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Classical order
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An illustration of the five orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric
orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom

A classical order is one of the ancient styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its
proportions and characteristic profiles and details, and most readily recognizable by the type of
column employed. Three ancient orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—
originated in Greece. To these the Romans added the Tuscan, which they made simpler than
Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental than the Corinthian. The order of a
classical building is akin to the mode or key of classical music, the grammar or rhetoric of a
written composition. It is established by certain modules like the intervals of music, and it raises
certain expectations in an audience attuned to its language.

 1 Elements
 2 Measurement

 3 Greek orders

o 3.1 Doric order

o 3.2 Ionic order

o 3.3 Corinthian order

 4 Roman orders

o 4.1 Tuscan order

o 4.2 Composite order

 5 Historical development of the orders

 6 Vignola's orders

 7 Nonce orders

 8 See also

 9 References

 10 Further reading

Table of architecture, Cyclopaedia, 1728

Each style has distinctive capitals and entablatures. The column shaft is sometimes articulated
with vertical hollow grooves known as fluting. The shaft is wider at the bottom than at the top,
because its entasis, beginning a third of the way up, imperceptibly makes the column slightly
more slender at the top, although some Doric columns are visibly "flared", with straight profiles
that narrow going up the shaft.

The capital rests on the shaft. It has a load-bearing function, which concentrates the weight of the
entablature on the supportive column, but it primarily serves an aesthetic purpose. The necking is
the continuation of the shaft, but is visually separated by one or many grooves. The echinus lies
atop the necking. It is a circular block that bulges outwards towards the top to support the
abacus, which is a square or shaped block that in turn supports the entablature. The entablature
consists of three horizontal layers, all of which are visually separated from each other using
moldings or bands. In Roman and post-Renaissance work, the entablature may be carried from
column to column in the form of an arch that springs from the column that bears its weight,
retaining its divisions and sculptural enrichment, if any.

Greek orders with full height

The height of columns are calculated in terms of a ratio between the diameter of the shaft at its
base and the height of the column. A Doric column can be described as seven diameters high, an
Ionic column as eight diameters high and a Corinthian column nine diameters high, although the
actual ratios used vary considerably in both ancient and revived examples, but keeping to the
trend of increasing slimness between the orders. Sometimes this is phrased as "lower diameters
high", to establish which part of the shaft has been measured.

Greek orders
There are three distinct orders in Ancient Greek architecture: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. These
three were adopted by the Romans, who modified their capitals. The Roman adoption of the
Greek orders took place in the 1st century BC. The three Ancient Greek orders have since been
consistently used in neo-classical European architecture.

Sometimes the Doric order is considered the earliest order, but there is no evidence to support
this. Rather, the Doric and Ionic orders seem to have appeared at around the same time, the Ionic
in eastern Greece and the Doric in the west and mainland.

Both the Doric and the Ionic order appear to have originated in wood. The Temple of Hera in
Olympia is the oldest well-preserved temple of Doric architecture. It was built just after 600 BC.
The Doric order later spread across Greece and into Sicily where it was the chief order for
monumental architecture for 800 years.

The Doric order of the Parthenon

Doric order

Main article: Doric order

The Doric order originated on the mainland and western Greece. It is the simplest of the orders,
characterized by short, faceted, heavy columns with plain, round capitals (tops) and no base.
With a height that is only four to eight times its diameter, the columns are the most squat of all
orders. The shaft of the Doric order is channeled with 20 flutes. The capital consists of a necking
which is of a simple form. The echinus is convex and the abacus is square.

Above the capital is a square abacus connecting the capital to the entablature. The Entablature is
divided into three horizontal registers, the lower part of which is either smooth or divided by
horizontal lines. The upper half is distinctive for the Doric order. The frieze of the Doric
entablature is divided into triglyphs and metopes. A triglyph is a unit consisting of three vertical
bands which are separated by grooves. Metopes are the plain or carved reliefs between two

The Greek forms of the Doric order come without an individual base. They instead are placed
directly on the stylobate. Later forms, however, came with the conventional base consisting of a
plinth and a torus. The Roman versions of the Doric order have smaller proportions. As a result
they appear lighter than the Greek orders.

Ionic order

Ionic order

Main article: Ionic order

The Ionic order came from eastern Greece, where its origins are entwined with the similar but
little known Aeolic order. It is distinguished by slender, fluted pillars with a large base and two
opposed volutes (also called scrolls) in the echinus of the capital. The echinus itself is decorated
with an egg-and-dart motif. The Ionic shaft comes with four more flutes than the Doric
counterpart (totalling 24). The Ionic base has two convex moldings called tori which are
separated by a scotia.
The Ionic order is also marked by an entasis, a curved tapering in the column shaft. A column of
the ionic order is nine times its lower diameter. The shaft itself is eight diameters high. The
architrave of the entablature commonly consists of three stepped bands (fasciae). The frieze
comes without the Doric triglyph and metope. The frieze sometimes comes with a continuous
ornament such as carved figures instead.

Corinthian order

Corinthian order

Main article: Corinthian order

The Corinthian order is the most ornate of the Greek orders, characterized by a slender fluted
column having an ornate capital decorated with two rows of acanthus leaves and four scrolls. It
is commonly regarded as the most elegant of the three orders. The shaft of the Corinthian order
has 24 flutes. The column is commonly ten diameters high.

The Roman writer Vitruvius credited the invention of the Corinthian order to Callimachus, a
Greek sculptor of the 5th century BC. The oldest known building built according to this order is
the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, constructed from 335 to 334 BC. The
Corinthian order was raised to rank by the writings of Vitruvius in the 1st century BC.

Roman orders
The Romans adapted all the Greek orders and also developed two orders of their own, basically
modification of Greek orders. The Romans also invented the superposed order. A superposed
order is when successive stories of a building have different orders. The heaviest orders were at
the bottom, whilst the lightest came at the top. This means that the Doric order was the order of
the ground floor, the Ionic order was used for the middle story, while the Corinthian or the
Composite order was used for the top story.

The Colossal order was invented by architects in the Renaissance. The Colossal order is
characterized by columns that extend the height of two or more stories.

The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570

Tuscan order

Main article: Tuscan order

The Tuscan order has a very plain design, with a plain shaft, and a simple capital, base, and
frieze. It is a simplified adaptation of the Doric order by the Romans. The Tuscan order is
characterized by an unfluted shaft and a capital that only consists of an echinus and an abacus. In
proportions it is similar to the Doric order, but overall it is significantly plainer. The column is
normally seven diameters high. Compared to the other orders, the Tuscan order looks the most

Composite order

Composite order

Main article: Composite order

The Composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic with the leaves of the
Corinthian order. Until the Renaissance it was not ranked as a separate order. Instead it was
considered as a late Roman form of the Corinthian order. The column of the Composite order is
ten diameters high.

Historical development of the orders

The St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church in Paris presents columns of the three orders : Doric at the ground
floor, Ionic at the second floor, Corinthian at the third floor
The Tower of The Five Orders at the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, completed in 1619, includes
Tuscan through Composite orders.

The Renaissance period saw renewed interest in the ruins left by the ancient cultures of Greece
and Rome, and the fertile development of a new architecture based on classical principles. The
handbook De architectura by Roman writer, architect and engineer Vitruvius, is the only
architectural writing that survived from Antiquity. Rediscovered in the 15th century, Vitruvius
was instantly hailed as the authority on classical orders and on architecture in general.

Architects of the Renaissance and the Baroque periods in Europe based their rules on Vitruvius'
writings. What was added were rules for the use of the classical orders, and the exact proportions
of the orders down to the most minute detail. Commentary on the appropriateness of the orders
for temples devoted to particular deities (Vitruvius I.2.5) were elaborated by Renaissance
theorists, with Doric characterized as bold and manly, Ionic as matronly, and Corinthian as

Vignola's orders
Main article: The Five Orders of Architecture

Following the examples of Vitruvius and the five books of the Regole generali d'architettura by
Sebastiano Serlio, published from 1537 onwards, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola produced an
architecture rule book that was more practical than the previous two books, which were more
philosophical in nature, his Cinque ordini di erchitettura (The Five Orders of Architecture ) from
1562; the book is considered "one of the most successful architectural textbooks ever written",[2]
despite having no text apart from the notes and the introduction.[3] The book consisted simply of
an introduction followed by 32 annotated plates, with views from the Pantheon illustrating the
Corinthian order and the Theatre of Marcellus for the Doric order. Later editions had more
illustrations. By 1700, it had been reprinted 15 times in Italian, and was translated in Dutch,
English, French, German, Russian and Spanish.[4]

Each period interpreted the orders in their own way. The architecture of every subsequent period
of European architecture was based on the classical orders. In the later 18th century the rules of
the Renaissance and the Baroque periods came to be disregarded, and the original use of the
orders revived, based on first-hand study of the ruins of classical antiquity - often hailed as the
'correct' use of the orders.

In America, The American Builder's Companion,[5] written in the early 19th century by the
architect Asher Benjamin, influenced many builders in the eastern states, particularly those who
developed what became known as the Federal style.

The break from the classical mode came first with the Gothic revival, then the development of
modernism during the 19th century. The Bauhaus promoted pure functionalism, stripped of
superfluous ornament, and that has become one of the defining characteristics of modern
architecture. There are some exceptions. Postmodernism introduced an ironic use of the orders as
a cultural reference, divorced from the strict rules of composition. On the other hand, a few
practitioners e.g. Quinlan Terry still work in a traditional classical idiom.

Corn capital at the Litchfield Villa Prospect Park (Brooklyn) (A.J. Davis, architect)

Nonce orders
Several orders, usually based upon the composite order and only varying in the design of the
capitals, have been invented under the inspiration of specific occasions, but have not been used
again. Thus they may be termed "nonce orders" on the analogy of nonce words. Robert Adam's
brother James was in Rome in 1762, drawing antiquities under the direction of Clérisseau; he
invented a British Order, of which his ink-and-wash rendering with red highlighting, is at the
Avery Library, Columbia University. Adam published an engraving of it. In its capital the
heraldic lion and unicorn take the place of the Composite's volutes, a Byzantine/Romanesque
conception, but expressed in terms of neoclassical realism. In 1789 George Dance invented an
Ammonite Order, a variant of Ionic substituting volutes in the form of fossil ammonites for
John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery in Pall Mall, London.

In the United States Benjamin Latrobe, the architect of the Capitol building in Washington DC,
designed a series of botanically American orders. Most famous is the order substituting
corncobs and their husks, which was executed by Giuseppe Franzoni and employed in the small
domed Vestibule of the Supreme Court. Only the Supreme Court survived the fire of August 24,
1814, nearly intact. With peace restored, Latrobe designed an American order that substituted for
the acanthus tobacco leaves, of which he sent a sketch to Thomas Jefferson in a letter, November
5, 1816. He was encouraged to send a model of it, which remains at Monticello. In the 1830s
Alexander Jackson Davis admired it enough to make a drawing of it. In 1809 Latrobe invented a
second American order, employing magnolia flowers constrained within the profile of classical
mouldings, as his drawing demonstrates. It was intended for "the Upper Columns in the Gallery
of the Entrance of the Chamber of the Senate" (United States Capitol exhibit).
The "Delhi Order" at Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi

Edwin Lutyens, who from 1912 laid out New Delhi as the new seat of government for the British
Empire in India,[6] designed a Delhi Order having a capital displaying a band of vertical ridges,
and with bells hanging at each corner as a replacement for volutes.[7] His design for the new city's
central palace, Viceroy's House, now the Presidential residence Rashtrapati Bhavan, was a
thorough integration of elements of Indian architecture into a building of classical forms and
proportions,[8] and made use of the order throughout.[7] The Delhi Order reappears in some later
Lutyens buildings including Campion Hall, Oxford.[9]

These nonce orders all express the "speaking architecture" (architecture parlante) that was
taught in the Paris courses, most explicitly by Étienne-Louis Boullée, in which sculptural details
of classical architecture could be enlisted to speak symbolically, the better to express the purpose
of the structure and enrich its visual meaning with specific appropriateness. This idea was taken
up strongly in the training of Beaux-Arts architecture, ca 1875-1915: see architecture parlante.

Architecture of Africa
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Main article: History of architecture

The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is exceptionally diverse.
Many ethno-linguistic groups throughout the history of Africa have had their own architectural
traditions. In some cases, broader styles can be identified, such as the Sahelian architecture of an
area of West Africa. One common theme in much traditional African architecture is the use of
fractal scaling: small parts of the structure tend to look similar to larger parts, such as a circular
village made of circular houses.[1]

The Great Pyramids of Giza are regarded as one of the greatest architectural feats of all times, and one of
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

As with most architectural traditions elsewhere, African architecture has been subject to
numerous external influences from the earliest periods for which evidence is available. Western
architecture has also had an impact on coastal areas since the late 15th century, and is now an
important source for many larger buildings, particularly in major cities.

African architecture uses a wide range of materials. One finds structures in thatch, stick/wood,
mud, mudbrick, rammed earth, and stone, with a preference for materials by region: North Africa
for stone and rammed earth, West Africa for mud/adobe, Central Africa thatch/wood and more
perishable materials, East Africa varied, Southern Africa for stone and thatch/wood. A wall in
North Africa might be built of stone or rammed earth, in West Africa mud/mudbrick, in Central
Africa wood, Southern Africa wood or stone, and East Africa all.

Ten broad categories of vernacular hut and house structures have been identified:

1. Domical (beehive)
2. Cone on cylinder

3. Cone on poles and mud cylinder

4. Gabled roofed

5. Pyramidal cone

6. Rectangle with roof rounded and sloping at ends

7. Square

8. Dome or flat roof on clay box

9. Quadrangular, surrounding an open courtyard

10. Cone on ground[2]

 1 Early architecture
o 1.1 North Africa

 1.1.1 Egypt

 1.1.2 Maghreban Architecture

 1.1.3 Nubia

o 1.2 Horn of Africa

 1.2.1 Aksumite

o 1.3 West Africa

 1.3.1 Nok

 1.3.2 Tichitt Walata (Ancient Ghana)

 2 Medieval Architecture

o 2.1 North Africa

o 2.2 Horn of Africa

 2.2.1 Somalia

 2.2.2 Aksumite

o 2.3 West Africa

 2.3.1 Ghana

 2.3.2 Kanem-Bornu

 2.3.3 Hausa Kingdoms

 2.3.4 Benin

 2.3.5 Ashanti

 2.3.6 Yoruba

o 2.4 East Africa

 2.4.1 Burundi

 2.4.2 Rwanda

 2.4.3 Kitara and Bunyoro

 2.4.4 Buganda

 2.4.5 Nubia (Christian and Islamic)

 2.4.6 Swahili States

o 2.5 Central Africa

 2.5.1 Kongo

 2.5.2 Kuba

 2.5.3 Luba

 2.5.4 Lunda

 2.5.5 Eastern Lunda

 2.5.6 Maravi

o 2.6 Southern Africa

 2.6.1 Shona

 2.6.2 Sotho-Tswana

 2.6.3 Zulu and Nguni

 2.6.4 Madagascar
 2.6.5 Namibia

 3 Modern architecture

 4 See also

 5 References

 6 Further reading

 7 External links

Early architecture
Probably the most famous class of structures in all Africa, the pyramids of Egypt remain one of
the world's greatest early architectural achievements, if limited in practical scope and originating
from a purely funerary context. Egyptian architectural traditions also saw the rise of vast temple
complexes and buildings.

Little is known of ancient architecture south and west of the Sahara. Harder to date are the
monoliths around the Cross River, which has geometric or human designs. The vast number of
Senegambian stone circles also evidence an emerging architecture.

North Africa

Main article: Egyptian architecture

Egypt's achievements in architecture were varied from temples, enclosed cities, canals, and

Maghreban Architecture

Thousands of tombs were left by Berbers that were pre-Christian in origin and whose
architecture was unique to north-west Africa. The most famous was Tomb of the Christian
Woman in western Algeria. This structure contains column domed and spiraling pathways that
lead to a single chamber.[3]

Main article: Nubian architecture
The city of Kerma

Nubian Architecture is one of the most ancient in the world. The earliest style of Nubian
Architecture include the speos, structures carved out of solid rock, an A-Group(3700-3250 BCE)
achievement. Egyptians made extensive use of the process at Speos Artemidos and Abu Simbel.
A-Group eventually led to C-Group. C-Group began with light, supple materials, animal skins,
and wattle and daub. Later larger more structures of mudbricks became the norm. C-Group
culture was related to Kerma.[5] Kerma was settled around 2400 BC. It was a walled city
containing religious building, large circular dwelling, a palace, and well laid out roads. On the
East side of the city, funerary temple and chapel were laid out. It supported a population of
2,000. One of its most enduring structures was the Deffufa, a mudbrick temple ceremonies were
performed on top. Between 1500-1085 BC, Egyptian conquest and domination of Nubia was

Nubian pyramids at Meroe

This conquest brought about the Napatan Phase of Nubian history, the birth of the Kingdom of
Kush. Kush was immensely influenced by Egypt and eventually conquered Egypt. During this
phase, we see the building of numerous pyramids and temples. Gebel Barkal in the town of
Napata was a very significant site. Kushite pharaohs received legitimacy. Thirteen temples have
been excavated and two palaces in Napata. Napata has yet to be fully excavated. Nubian
pyramids were constructed on three major sites El Kurru, Nuri, and Meroe. Sudan has more
pyramids than Egypt. Sudan contains 223 pyramids. They were smaller than Egyptian Pyramids.
Nubian pyramids were for Kings and Queens. The general construction of Nubian pyramids
consisted of steep walls, a chapel facing East, stairway facing East, and a chamber access via the
stairway.[6][7] The Meroe site has the most Nubian pyramids and is considered the largest
archaeological site in the world. Around AD 350 the area was invaded by the Ethiopian kingdom
of Aksum and the kingdom collapsed.[8]

Horn of Africa

Main article: Aksumite architecture

The ruin of the temple at Yeha, Tigray region, Ethiopia.

The best known building of the period in the region is the ruined 8th-century BC multi-storey
tower at Yeha in Ethiopia, believed to have been the capital of D'mt.

Aksumite Architecture flourished in the region from the 4th century BC onward, persisting even
after the transition of the Aksumite dynasty to the Zagwe in the 12th century, as attested by the
numerous Aksumite influences in and around the medieval churches of Lalibela. Stelae (hawilts)
and later entire churches were carved out of single blocks of rock, emulated later at Lalibela and
throughout Tigray. Other monumental structures include massive underground tombs often
located beneath stelae. The stelae is the single largest monolithic structure ever erected (or
attempted to be erected). Other well-known structures employing the use of monoliths include
tombs such as the "Tomb of the False Door" and the tombs of Kaleb and Gebre Mesqel in Axum.

Most structures, however, like palaces, villas, commoner's houses, and other churches and
monasteries, were built of alternating layers of stone and wood. The protruding wooden support
beams in these structures have been named "monkey heads" and are a staple of Aksumite
architecture and a mark of Aksumite influence in later structures. Some examples of this style
had whitewashed exteriors and/or interiors, such as the medieval 12th-century monastery of
Yemrehanna Krestos near Lalibela, built during the Zagwe dynasty in Aksumite style.
Contemporary houses were one-room stone structures or two-storey square houses or
roundhouses of sandstone with basalt foundations. Villas were generally two to four stories tall
and built on sprawling rectangular plans (cf. Dungur ruins). A good example of still-standing
Aksumite architecture is the monastery of Debre Damo from the 6th century.

West Africa


Nok culture artifacts have been dated as far back as 790 BCE, located at the Jos Plateau in
Nigeria, between the Niger and Benue river. From the excavation the of Nok settlement in
Samun Dikiya, there was the tendency to build on peaks. Nok settlements have not been
extensively excavated.[9]

Tichitt Walata (Ancient Ghana)

Tichitt Walata is the oldest surviving archaeological settlements in West Africa and the oldest all
stone base settlement south of the Sahara. It was built by the Soninke people and is thought to be
the precursor of the Ghana empire. It was being settled around 4000 BCE - 2500 BCE. One finds
well laid out streets and fortified compounds all made out of skilled stone masonry. In all, there
were 500 settlements.[10][11]

Medieval Architecture
North Africa

The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also called Mosque of Uqba, is the oldest mosque in North Africa (7th to
9th centuries), Kairouan, Tunisia.
The Islamic conquest of North Africa saw Islamic architecture develop in the region, including
such famous structures as the Great Mosque of Kairouan or the Cairo Citadel.

Around 1000 AD, cob (tabya) first appears in the Maghreb and al-Andalus.[12]

Horn of Africa


Ruins of the Muslim Sultanate of Adal in Zeila, Somalia

Main article: Somalian architecture

Somali architecture is a rich and diverse tradition of engineering and designing multiple different
construction types such as stone cities, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, temples, aqueducts,
lighthouses, towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia.
It also encompasses the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with Western designs in
contemporary times.

In ancient Somalia, pyramidical structures known in Somali as taalo were a popular burial style
with hundreds of these drystone monuments scattered around the country today. Houses were
built of dressed stone similar to the ones in Ancient Egypt,[13] and there are examples of
courtyards and large stone walls such as the Wargaade Wall enclosing settlements.

The peaceful introduction of Islam in the early medieval era of Somalia's history brought Islamic
architectural influences from Arabia and Persia, which stimulated a shift in construction from
drystone and other related materials to coral stone, sundried bricks, and the widespread use of
limestone in Somali architecture. Many of the new architectural designs such as mosques were
built on the ruins of older structures, a practice that would continue over and over again
throughout the following centuries.[14]

Bete Medhane Alem, Lalibela, the largest monolithic church in the world.

Throughout the medieval period, Aksumite architecture and influences and its monolithic
tradition persisted, with its influence strongest in the early medieval (Late Aksumite) and Zagwe
periods (when the churches of Lalibela were carved). Throughout the medieval period, and
especially during the 10th to 12th centuries, churches were hewn out of rock throughout
Ethiopia, especially during the northernmost region of Tigray, which was the heart of the
Aksumite Empire. However, rock-hewn churches have been found as far south as Adadi Maryam
(15th century), about 100 km south of Addis Abeba. The most famous example of Ethiopian
rock-hewn architecture are the 11 monolithic churches of Lalibela, carved out of the red volcanic
tuff found around the town. Though later medieval hagiographies attribute all 11 structures to the
eponymous king Lalibela (the town was called Roha and Adefa before his reign), new evidence
indicates that they may have been built separately over a period of a few centuries, with only a
few of the more recent churches having been built under his reign. Archaeologist and Ethiopisant
David Phillipson postulates, for instance, that Bete Gebriel-Rufa'el was actually built in the very
early medieval period, some time between 600 and 800 AD, originally as a fortress but was later
turned into a church.[1]

West Africa

Further information: Sudano-Sahelian

The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali, first built in the 13th century and reconstructed in 1906–1909, is
the largest clay building in the world.


At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city,
surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12
beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer.


The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-
two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls
and chambers filled with sculpture and painting.[16] Sahelian architecture initially grew from the
two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on
timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné.


Kanem-Bornu's capital city Birni N'Gazargamu, may have had a population of 200,000. It had
four mosque which could hold up to 12,000 worshippers. It was surrounded by a 25-foot (7.6 m)
wall and more than 1-mile (1.6 km) in circumference. Many large streets extended from the
esplanade and connected to 660 roads. The main building and structure were built with red brick.
Other buildings were built with straw and adobe.[17]
Hausa Kingdoms

Six important Hausa city states existed Kano, Katsina, Daura, Gobir, Zazzau, and Biram. Kano
was the most important. The city was surrounded by a wall of reinforced ramparts of stone and
bricks. Kano contained a citadel near which the royal class resided. Individual residence was
separated by "earthen" wall. The higher the status of the resident the more elaborate the wall. The
entranceway was mazelike to seclude women. Inside near the entrance were the abode of
unmarried women. Further down were slave quarters.[18]

The city of Kano

Further information: Walls of Benin

Drawing of Benin City made by an English officer, 1897

The rise of kingdoms in the West African coastal region produced architecture which drew on
indigenous traditions, utilizing wood. The famed Benin City, destroyed by the Punitive
Expedition, was a large complex of homes in coursed mud, with hipped roofs of shingles or palm
leaves. The Palace had a sequence of ceremonial rooms, and was decorated with brass plaques.
The Walls of Benin City are collectively the world's largest man-made structure.[19] Fred Pearce
wrote in New scientist:

"They extend for some 16,000 kilometres in all, in a mosaic of more than 500 interconnected
settlement boundaries. They cover 6500 square kilometres and were all dug by the Edo people.
In all, they are four times longer than the Great Wall of China, and consumed a hundred times
more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops. They took an estimated 150 million hours of
digging to construct, and are perhaps the largest single archaeological phenomenon on the


A traditional tata-somba house in Benin

Image of traditional Ashanti house

Ashanti architecture from Ghana is perhaps best known from the reconstruction at Kumasi. Its
key features are courtyard-based buildings, and walls with striking reliefs in mud plaster brightly
painted. An example of a shrine can be seen at Bawjwiasi in Ghana. Four rectangular rooms,
constructed from wattle and daub, lie around a courtyard. Animal designs mark the walls, and
palm leaves cut to tiered shape provide the roof.

Further information: Sungbo's Eredo

The Yoruba surrounded their settlements with massive mud walls. Their buildings had a similar
plan to the Ashanti shrines, but with verandahs around the court. The walls were of puddled mud
and palm oil. The most famous of the Yoruba fortifications and the second largest wall edifice in
Africa is Sungbo's Eredo, a structure that was built in honour of a traditional oloye by the name
of Bilikisu Sungbo in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries. It is made up of sprawling mud walls and
the valleys that surrounded the town of Ijebu-Ode in Ogun state. Sungbo's Eredo is the largest
pre-colonial monument in Africa, larger than the Great Pyramid or Great Zimbabwe.
East Africa

Engaruka is a ruined settlement on the slopes of Mount Ngorongoro in northern Tanzania. Seven
stone terraced villages along the mountainside comprised the settlement. A complex structure of
stone channel irrigation was used to dike, dam, and level surrounding river waters. The stone
channels run along the mountainside and base. Some of these channels were several kilometers
long channelling and feeding individual plots of land. The irrigation channels fed a total area of
5,000 acres (20 km2).[21][22]


Burundi never had a fixed capital. The closest thing was a royal hill, when the king moved, the
location became the capital called the insago. The compound itself was enclosed inside a high
fence. The compound had two entrance. One was for herders and herds. The other was to the
royal palace. This palace was surrounded by a fence. The royal palace had three royal courtyard.
Each serve a particular function one for herders, a sanctuary, kitchen and granary.[23]


Nyanza was a royal capital of Rwanda. The king's residence the Ibwami was built on a hill. The
surrounding hills were occupied by permanent or temporary dwellings. These dwellings were
round huts surrounded by big yards and high hedge to separate compounds. The Rugo the royal
compound was made of circular reed fence around thatched houses. The houses were carpeted
with mats and had a clay hearth in the center for the king, his wife, and entourage. The royal
house was close to 200-100 yards. It looked like a huge maze of connected huts and granaries. It
had one entrance that lead to a large public square called the karubanda.[24]

Kitara and Bunyoro

In western Uganda one finds numerous earthworks near the Katonga River. These earthworks
have been affiliated with the Empire of Kitara. The most famous Bigo Bya Mugenyi is about
four square miles with the Katonga River on one side. The earthwork ditch was dug out by lifting
cutting through solid bedrock and earth, about 200,000 cubic metres. It was about 12 feet (3.7 m)
high. It is not certain whether the function was for defense or pastoral use. Very little is known
about the Ugandan earthworks.[25]


The capital (kibuga) of Buganda constantly changed from hill to hill, with each change of
Kabaka. In the late 19th century, a permanent Kibuga of Buganda was established at Mengo Hill.
The capital was divided into quarters corresponding to provinces. Each chief built a dwelling
corresponding to provinces. Each chief built a dwelling for wife, slaves, dependents, and visitors.
The city was a mile and half wide. Large plots of land were available for planting bananas and
fruits. Roads were wide and well maintained.[26]
Nubia (Christian and Islamic)
Further information: Nubian architecture

The Christianization of Nubia began in the 6th century. Its most representative architecture are
churches. They are based on Byzantium Basilica's. The structures are relatively small and made
of mud bricks. Vernacular architecture of the Christian period is scarce. Architecture of Soba is
the only one that has been excavated. The structures are of sun dried bricks, same as present day
Sudan, except for an arch. During the Fatimide phase of Islam, about the 11th century Nubia
converted to Islam and became arabized. Its most import mosque was the mosque of Derr.[27][28]

Swahili States

Farther south, increased trade (namely with Arab merchants) and the development of ports saw
the birth of Swahili architecture. Developed from an outgrowth of indigenous Bantu settlements,
one of the earliest examples is the Palace of Husuni Kubwa lying west of Kilwa, built about
1245. As with many other early Swahili buildings, coral was the main construction material, and
even the roof was constructed by attaching coral to timbers. Contrastingly, the palace at Kilwa
was a two-story tower, in a walled enclosure. Other notable structures from the period include
the pillar tombs as Malindi and Mnarani in Kenya, and elsewhere, originally built from coral but
later from stone. Later examples include Zanzibar's Stone Town, with its famous carved doors,
and the Great Mosque of Kilwa.

Central Africa


The capital of the Kingdom of Kongo

Mbanza Congo was the capital of the Kingdom of Kongo with a population of 30,000 plus. It sat
on a cliff with river below and forested valley. The King's dwelling was described as a mile and
half enclosure with walled pathways, courtyard, gardens, decorated huts, and palisades. One
early explorer described it in terms of a Cretan labyrinth.[30]

The capital of the Kuba Kingdom was surrounded by a 40-inch-high (1,000 mm) fence. Inside
the fence were roads, a walled royal palace, urban buildings. The palace was rectangular and in
the center of the city.[31]


The Luba tended to cluster in small villages, with rectangular houses facing a single street.
Kilolo, patrilineal chieftains, headed local village government, under the protection of the king.
Cultural life centered around the kitenta, the royal compound, which later came to be a
permanent capital. The kitenta drew artists, poets, musicians and craftsmen, spurred by royal and
court patronage


The Lunda Empire (western) established its capital 100 km from Kassai in open woodland,
between two rivers 15 km apart. It was surrounded by fortified earthen ramparts. and dry moats
about 30 plus km . The Mwato Yamvo's compound musumba was surrounded with large
fortification of double layered live trees or wood ramparts. The musumba had multiple
courtyards with designated functions, straight roads, and public squares. Its immense hygienic
and cleanly value has been noted by European observers.[32]

Lunda dwellings displaying the Square and the Cone On Ground type of African Vernacular Architecture
Eastern Lunda

The Eastern Lunda dwelling of the Kacembe(king) was described as containing fenced roads, a
mile long. The enclosed walls were made of grass, 12 to 13 span in height. The enclosed roads
lead to a rectangular hut opened on the west side. In the center was a wooden base with a statue
on top about 3 span.[33]


The Maravi people built bridges called Uraro due to changing river depth. These bridges were
made out of bamboo. Bamboos were placed parallel to each other and tied together by bark
(maruze). One end of the bridge would be tied to an existing tree. The bridge would curve
downward 80 spans when entering. A bamboo on top would serve as a balustrade.

Southern Africa

In Southern Africa one finds ancient and widespread traditions of building in stone. Two broad
categories of these tradition have been noted: 1. Zimbabwean style 2. Transvaal Free State style.
North of the Zambezi one finds very little stone ruins.[34] The Indian Ocean island of Madagascar,
geopolitically part of Southern Africa, is culturally distinct as reflected by the Southeast Asian
influences in its architectural styles brought to the island by the first seafaring migrants to settle


Mapungubwe is considered the most socially complex society in southern Africa. The first
southern African culture to display economic differentiation. The elite was separated on a
mountain settlement, made of sandstone. It was the precursor to Great Zimbabwe. Large tracks
of dirt was carried to the top of the hill. At the bottom of the hill was a natural amphipheater and
at the top elite graveyard. There was only two pathway to the top, one was a narrow steep cleft
along the side of the hill which observers at the top had a clear view.

The conical tower inside the Great Enclosure in Great Zimbabwe, a medieval city built by a prosperous
Great Zimbabwe is the largest medieval city in sub-Saharan Africa[citation needed]. Great Zimbabwe
was constructed and expanded for more than 300 years in a local style that eschewed
rectilinearity for flowing curves. Neither the first nor the last of some 300 similar complexes
located on the Zimbabwean plateau, Great Zimbabwe is set apart by the terrific scale of its
structure. Its most formidable edifice, commonly referred to as the Great Enclosure, has dressed
stone walls as high as 36 feet (11 m) extending approximately 820 feet (250 m),[35] making it the
largest ancient structure south of the Sahara Desert. Houses within the enclosure were circular
and constructed of wattle and daub, with conical thatched roofs.

Thulamela was a counterpart of Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe that displayed similar
architectural design and method.[citation needed]

Terraced hill, entranceway of Khami, capital of the Torwa State

Khami was the capital of the Torwa State and the successor of Great Zimbabwe. The techniques
of Great Zimbabwe were further refined and developed. Elaborate walls were constructed by
connecting carefully cut stones forming terraced hills.[36]


Sotho/Tswana architecture represent the other stone building tradition of southern Africa,
centered in the transvaal, highveld north and south of the Vaal. Numerous large stonewalled
enclosures and stoned housed foundations have been found in the region.[37] The capital
Molokweni of the Kwena(Tswana) was a stoned wall town as large as the Eastern Lunda capital.

Zulu and Nguni

Zulu Architecture was constructed with more perishable materials. Dome shaped huts typically
comes to mind when one thinks of Zulu dwellings, but later on it evolved into dome over
cylinder shape walls. Zulu capitals were elliptical in shape. The exterior was lined with durable
wood palisade. Domed huts in rows of 6 through 8 lined the interior of exterior palisades. In the
center of the capital city was the kraal, used by the king to examine his soldiers, holding cattle,
or ceremonies. It was an empty circular area at the center of the capital, lined with less durable
palisades compared to the exterior palisades. The entrance of the city was opposite to the highly
fortified Royal Enclosure called the Isigodlo. This was the general makeup of Zulu capitals
Mgungundlovu (King Dingane's capital) and Ulundi(King Cetshwayo's capital).

Ndebele Architecture

Main article: Architecture of Madagascar

Architecture in Antananarivo, Madagascar, 1905.

The Southeast Asian origins of the first settlers of Madagascar are reflected in the island's
architecture, typified by rectangular dwellings topped with a peaked roof and often built on short
stilts. The more East African Coastal dwellings are generally made of plant materials, while
those of the central Highlands tend to be constructed in cob or brick. The introduction of brick-
making in the 19th century by European missionaries led to the emergence of a distinctly
Malagasy architectural style that blends the norms of traditional wooden aristocratic homes with
European details.[39]


||Khauxa!nas was a wall construct in southeastern Namibia built by Oorlam (Khoi). Its
perimeter was 700 m and 2 metres in height. It was built with stone slabs and displays features of
both the Zimbabwean and Transvaal Free State style of stone construction.[34][40]

Modern architecture
Fasiledes's castle, Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar.

During the early modern period, the absorption of new diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab,
Turkish and Gujarati Indian style began with the arrival of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the
16th and 17th centuries. Portuguese soldiers had initially come in the mid-16th century as allies
to aid Ethiopia in its fight against Adal, and later Jesuits came hoping to convert the country.
Some Turkish influence may have entered the country during the late 16th century during its war
with the Ottoman Empire (see Habesh), which resulted in an increased building of fortresses and
castles. Ethiopia, naturally hard to defensible because of its numerous ambas or flat-topped
mountains and rugged terrain, yielded little tactical use from the structures in contrast to their
advantages in the flat terrain of Europe and other areas, and so had until this point little
developed the tradition. Castles were built especially beginning with the reign of Sarsa Dengel
around the Lake Tana region, and subsequent Emperors maintained the tradition, eventually
resulting in the creation of the Fasil Ghebbi (royal enclosure of castles) in the newly founded
capital (1635), Gondar. Emperor Susenyos (r.1606-1632) converted to Catholicism in 1622 and
attempted to make it the state religion, declaring it as such from 1624 until his abdication; during
this time, he employed Arab, Gujarati (brought by the Jesuits), and Jesuit masons and their
styles, as well as local masons, some of whom were Beta Israel. With the reign of his son
Fasilides, most of these foreigners were expelled, although some of their architectural styles
were absorbed into the prevailing Ethiopian architectural style. This style of the Gondarine
dynasty would persist throughout the 17th and 18th centuries especially and also influenced
modern 19th-century styles and later.

Early European colonies developed around the West African coast, building large forts, as can be
seen at Elmina Castle, Cape Coast Castle, Christiansborg, Fort Jesus and elsewhere. These were
usually plain, with little ornament, but showing more internal creativity at Dixcove Fort. Other
embellishments were gradually accreted, with the style inspiring later buildings such as Lamu
Fort and the Stone Palace of Kumasi.

By the late 19th century, most buildings reflected the fashionable European eclecticism and
pastisched Mediterranean, or even Northern European, styles. Examples of colonial towns from
this era survive at Saint-Louis, Senegal, Grand-Bassam and elsewhere. A few buildings were pre-
fabricated in Europe and shipped over for erection. This European tradition continued well into
the 20th century with the construction of European-style manor houses, such as Shiwa Ng'andu
in what is now Zambia, or the Boer homesteads in South Africa, and with many town buildings.

The revival of interest in traditional styles can be traced to Cairo in the early 19th century. This
had spread to Algiers and Morocco by the early 20th century, from which time colonial buildings
across the continent began to pastiche elements of traditional African architecture, the Jamia
Mosque in Nairobi being a typical example. In some cases, architects attempted to mix local and
European styles, such as at Bagamoyo.

The impact of modern architecture began to be felt in the 1920s and 1930s. Le Corbusier
designed several unbuilt schemes for Algeria, including ones for Nemours and for the
reconstruction of Algiers. Elsewhere, Steffen Ahrens was active in South Africa, and Ernst May
in Nairobi and Mombasa.

The Italian futurists saw Asmara as an opportunity to build their designs. Planned villages were
constructed in Libya and Italian East Africa, including the new town of Tripoli, all utilising
modern designs.

After 1945, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew extended their work on British schools into Ghana, and
also designed the University of Ibadan. The reconstruction of Algiers offered more opportunities,
with Algiers Cathedral, and universities by Oscar Niemeyer, Kenzo Tange, Zwiefel and
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. But modern architecture in this sense largely remained the
preserve of European architects until the 1960s, one notable exception being Le Groupe
Transvaal in South Africa, who built homes inspired by Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier.

A number of new cities were built following the end of colonialism, while others were greatly
expanded. Perhaps the best known example is that of Abidjan, where the majority of buildings
were still designed by high-profile non-African architects. In Yamoussoukro, the Basilica of Our
Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro is an example of a desire for monumentality in these new cities,
but Arch 22 in the old Gambian capital of Banjul displays the same bravado.

Experimental designs have also appeared, most notably the Eastgate Centre, Harare in
Zimbabwe. With an advanced form of natural air-conditioning, this building was designed to
respond precisely to Harare's climate and needs, rather than import less suitable designs. Neo-
vernacular architecture continues, for instance with the Great Mosque of Nioro or New Gourna.

Other notable structures of recent years have been some of the world's largest dams. The Aswan
High Dam and Akosombo Dam hold back the world's largest reservoirs. In recent years, there
has also been renewed bridge building in many nations, while the Trans-Gabon Railway is
perhaps the last of the great railways to be constructed.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina at Shatby, Egypt—a large airy spacious regional public library,
built overlooking the Mediterranean—completed in 2001 and designed by Snøhetta, in
association with Hamza Associates of Cairo, is a good example of a modern granite-cladding
construction. A commemoration of the Library of Alexandria, once the largest library in the
world but destroyed in antiquity, the new Library's architecture is ultramodern and very non-

Architecture of the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The front entrance of Fuerza de Santiago in Intramuros, towering 40 metres high.

The architecture of the Philippines is a reflection of the history and heritage of the country. The
most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are based on a mix of Indian, Japanese,
Chinese, indigenous Austronesian, American, and Spanish influences.

The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut made from natural
materials but there are some traces of large-scale construction before the Spanish colonizers
came but not well documented. An example of this is the pre-colonial walled city of Manila
although later after the Spanish colonization, dismantled by the Spaniards and rebuilt as

During three hundred years of Spanish colonialization, the Philippine architecture was dominated
by the Spanish influences. During this period, Intramuros, the walled city of Manila, was built
with its walls, houses, churches and fortress. The Augustinian friars built a large number of grand
churches all over the Philippine Islands.
During this period the traditional Filipino "Bahay na bato" style for the large houses emerged.
These were large houses built of stone and wood combining Filipino, Spanish and Chinese style

After the Spanish-American war, the architecture of the Philippines was dominated by the
American style. In this period the plan for the modern city of Manila was designed, with a large
number of neoclassical architecture and art deco buildings by famous American and Filipino
architects. During the liberation of Manila by the combined American and Filipino troops in
1945, large portions of Intramuros and Manila were destroyed. In the period after the second
world war many of the destroyed buildings were rebuilt.

At the end of the 20th century modern architecture with straight lines and functional aspects was
introduced. During this period many of the older structures fell into decay. Early in the 21st
Century a revival of the respect for the traditional Filipino elements in the architecture returned.

 1 Spanish Colonial era
o 1.1 Bahay na bato

o 1.2 Intramuros

o 1.3 Fort Santiago

o 1.4 Paco Park

o 1.5 Augustinian Churches

o 1.6 Lighthouses

 2 American colonial period

o 2.1 Art Deco theaters in the Philippines

 3 After World War II

o 3.1 United Architects of the Philippines

o 3.2 Examples of Filipino architecture after WWII

 3.2.1 Parish of the Holy Sacrifice

 3.2.2 Antipolo Church

 3.2.3 Bahay Kubo mansion

 3.2.4 Cultural Center of the Philippines

o 3.3 Other prominent Filipino architects

 4 See also
 5 References

 6 External links

Spanish Colonial era

The Spanish colonial houses of Vigan.

A church in Bohol made from stones and corals

Paoay Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte

The interior of the San Agustín Church in Intramuros, with magnificent trompe l'oeil mural on its ceiling
and walls

Spanish colonization introduced European architecture into the country. The influence of
European architecture and its style actually came via the Antilles through the Manila Galleon.
The most lasting legacy of Spain in terms of architecture was its colonial parish churches
designed by innumerable Spanish friars. Many structures were made from local materials such as
coral and volcanic rock.

Bahay na bato

In this era, the nipa hut or bahay kubo gave way to the Bahay na bato (stone house) and became
the typical house of noble Filipinos. The Bahay na bato, the colonial Filipino house, followed the
nipa hut's arrangements such as open ventilation and elevated apartments. The most obvious
difference between the two houses would be the materials that was used to build them. The
bahay na bato was constructed out of brick and stone rather than the traditional bamboo
materials. It is a mixture of native Filipino, Spanish and Chinese influences. Excellent preserved
examples of these houses of the illustrious Filipinos can be admired in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.[1] In
Taal, Batangas, the main street is also lined with examples of the traditional Filipino homes.


Intramuros is the old walled city of Manila located along the southern bank of the Pasig River.[2]
The historic city was home to centuries-old churches, schools, convents, government buildings
and residences, the best collection of Spanish colonial architecture before much of it was
destroyed by the bombs of World War II. Of all the buildings within the 67-acre city, only one
building, the San Agustin Church, survived the war.

Fort Santiago

Fort Santiago (Fuerza de Santiago) is a defense fortress established by Spanish conquistador,

Miguel López de Legazpi. The fort is the citadel of the walled city of Intramuros, in Manila. The
location of Fort Santiago was also once the site of the palace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman,
king of Maynila of pre-Spanish era.[3] It was destroyed by the conquistadors upon arriving in
1570, encountering several bloody battles with the Muslims and native Tagalogs. The Spaniards
destroyed the native settlements and erected Fuerza de Santiago in 1571.

Paco Park

Paco Park was planned as a municipal cemetery for the well-off and established aristocratic
Spanish families who resided in the old Manila, or Intramuros. The cemetery is circular in shape,
with an inner circular fort that was the original cemetery with niches on the hollow walls. As the
population continued to grow, a similar second outer wall was built with the thick adobe hollow
walls with niches, the top of the walls made into a walkway circumnavigating the park. A Roman
Catholic chapel was built inside the inner walls, dedicated to St. Pancratius. The landscape
design was done by Ildefonso Santos from 1967 to 1969.[4]

Augustinian Churches

The order of the Augustinians, Augustinian Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus of the
Philippines, built many churches all over the Philippines. These magnificent structures can still
be found throughout the Philippine Islands.

San Agustin Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte, is the most famous of these churches. This unique
specimen of Filipino architecture from the Spanish area has been included in the World Heritage
Sites List of the UNESCO. The church was built by the Augustinian friars from 1694 until 1710.
It shows the earthquake proof baroque style architecture. The bell tower served as an observation
post in 1896 for the Katipuneros during the Philippine revolution against the Spaniards, and
again by the Filipino guerillas during the Japanese occupation in World War II.[5]

San Agustín Church and Monastery, built between 1587 and 1606, is one of the oldest churches
in the Philippines, and the only building left intact after the destruction of Intramuros during the
Battle of Manila (1945). The present structure is actually the third to stand on the site and has
survived seven major earthquakes, as well as the wars in Manila. The church remains under the
care of the Augustinians who founded it.

San Agustín Church lies within the walled city of Intramuros located in the capital city Manila,
Philippines. It is the first European stone church to be built in the Philippines designed in
Spanish architectural structure. The church also houses the legacies of the Spanish conquistadors,
Miguel López de Legazpi, Juan de Salcedo and Martín de Goiti who are buried and laid to rest in
a tomb, underneath the church.

The church has 14 side chapels and a trompe-l'oeil ceiling. Up in the choir loft are the hand-
carved 17th-century seats of molave, a beautiful tropical hardwood. Adjacent to the church is a
small museum run by the Augustinian order, featuring antique vestments, colonial furniture, and
religious paintings and icons.

It was named a National Historical Landmark by the Philippine government in 1976.[6] Together
with three other ancient churches in the country, it was designated as part of the World Heritage
Site "Baroque Churches of the Philippines" in 1993.

During the Spanish and American era many lighthouses were constructed around the Philippine
Islands. The most Northeastern Lighthouse can be found in Burgos, Ilocos Norte.

American colonial period

The Silliman Hall of Silliman University, found in Dumaguete City, is the oldest standing American
structure in the Philippines.

After the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Americans took control of the Philippines until
after the World War II. During this period, the Americans constructed many Neoclassical
buildings in Manila.

In 1902 Judge William Howard Taft was appointed to head the Philippine Commission to
evaluate the needs of the new territory. Taft, who later became the first civilian Governor-
General of the Philippines,[7] decided that Manila, the capital, should be a planned city. He hired
as his architect and city planner Daniel Burnham, who had built Union Station and the post
office in Washington, D.C.. In Manila, Mr. Burnham had in mind a long wide, tree-lined
boulevard along the bay, beginning at a park area dominated by a magnificent hotel. To design
what would be the Manila Hotel Taft hired William E. Parsons, a New York architect, who
envisioned an impressive, but comfortable hotel, along the lines of a grander California mission.
The original design was an H-shaped plan that focused on well-ventilated rooms on two wings,
providing grand vistas of the harbor, the Luneta Park, and Intramuros. The top floor was a large
viewing deck that was used for various functions, including watching the United States Navy
steam into the harbor.[9]
The Central Philippine University Church in Iloilo City is a fine and unique example of Malay design and
motif with American elements.

Many of these buildings were heavily damaged during the Battle of Manila in 1945. After the
Second World War, many were rebuilt. Many buildings in Manila were later designed by the
Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano.

In 1911, the Army Corps of Engineers constructed the Manila Army and Navy Club at the shore
of Manila Bay bordering the Luneta Park. The building consists of a grand entrance and has three
stories that housed the various function rooms and the hotel rooms. Together with its sister, the
Elks Club, it was the center of social life for many Americans for decades.[10]

Emilio Aguinaldo's house in Kawit, Cavite, renovations designed by Aguinaldo himself, the first President
of the Philippines.

At T.M. Kalaw Street stands one of the remaining structures that survived the liberation of
Manila in 1945, the Luneta Hotel, which was completed in 1918. According to Dean Joseph
Fernandez of the University of Santo Tomas, the hotel was designed by the Spanish architect-
engineer Salvador Farre. The structure is the only remaining example of the French Renaissance
architecture with Filipino stylized Beaux-Arts architecture in the Philippines to date.

The Manila Metropolitan Theater is an Art Deco building designed by the Filipino architect Juan
M. Arellano, and built in 1935. During the liberation of Manila by the combined American and
Flipino troops in 1945, the theatre was totally destroyed. After reconstruction by the Americans it
gradually fell into disuse in the 1960s. In the following decade it was meticulously restored but
again fell into decay. The city of Manila is planning a renovation of this once magnificent

The sculptures upon the façade of the theater are by Italian sculptor Francesco Riccardo Monti,
who lived in Manila from 1930 until his death in 1958, and worked closely with Juan M.
Arellano. Highly stylized relief carving of Philippine plants executed by the artist Isabelo
Tampingco decorate the lobby walls and interior surfaces of the building.

In 1940 the Manila Jai Alai Building was constructed along Taft Avenue, designed by architect
Welton Becket. It was built in the Philippine Art Deco style. In addition to hosting jai alai, it
included the famous "Sky Lounge". Unfortunately, demolition began on July 15, 2000 on the
orders of Mayor Lito Atienza.

At the Far Eastern University (FEU) in Quiapo, Manila, five Art Deco structures on the campus
were designed by National Artist Pablo Antonio. Three were built before World War II and two,
after. Although FEU buildings were totally damaged during the war, the university was restored
to its original Art Deco design immediately after. The university was given a UNESCO Asia
Pacific-Heritage Award for Cultural Heritage in 2005 for the outstanding preservation of its Art
Deco structures.[11]

Art Deco theaters in the Philippines

See also: Art Deco theaters of Manila

During the rise of cinema in the Philippines as a form of recreation, several theaters were
constructed in the 1930s to 1950s in the Art Deco style designed by prominent architects now
recognized as National Artists.

The following are the Philippine architects who contributed and lead to the design of the classic
Philippine theaters:

 Juan Nakpil, a Philippine national artist for Architecture

 Pablo Antonio

 Juan M. Arellano

After World War II

United Architects of the Philippines

The United Architects of the Philippines or UAP is the Official Voice for Architects throughout
the country. The UAP was formed through the “unification” of three architectural organizations:
the Philippine Institute of Architects, The League of Philippine Architects and the Association of
Philippine Government Architects. It became the Bonafide Professional Organization of
Architects upon receiving Accreditation Number 001 from the Professional Regulation
Commission. Thus, UAP was the first professional organization recognized by the Republic.
With the passing of the new architecture law or Republic Act No. 9266, UAP becomes the
IAPOA or the Integrated Accredited Professional Organization of Architects.

Examples of Filipino architecture after WWII

Parish of the Holy Sacrifice

The Church of the Holy Sacrifice is the first circular church and the first thin-shell concrete dome in the

The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice is the landmark Catholic chapel in the University of the
Philippines Diliman. Known for its architectural design, the church is recognized as a National
Historical Landmark and a Cultural Treasure by the National Historical Institute and the National
Museum respectively. Five National artists collaborated on the project. The building was
designed by the late National Artist for Architecture, Leandro Locsin. Alfredo Juinio served as
the structural engineer for the project. Around the chapel are fifteen large murals painted by
Vicente Manansala depicting the Stations of the Cross. The marble altar and the large wooden
cross above it were sculpted by Napoleon Abueva. The mosaic floor mural called the “River of
Life” was designed by Arturo Luz.

Antipolo Church

The image of "Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage" has been venerated in the church of
Antipolo for centuries. The old church that housed the virgin was destroyed in February 1945
when the Americans bombed Antipolo as part of the liberation campaign of Manila. In 1954, a
new church was built designed by the renowned Filipino architect Jose de Ocampo. This church
is of a cupolaed design centered around the image of the Virgin. It functions as the center point
of the pilgrimages to Antipolo.
Bahay Kubo mansion

In May 2008, National artist for architecture Francisco Mañosa, designer of the Coconut Palace,
built his own two-storey Bahay Kubo mansion in Ayala Alabang Village, a wealthy suburb south
of Manila. With only 3 posts or "haligi", it has five one-inch coconut shell doors, a "silong",
Muslim room, sala, and master's bedroom with a fish pond therein.[12][13]

Cultural Center of the Philippines

The Cultural Center of the Philippines.

In 1965, Former First Lady Imelda Marcos have revealed her desire to build a national theater
for the country. The Cultural Center of the Philippines is located on a reclaimed land along
Roxas Boulevard. The Cultural Center of the Philippines was designed by Leandro V. Locsin and
it is also considered as one of his most recognizable works.[14] Today the CCP Main theater in
now situated in an 88-hectare complex called the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex, the
complex will be divided into six clusters. First, the Promenade, it will be home to retail and other
mixed-use facilities, as well as dock facilities. The second cluster will be the Arts Sanctuary,
which will serve as the complex's cultural core. The third cluster will be the Green Zone, which
will contain a mix of museums and parks with commercial and office spaces. Fourth, the
Creative Hub cluster, it will contain spaces for creative industries. Fifth, the Arts Living Room,
envisioned to become a high-density, high-rise area that will house condominiums and similar
residential projects. The final cluster is the Breezeway, it will contain low-rise, low-density
commercial structures with seafront entertainment facilities. Covered walkways, plazas and
bicycle lanes are planned to connect various buildings and clusters to ensure a pedestrian-
centered design.[15]

Other prominent Filipino architects

Leandro V. Locsin (1928–1994) is one of the modern architects who shaped the modern Filipino
Architecture. During his career, he built five churches, over 30 different buildings, over 70
residences, and major landmarks in the Philippines including the Cultural Center of the

Carlos A. Santos-Viola is an architect who built churches all over the Philippines. [17]

Juan Carlos Eugene Soler is the only Filipino to win the prestigious Glass Architectural Design
Competition in Tokyo, Japan in 2009.[18]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

District of Manila

Entrance on Gen. Luna Street

Coat of arms

Motto: Insigne y siempre leal Ciudad de Manila

Distinguished and ever loyal City of Manila
Map of the present territory of the City of Manila, with Intramuros
highlighted in yellow


Location within the Philippines

Coordinates: 14°35′27″N 120°58′30″ECoordinates:

14°35′27″N 120°58′30″E

Country Philippines

Region National Capital Region

City Manila
Congressional District District 5

Settled June 12, 1571

Founded by Miguel López de Legazpi


• Total 0.67 km2 (0.26 sq mi)

Population (2010)[1]

• Total 4,925

• Density 7,400/km2 (19,000/sq mi)

Philippine Standard Time

Time zone

Zip codes 1002

Area codes 2


Intramuros (Latin, "within the walls") is the oldest district and historic core of the City of
Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Also called the Walled City, the original citadel of Manila
was the seat of government when the Philippines were a component realm of the Spanish
Empire. Districts beyond the walls were referred as the extramuros of Manila, meaning "outside
the walls".[2][3]

Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish colonial government in the late
16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions. The 0.67-square-kilometre (0.26 sq mi)
walled city was originally located along the shores of the Manila Bay, south of the entrance to
Pasig River. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its citadel located at the mouth of the river.
Land reclamations during the early 20th-century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from
the bay.

Intramuros was heavily damaged during the battle to recapture the city from the Japanese
Imperial Army during the Second World War. Reconstruction of the walls was started in 1951
when Intramuros was declared a National Historical Monument, which is continued to this day
by the Intramuros Administration (IA).

The Global Heritage Fund identified Intramuros as one of the 12 worldwide sites "on the verge"
of irreparable loss and destruction on its 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage,[4]
citing its insufficient management and development pressures.[5]
 1 History
o 1.1 Pre-Hispanic period

o 1.2 Spanish colonial period

 1.2.1 Spanish conquest of Manila

 1.2.2 Construction of the wall

 1.2.3 Inside colonial Intramuros

 1.2.4 Physical features of the wall

 1.2.5 Defense structures

 1.2.6 Gates of Intramuros

o 1.3 American colonization

o 1.4 World War II

o 1.5 Rehabilitation and the Intramuros Administration

 2 Present day Intramuros

o 2.1 Educational institutions

o 2.2 Churches

 3 Structures before and after World War II

o 3.1 Churches

o 3.2 Schools and convents

o 3.3 Other buildings

 4 Political subdivision

 5 Gallery

 6 See also

 7 References

 8 Sources

 9 External links

The Santa Lucia gate (1873)

Pre-Hispanic period

The strategic location of Manila along the bay and at the mouth of Pasig River made it an ideal
location for the Tagalog and Kapampangan tribes and kingdoms to trade with merchants from
China, India, Borneo and Indonesia.

Before the first arrival of Europeans on Luzon island, the island was part of the Majapahit
empire around the 14th century, according to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which
described its conquest by Mahārāja Hayam Wuruk.[6] The region was invaded around 1485 by
Sultan Bolkiah and became a part of the Sultanate of Brunei.[7] The site of Intramuros then
became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila ruled by various Datus, Rajas and the Sultan.

Spanish colonial period

A portrait of Manila in 1684 by Alain Mallet

Spanish conquest of Manila

In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain (now
Mexico), and arrived on the island of Cebu on February 13, 1565, establishing the first Spanish
colony in the Philippines. Having heard of the rich resources in Manila from the natives, Legazpi
dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo to explore
the island of Luzon.

The Spaniards arrived on the island of Luzon in 1570. After quarrel and misunderstandings
between the Islamic natives and the Spaniards, they fought for the control of the land and
settlements. After several months of warfare, the natives were defeated, and the Spaniards made
a peace pact with the tribal councils of Rajah Sulaiman III, Rajah Lakandula, and Rajah Matanda
who handed over Manila to the Spaniards.

Legazpi declared the area of Manila as the new capital of the Spanish colony on June 24, 1571
because of its strategic location and rich resources. He also proclaimed the sovereignty of the
Monarchy of Spain over the all the archipelago. King Philip II of Spain delighted at the new
conquest achieved by Legazpi and his men, awarded the city a coat of arms and declaring it as:
Ciudad Insigne y Siempre Leal (English: "Distinguished and Ever Loyal City"). Intramuros was
settled and became the political, military and religious center of the Spanish Empire in Asia.

Construction of the wall

The Bastion of San Diego constructed in 1644.

The planning for the city was commenced by Governor-General Santiago de Vera[8] and was
approved by King Philip II's Royal Ordinance that was issued in San Lorenzo de El Escorial,
Spain. The succeeding governor-general, Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas brought with him from Spain
the royal instructions to carry into effect the said decree. Construction of the walls began on 1590
and continued under many governor-generals until 1872. Since the construction was carried on
during different periods and often far apart, the walls were not built according to any uniform

Gov. Juan de Silva executed certain work on the fortifications in 1609 which was improved by
Juan Niño de Tabora in 1626, and by Diego Fajardo Chacón in 1644. The erection of the San
Diego Bastion (Baluarte de San Diego) was also completed that year. This bastion, shaped like
an "ace of spades" is the southernmost point of the wall and the first of the large bastions added
to the encircling walls, then of no great height nor of finished construction.[9] It was the former
site of Nuestra Señora de Guia, the very first stone fort of Manila.[10]

Inside colonial Intramuros

The 1851 map of Intramuros

The main square of the city of Manila was Plaza Mayor (later known as Plaza McKinley then
Plaza de Roma) in front of the Manila Cathedral. East of the plaza was the Ayuntamiento (City
Hall) and facing it was the Governor's Palace, the official residence of the Spanish viceroyalties
to the Philippines. An earthquake on June 3, 1863 destroyed the three buildings and much of the
city. The residence of the Governor-General was moved to Malacañang Palace located about
3 km (1.9 mi) up on the Pasig River. The two previous buildings were later rebuilt but not the
Governor's Palace.

Inside the walls were other Roman Catholic churches, the oldest being San Agustin Church
(Augustinians) built in 1607. The other churches built by the different religious orders - San
Nicolas de Tolentino Church (Recollects), San Francisco Church (Franciscans), Third Venerable
Order Church (Third Order of St. Francis), Santo Domingo Church (Dominican), Lourdes
Church (Capuchins), and the San Ignacio Church (Jesuits) - has made the small walled city the
City of Churches.

Intramuros was the center of large educational institutions in the country.[2] Convents and church-
run schools were established by the different religious orders. The Dominicans established the
Universidad de Santo Tomás in 1611 and the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán in 1620. The Jesuits
established the Universidad de San Ignacio in 1590, the first university in the country, but closed
in 1768 following the expulsion of the Jesuits in the country. After the Jesuits were allowed to
return to the Philippines, they established the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1859.[11]
Physical features of the wall

The defensive walls of Intramuros and Muralla Street

The outline of the defensive wall of Intramuros is irregular in shape, following the contours of
Manila Bay and the curvature of the Pasig River. The walls covered an area of 64 hectares (160
acres) of land, surrounded by 8 feet (2.4 m) thick stones and high walls that rise to 22 feet
(6.7 m). An inner moat (foso) surrounds the perimeter of the wall and an outer moat (contrafoso)
surrounds the walls that face the city.

Defense structures

Several bulwarks (baluarte), ravelins (ravellin) and redoubts (reductos) are also strategically
located along its massive walls following the design of medieval fortifications. The seven
bastions (clockwise, from Fort Santiago) are the Bastions of Tenerias, Aduana, San Gabriel, San
Lorenzo, San Andres, San Diego, and Plano.[12] The bastions were constructed at different
periods of time, the reason for the differences in style. As mentioned above, the oldest bastion is
the San Diego Bastion.

In Fort Santiago, there are bastions on each corner of the triangular fort. The Santa Barbara
Bastion (Baluarte de Santa Bárbara) faces the bay and Pasig River; Baluarte de San Miguel,
faces the bay; Medio Baluarte de San Francisco, Pasig River.[13]

Gates of Intramuros
Main article: Gates of Intramuros

Before the American Era, entrance to the city was through eight gates or Puertas namely
(clockwise, from Fort Santiago) Puerta Almacenes, Puerta de la Aduana, Puerta de Santo
Domingo, Puerta Isabel II, Puerta del Parian, Puerta Real, Puerta Sta. Lucia, and Puerta del
Postigo.[14] Formerly, drawbridges were raised and the city was closed and under sentinels from
11:00 pm till 4:00 am. It continued so until 1852, when, in consequence of the earthquake of that
year, it was decreed that the gates should thenceforth remain open night and day.[12]

American colonization
After the end of the Spanish–American War, Spain surrendered the Philippines and several other
territories to the United States as part of the terms of the Treaty of Paris for $20 million. The
American flag was raised at Fort Santiago on August 13, 1898 indicating the start of American
rule over the city. The Ayuntamiento became the seat of the Philippine Commission of the United
States in 1901 while Fort Santiago became the headquarters of the Philippine Division of the
United States Army.

The Americans made drastic changes to the city, such as in 1903, when the walls from the Santo
Domingo Gate up to the Almacenes Gate were removed as the wharf on the southern bank of the
Pasig River was improved. The stones removed were used for other construction happening
around the city. The walls were also breached in four areas to ease access to the city: the
southwestern end of Calle Aduana (now Andres Soriano Jr. Ave.); the eastern end of Calle Anda;
the northeastern end of Calle Victoria (previously known as Calle de la Escuela); and the
southeastern end of Calle Palacio (now General Luna Street). The double moats that surrounded
Intramuros were deemed unsanitary and were filled in with mud dredged from Manila Bay where
the present Port of Manila is now located. The moats were transformed into a municipal golf
course by the city.

Reclamations for the construction of the Port of Manila, the Manila Hotel, and Rizal Park
obscured the old walls and skyline of the city from the Manila Bay.[15] The Americans also
founded the first school under the new government, the Manila High School, on June 11, 1906
along Victoria Street.[16]

Destruction of the city during the Battle of Manila (1945)

The Memorare Manila Monument in Intramuros commemorating the innocent people who died during
the liberation of Manila.
World War II

In December 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded the Philippines. The first casualties in
Intramuros brought by the war were the destruction of Santo Domingo Church and the original
University of Santo Tomas campus during an assault. The whole city of Manila was declared by
General Douglas McArthur as an "Open City" as Manila was indefensible.

In 1945, the battle for the liberation of Manila began when American troops tried to occupy
Manila on January 1945. Intense urban fighting occurred between the combined American and
Filipino troops under the United States Army and Philippine Commonwealth Army including
recognized guerrillas, against the 30,000 Japanese defenders. As the battle continued, both sides
inflicted heavy damage on the city culminating with the Manila massacre. The Imperial Japanese
Army was pushed back, eventually retreating into the Intramuros district. General MacArthur,
though opposed to the bombing of the walled city, approved the heavy shelling which resulted in
deaths of over 16,665 Japanese alone within Intramuros.[17] Two of the eight gates of Intramuros
were badly damaged by American tanks. The bombings leveled most of Intramuros leaving only
5% of the city structures; the walls lost 40% to the bombings.[18][19] During the battle in Manila,
over 100,000 Filipino men, women and children died from February 3 to March 3, 1945.

At the end of World War II, virtually all of the structures in Intramuros were destroyed, with only
the damaged Church of San Agustin still standing.[20][21][22]

The gate of Fort Santiago during World War II

The reconstructed gate of Fort Santiago

Rehabilitation and the Intramuros Administration

In 1951, Intramuros was declared a historical monument and Fort Santiago, a national shrine
with Republic Act 597, with the policy of restoring, reconstructing, and urban planning of
Intramuros. Several laws and decrees also followed but results were deemed unsatisfactory due
to limited funds. [23] In 1979, the Intramuros Administration was created by virtue of Presidential
Decree № 1616, signed by President Ferdinand Marcos on April 10 of that year.[24]

Since then, the Intramuros Administration (IA) has been slowly restoring the walls, the sub-
features of the fortification, and the city within. The remaining five original gates have been
restored or rebuilt: Isabel II Gate, Parian Gate, Real Gate, Santa Lucía Gate and the Postigo Gate.
The entrances made by the Americans by breaching the walls at four locations are now spanned
by walkways thereby creating a connection, seamless in design and character to the original

Present day Intramuros

Intramuros is the only district of Manila where old Spanish-era influences are still plentiful. Fort
Santiago is now a well-maintained park and popular tourist destination. Adjacent to Fort
Santiago is the reconstructed Maestranza Wall, which was removed by the Americans in 1903 to
widen the wharves thus opening the city to Pasig River. One of the future plans of the Intramuros
Administration is to complete the perimeter walls that surround the city making it completely
circumnavigable from the walkway on top of the walls.[25]

There has been minimal commercialization occurring within the district, despite restoration
efforts. A few fast food establishments such as Jollibee, McDonald's and Starbucks have set up
shop at the turn of the 21st century, catering mostly to the student population within Intramuros.

Educational institutions

The University of the City of Manila

Intramuros is still home to one of the oldest educational institutions in the Philippines, the
Colegio de San Juan de Letran founded in (1620), rebuilding its campus in the same location
after its destruction during the war. The Colegio de Santa Rosa and the Manila High School also
rebuilt from their previous locations. The University of Santo Tomas (UST) transferred most of
its students to a much larger campus in Sampaloc, Manila in 1927 because of its growing student
population, retaining only the Civil Law and Medicine courses in Intramuros. After the war, the
school did not rebuild inside the walled city. Ateneo de Manila moved to Ermita, Manila after a
fire in 1932 burned down the school. It is now called Ateneo de Manila University, located in
Loyola Heights, Quezon City since 1952, after the war also destroyed the Ermita campus, totally
moving to the new campus in 1976.[11] The Colegio de Sta. Isabel transferred to a new campus in
Ermita just outside the walls of Intramuros after the war.

New non-sectarian schools were established and built over the ruins of the city. The Pamantasan
ng Lungsod ng Maynila was established in 1965 by the city government of Manila at the Old
Cuartel España (Spanish Barracks). The Lyceum of the Philippines University is a private
university founded in 1952 by Philippine President Jose P. Laurel and built over the lot of San
Juan de Dios Hospital, which moved out to Roxas Boulevard. The Mapúa Institute of
Technology was founded in 1925 in Quiapo, Manila but moved to Intramuros before the war.
The new campus moved to the location of the destroyed San Francisco Church and the Third
Venerable Order Church at the corner of San Francisco and Solana Streets. The above three
schools and the Colegio de San Juan de Letran formed an academic cooperation called
Intramuros Consortium to take advantage of the schools' resources.


Of the eight churches that were located within its walls, only two remain: San Agustin Church,
the oldest building in existence in Manila completed in 1607, and the Manila Cathedral, the seat
of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila, which was reconstructed in the 1950s. The other
religious orders reconstructed their churches outside Intramuros after the Second World War. The
Dominicans rebuilt Santo Domingo Church on Quezon Ave. in Quezon City in 1952. It is now
declared a National Shrine.[26] The Augustinian Recollects moved to their other church, the San
Sebastian Church (now Basilica), 2.5-kilometre (1.6 mi) northeast of the walled city. The
Capuchins moved the Lourdes Church in 1951 to the corner of Kanlaon St. and Retiro St. (now
Amoranto Ave.) in Quezon City. It was declared a National Shrine in 1997.[27] There are plans of
reconstructing the San Ignacio Church in its vacant original location to serve as an ecclesiastical
museum for the Intramuros Administration's collection.[28]

Structures before and after World War II

The Manila Cathedral, reconstructed in the 1950s

Note: Parenthesis () indicates the new buildings that occupy the same site today; an asterisk (*),
same occupants before and after the war.


Lourdes Church (El Almanecer)

Manila Cathedral*

San Agustin Church*

San Francisco Church (Mapúa Institute of Technology)

San Ignacio Church (In reconstruction as the new Intramuros Ecclesiastical Museum) [29]

San Nicolas de Tolentino Church (Manila Bulletin)

Santo Domingo Church (Bank of the Philippine Islands) (the Church was the moved to Quezon

Third Venerable Order Church (Mapúa Chapel)

Colegio de San Juan de Letran and the Bastion of San Gabriel

Schools and convents

 Ateneo Municipal de Manila, later Adamson University in 1939 (ECJ Building & Clamshell).
 Beaterio de la Compania (Light and Sound Museum)

 Beaterio-Colegio de Sta. Catalina (Letran Elementary School)

 Colegio de San Juan de Letrán*

 Colegio de Sta. Isabel (Clamshell 2)

 Colegio de Sta. Potenciana, later, part of Santa Isabel College (National Commission for Culture
and the Arts)

 Colegio de Sta. Rosa*

 Manila High School*

 Santa Clara Monastery (Empty lot)

 University of Santo Tomas (BF Condominiums) (Transferred everything to the Sampaloc, Manila

The ruins of the Intendencia or Aduana (Customs) building.

Other buildings

 Audiencia (former Supreme Court building and the Old Commission on Elections) [30] (Ruins)
 Ayuntamiento (Reconstructed, currently houses the Bureau of Treasury)

 Cuartel de España (Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila)

 Cuartel de Artilleria, later Santa Lucia Barracks (Ruins)

 Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Lyceum of the Philippines University)

 Intendencia* (Ruins)

 Palacio Arzobispal [The Archbishop's Palace]*

 Palacio de Sta. Potenciana (Philippine Red Cross)

 Palacio del Gobernador (Commission on Elections)

Political subdivision
The city government of Manila governs Intramuros under the city's 5th Legislative district. It is
further divided into five barangays, consisting of Barangay 654 to 658.
Barangays of Intramuros

Name Population (2010)[1]

Barangay 654 841

Barangay 655 1,789

Barangay 656 242

Barangay 657 281

Barangay 658 1,772


Casa Manila, a museum of lifestyles during the Spanish Colonial Era

The southern entrance of Intramuros on Gen. Luna St.

The statue of King Carlos IV of Spain in Plaza de Roma

A statue of Queen Isabela II at the entrance of Puerta Isabela II

Rusted out lock of a gate in Intramuros

Sign "Wall of Martyrs" Picnic Grounds at Intramuros, Manila

Paco Park
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paco Park, Manila, 1987

Central area of Paco Park, with St. Pancratius Chapel.

Paco Park is a 4,114.80 square metre recreational garden area and was once Manila’s municipal
cemetery during the Spanish colonial period. It is located along General Luna St. and at the east
end of Padre Faura Street in Paco district in the City of Manila, the Philippines.

 1 History
 2 Images

 3 See also

 4 References

 5 External links


Burial site of Filipino priests Jose Burgos, Mario Gomez and Jacinto Zamora, who were executed by the
Spanish authorities in 1872 for their alleged role in the 1872 Cavite mutiny.
Original burial site of Filipino nationalist Jose Rizal. His remains were later moved to the Rizal

Paco Park was originally planned as a municipal cemetery for the well-off and established
aristocratic Spanish families who resided in the old Manila, or the city within the walls of
Intramuros during the Spanish colonial era. Most of the wealthy families interred the remains of
their loved ones inside the municipal cemetery in what was once the district of Dilao (former
name for Paco). The cemetery was built in the late 18th century but was completed several
decades later and in 1822, the cemetery was used to inter victims of a cholera epidemic that
swept across the city.

The cemetery is circular in shape, with an inner circular fort that was the original cemetery and
with the niches that were placed or located within the hollow walls. As the population continued
to grow, a second outer wall was built with the thick adobe walls were hollowed as niches and
the top of the walls were made into pathways for promenades. A Roman Catholic chapel was
built inside the walls of the Paco Park and it was dedicated to St. Pancratius.

On December 30, 1898, Philippine national hero Dr. José P. Rizal was interred at Paco Park after
his execution at Bagumbayan.

Interment at the Paco Park ceased in 1912. It had been the burial ground for several generations
and descendants of those who were buried in the park had the remains of their ancestors
transferred. During the Second World War, Japanese forces used Paco Park as a central supply
and ammunition depot. The high thick adobe walls around the park were ideal for defensive
positions of the Japanese. The Japanese just before the liberation of Manila in 1945, dug several
trenches and pill boxes around and within the Park with three 75 millimetre guns to defend their
fortification against the charging 148th Infantry Regiment of the 1st Battalion of the United
States Army and Philippine Commonwealth Army. The park was converted into a national park
in 1966 during the term of President Diosdado Macapagal. Paco Park’s grandeur was slowly
restored after the war and since then has remained as a public park and promenade for many
teenage sweethearts who could spend quiet moments along the park’s benches and private

Paco Park and its care was placed under the responsibility of the National Park’s Development
Committee (NPDC) during the regime of President Ferdinand E. Marcos.During the Marcos
period, through the efforts of former First Lady Imelda R. Marcos, culture was given emphasis
and priority in the country and Paco Park was one of the few venues chosen to host events
related to culture. On February 29, 1980, then Press and Cultural Attache of the Embassy of the
Federal Republic of Germany in the Philippines, Dr. Christoph Jessen with then NPDC Vice-
Chairperson Teodoro Valencia started a classical concert within Paco Park as part of the
celebrations for the “Philippine-German Month,” and the program became a tradition, a weekly
fare held every Friday afternoons called the “Paco Park Presents.”

This event featured and highlighted the exchange of Filipino and German musical artists who
performed at Paco Park and it served as a means to strengthen the bond between Germany and
the Philippines.In 1998, the celebration of Philippine-German month was moved from February
to March, with the concert starting at 7:00 P.M. But Paco Park Presents continues to celebrate its
anniversary every February.The park is open Monday to Sunday (except on Wednesday) from
8:00AM to 5:00PM and every Friday by sunset, "Paco Park Presents" feature the finest musical
artists and chorales, local and guests performers for an evening of classical and traditional
Filipino music. Paco Park has become a very popular venue for weddings and receptions for
couples who prefer garden-like settings. The Chapel of St. Pancratius is under the care of the
Vincentian fathers who also manage the nearby Adamson University. The event aired on the
National Broadcasting Network.


Arch at the entrance to Paco Park

Chapel of St. Pancratius inside Paco Park

Fort Santiago
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fort Santiago
Moog ng Santiago
The reconstructed main gate of Fort Santiago

Map of the Philippines

General information

Type Bastioned fort

Italian-Spanish school of fortification

Location along Pasig River

Town or city Manila

Country Philippines

14°35′42″N 120°58′10″ECoordinates:
14°35′42″N 120°58′10″E


Completed 1593

Renovated 1733

Technical details


2,030 feet (620 m) perimeter

Design and construction

Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas (1590)

Fernándo Valdés y Tamon (1730s)

Leonardo Iturriano

Designations National Historical Landmark

Fort Santiago (Spanish: Fuerte de Santiago Tagalog: Moog ng Santiago) is a citadel first built
by Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi for the new established city of Manila in the
Philippines. The defense fortress is part of the structures of the walled city of Manila referred to
as Intramuros ("within the walls").

The fort is one of the most important historical sites in Manila. Several lives were lost in its
prisons during the Spanish Colonial Period and World War II. José Rizal, the Philippines'
national hero, was imprisoned here before his execution in 1896. The Rizal Shrine museum
displays memorabilia of the hero in their collection and the fort features, embedded onto the
ground in bronze, his footsteps representing his final walk from his cell to the location of the
actual execution.

 1 Profile
 2 History

o 2.1 American colonial period

o 2.2 World War II

 3 The fort today

 4 Preserving the fort

 5 Around Fort Santiago

 6 References

 7 External links

Adornments of the gate

Image of Saint James (Santiago)

The lesser arms of the monarch of Spain

The fort was named after Saint James the Great (Santiago in Spanish), the patron saint of Spain,
whose relief adorns the façade of the front gate.[1][2] It is located at the mouth of the Pasig River
and served as the premier defense fortress of the Spanish Government during their rule of the
country. It became a main fort for the spice trade to the Americas and Europe for 333 years. The
Manila Galleon trade to Acapulco, Mexico began from the Fuerte de Santiago.[citation needed]

The fort has a perimeter of 2,030 feet (620 m), and it is of a nearly triangular form. The south
front, which looks toward the city, is a curtain with a terreplein, flanked by two demi-bastions -
the Bastion of San Fernando, on the riverside, and the Bastion of San Miguel, by the bayside. A
moat connected with the river separates the fort from the city. Near the beginning of the north
face, instead of a bastion, a cavalier called Santa Barbara was built with three faces of batteries,
one looking seaward over the anchorage place, one facing the entrance, and the third looking
upon the river. The latter is united with a tower of the same height as the walls, through which
there is a descent to the water battery placed upon a semicircular platform, thus completing the
triangular form of the fort.[3]

The 22-foot (6.7 m) high walls, with a thickness of 8 feet (2.4 m) are pierced for the necessary
communications. The front gateway façade measures 40 feet (12 m) high being in the south wall
and facing the city. The communication with the river and the sea was by an obscure postern gate
- the Postigo de la Nuestra Señora del Soledad (Postern of Our Lady of Solitude). Inside the fort
were guard stations, together with the barracks of the troops of the garrison and quarters of the
warden and his subalterns. Also inside the fort were various storehouses, a chapel, the powder
magazine, the sentry towers, the cisterns, etc.[3]

The location of Fort Santiago was once the site of a palisaded fort, armed with bronze guns, of
Rajah Sulaiman, a Muslim chieftain of pre-Hispanic Manila. It was destroyed by maestre de
campo (master-of-camp) Martin de Goiti who, upon arriving in 1570 from Cebu, fought several
battles with the Muslim natives. The Spaniards started building Fort Santiago (Fuerte de
Santiago) after the establishment of the city of Manila under Spanish rule on June 24, 1571, and
made Manila the capital of the newly colonized islands.[4]

The first fort was a structure of palm logs and earth. Most of it was destroyed when the city was
invaded by Chinese pirates led by Limahong. Martin de Goiti was killed during the siege. After a
fierce conflict, the Spaniards under the leadership of Juan de Salcedo, eventually drove the
pirates out to Pangasinan province to the north, and eventually out of the country.[5](pp32–44)

The construction of Fort Santiago with hard stone, together with the original fortified walls of
Intramuros, commenced in 1590 and finished in 1593 during the reign of Gómez Pérez
Dasmariñas. The stones used were volcanic tuff quarried from Guadalupe (now Guadalupe Viejo
in Makati).[6] The fort as Dasmariñas left it consisted of a castellated structure without towers,
trapezoidal in trace, its straight gray front projecting into the river mouth. Arches supported an
open gun platform above, named the battery of Santa Barbara, the patron saint of all good
artillerymen. These arches formed casemates which afforded a lower tier of fire through
embrasures. Curtain walls of simplest character, without counter forts or interior buttresses,
extended the flanks to a fourth front facing the city.[7]
The original facade of Fort Santiago in 1880. The front edifice was destroyed by the earthquake of July

In 1714, the ornate gate of Fort Santiago was erected together with some military barracks.[8] The
Luzon earthquakes of 1880, which destroyed much of the city of Manila, destroyed the front
edifice of the fort changing its character.

During the leadership of Fernándo Valdés y Tamon in the 1730s, a large semicircular gun
platform to the front called media naranja (half orange) and another of lesser dimensions to the
river flank were added to the Bastion of Santa Barbara. The casemates were then filled in and
embrasures closed. He also changed the curtain wall facing cityward to a bastioned front. A
lower parapet, bordering the interior moat, connects the two bastions.[7]

The raising of the American Flag at Fort Santiago.

American colonial period

On August 13, 1898, the American flag was raised in Fort Santiago signifying the start of the
American rule in the Philippines. The fort served as the headquarters for the U.S. Army and
several changes were made to the fort by the Americans.
The gate of Fort Santiago damaged during the liberation of Manila

World War II

During World War II, Fort Santiago was captured by the Japanese Imperial Army, and used its
prisons and dungeons including the storage cells and gunpowder magazines for hundreds of
prisoners who were killed near the end of the war (see Manila massacre).[9] The fort sustained
heavy damage from American and Filipino military mortar shells during the Battle of Manila in
February 1945. Also, approximately 600 American prisoners of war died of suffocation or hunger
after being held in extremely tight quarters in the dungeons at Fort Santiago.

The fort today

The last steps of José Rizal before his execution

Fort Santiago, the 16th century military defense structure, stands witness to the valor and
heroism of the Filipino through the centuries. Today, the fort, its bastions, and the prison
dungeons for criminals used by the Spanish officials, is now part of a historical park which also
includes the Plaza del Moriones (also called the Plaza de Armas) and several ruins. The park
houses well-preserved legacies from the Spanish Colonial Period including Jose Rizal
memorabilia at the Rizal Shrine.

Adaptive use of this famous historical landmark makes certain areas ideal for open air theater,
picnics, and as a promenade. The Intramuros Visitors center gives an overview of the various
attractions in the walled city.

National Historical Landmark marker of Fort Santiago

Preserving the fort

After its destruction during WWII, Fort Santiago was declared as a Shrine of Freedom in 1950.
Its restoration by the Philippine government did not begin till 1953 under the hands of the
National Parks Development Committee. The Intramuros Administration now manages the
reconstruction, maintenance, and management of the fort since 1992.[10]

Around Fort Santiago

The Postern of Our Lady of Solitude - the northern entrance to the fort

The postern marker

The wall of Fort Santiago that faces the river

The grounds of Fort Santiago with the Binondo skyline in the background