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The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames.

This animation moves at 10 frames per second. Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. The effect is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in several ways. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although there are other methods.

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1 Early examples 2 Techniques o 2.1 Traditional animation o 2.2 Stop motion o 2.3 Computer animation  2.3.1 2D animation  2.3.2 3D animation  Terms o 2.4 Other animation techniques o 2.5 Other techniques and approaches 3 See also 4 References

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5 Further reading 6 External links

[edit] Early examples
Main article: History of animation

Five images sequence from a vase found in Iran.

An Egyptian burial chamber mural, approximately 4000 years old, showing wrestlers in action. Even though this may appear similar to a series of animation drawings, there was no way of viewing the images in motion. It does, however, indicate the artist's intention of depicting motion. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. A 5,200 year old earthen bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i Sokhta has five images of a goat painted along the sides. This has been claimed to be an example of early animation.[1] However, since no equipment existed to show the images in motion, such a series of images cannot be called animation in a true sense of the word.[2] A Chinese zoetrope-type device had been invented in 180 AD.[3][4][5][6] The phenakistoscope, praxinoscope, and the common flip book were early popular animation devices invented during the 1800s. These devices produced the appearance of movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of cinematography.

began drawing cartoon strips and created a film in 1908 called Fantasmagorie. such as a wine bottle that transforms . his end result was that he had managed to make a bus transform into a hearse. he was generally one of the first people to use animation with his technique. This idea was later known as stop-motion animation. it involved stop-motion animation of wired-together matches writing a patriotic call to action on a blackboard. Georges Méliès was a creator of special-effect films. and utilized modified versions of Méliès' early stop-motion techniques to make a series of blackboard drawings appear to move and reshape themselves. Méliès discovered this technique accidentally when his camera broke down while shooting a bus driving by. among them The Enchanted Drawing (1900) and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) were film versions of Blackton's "lightning artist" routine. Stuart Blackton was possibly the first American film-maker to use the techniques of stop-motion and hand-drawn animation. he pioneered these concepts at the turn of the 20th century. as there were several people ẁorking on projects which could be considered animation at about the same time. 1908 Another French artist. The earliest surviving stop-motion advertising film was an English short by Arthur Melbourne-Cooper called Matches: An Appeal (1899). Émile Cohl. J. He discovered a technique by accident which was to stop the camera rolling to change something in the scene. and then continue rolling the film. Developed for the Bryant and May Matchsticks company.There is no single person who can be considered the "creator" of film animation. Fantasmagorie by Emile Cohl. When he had fixed the camera. a hearse happened to be passing by just as Méliès restarted rolling the film. This was just one of the great contributors to animation in the early years. 'Humorous Phases of Funny Faces' is regularly cited as the first true animated film. and Blackton is considered the first true animator. with his first copyrighted work dated 1900. Introduced to film-making by Edison. Several of his films.[7] The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects.

One such artist was Winsor McCay. The most successful early animation producer was John Randolph Bray. To create the illusion of movement. along with animator Earl Hurd. and cartoon shorts were produced to be shown in movie theaters. who. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film. which invariably required backgrounds and characters to be redrawn and animated. . a horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th century photos. Among McCay's most noted films are Little Nemo (1911). became an industry of its own during the 1910s. This makes Fantasmagorie the first animated film created using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation. each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918). many other artists began experimenting with animation. Each frame was drawn on paper. a successful newspaper cartoonist. which gave the picture a blackboard look. which are first drawn on paper. Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. There were also sections of live action where the animator’s hands would enter the scene. The production of animated short films. typically referred to as "cartoons".into a flower. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels. [edit] Techniques [edit] Traditional animation Main article: Traditional animation An example of traditional animation. who created detailed animations that required a team of artists and painstaking attention for detail. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture film against a painted background by a rostrum camera. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings. which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. patented the cel animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. Following the successes of Blackton and Cohl.

where animators trace live-action movement. 1996) and Osmosis Jones (USA. Fully animated films can be done in a variety of styles. as in most Disney films. from more realistically animated works such as those produced by the Walt Disney studio (Beauty and the Beast. 1968). which regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement. Aladdin. Rotoscoping is a technique. Yellow Submarine (UK. One of the earlier uses of it was Koko the Clown when Koko was drawn over live action footage. 2001–present) and Invader Zim (USA. and the character animators' work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. animation studio. 1951). as in Gerald McBoing Boing (US. including traditional 35 mm film and newer media such as digital video. Its primary use. 1988). . 1999–present). Some animation producers have used the term "tradigital" to describe cel animation which makes extensive use of computer technology. as are non-Disney works such as The Secret of NIMH (US. 1954). as in Waking Life (US. 1940). The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved. Spongebob Squarepants (USA. however. and Akira (Japan. 1982) and The Iron Giant (US. and much of the anime produced in Japan. Space Jam (USA. 2002). The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media. and other TV animation studios) and later the Internet (web cartoons). 2001). or used in a stylized and expressive manner. 1988). 2001) and A Scanner Darkly (US. Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (United States. Treasure Planet (USA. used as a basis and inspiration for character animation. 1978). Today. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio United Productions of America. 1994) Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away) (Japan. The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings. Live-action/animation is a technique. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation.The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. The Fairly OddParents (USA. 1983) and Heavy Metal (1981). limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression. 1999). Lion King) to the more "cartoony" styles of those produced by the Warner Bros. has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media such as television (the work of Hanna-Barbera. Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include The Lion King (US. frame by frame. patented by Max Fleischer in 1917. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. Animal Farm (United Kingdom. 2002) and Les Triplettes de Belleville (2003). when combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots. Other examples would include Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (USA. Some examples are. 2006). 2001–2006). 2007) Limited animation involves the use of less detailed and/or more stylized drawings and methods of movement. Filmation. • • • • Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films. as in The Lord of the Rings (US. Nocturna (Spain. Some other examples are: Fire and Ice (USA. animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system.

Main article: Stop Motion Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet. clay animation . Examples include The Tale of the Fox (France. in contrast to the real-world interaction in model animation. 1993). the films of Jiří Trnka and the TV series Robot Chicken (US. The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as constraining them to move at particular joints. usually named after the type of media used to create the animation. There are many different types of stop-motion animation. Corpse Bride (US. 2005). Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation. o Puppetoon. 2009). 1937).[edit] Stop motion A stop-motion animation of a moving coin. created using techniques developed by George Pal. 2005–present). Coraline (US. are puppet-animated films which typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames. Nightmare Before Christmas (US. • Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting with each other in a constructed environment.

Tale of Tales (Russia. A clay animation scene from a Finnish television commercial. Examples include the work of Ray Harryhausen.• • Clay animation. and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. the figures may be made entirely of clay. The technique was invented by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett to create special effects scenes for the film The Empire Strikes Back (1980). Intercutting. as of 1989). Films include Wallace and Gromit: Curse of the Were-Rabbit. 1926) and Princes et princesses (France. Examples include Terry Gilliam's animated sequences from Monty Python's Flying Circus (UK. magazines. such as in the films of Bruce Bickford. Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation. which is not present in traditional stop-motion. o Go motion is a variant of model animation which uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film.) which are sometimes o • • . or Plasticine animation often abbreviated as claymation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside of them. Alternatively. Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. as seen in films such Jason and the Argonauts (1961). Wallace and Gromit shorts (UK. matte effects. newspaper clippings. as opposed to specially created items. 1973) . 1984). Jan Švankmajer's Dimensions of Dialogue (Czechoslovakia. 1982). Fantastic Planet (France/Czechoslovakia. Examples include The Adventures of Prince Achmed (Weimar Republic. where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. 1979). similar to the related puppet animation (below). 2000). Examples of clay-animated works include The Gumby Show (US. and the work of Willis O'Brien on films such as King Kong (1933 film). 1997). Chicken Run and The Adventures of Mark Twain Cutout animation is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving 2dimensional pieces of material such as paper or cloth. The pilot episode of the TV series (and sometimes in episodes) of South Park (US. o Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs. that can be manipulated in order to pose the figures. 1977–2000). Another example is Vermithrax from Dragonslayer (1981 film). uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. etc. 1969– 1974). Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes. 1957–1967) Morph shorts (UK. The Trap Door (UK.

Examples of pixilation include The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb and Angry Kid shorts. allowing people to appear to slide across the ground. A 3-D computer animation of hypercube. At other times. the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. . and other such effects. Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques. the graphics remain stationary. while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action. This allows for a number of surreal effects.• manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. [edit] Computer animation Main article: Computer animation A short gif animation of Earth. Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. including disappearances and reappearances.

[edit] Terms • • • Photo Realistic Animation. water. Ice Age (2002. Beowulf (2007). effects such as fire and water and the use of Motion capture to name but a few. Various other techniques can be applied. [edit] Other animation techniques .[edit] 2D animation 2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. This process is called rigging. The Legend of Zelda: Wind Waker (2002. Danny Phantom. In order to manipulate a mesh. Disney's A Christmas Carol (2009 USA). Japan). it is given a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. USA). to mimic real life. USA). Cel-shaded animation. gravity. clouds. onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping. these techniques fall under the category of 3d dynamics. Many 3D animations are very believable and are commonly used as Visual effects for recent movies. Using advanced rendering that makes detailed skin. Examples include Polar Express (2004. Avatar (2009. USA). fire. is used to mimic traditional animation using CG software. is used when live action actors wear special suits that allow computers to copy their movements into CG characters. Japan) Motion capture. 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. simulated fur or hair. Examples include. such as mathematical functions (ex. USA). Skyland (2007. Kung-Fu Panda. morphing. Examples include Up (2009. France). 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer. Waltz with Bashir • • • Analog computer animation Flash animation PowerPoint animation [edit] 3D animation 3D animation are digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. Examples: Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends. Shading looked stark and less blending colors. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of tweening. etc. Appleseed (2007. particle simulations). plants. is used primarily for animation that attempts to resemble real life.

for example by Aleksandr Petrov. computer animation. especially in British English. and regular animation. photographed over time as the artist manipulates the image. William Kentridge is famous for his charcoal erasure films. which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation. but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows.or front-lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. Pinscreen animation: makes use of a screen filled with movable pins. but may also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip book: A flip book (sometimes. Erasure animation: a technique using tradition 2D medium. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light contrast.• • • • • • Drawn on film animation: a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock. Paint-on-glass animation: a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying oil paints on sheets of glass. Sand animation: sand is moved around on a back. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. so that when the pages are turned rapidly. called a flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next. The three main types are clay animation. Types of Animation Back to Hilmar High School Site Animation Animation Animation Main Equipment Page Projects There are many different types of animation that are used nowadays. often in the page corners. the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Len Lye and Stan Brakhage. For example. for example by Norman McLaren. Flip books are often illustrated books for children. Flip books are not always separate books. .

more clay animation films were made. Clay animation began shortly after plasticine (a clay-like substance) was invented in 1897. more people helped make computer animation better. A Bug's Life. Cel-Shaded Animation Cel-shaded animation is makes computer graphics appear to be hand-drawn. Finding Nemo. Later on. recently it uses computer animation. The rendering . video games have used computer animation as well. This type of animation was not very popular until Gumby was invented. and one of the first films to use it was made in 1902. Forrest Gump. such as the Wallace and Gromit series of movies. This type of animation is most commonly turning up in console video games.. Most of the time the cel-shading process starts with a typical 3D model. which used stop motion cutout animation. Also. Now. The difference occurs when a cel-shaded object is drawn on-screen. They are responsible for making Toy Story. Computer animation began about 40 years ago when the first computer drawing system was created by General Motors and IBM.Clay Animation Clay animation is not really a new technique as many people might think. It allowed the user to view a 3D model of a car and change the angles and rotation. and more. the advertisements that were made for the California Raisin Advisory Board and the Celebrity Deathmatch series. Movies that used computer animation are: The Abyss. A well-known computer animation company is Pixar. and more. Monsters Inc. computer animation was used differently. The invention of Gumby was a big step in the history of clay animation. Also. Years later. clay animation has become more popular and easier to do. as in the show 'South Park'. Jurassic Park. Computer Animation Computer animation has also become common.

more cel-shaded titles such as Dark Cloud 2. These shows included Family Guy. Regular Animation Animation began with Winsor McCay. Otto Messmer invented the character 'Felix the Cat'. There were also some television shows that used the celshading style. Years later. In order to draw black ink lines outlining an object's contours. Klonoa 2. The Simpsons. The back-face culling is then set back to normal to draw the shading and optional textures of the object. the Walt Disney Studio created 'Steamboat Willie'. The result is that the object is drawn with a black outline. Cel Damage. which introduced the character Mickey Mouse. it was ridiculous that they would have to wait so much for so little. Then the modern animation studio came to be. Over time. Later on. He did his animations all by himself. many other cel-shaded games were introduced during a minor fad involving cel-shaded graphics. Spider-Man. This produces a black-shaded silhouette. The first 3D video game to feature true real-time cel shading was Jet Set Radio for the Sega Dreamcast. Other companies started to make their own cartoons. Fairly Oddparents. But for some. the back-face culling is inverted to draw back-faced triangles with black-colored vertices. more people would invent more cartoon characters. The next games with cel-shading to capture attention in some form were 2002's Jet Set Radio Future and Sly Cooper and the Thievius Raccoonus. The vertices must be drawn many times with a slight change in translation to make the lines thick. and many more. some of which we can still watch today.engine only selects a few shades of each color for the object. Futurama. . and the Viewtiful Joe series were released with good results. and it took him a long time (about a year for a five minute cartoon). After Jet Set Radio. making it look flat.

Presently it has explored the world of: Entertainment world Game development Advertising world Film Industry Print Media Websites Virtual Reality Entertainment world Whether it is TV soap. Scope in entertainment sector is increasing. The boom in the arena of animation has affected all the segments in the genre. . One can start his/ her career by working as a story board artist. news media or film industry."Steamboat Willie" (Regular Animation) "Gumby" (Clay Animation) "Finding Nemo" Animat "South Park" (Computer Animation) scope of animation "Family Guy" (Cel-Shaded Animation) "Celebrity Deathm Animat Scope in Animation Animation rumble up the world and it is becoming essence of the time. animation is becoming very popular because practically every TV channel wants to present its stories in animated format.

the ball slightly above the ground. journals. Game development Game development industry has emerged as one of the strongest Here beneficiaries of 3D technology and this has again spawned the companies like Sony and Microsoft into action with their competitive games. The Internet users are usually fond of browsing a website that is well animated with good graphics. However. They are generally known as Graphic Designers. Games market is thrice the size of Hollywood movie industry. Basic animation is an easy and single keyframe animation. Your Ad Advertising World There is a variety of opportunities for innovative. Animation is superior to the static graphics in depicting dynamic content because animation can portray the dynamic explicitly.. the third one will show the ball 2 . the biggest consumer of computer animation is advertisement industry. For example. How are these cartoons displayed on television or Internet? Let's find out. Your Ad Here Print Media Print media demands animators specialized in 2D animation. in the second frame. companies producing publicity materials. In the first drawing. linked together in a proper way so that visitors/audiences get the effect of seeing a well coordinated set of actions. People with creative minds can give a try. games have made their presence in hundred of homes and opened up another fascinated field for animators. a number of institutes provide specialized training in film animation that can easily enroll in the glamorous field of entertainment. film makers are shifting towards this medium. etc Basic type of animation Mickey Mouse. and modeler and so on.. its animation all the way. A web designer cannot ideate his website without the application of basic animation. Donald Duck.3 feet . In simple words. Today. basic animation is the the illusion of different movements. That is why. In fact. fast paced and collaborative mind. particularly if the subject matter is dynamic. The Simpsons . All these cartoon characters are the creation of the wonderful art of animation that captivates our eyes and makes our childhood days full of fun. Animation is a presentation of various displays and movements. Graphic designers can build up their career in newspapers. Generally. due to its virtual advantages in the Internet market. If you want to show a bouncing ball.background designer. magazines. The future of gaming is bright in India.are favorite cartoons of kids as well as adults. Film Industry Experts feel that animation can help in making difficult content easier to understand. which adds liveliness to your site or film. From low and title scrolls to high and visual effect for TV commercial. this beautiful animation art is created using the Java language. you can show the ball resting on the ground. you need to draw various positions of the ball in different drawings or 'frames' as they are called.

Now draw outlines for the images and color them on the back of the cel. The Dinosaur and the Missing Link. Cel Animation Cel animation refers to the traditional way of animation in a set of hand drawings. Stop Animation Stop animation or stop motion animation is a technique to make objects move on their own. Puppetry is the one of the most used frame-to-frame animation types. In this process of animation. These animations not only enhance the hand-drawn characters but also make them appear real as compared to the above mentioned animations. Trace these drawings on a transparent sheet. You can also put the previous drawings over other backgrounds or cels whenever required. These drawings are composed together with the help of computer scanning. Today. 2D animation has become popular due to simple application of scanned drawings into the computer like in a cartoon film. various pictures are created which are slightly different but progressive in nature. Use of 3D animation can create a crowd of people in a disaster like earthquake. matching sound effects and association of timing for each effect. in the fourth one the ball will come down a bit and so on till finally the ball is on the ground. as it covers the whole picture. This transparent sheet is known as cel and is a medium for drawing frames. time management and shooting with a camera. The 3 basic types of animation are cel. 3D Animation: It is used in film making where we require unusual objects or characters that are not easy to display. There are different shapes. In addition. To display a cartoon show. flood or war. Computer Animation Computer Animation is the latest technique of animation that includes 2D and 3D animation. Then use your camera to photograph these drawings.above the ground. use of software. Coloring a background may be a more difficult task than a single drawing. The above mentioned 3 basic types of animation have brought a new era of amazing technology in the field of Internet (website design and graphics). .g. support of mathematical codes. film industry and media. E. you need not draw the same picture again as it has the facility of saving previous animations that can be used when required. In the final result you will find an animation similar to the live action of a boy bouncing the ball up and down on the ground. animation is the one of the popular Internet marketing strategies that make visitors stay on your site for a longer time. Though its features are similar to cel animation. The Curse of the Were-Rabbit and and The Lost World. Here. Here. 2D Animation: It is used through Powerpoint and Flash animations. cel animations are made more attractive by using the drawings together with music. The cel is an effective technique that helps to save time by combining characters and backgrounds. to depict certain actions. matching sound effects. Some famous movies that are animated via stop animation effects are King Kong. Background requires shading and lighting and will be viewed for a longer duration. 3 Basic Types of Animation The basic types of animation are the primary keynote for animation effect. 10-12 frames are played in rapid succession per second to give a representation of movement in a cel animation. a few images are drawn with some different positions and photographed separately. display of actions and colors which are mind-blowing as if copied from an actual picture. stop and computer animation.

To author motion tween in Flash. You will learn what in-betweening means in the next section when we discuss frames and keyframes.Types of Animation There are three types of animation in Flash . Scroll down to see more. Frame-by-frame animation is very tedious or painstaking to develop but it is sometimes necessary. Click Play button or image to playback Motion Tween Motion tween can be referred to an object that travels from one point to another and involves no change of shape over time. a keyframe can be a frame that effect a change in an animation or when it holds new content. Motion Tween Frame-by-Frame Animation Frame-by-frame was the conventional way of authoring animation. Click the image to playback movie. "Tweening" is a term coined by the pioneers of Flash to denote in-betweening. Sometimes motion tween can also mean changing colours over time. Each frame contains different content and animation is achieved by running the playhead through the frames. Click Play button or image to playback . In Flash. you place a graphic in the first frame (a keyframe) and one in the last frame (another keframe) and tell Flash to spread the change in position over a certain number of frames. Shape and Frame-by-Frame tween. In Flash. the Playhead sweeps the frames from left to right.Motion. Real movies are really a form of frame-by-frame animation.

The main purpose of the principles was to produce an illusion of characters adhering to the basic laws of physics. search Book cover of The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation.Shape Tween Shape tween means an object travels from one point to another and involves change of shape over time. 12 basic principles of animation From Wikipedia. Click the image to playback movie. and their effort to produce more realistic animations. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. such as emotional timing and character appeal. .[a][1] Johnston and Thomas in turn based their book on the work of the leading Disney animators from the 1930s onwards. The 12 basic principles of animation is a set of principles of animation introduced by the Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. but they also dealt with more abstract issues. Sometimes motion tween can also mean a stationary object changing shape over time. Click Play button or image to playback This section ends.

and slows down towards the apex (see "slow in and slow out"). and "stretched" during fall and rebound.12 Appeal 2 Notes 3 References 4 Further reading [edit] The 12 principles Illustration of the "squash and stretch"-principle: Example A shows a ball bouncing with a rigid.9 Timing o 1.4 Straight ahead action and pose to pose o 1. the principles still have great relevance for today's more prevalent computer animation. [edit] Squash and stretch .8 Secondary action o 1.6 Slow in and slow out o 1.2 Anticipation o 1.1 Squash and stretch o 1.10 Exaggeration o 1. Contents [hide] • • • • 1 The 12 principles o 1. The movement also accelerates during the fall."[by whom?] In 1999 the book was voted number one of the "best animation books of all time" in an online poll.5 Follow through and overlapping action o 1. hand-drawn animation. In example B the ball is "squashed" at impact. Though originally intended to apply to traditional. non-dynamic movement.7 Arcs o 1.The book and its principles have become generally adopted.11 Solid drawing o 1. and have been referred to as the "Bible of the industry.3 Staging o 1.

like the musculature of a human face.[2] the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects. its width (in three dimensions.[9] This is often referred to as a 'surprise gag'. The resulting sense of anticlimax will produce a feeling of surprise in the viewer.[8] Anticipation: A baseball player making a pitch prepares for the action by moving his arm back. anticipation can also be omitted in cases where it is expected. and can often add comedy to a scene. or more complex constructions. If the length of a ball is stretched vertically. however. It can be applied to simple objects.[6] [edit] Anticipation Anticipation is used to prepare the audience for an action.[5] In realistic animation. the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an object's volume does not change when squashed or stretched. like a bouncing ball.[10] [edit] Staging . also its depth) needs to contract correspondingly horizontally. a figure stretched or squashed to an exaggerated degree can have a comical effect. For special effect. The horse's body demonstrates squash and stretch in natural musculature. or attention focusing on an object that a character is about to pick up. such as a character looking off-screen to anticipate someone's arrival.Animated sequence of a race horse galloping. The most important principle is "squash and stretch".[7] A dancer jumping off the floor has to bend his knees first. and to make the action appear more realistic.[3][4] Taken to an extreme point. a golfer making a swing has to swing the club back first. Photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge. The technique can also be used for less physical actions.

and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene. such as large stomachs and breasts.[12] "Straight ahead action" creates a more fluid.[17] Computer animation removes the problems of proportion related to "straight ahead action" drawing. "Straight ahead action" means drawing out a scene frame by frame from beginning to end. while more realistic animation must time the actions exactly. It is. because of the advantages it brings in composition.This principle is akin to staging as it is known in theatre and film.[11] This can be done by various means. On the human body. the torso is the core. and avoiding unnecessary detail. "Follow through" means that separate parts of a body will continue moving after the character has stopped.[14][15] [edit] Straight ahead action and pose to pose These are two different approaches to the actual drawing process. and give the impression that characters follow the laws of physics. and what is about to happen. a personality. where a character starts to move and parts of him take a few frames to catch up. and apply the other principles discussed.[12] These parts can be inanimate objects like clothing or the antenna on a car. and to create exact. particularly to draw . and the angle and position of the camera. as computers can fill in the missing sequences in between poses automatically. and is better for producing realistic action sequences. whether that idea is an action.[20] Thomas and Johnston also developed the principle of the "moving hold". such as the placement of a character in the frame. "Pose to pose" works better for dramatic or emotional scenes. On the other hand. or parts of the body. A character not in movement can be rendered absolutely still. A third technique is "drag". what is happening. such as arms or hair. or the loose skin on a dog. however. are more prone to independent movement than bonier body parts. legs. the use of light and shadow. key frames. Body parts with much tissue. convincing poses along the way. while "pose to pose" involves starting with drawing a few. where composition and relation to the surroundings are of greater importance. "Overlapping action" is the tendency for parts of the body to move at different rates (an arm will move on different timing of the head and so on). an expression or a mood.[18] The use of computers facilitates this method. it is hard to maintain proportions. dynamic illusion of movement. to produce a convincing result. "pose to pose" is still used for computer animation.[11] Its purpose is to direct the audience's attention. head and hair appendices that normally follow the torso's movement. however. this is often done. still important to oversee this process.[13] The essence of this principle is keeping focus on what is relevant.[16] A combination of the two techniques is often used. exaggerated use of the technique can produce a comical effect.[12] Johnston and Thomas defined it as "the presentation of any idea so that it is completely and unmistakably clear". with arms. [17] [edit] Follow through and overlapping action These closely related techniques help render movement more realistic.[19] Again. and then filling in the intervals later.

its mane and tail follow the movement of the body.[23] Follow though/Overlapping Action: as the horse runs.[12] This principle goes for characters moving between two extreme poses. like the bouncing ball in the above illustration. rather than take attention away from the main action. or he can express emotions through facial expressions. needs time to accelerate and slow down.[21] [edit] Slow in and slow out The movement of the human body. he can speak or whistle. which typically moves in straight lines. and most other objects. but also for inanimate. Even characters sitting still can display some sort of movement.[24] The important thing about secondary actions is that they emphasize. such as the torso moving in and out with breathing. [edit] Secondary action Adding secondary actions to the main action gives a scene more life.[22] [edit] Arcs Most human and animal actions occur along an arched trajectory. A person walking can simultaneously swing his arms or keep them in his pockets. however. this gave a dull and lifeless result. such as sitting down and standing up. If the latter is the case. The exception is mechanical movement. According to Thomas and Johnston.attention to the main action. or a thrown object moving along a parabolic trajectory. In these cases it is better to include them at the beginning and the end of the movement. This can apply to a limb moving by rotating a joint. and animation should reproduce these movements for greater realism. those actions are better left out.[27] It is essential both to the physical realism. an animation looks more realistic if it has more frames near the beginning and end of a movement. moving objects. rather than during. and should be avoided. and fewer in the middle. . For this reason. and can help to support the main action. as well as to the storytelling of the animation.[26] [edit] Timing Timing in reality refers to two different concepts: physical timing and theatrical timing. during a dramatic movement these will often go unnoticed.[25] In the case of facial expressions.

or it can be used to convey deep emotions.[27] The classical definition of exaggeration. more extreme form.[12] It can be pure comic timing. employed by Disney. weight. for instance.[31] It is important to employ a certain level of restraint when using exaggeration. yet their work can still benefit greatly from a basic understanding of these principles. really means that the same principles apply to an animator as to an academic artist. It can also be a device to communicate aspects of a character's personality.[29] [edit] Exaggeration Exaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation. On a purely physical level.[35] Modern-day computer animators in theory do not need to draw at all. an object's weight decides how it reacts to an impetus.[30] Other forms of exaggeration can involve the supernatural or surreal.[27][34] [edit] Appeal Appeal in a cartoon character corresponds to what would be called charisma in an actor. balance. alterations in the physical features of a character.[28] Theatrical timing is of a less technical nature.[12] The animator needs to be a skilled draughtsman and has to understand the basics of anatomy. like a push. was to remain true to reality.[33] For the classical animator. if a scene contains several elements. this involved taking art classes and doing sketches from life. just presenting it in a wilder. [36] A character who is appealing is not necessarily sympathetic — villains or monsters can also be appealing — the important thing is that the viewer feels the character is real and interesting.[37] 12 Principles . correct timing makes objects appear to abide to the laws of physics. light and shadow etc. like a caricature or the style of an artist. or elements in the storyline itself.[32] [edit] Solid drawing The principle of solid — or good — drawing.[12] The level of exaggeration depends on whether one seeks realism or a particular style. as perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull in cartoons. composition. and looked lifeless.[34] One thing in particular that Johnston and Thomas warned against was creating "twins": characters whose left and right sides mirrored each other. and is developed mostly through experience.[36] There are several tricks for making a character connect better with the audience. for likable characters a symmetrical or particularly baby-like face tends to be effective.that the timing is right. there should be a balance in how those elements are exaggerated in relation to each other. to avoid confusing or overawing the viewer.

Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose 5. Solid Drawing 12. memorize it. Arcs 8.47-69) Look these up and read the original version for a complete understanding.(pp. Appeal Nataha Lightfoot Tips On Getting Started: there are a number of ways to start the process of learning animation. The Bible of the industry is the "Illusion of Life" by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston. Timing 10. It all starts will heart and desire. Also squash and stretch is useful in animating dialogue and doing facial . There is no short cut for skills and knowledge. learn it and use it every time you draw. Follow Through and Overlapping Action 6. Secondary Action 9. Staging 4. Squash and stretch 2. These 12 principles became the gospel according to the nine old men of animation that worked with Walt Disney in founding the industry that you see today. 1. do you have it? THE 12 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANIMATION Paraphrased from the "Illusion Of Life" by Frank Thomas & Ollie Johnston. Exaggeration 11. The information and drawings in this book make it worth the fifty dollars or more that you will pay for it. SQUASH AND STRETCH This action gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as it moves. Slow In and Slow Out 7. One is to buy books and teach yourself. Anticipation 3. Don't just read it.

An assistant can be better used with this method so that the animator doesn't have to draw every drawing in a scene. depends on what is required in animating the scene. Size. ANTICIPATION This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform. There is a limited amount of time in a film. 5. STAGING A pose or action should clearly communicate to the audience the attitude. Staging directs the audience's attention to the story or idea being told. as well as camera angles also helps in telling the story. An animator can do more scenes this way and concentrate on the planning of the animation. You can lose size. A comic effect can be done by not using anticipation after a series of gags that used anticipation. unless you are animating a scene that is to depict clutter and confusion. Background and animation should work together as a pictorial unit in a scene. 3. so each sequence. medium. starting to run. How extreme the use of squash and stretch is. STRAIGHT AHEAD AND POSE TO POSE ANIMATION Straight ahead animation starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. Pose to Pose is more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. and proportions are controlled better this way. or close up shots. Do not confuse the audience with too many actions at once. wild action scenes are done this way.expressions. FOLLOW THROUGH AND OVERLAPPING ACTION . 4. mood. Almost all real action has major or minor anticipation such as a pitcher's wind-up or a golfers' back swing. 2. scene and frame of film must relate to the overall story. The lead animator will turn charting and keys over to his assistant. This is the most important element you will be required to master and will be used often. The effective use of long. and proportions with this method. Care must be taken in background design so it isn't obscuring the animation or competing with it due to excess detail behind the animation. The backward motion is the anticipation. Feature animation is often less broad than short animation unless a scene requires it to develop a characters personality. as is the action. but it does have spontaneity and freshness. reaction or idea of the character as it relates to the story and continuity of the story line. volume. volumes. A dancer does not just leap off the floor. jump or change expression. A backwards motion occurs before the forward action is executed. It is used in all forms of character animation from a bouncing ball to the body weight of a person walking. Usually it's broader in a short style of picture and subtler in a feature. Fast. such as. Use one action clearly stated to get the idea across. Many scenes use a bit of both methods of animation.

In features. upper body. head bounce and all other actions of the body as secondary or supporting action. Long hair and animal tail will also be handled in the same manner. one or two in the middle. clothing. this type of action is done more subtly. Fewer drawings make the action faster and more drawings make the action slower. a number of frames later. ARCS All actions. 8. but his head. For a gag action. Think of the walk as the primary action and arm swings. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while his clothes or hair continues forward. such as arms. "DRAG. making it more life-like. and more drawings near the next pose. Example: A character is angrily walking toward another character. by his clothes in the new direction. SLOW-OUT AND SLOW-IN As action starts. we have more drawings near the starting pose. 7. TIMING . we may omit some slow-out or slow-ins for shock appeal or the surprise element. with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device). Think of natural movements in the terms of a pendulum swinging. floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). 6. ears. All of these actions should work together in support of one another.When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character. for example. head turns and even eye movements are executed on an arcs. to be followed. would be when Goofy starts to run. Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action. Timing becomes critical to the effectiveness of drag and the overlapping action. 9. This will give more snap to the scene. The walk is forceful. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow. and forward leaning. Nothing stops all at once. the possibility of dialogue being delivered at the same time with tilts and turns of the head to accentuate the walk and dialogue. and clothes do not keep up with his legs. SECONDARY ACTION This action adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation." in animation. supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action. The leg action is just short of a stomping walk. Example: When Snow White starts to dance. This is follow through. The secondary action is a few strong gestures of the arms working with the walk. All arm movement. follow an arc or slightly circular path. coat tails or a dress. The character is going in a new direction. This is especially true of the human figure and the action of animals. long hair. but not so much as to distract from the walk action. her dress does not begin to move with her immediately but catches up a few frames later. aggressive. Also.

attitudes and actions. In feature animation. The basics are: more drawings between poses slow and smooth the action. Appealing animation does not mean just being cute and cuddly. weight. Fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper. Twos are used most of the time. This frame by frame examination of film footage will aid you in understanding timing for animation. violent action all the time. a character must move more broadly to look natural. and personality development that will capture and involve the audience¹s interest. includes an easy to read design. Most animation is done on twos (one drawing photographed on two frames of film) or on ones (one drawing photographed on each frame of film). All characters have to have appeal whether they are heroic. Three dimensional is movement in space. Use good taste and common sense to keep from becoming too theatrical and excessively animated 11. The same is true of facial expressions. villainous. Over the years. emotion. but stiff and mechanical. using pencil sketches and drawings for reproduction of life. SOLID DRAWING The basic principles of drawing form. using the trial and error method in refining technique. Early cartoons were basically a series of gags strung together on a main theme. EXAGGERATION Exaggeration is not extreme distortion of a drawing or extremely broad.Expertise in timing comes best with experience and personal experimentation. volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. character development and a higher quality of artwork throughout the . but the action should not be as broad as in a short cartoon style. APPEAL A live performer has charisma. comic or cute. you draw in the classical sense. the artists have learned that to produce a feature there was a need for story continuity. An animated character has appeal. Also. and ones are used during camera moves such as trucks. It¹s like a caricature of facial features. A variety of slow and fast timing within a scene adds texture and interest to the movement. The way you draw cartoons. You transform these into color and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life. expressions. as you will use it. pans and occasionally for subtle and quick dialogue animation. poses. clear drawing. 10. This is a great way to learn from the others. Exaggeration in a walk or an eye movement or even a head turn will give your film more appeal. Appeal. 12. and reaction to another character or to a situation. Action traced from live action film can be accurate. Studying movement of actors and performers on stage and in films is useful when animating human or animal characters. The fourth dimension is movement in time. there is timing in the acting of a character to establish mood.

Like all forms of story telling.entire production. Hopefully these tips will help you understand more about the process of animation and spark your interest in the field of ³The Fine Art of Animation². the feature has to appeal to the mind as well as to the eye. .