Political economy of ‘Hartal’.