You are on page 1of 6

Journal of Materials Processing Technology 180 (2006) 137–142

Martensite microstructure of 9–12%Cr steels weld metals


J. Oñoro
Department Ingenierı́a y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
c/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Received 30 September 2004; received in revised form 24 May 2006; accepted 25 May 2006

Abstract
Several new grades of steel have been developed in recent years, which have been based on the high-strength 9–12%Cr steels. These
steels were developed to meet the proposed demand by power generation companies to increase efficiency to operating at higher tempera-
tures by and thus burning less fossil fuel, principally coal, and thereby reducing costs and also meeting the increasingly stringent environmental
requirements.
The 9–12Cr steels used for high temperature components in power plants are generally required to possess good mechanical properties, corrosion
resistance, creep strength and fabricability. Although such steels normally have a fully martensite microstructure, they are also susceptible to the
formation of delta ferrite, mainly during the welding process. Delta ferrite has several detrimental effects on such properties as creep, ductility and
toughness. Thus, it is important to avoid its formation.
In this study the formation of delta ferrite in the weld metal of high-strength 9–12%Cr steels has been analysed for several samples with variations
of key alloying elements. The results indicate that the most effective way to avoid delta ferrite in the weld metal is to reduce the chromium equivalent
value to as low a value as possible. A fully martensite microstructure is obtained when both the Schneider chromium equivalent is lower than 13.5
and the difference between the chromium and nickel equivalent is lower than 8.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Martensite; 9–12%Cr steel; Weld metal; Chromium equivalent

1. Introduction The 9–12%Cr steels also offer improved creep and fracture
toughness over the low alloyed steels which are still used exten-
Ferritic steels with a tempered martensite structure, include sively in power generation components. Their higher creep
2Cr, 9Cr and 12Cr steels, together with new high-strength steel strengths offer the possibility of achieving power generation at
grades, based on 9–12%Cr. Such steels have comparatively higher efficiency levels than current solid fossil fuel fired units.
good corrosion resistance and can be cost effective substitutes The improvements in efficiency in thermal power plants by
for austenitic 18Cr–8Ni steels, even though higher creep decreasing fuel cost and CO2 emissions require the elevating
strength and fracture toughness are available from austenitic steam conditions to even higher ranges of temperature and
steels. Some of the physical properties of austenitic steels, pressure.
principally the lower thermal conductivity and higher coeffi- Many heat-resistant steels for power boilers, have been devel-
cient of expansion relative to ferritic steels, mean that thick oped based on 9Cr–1Mo steel (T9) and 12Cr steel (AISI 410),
section boiler components cannot be operated with maximum which was put into service around 1940. The development
flexibility if made in such steels. In addition austenitic steels focused on the optimisation of chemical compositions such as
have a relatively expensive alloy content and a more costly con- C, V, and Nb; 9Cr–1Mo–Nb–V steel (E91) and 12Cr–Mo–V
version route to tubular products. The high-strength 9–12%Cr steel. The subsequent development identifying alloy designs
based steels on the other hand allow reduced wall thickness of using W for solid solution strengthening and martensitic struc-
tubing components, and an improved oxidation and corrosion tures with MX precipitates (where M is Nb or V and X is C
resistance, when compared with conventional low alloy steels. or N); 9Cr–1Mo–1W–Nb–V–N steel (E911). The development
of power plants with steam temperatures of 625 ◦ C or higher,
are expected using new alloy designs employing Co and other
E-mail address: javier.onoro@upm.es. elements (Ir, Rh, etc.) in addition to W for strengthening and

0924-0136/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.05.014
138 J. Oñoro / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 180 (2006) 137–142

stabilising the martensite matrix for high temperature and high 9–12%Cr steel welds have been reported to have several detri-
pressure applications [1]. mental effects on mechanical properties. It has been shown to
The 9–12%Cr steels required a careful balance of ferrite impair toughness due to the notch sensitivity of the delta fer-
forming and austenite forming elements. This is to achieve a rite phase [1,5], enhance solidification cracking [6], promote
satisfactory solidification process, a fully austenitic and hot sigma-phase precipitation and consequently embrittlement at
workable microstructure at primary processing, tubemaking and intermediate service temperatures [7], and reduce the creep duc-
normalising heat treatment temperatures and also to provide tility at high service temperatures [1]. Thus, it is important to
high creep resistance. Alternatively, the equilibrium phase shows avoid its formation.
that the addition of high-Cr or high-Si causes the formation of This paper analyses the weld metal microstructures produced
delta ferrite during austenitisation at around 1100 ◦ C [2]. This by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) using electrodes with
suggests that the addition of austenite stabilising elements is different composition of Cr and other alloy elements such as
required to prevent the formation of delta ferrite in steels con- Mo, W, Cu and Co. The aim is to develop consumables with
taining Cr in concentration higher than a 9% or Si higher than different composition to obtain martensitic microstructure free
0.5%. Ni, Cu, N and Co have been used as austenite stabilising of delta ferrite in the fusion zone for the SMAW of high-strength
elements in high-Cr ferritic steels [2]. For strengthening and sta- 9–12%Cr steels.
bilising the martensite matrix, the austenite stabilising elements
should reduce diffusion rates and the martensite start transition 2. Experimental
temperature (Ms ) and should increase Young’s modulus of fer-
ritic steels. Sixteen batches of electrodes were produced in four sets of constant base
composition, each with different level of Cr. Each batch of electrodes was used
For 9–12%Cr alloy steels, it is generally accepted that weld
as filler metal to obtain 16 weld pads by SMAW. The chemical compositions
consumables of matching composition to the parent material are listed in Table 1, and represent the values obtained in each pad analysed
should be used [3,4]. The consumables developed for Steel by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) as average of all elements in each set,
E91 provided the basis for the development of E911 and other except chromium, the principal variable in each set.
9–12%Cr steels consumables. For weld metal of the 9–12%Cr The pads were made using 3.2 mm diameter electrodes deposited at 110A
dc+ on a carbon steel base (Fig. 1). Each pad was built up with a minimum
steels, the requisite time independent (tensile) and time depen-
of eight layers and with a single bead per layer, about 75 mm long and with
dent (creep) properties use be obtained by post weld heat
treatment (PWHT). The temperature control requires particu-
lar attention to avoid a reduction in the toughness and ductility
properties.
Although the 9–12%Cr steels normally have fully marten-
sitic microstructures, they have some tendency to the formation
of delta ferrite, mainly during the welding process. The pres-
ence of delta ferrite in martensitic stainless and high-strength Fig. 1. Weld pad built up by SMAW used to obtain martensite weld metals.

Table 1
Weld metal and E911 steel compositions (wt%)
Weld metal Cr C Mn Si Ni Mo W Nb V B N Co Cu

Fe–Cr–Mo
1 8.4 0.13 0.5 0.22 0.43 1.55 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
2 9.2 0.13 0.5 0.22 0.43 1.55 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
3 9.7 0.13 0.5 0.22 0.43 1.55 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
4 10.4 0.13 0.5 0.22 0.43 1.55 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
Fe–Cr–Mo–Co
5 9.4 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.42 1.56 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 1.17 0.02
6 10 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.42 1.56 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 1.17 0.02
7 10.6 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.42 1.56 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 1.17 0.02
8 11.2 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.42 1.56 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.01 0.02 1.17 0.02
Fe–Cr–Mo–Cu
9 10.1 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.48 1.52 0.02 0.05 0.24 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
10 10.8 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.48 1.52 0.02 0.05 0.24 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
11 11.3 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.48 1.52 0.02 0.05 0.24 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
12 11.7 0.13 0.52 0.23 0.48 1.52 0.02 0.05 0.24 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
Fe–Cr–W–Cu
13 10.3 0.12 0.49 0.21 0.48 0.03 1.42 0.04 0.23 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
14 10.8 0.12 0.49 0.21 0.48 0.03 1.42 0.04 0.23 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
15 11.4 0.12 0.49 0.21 0.48 0.03 1.42 0.04 0.23 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
16 12.1 0.12 0.49 0.21 0.48 0.03 1.42 0.04 0.23 0.01 0.02 0.02 1.11
E911 Steel 9 0.11 0.45 0.2 0.2 1 1 0.08 0.2 – 0.06 – –
J. Oñoro / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 180 (2006) 137–142 139

sufficient weaving to give a bead width of between 12 and 15 mm. Interpass


temperature was controlled to be in the range 200–250 ◦ C. The pad build up
procedure was derived from the method recommended in AWS A5.4 for the
determination of ferrite in austenitic weld deposits [8]. After completion, the
pads were given a PWHT at 760 ◦ C for 2 h.
The build up procedure results in varying thermal cycles throughout the pad
and so different microstructures are to be expected in each zone. Consequently,
the metallographic evaluation was made in the last filled metal and in the centre
of the sample.
Metallographic samples of each pad were mounted and polished to a 1 ␮m
finish. All samples were etched with picric HCl reagent (2.5% picric acid + 2.5%
HCl in alcohol) to reveal details of microstructure which was inspected using
both a metalographic light microscope and a scanning electron microscope
(SEM).

3. Results and discussion

The microstructure of the weld metal for every pad was found
to be tempered martensite with different amounts of delta ferrite. Fig. 2. Fe–Cr–Mo–1, last filled, picric HCl reagent, fully tempered martensite
The amount of delta ferrite and morphology of every pad has microstructure.
been obtained by image analysis and summarised in Table 2.
These data include the delta ferrite that has been measured in tempered martensite, finer than the above, taken from the cen-
each pad both in the last filled and in the centre of the sample. The tre of the sample. Fig. 4 shows tempered martensite with pri-
microstructure and the delta ferrite content has been different mary polygonal delta ferrite in a matrix of tempered marten-
from both zones. The higher cooling rate of outer weld causes site microstructure. This duplex microstructure is generally
more delta ferrite than expected. In the inner weld the further observed from the last filled weld metal. Fig. 5 shows a mix-
weld passes modify the microstructure to more fine and stable ture of tempered martensite and delta ferrite. The delta ferrite
one. morphology consists of isolated islands localised mainly at the
Figs. 2–6 show typical examples of the different tempered grain boundaries. Fig. 6 shows a fine ferrite network in a matrix
martensite and delta ferrite morphologies obtained. Fig. 2 shows of tempered martensite.
fully tempered martensite from the last filled region, with a The sample microstructures are not homogeneous. The last
relatively coarse prior austenite grain size. Fig. 3 shows fully filled fully tempered martensite microstructure is larger that

Table 2
Chromium and nickel equivalent and formulations according to Schneider, Schaefler, Newhouse and Kaltenhauser
Weld metal Schneider Schaeffler Newhouse Kaltenhauser Ferrite (%)

Cr eq. Ni eq. Cr–Ni Cr eq. Ni eq. Cr eq. Ni eq. Cr eq. Ni eq. Last filled Centre

Fe–Cr–Mo
1 12.53 5.08 7.45 11.57 5.18 18.99 8.54 16.15 8.68 0 0
2 13.33 5.08 8.25 12.37 5.18 19.79 8.54 16.95 8.68 3 2
3 13.83 5.08 8.75 12.87 5.18 20.29 8.54 17.45 8.68 5 3
4 14.53 5.08 9.45 13.57 5.18 20.99 8.54 18.15 8.68 6 5
Fe–Cr–Mo–Co
5 13.56 6.38 7.19 12.60 6.48 20.08 11.04 17.24 8.88 1 1
6 14.16 6.38 7.79 13.20 6.48 20.68 11.04 17.84 8.88 2 1
7 14.76 6.38 8.39 13.80 6.48 21.28 11.04 18.44 8.88 6 5
8 15.36 6.38 8.99 14.40 6.48 21.88 11.04 19.04 8.88 11 10
Fe–Cr–Mo–Cu
9 14.15 5.43 8.71 13.21 5.53 20.50 9.83 17.77 8.88 2 2
10 14.85 5.43 9.41 13.91 5.53 21.20 9.83 18.47 8.88 3 5
11 15.35 5.43 9.91 14.41 5.53 21.70 9.83 18.97 8.88 5 7
12 15.75 5.43 10.31 14.81 5.53 22.10 9.83 19.37 8.88 6 8
Fe–Cr–W–Cu
13 13.06 5.27 7.79 12.88 5.37 16.56 9.57 11.86 8.62 0 0
14 13.56 5.27 8.29 13.38 5.37 17.06 9.57 12.36 8.62 1 0
15 14.16 5.27 8.89 13.98 5.37 17.66 9.57 12.96 8.62 2 1
16 14.86 5.27 9.59 14.68 5.37 18.36 9.57 13.66 8.62 6 4
E911 steel 12.79 5.23 7.58 12.09 5.53 18.30 7.90 14.52 8.50

Percentages of ferrite in the last filled and in the centre of the pads.
140 J. Oñoro / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 180 (2006) 137–142

Fig. 3. Fe–Cr–W–Cu–13, centre, picric HCl reagent, fully tempered martensite Fig. 6. Fe–Cr–Mo–Co–8, centre, picric HCl reagent, microstructure of ferrite
microstructure. network in a matrix of tempered martensite.

obtained in the centre of the sample, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.


Tempered martensite and delta ferrite duplex microstructure is
always larger in the last filled when compared to the centre of
the sample. Polygonal delta ferrite morphology is predominant
in the last filled microstructure as shown in Fig. 4. This morphol-
ogy produces a significant reduction of hardness and toughness
properties [9,10].
The delta ferrite morphology change in the centre of the
sample is due to additional heat treatments produced by fur-
ther weld passes. When the percentage of delta ferrite is 2%
or lower the delta ferrite morphology is isolated islands, and is
intergranular for higher percentages as shown in Figs. 5 and 6,
respectively. The intergranular delta ferrite in not homogeneous,
the microstructure presents large zones with higher percentages
of delta ferrite network and pools of ferrite surrounded by other
Fig. 4. Fe–Cr–W–Cu–16, last filled, picric HCl reagent, polygonal delta ferrite zones with lower percentage. This morphology is undesirable
in a matrix of tempered martensite microstructure. because it has been shown to significantly reduce creep and
toughness properties of the weld metal [3].
The microstructure obtained can be compared with that
expected from empirical formulae describing differences
between the weighted effects for the ferrite and austenite form-
ing elements, i.e. the chromium and nickel equivalent values,
respectively. Several such methods for predicting weld metal
microstructure have been developed. The Schaeffler constitu-
tion diagram, which was later modified by Schneider [11] as
shown in Fig. 7, has been widely used to predict weld metal
microstructure in high alloy steels. However, it has been found
to contain some inaccuracies [7,12].
The chromium and nickel equivalent values can be presented
as a formula describing the relative contributions made from the
ferrite and austenite forming elements

Schaeffler formula:

Cr + 1.5Si + Mo + 5V + 0.5Nb + 0.75W − Ni


Fig. 5. Fe–Cr–Mo–Co–5, centre, picric HCl reagent, microstructure of ferrite
globules and fine ferrite islands in a tempered martensite matrix. − 0.5Mn − 30C − 30N − 0.3Cu − Co
J. Oñoro / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 180 (2006) 137–142 141

Schneider formula:
Cr + 2Si + 1.5Mo + 5V + 1.75Nb
+ 0.75W − Ni − 0.5Mn − 30C − 25N − 0.3Cu
Modifications have been made to the Schneider formula in an
attempt to improve the accuracy of the predicted microstruc-
ture.
Newhouse formula [13]:
Cr + 6Si + 4Mo + 11V + 5Nb
+ 1.5W − 2Mn − 4Ni − 40C − 30N − 2Co − Cu
Fig. 8. The weld metal microstructure according to Kaltenhauser equation.
Kaltenhauser formula [14]:
Cr + 6Si + 4Mo + 8Ti
viously received an austenization heat treatment at 1050 ◦ C to
+ 2Al + 4Nb − 2Mn − 4Ni − 40(N + C) eliminate delta ferrite [2].
Balmforth and Lippold [7] recently proposed for martensitic
and ferritic stainless steel weld metals a new constitution dia-
The more recent formulations from Newhouse and
gram based on the Kaltenhauser formula to improve the Schaefer
Kaltenhauser increase the weighted effect of Mo and Si as fer-
diagram. Fig. 8 shows the weld metal microstructure expected
rite forming elements with respect to former formulae. The
for weld metal pads and E911 steel accordingly. It can be seen
Kaltenhauser formula includes the elements Ti and Al but not
that the microstructure obtained is not in accordance with that
W, Cu and Co; these are some of the principal elements analysed
expected by the diagram. It would therefore appear that the
in this work.
Kaltenhauser formula does not adequately predict the behaviour
Table 2 shows the results of chromium and nickel equivalent
of high-strength 9–12%Cr steels. Two important issues could
values and microstructure obtained in the weld metals analysed.
explain why this is so. Firstly it was developed for stainless
E911 steel is also included for reference.
steels and it does not include very important elements as W,
Fig. 7 shows the weld metal microstructure expected for
Co and Cu. Secondly the Fe–Cr–Mo weld metals whose com-
weld metal pads and E911 steel according to the Schneider dia-
position is in the scope of the Kaltenhauser formula, predict
gram. The results obtained are in reasonable accordance with
a microstructure with an elevated percentage of delta ferrite,
the microstructure observed for Fe–Cr–Mo, Fe–Cr–Mo–Cu,
which is opposite to that observed. It appears that the weighted
Fe–Cr–W–Cu and E911 steel as shown in Table 2. How-
effect of Mo (×4) compared with the Schneider formula (×1.5)
ever, the exception to this are the Fe–Cr–Mo–Co weld metals,
is somewhat excessive for these steels.
because according to the Schneider diagram, a fully marten-
The analysis of the results obtained with the different pads
sitic microstructure was expected in the two pads with lower
shows that to obtain a fully martensitic microstructure, the best
chromium concentrations.
solution is to reduce the chromium equivalent value as much as
The presence of delta ferrite has been reported previously
possible. The introduction of austenizing elements such as Cu
by Onda et al. [15] in 9Cr–2W cast steels and in weld metals
or Co has only a minor effect when compared to using W as
with fully martensitic compositions according to the Schaef-
a substitute for Mo since W produces only a small increase in
fler diagram by Ayala et al. [16] who were studying 9–12%Cr
the chromium equivalent. So to obtain weld metals with fully
high-strength steels. In these steels, it is only possible to ensure
martensitic microstructure, it appears necessary to consider both
a fully martensitic microstructure when the material has pre-
a Schneider chromium equivalent value of lower than 13.5, and
the difference between the chromium and nickel equivalents to
be lower than a value of 8.
The substitution of Mo by W could be an appropriate way
to reduce the chromium equivalent and at the same time reduce
also the risk of delta ferrite appearance. For high temperature
applications the partial substitution of Mo by W is generally
recommended, where the optimum composition of W and Mo
for martensitic 9–12%Cr steels is 1.8 and 0.6%, respectively,
[17,18]. These recommendations can be used in weld metal
alloys to reduce the chromium equivalent and improve the prop-
erties at high temperature.
Ni, Cu and Co have been used as austenite stabilising ele-
ments in 9–12%Cr steels. However, in order to reduce a possible
Fig. 7. The weld metal microstructure according to Schneider equation. decrease in creep rupture strength at high temperature and long
142 J. Oñoro / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 180 (2006) 137–142

times, the austenite stabilising elements should reduce diffu- tion, San Sebastian, Spain/University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998, pp. 84–
sion rates and the Ms temperature and also should increase the 87.
Young’s modulus of ferritic steels [1]. The use of Co as an aust- [2] F.B. Pickering, Physical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels, Applied Sci-
ence Publishers, London, UK, 1978, pp. 165–166.
enizating element that at the same time does not reduce the Ms [3] G.-J. Cai, et al., Effect of cooling after welding on microstructure and
temperature, appears to be the most appropriate of the elements mechanical properties of 12 Pct Cr steel weld metals, Metall. Mater. Trans.
analysed in this work. A 28A (July) (1997) 1417–1428.
It therefore appears that the weld metal composition for a [4] J. Orr, et al., The commercial development and evaluation of E911,
fully martensitic microstructure according to the Scheneider for- a strong 9% CrMoNbVWN steel for boiler tubes and headers, in:
Conf. Proc. Advanced Heat Resistant Steel for Power Generation,
mula and to the result obtained in this work, should be made with San Sebastian, Spain/University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998, pp. 65–
the following maximum ferrite forming elements: 83.
[5] R.J. Castro, J.J. Cadenet, Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and
9.1Cr–1Mo–1.4W–(< 0.25)Si–(< 0.25)V–(< 0.006)Nb Cr eq. = 13.5
Heat-Resisting Steels, Cambridge University Press, London, UK,
10Cr–0.4Mo–1.4W–(< 0.25)Si–(< 0.25)V–(< 0.006)Nb Cr eq. = 13.5 1968.
10.9Cr–(< 0.04)Mo–1W–(< 0.25)Si–(< 0.25)V–(< 0.006)Nb Cr eq. = 13.5 [6] J.I. Morley, J.A. McWilliam, Welding of precipitation-hardening corrosion-
resisting steel, Br. Weld. J. 7 (10) (1960) 651–658.
Alternatively the austenite forming elements for the former [7] M.C. Balmforth, J.C. Lippold, A preliminary ferritic–martensitic stain-
combinations, should be made with the following minimum val- less steel constitution diagram, Weld. Res. Sup. (January) (1998)
ues: 1s–7s.
[8] AWS A5.4-92, Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded
0.6Co–0.45Ni–0.5Mn–0.125C–0.002N Ni eq. = 5.5 Metal Arc Welding, 1992.
0.3Co–1Cu–0.45Ni–0.5Mn–0.125C–0.002N Ni eq. = 5.5 [9] J.C. Lippold, Transformation and tempering behavior of 12Cr–1Mo–
0.3V martensitic stainless steel weldments, J. Nucl. Mater. 103/104 (1981)
A fully martensitic microstructure will be expected in other 1127–1132.
alloys with lower chromium equivalent values. [10] X. Long, et al., Investigation of fracture and determination of fracture tough-
ness of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel weld metals using AE technique, Mater.
Sci. Eng. A270 (1999) 260–266.
4. Conclusions
[11] H. Schneider, Investment casting of high-hot strength 12% chrome steel,
Foundry Trade J. 108 (1960) 562–563.
The results concerning the weld metal microstructure of [12] D.L. Olson, Prediction of austenitic weld metal microstructure and prop-
9–12%Cr steels can be summarised as follows: erties, Weld. Res. Sup. (October) (1985) 281s–295s.
[13] P. Patriarca, et al., United-States advanced materials development
program for steam-generators, Nucl. Technol. 28 (1976) 516–
1. The best method to obtain a fully martensitic microstructure
536.
is to reduce the chromium equivalent value as much as pos- [14] R.H. Kaltenhauser, Improving the engineering properties of ferritic stain-
sible. less steels, Met. Eng. Q. 11 (2) (1971) 41–47.
2. It is recommended the partial substitution of W for Mo to [15] T. Onda, et al., Development of 9Cr–2W cast steel for the valves in elevated
produce a small increase in the chromium equivalent and temperature fossil power plants, in: Conf. Proc. Advanced Heat Resistant
Steel for Power Generation, San Sebastian, Spain/University Press, Cam-
improve the mechanical behaviour at high temperatures.
bridge, UK, 1998, pp. 119–129.
3. The use of Co is recommended as an austenizating ele- [16] E. Ayala, et al., Delta ferrite formation in 9–12% chromium steel weld-
ment. Co improves creep strength and toughness and does ments, in: Conf. Proc. Advanced Heat Resistant Steel for Power Generation,
not reduce the Ms temperature. San Sebastian, Spain/University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998, pp. 633–
4. To obtain weld metals with a fully martensitic microstructure, 643.
[17] R.G. Faulkner, et al., Influence of Co, Cu and W on microstructure of
it appears necessary to consider both a Schneider chromium
9%Cr steel weld metals, Mater. Sci. Technol. 19 (March) (2003) 347–
equivalent value lower than 13.5, and the difference between 354.
the chromium and nickel equivalents to be lower than 8. [18] K. Hidaka, et al., Development of heat resistant 12%CrWCoB steel rotor
for CSC power plant, in: Conf. Proc. Advanced Heat Resistant Steel for
References Power Generation, San Sebastian, Spain/University Press, Cambridge, UK,
1998, pp. 418–429.
[1] F. Abe, et al., Alloy design of aduances ferritic steels for 659 ◦ C USC
boilers, in: Conf. Proc. Advanced Heat Resistant Steel for Power Genera-