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mobile environment

Radio Wave propagation models

planning process to predict the average received signal

strength at a given distance from the transmitter for large

scale (>1km) and for small-scale or fading propagation

models.

signal strength at a close spatial proximity to a particular

location is of major interest.

Radio wave propagation Mechanism

from the transmitter to the receiver straight in all directions

without being disturbed.

by the following effects:

• reflection

• scattering

• diffraction at edges

• shadowing behind buildings or walls

• fading

• refraction.

Radio wave propagation mechanism –contd..

Signal Propagation Ranges

Multipath propagation

Fig: Inter-symbol interference

General Classification

General classification of propagation models

Free Space and Log Distance Model

Definition of Path Loss and Path Loss Exponent

The Path Loss is the difference (in dB) between the transmitted

power (PT) and the received power (PR).

propagation, reflection, diffraction and scattering.

The path loss is a fundamental unit for radio network planners, since it

affects the minimum number of basestations (dimensioning) and the

necessary output power (link budget). ( Here n is called pathloss

exponent2)

Fig: Definition of path loss exponent

Okumura-Hata Model

require only the following four parameters and needs therefore a very

short computation time:

• distance between transmitter and receiver (r = 1 …20 km)

• antenna height of transmitter (hBS = 30…200 m)

• antenna height of transmitter (hMS = 1…10 m).

without e.g. buildings, trees, walls, etc. It is not applicable when the BS

is below the rooftops. Nevertheless it is the most applied model in

network planning.

To improve the accuracy of this model an effective antenna height has been

introduced. Be aware that the terrain profile between BS and MS is not taken

into account.

The path loss is calculated according the following formulas:

Neither hills between BS and MS nor local effects around the receiver

(reflections, shadowing, etc.) are taken into account.

Okumara-Hata Model Example

Okumara-Hata Model Example Contd..

COST-Hata Model

The new model is known under the name: COST-Hata model and is defined for

the following parameters:

• frequency (f = 1500…2000 MHz)

• distance between transmitter and receiver (r = 1 …20 km)

• antenna height of transmitter (hBS = 30…200 m)

• antenna height of transmitter (hMS = 1…10 m).

Figure: COST-Hata model example

Knife-Edge Model

the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens, which states that a well-

defined obstruction to an electromagnetic wave acts as a secondary

source, and creates a new wave front. This new wave front

propagates into the geometric shadow area of the obstacle.

Fig: Diffraction loss as function of v

Ray-Tracing Method

Deterministic models, like Ray-Tracing, are most accurate. They are

site-specific and require enormous number of geometric site

information and are therefore only feasible for very limited areas

like indoor pico cells.

COST-Walfish-Ikegami Model

especially for urban areas with BS antennas placed below the

roof tops is called COST-Walfish-Ikegami.

• frequency (f = 800…2000 MHz)

• distance between transmitter and receiver (r = 20 …5000 m)

• antenna height of transmitter (hBS = 4…50 m)

• antenna height of transmitter (hMS = 1…3 m).

Fig: COST-Walfish-Ikegami model

h: mean value of building heights (m)

b: mean value of building separation (m)

w: mean value of street widths (m)

φ : mean angle between direct radio path and street (°).

COST-Walfish-Ikegami model

Even though the COST-Walfish-Ikegami model is suitable only for

chessboard-like inner cities, it is commonly used for all kinds of city

centres. Be aware that this model shows often significant inaccuracies,

when using it for irregular building pattern like historically grown towns.

The main advantage of this semi-empirical model is its short

computation time.

Combinations of Models, Applicability

are only applicable for a quasi flat surface. In combination with

the deterministic model Knife-Edge they can be extended to hilly

terrain or mountainous areas:

• COST-Hata and Knife-Edge.

measurements.

Walfish- Ikegami) includes some free parameters which can be tuned

in order to fit the model with measured samples. This makes the model

applicable in certain environment.

Fig: Applicabilityof propagation models

but due to the very long computation time it is technically not

feasible.

Fading Effects

Fading effects

Fig: Fading effects

Slow Fading

Fig: Slow fading - Q function

Fast Fading

• Thank You

Radio Environment Features

MS antenna is not very high above the ground

surface, so the received signal mainly consist of

multiple reflection waves generated by the dispersion

objects near the MS.

MS is often in the constant moving state, so the

received signal amplitude and phase will vary with

time and place.

Wave-guide effect in city streets.

Man-made noise:like industrial noise

Sever interference: co-frequency, neighbor frequency

and mutual modulation interference.

Propagation Mode

The line-of-sight direct wave and reflection wave,

most of them are multiple reflection waves generated

by the dispersion objects near the MS.

• Reflection from far place generated by dispersion

• Reflection within 50-400 wave length generated by

the reflection and dispersing objects near the near

MS.

Field intensity

by overlaying the fast fading upon the

slow fading signals.

r (t ) m(t ) r0 (t )

r (d ) m(d ) r0 (d )

Where d is the distance, t is time.

m(x)--local mean value,which is synthesized by long-term fading and space loss,slow

fading,long-term fading.

r0(x)-short-term fading,fast fading,Rayleigh fading

local mean value change much with distance than time.

Field intensity

x L

1

m( x )

2L r ( y )dy

x_l

The average value of receiving signal.

2L: 40 , 36-50 sampling points.

• The geographic conditions and objects in

the service area are basically not

changeable in a certain period of time, so

the local mean value m(x) is a fixed value

for the fixed BTS in a certain place.

Field intensity test

equipment (e.g. high speed sweep generator)

samples n receiving powers of the same point

in a second, the wavelength is λ（1/3m for

900MHz, and 1/6m for 1800MHz）, then:

40λ/v*n<=50 and 40λ/v*n>=36

For instance, at 900MHz, the test equipment

samples 25 data of the same frequency point,

then the reasonable car speed is 24~33km/h.

Propagation Loss

output signal of transmitting antenna and

that of the receiving antenna.

• The relationship between the propagation

loss and distance is proportional.around

40db/dec.

Propagation Model

will not generate the reflection, refraction,

dispersion, diffraction and absorption, instead

there will be only attenuation caused by

diffusion, so its basic transmission loss Lbf

can be calculated with the formula below:

Lbf 32.5 20 log f MHz 20 log d km

Propagation Model

Okumura-Hata

1、Application conditions:

150~1500MHz（GSM900）；

Effective BTS antenna height :30~200m；

MS antenna height: 1~10m；

Communication distance: 1~20km；

Quasi-smooth topography、urban downtown、suburb、open

air、hills、mountain、waters；

Propagation Model

Lb城 69.55 26.16 lg f 13.82 lg hb a(hm ) (44.9 6.55 lg hb )(lg d )

3、Correction factor：

City type：Suburb、Open air、open air、Rural area；

Topography：Hill、Slope、Isolate mountain、Sea(lake) mixed；

City dedicated correction factor：Street 、Building density；

0

K s R

K u

h

L Lb K street S (a) K sp K mr

K

im Q0

0

Qr

Propagation Model

For 1800Mhz use the COST-231Model

Application condition:

GSM900/1800；

Effective BTS antenna height :30~200m；

MS antenna height: 1~10m；

Communication distance: 1~35km；

Quasi-smooth topography、urban downtown、suburb、open

air、hills、mountain、waters；

Propagation Model

General Model

1、Application condition:

GSM900/1800；

Effective BTS antenna height :30~200m；

MS antenna height: 1~10m；

Communication distance: 1~35km(may be farther)；

Quasi-smooth topography、urban downtown、suburb、open

air、hills、mountain、waters；

2、Basic idea：

Combine Okumura-Hata with Cost-231 formula；

Consider clutter correction factor；

All correction factor K can be modified by test data.

Propagation Model

3、Propagation loss formula:

1、One-stage:

2、Two-stage:

K1 K 21 lg d K 3 lg hb K 4 lg d lg hb K 5 K clutter K d Ld a(hm ) K street d d0

Lb城

K1 K 22 lg d K 3 lg hb K 4 lg d lg hb K 5 K clutter K d Ld a(hm ) K street ( K 21 K 22 ) lg d 0 d d 0

Propagation Model

COST-231-Walfish-Ikegami

1、Application condition:

GSM900/1800：

MS antenna height 1~10米；

Communication distance:20m~5km；

2、Basic idea：

The macro cellular model basis is: the propagation loss between

the BS and the MS is dependent on the surrounding environment

of the MS; but within 1km, the direction of the buildings around

the BS and the streets seriously affect the propagation loss between

the BS and the MS, so the macro cellular model mentioned earlier

is not suitable for the forecast within 1km.

Propagation Model

3、Propagation loss formula：

Visual pass: Lb 42.6 26 lg d( km) 20 lg f ( MHz )

L0—— transmission loss in free space

Lrts——diffraction and dispersion loss from roof to street

Lmsd——multi-shield diffraction loss

Propagation Model

Correction of propagation model

correction

model is different from the actual propagation environment,

it is necessary to test the electric wave propagation in a

typical environment in the area where the GSM network is to

be constructed, and use the test data to correct the

propagation model and enhance the correctness of the

propagation forecast.

Field intensity test method

To select the typical propagation environment in the service area,

such as densely-populated urban area, general urban area and

suburban area.

To select a station that can cover as more clutter types as

possible (based on the electric map);

The antenna of the test station shall be higher by 5m than the

obstacles within the range of 150~200m;

for every artificial environment, it would be better to select three

or more test stations to eliminate the location factor as much as

possible.

Field intensity test method

station

Ensure the cleanness of the test frequency point

Record the longitude and latitude of the test station,

its antenna height, antenna type, feeder cable loss,

transmitting power of the transmitter, gain of the

receiver

Field intensity test method

1. Get the test data of different distances in different directions;

2. There should be at least 4~5 test data in a certain distance to eliminate

the location effect;

3. Try to go through various clutters;

4. Try to avoid selecting the expressways or wider highways. The optimal

selection is the road that is not more than 3m in width.

Field intensity test method

Cities and suburbs:20m

Micro cells: 5m

Correction factor

Lb =K1+K2lgd+K3lghb+K4lgdlghb+K5+K6+K7

• K1 (146.83 900MHz)(156.65 1800MHz)

K3 -13.82 K5 Artificial environment factor

K4 -6.55

K6 clutter factor

K7 0.5

Correction factors

Factor K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K7

City 156.65 44.9 -13.8 -6.55 -9.99 0.5

Clutter factor K6:

Water: -4.52

Open air in suburb area: -2.24

Open air in city: -8.49

Grass: -4.21

Middle density build below 20m: 3.11

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