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Introduction

Millions of people throughout the world do not have access to clean water for domestic purposes.

Rainwater harvesting (RWH) has thus regained its importance as a valuable alternative or
supplementary water resource.

People collect and store rainwater in buckets, tanks, ponds and wells.

Rainwater harvesting is a simple low-cost technique that requires minimum specific expertise or
knowledge and offers many benefits.

Research definition & Objectives

Water harvesting in its broadest sense can be defined as the collection of run-off rainwater for
domestic water supply, agriculture and environmental management.

Following are the main objectives of the study.

• To study the techniques of R.W.H. in developed & developing nation.

• To conduct field survey in Bhubaneswar city , where R.W.H. techniques is introduced.

• To design proposals for the rise in Ground Water Table (GWT) and used rain water in
Local area at Bhubaneswar city.

• To prepare working modal based on design.

Need for rainwater harvesting

• Due to pollution of both groundwater and surface waters, and the overall increased
demand for water resources is increase.

Therefore they have to turn to alternative or ‘new’ resources like rainwater harvesting (RWH).

• Rainwater harvesting has been used for ages and examples can be found in all the great
civilizations throughout history.

• The technology can be very simple or complex depending on the specific local
circumstances.

• larger sub-surface and surface tanks are used for collecting larger amounts of rainwater.
Identifying Problem

• To increase ground water level in and around Bhubaneswar city, Bhubaneswar Municipal
Corporation (SMC) has decided to dig bore wells to solve the water scarcity problem.

• "Ground water level in Bhubaneswar is going down rapidly.”

• Water is a basic need that every human on the earth needs in order to survive.

• This semester the Rainwater Harvesting project main goal is to help educate and raise
awareness of rainwater harvesting in the Bhubaneswar city area.

Expected Outcome

 Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation considered being one of the most active and
resourceful corporation in the state.

 Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation has also been making efforts to promote Rain
Water Harvesting at household level.

 The proposed implementation plan has been formulated after taking into account the
following data.

• Topography of the data

• Depth to water and water level records

• Water level elevation maps

• Rain fall data of last five years

• Water logging and flooding of the areas

• Site surveys

• Geology and hydrology of area


Research Methodology
NATIONAL RESEARCHES

Year Author Research Contribution

2000 Dr. D. K. Chadha, • The principle of collecting and using


precipitation from a catchment surface.
• Any man-made scheme or facility
that adds water to an aquifer may be
considered to be an artificial recharge system.

2006 Dr. L. Minaketan • Introduction of Ferro-cement tank as safe


Singh water reservoir
• Popularisation of rain water harvesting
techniques in the state.

2011 Dr. S.C. Dhiman • To maintain sustainability of ground water


resources artificial recharge to ground water is
being practiced.

2001 S. Vishvanath • Water harvesting is also defined as the process of


collecting and storing water from an area that
has been treated to increase precipitation runoff.

Year Author Research Contribution


2007 Adrienne LaBranche, • Urgent Freshwater Problems
Hans-Otto Wack • Virginia Rainwater Harvesting Application
• Future of Rainwater Harvesting

2011 B. R. T. Vilane and • RWH methodology and sampling


E. J. Mwendera • Water harvesting technologies
• Water harvesting catchment’s materials

2007 Brown, R. • What is RWH?


• Roof Runoff Rainwater Harvesting Systems

2008 Christopher Kloss • Rainwater Harvesting Policies


• Reduces erosion in urban environments

2005 Dr. Hari J. Krishna • Water Balance and System Sizing


• Rainwater Harvesting Guidelines
RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM

• As the Centre for Science and Environment, Bhubaneswar (India) puts it ‘CATCH
WATER WHERE IT FALLS’ would be a good definition of rainwater harvesting.

• The process of rainwater harvesting would encompass catching rainwater, directing it to


an appropriate location, filtering it if required and storing it for use.

• A number of alternative technologies are available for rooftop harvesting and storage to
suit the varying situations and the budgets.

BASIC WATER REQUIREMENT


Indirectly pumped systems

• Rainwater is initially held in a storage tank and then pumped to a header tank within the
building, which is usually located within the roof void.

• Low cost pumps and simple controls are possible and systems tend to be energy
efficient as the pump runs at full flow.

• If the storage tank is full, any additional incoming water will exit via an overflow and
will normally be disposed of either or a soak away infiltration device or sewer.
Directly pumped systems

• In a directly pumped system rainwater is initially held in a storage tank and then
pumped directly to the point of use when required.

• If the storage tank is full, any additional incoming water will exit via an overflow and
will normally be disposed of either to a soak away/infiltration device or sewer.
Gravity fed systems

• The main advantages of gravity fed systems are that they do not require a pump or
electrical supply as is the case with the direct and indirect versions.

• The main disadvantages are that the water pressure is likely to be less than that of the
main supply.

• Gravity fed systems differs from the direct and indirect variants primarily in that the
main storage tank is located within the roof void of the building.
STUDY AREA PROFILE

General

• The development of ground water in different areas of the country has not been uniform.

• Water requirement for industries is more.

• Industries require water for processing, cooling, boiler feed and other miscellaneous uses
such as washing, maintenance of yards and domestic requirement in townships.

• Main source of water for Bhubaneswar is the river Kuakhai flowing through the city.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Survey method:

1 Inventory study

• Detail reports of Odisha Space Application Centre

• Map location of Locality area.

• Detail maps of Bhubaneswar city.

• Rainfall data of past 05 years.


2 Field Survey

This survey was carried out for Local area by using prepared
questionnaires.

Study Parameters

– Source of water

– Roof type

– Present gain water from SMC

– Storage tank

– Present capacity of tank

– Roof area
– Present water demand

Questionnaires Design

We are Civil branch students under SOA University conducting the project work for our partial
fulfillment of the degree. Kindly co-operate with me for the filling of questionnaire.

1. Customer Name:
2. Address & Phone :
3. Email address:
4. Age:
a) <=20 b) 20-25 c) 25-30

d) 30-35 e) 35-40 f) 40-45

g) 45-50 h) 50-55 i) 55+

DATA ANALYSIS

Source of water

SOURCE OF WATER

SR NO SOURCE SURVEY %

1 SMC 86
96.63

2 BORINGS 1
1.12
3 BOTH 2
2.25

TOTAL 89
100.00

SOURCE OF WATER
1%2%

SMC
BORE WELL
97% BOTH

Roof Type Present gain Water from SMC

ROOF TYPE

SR NO TYPE SURVEY %

1 RCC 78 78

2 ROOF/SLOP 10 10

3 BOTH 12 12

TOTAL 100 100.00


PRESENT GAIN WATER FROM SMC

SR
LITER SURVEY %
NO

1 < 50000 33 37.08

2 50000 - 200000 10 11.24

3 200000 - 350000 8 8.99

4 350000 - 500000 18 20.22

5 > 500000 20 22.47

TOTAL 89 100.00

SURVEY

RCC
ROOF/SLOP
BOTH
PRESENT GAIN WATER FROM
SMC
40.00 37.08

30.00
22.47
20.22
20.00
11.24 PERCENTAGE
8.99
10.00

0.00
> 50000 50000 - 200000 - 350000 - > 500000
200000 350000 500000

Storage Tank

STORAGE TANK

SR
TANK SURVEY %
NO

1 NONE 30 33.71

2 UNDERGROUND 30 33.71

3 ELEVATED 19 21.35

4 BOTH 10 11.24

TOTAL 89 100.00
STORAGE TANK
11% 34%
21% NONE
UNDERGROUND
ELEVATED
BOTH
34%

present Capacity of Tank

PRESENT CAPACITY OF TANK

SR NO LITER SURVEY %

1 <50000 33 37.08

2 50000 - 200000 29 32.58

3 200000 - 350000 12 13.48

4 350000 - 500000 15 16.85

5 > 500000 0 0.00

TOTAL 89 100.00
PRESENT CAPACITY OF TANK
40.00 37.08
35.00 32.58
30.00
25.00
20.00 16.85
15.00
13.48 PERCENTAGE
10.00
5.00
0.00
0.00
> 50000 50000 - 200000 - 350000 - > 500000
200000 350000 500000

Roof Area

ROOF AREA

AREA
SR NO SURVEY %
(Sq.m)

1 < 1000 49 55.06

2 1000-2000 16 17.98

3 2000-3000 4 4.49

4 3000-4000 8 8.99

5 4000-5000 5 5.62

6 > 5000 7 7.87

TOTAL 89 100.00
ROOF AREA
35.00 31.46
30.00
25.00
23.60
20.00 15.73 13.48
15.00
6.74 8.99 PERCENTAGE
10.00
5.00
0.00

Future Water Demand

FUTURE WATER DEMAND

SR NO LITER SURVEY %

1 <25000 30 33.71

2 25000-50000 36 40.45

3 50000-100000 14 15.73

4 >100000 9 10.11

TOTAL 89 100.00
FUTURE WATER DEMAND
45.00 40.45
40.00 33.71
35.00
30.00
25.00
20.00 15.73
15.00 10.11
10.00 PERCENTAGE(%)
5.00
0.00

RWH SYSTEM DESIGN

1. Catchment area

2. Conveyance system

• Gutter

• First flush devise

• Screens

3. Rapid sand filter

4. Storage device

5. Artificial recharge well


ROOF CATCHMENT AREA

Runoff coefficients for various catchment types

Type of catchment Coefficients Co efficient

Roof catchments

Tiles 0.8 - 0.9

Corrugated metal sheets 0.7 - 0.9

Ground surface coverings

Concrete 0.6 - 0.8

Brick pavement 0.5 - 0.6

Untreated ground catchments

Soil on slopes less than 10 percent 0.1 - 0.3

Rocky natural catchments 0.2 - 0.5

• The Rational Method is given as follows:

Supply = rainfall (mm/year) x roof are (m2) x runoff coefficient

= liters per year

A worked example:

• Mean annual rainfall = 650 mm per year

• Roof angle = 23 degrees; sine of the angle = 0.3907

• Roof area =1110 m2 (Civil Block)

• Roof surface is smooth corrugated metal. This surface is assumed to have a runoff coefficient
of 0.8

Supply = 650 x 1110 x 0.8 = 5,77,200 liters per year.


THE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM

Gutters

Roof area (m2) Gutter width Minimum


served by one downpipe
gutter (mm)
diameter (mm)

17 60 40

25 70 50

34 80 50

46 90 63

66 100 63

128 125 75

208 150 90
Sizing gutters and down-pipes for RWH systems

The size (width) of the gutters should be chosen based on the roof section area. Design length of
Roof is 60 meter. Select gutter size based on 1 centimeter per meter or 1/8 inch per foot. So
adopt diameter of gutter pipe is 60 centimeter.

FIRST FLUSH DEVICE

• Volume of diverted water (liters) = Unit length (m) x Unit width (m) x 0.5 (mm)

• (Multiply answer by 0.22 to convert the value to imperial gallons)

• Pipe length (m) = Volume of diverted water (l) ÷ [3.14 x pipe radius2 (mm) x 0.001]

• Pipe length (feet) = Volume of diverted water (gal) x 22.57 ÷ (3.14 x pipe radius2
(inch)

Project Data

• Roof length = 60 meters

• Roof width = 20 meters

• Pipe diameter = 175 mm (7 inch), therefore radius = 87.5 mm (3.5 inch)

(a) Volume of diverted water (liters)

= 60 x 20x 0.5

= 600 liters (or 132 gallons)

(b) Pipe length (m)

=600 ÷ [3.14 x (87.5)2 x 0.001]

= 25m

(c) Pipe length (ft.)

= 132 x 22.57 ÷ (3.14 x3.52)

= 77.45 ft.
Simple first-flush diverter

Screens:
Screens to exclude entry of insects and other potential contaminants

• Screens prevent leaves, particulate matter, and other objects from entering the storage
tank.

• Coarse screens: To prevent larger size material (leaves, large insects, small animals)
from entering the tank. A 5 mm (0.2 inch mesh) installed before the tank entry is typical.

• Fine screens: To exclude mosquitoes and fine particles from entering the tank. Insect-
proof mesh or strong standard cotton/polypropylene filters installed at the inlet and outlet
of the tank is recommended.

RAPID SAND FILTER

• Sand filters are commonly available, easy and inexpensive to construct.

• These filters can be employed for treatment of water to effectively remove turbidity
suspended be constructed domestically, the top layer comprises of coarse sand followed
by a 5-10 mm layer of gravel followed by another 5-25 mm layer of gravel and boulders.
DESIGNS OF TANKS

To calculate storage tank for Local use

Area of catchment A= 1110 m3

Average annual rain fall R = 0.65 m (650 mm)

Runoff co efficient C = 0.8

So, annual water harvesting = A x R x C

= 1110 x 0.65 x 0.8

= 5,77.2 m3

= 5,77,200 lit.

Water required for Locality in dry season = 245 x 20000

= 49 x 105

Factor of safety = 10 %

= 10 % of 49 x 105

= 49 x 104 lit.

= 4900 m3
Local use tank = 50 x 33 x 3 m = 4950 m3

To calculate storage tank for drinking purpose

Area of catchment A= 1110 m3

Average annual rain fall R = 0.65 m (650 mm)

Runoff co efficient C = 0.8

So, annual water harvesting = A x R x C

`= 1110 x 0.65 x 0.8

= 577.2. m3

= 577200 lit.

The drinking water requirement for person,

(In dry season) = 245 x 247 x 3

= 181545 liter

As a safety factor = the tank should be built 20% larger than required

Total water required = 217854 liter

= 217.85 m3
Size of drinking tank is = 10 x 14.5 x 1.5 m = 218 m3

TANK INLET AND OUTLET CONFIGURATIONS

The quality of water resident in the tank generally improves with time. This is because bacteria
will die-off within 2 to 20 days and suspended particles fall to the bottom.
TANK OVERFLOW CONFIGURATIONS

An overflow is installed to reduce the possibility of system collapse during a rainstorm when the
tank may fill rapidly. Figure shows the simplest overflow arrangement, although this means that
the better quality water at the surface will be lost to the outflow

CONCLUSIONS

• Major parts of our country have been facing continuous failure of monsoon and
consequent deficit of rainfall over the last few years. Also, due to ever increasing
population of India, the use of ground water has increased drastically leading to constant
depletion of ground water level causing the wells and tube wells to dry up.

• In Bhubaneswar city river tapi is the main source of drinking water because underground
water level depth is so high. In particularly in Local area water demand is so high
compare to availability of water through Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation.

• According to this crisis this research is help to fulfill water demand and to uplift water
level. Rain water harvesting is the best solution for underground water recharging and
water is used in Local production work.
REFERENCES

• A planning guides for Tanzania, (2000) ‘Rainwater Harvesting for Natural Resources
Management’, Regional Land Management Unit, RELMA/Sida, ICRAF House, Gigiri P.
O. Box 63403, Nairobi, Kenya.

• A Contractor’s guide,(2005) ‘Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Queensland’, Helping


Queenslanders Build Better.

• Adrienne LaBranche, Hans-Otto Wack,(2007) ‘Virginia Rainwater Harvesting Manual’,


the Cabell Brand Center, Salem, VA.

• B. R. T. Vilane and E. J. Mwendera, (2011) ‘An inventory of rainwater harvesting


technologies in Swaziland’, African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 6(6), pp. 1313-
1321.

• Brown, R. (2007) ‘Rainwater and Grey Water: Technical and economic feasibility’, Draft
Report. BSRIA Ltd for the Market Transformation Programme.

• Che-Ani A.I and Shaari N, (2009) ‘Rainwater Harvesting as an Alternative Water Supply
in the Future’, European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol.34 No.1
(2009), pp.132-140.

• Christopher Kloss, (2008) ‘Rainwater Harvesting Policies’, Municipal Handbook, Low


Impact Development Center, EPA-833-F-08-010.

• Dr. Hari J. Krishna, (2005) ‘The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting’, Texas Water
Development Board, Austin

• Dr. D. K. Chadha, (2000) ‘Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge to Ground
Water’, Central Ground Water Board Jamnagar House, Mansingh Road New
Bhubaneswar-110011.

• Dr. L. Minaketan Singh, P.I., (2006) ‘Pilot Project on Rain Water Harvesting in Manipur
Manipur Science & Technology Council Central Jail Road, Imphal - 795 001.

• Dr. S.C. Dhiman,(2011) ‘Rain Water and Artificial Recharge’, Central Ground Water
Board, Ministry of Water Resources, New Bhubaneswar.